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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, October 28, 2020			       USDL-20-1997

Technical information:
 Employment:      sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:	  (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- SEPTEMBER 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in September than a year earlier in 388 of the 389
metropolitan areas and lower in 1 area, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. A total of 73 areas had jobless rates of less than 5.0 percent and 31 areas
had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the
year in 251 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 138 areas. The
national unemployment rate in September was 7.7 percent, not seasonally adjusted,
up from 3.3 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain
to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two
programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, had the highest unemployment rate in September, 23.6
percent, followed by El Centro, CA, 21.5 percent. Ames, IA, and Jefferson City, MO,
had the lowest unemployment rates, 2.8 percent each. A total of 279 areas had
September jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 7.7 percent, 105 areas had rates
above it, and 5 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in September occurred in Kahului-
Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+20.9 percentage points). Rates rose over the year by at least
10.0 percentage points in an additional three areas. The only jobless rate decrease
from a year earlier occurred in Yuma, AZ (-2.2 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in September,
14.8 percent, followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, 13.6 percent. Kansas
City, MO-KS, and Oklahoma City, OK, had the lowest jobless rates among the large
areas, 4.9 percent each. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases, the largest of which were in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+10.9
percentage points), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+9.7 points). The smallest
rate increase from a year earlier occurred in Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN
(+1.9 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In September, Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions,
15.1 percent. Dutchess County-Putnam County, NY, had the lowest division rate, 5.7
percent. (See table 2.)

In September, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases, the largest of which were in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+10.8
percentage points), and Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+10.7 points). The smallest
rate increase occurred in Dutchess County-Putnam County, NY (+2.2 percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, 251 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 138 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,075,800), Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-598,900), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-345,500).
The largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (-29.6 percent), Lake Charles, LA (-19.6 percent), and Ocean City, NJ 
(-18.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in all of the 51 metropolitan areas with
a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year percentage
decreases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV (-12.3 percent), New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-10.8
percent), and San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA (-10.6 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan
divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the
metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-834,500),
followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-437,100), and Chicago-Naperville-
Arlington Heights, IL (-274,200). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Haverhill-
Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (-12.2 percent), New York-Jersey City-White Plains,
NY-NJ (-11.5 percent), and Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford, MA-NH (-11.4 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for October is scheduled to be
released on Friday, November 20, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area
Employment and Unemployment news release for October is scheduled to be released
on Thursday, December 3, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _____________________________________________________________________________________
|										      |
|             Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on September 2020		      |
|                     Establishment and Household Survey Data			      |
|										      |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the    |
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes,      |
| the application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business 	      |
| births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as      |
| they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a	      |
| model to account for the relatively stable net employment change generated by	      |
| business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship	      |
| between business births and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with     |
| zero employment are not included in estimation. For the August final and	      |
| September preliminary estimates, CES included a portion of these reports in the     |
| estimates and made modifications to the birth-death model. In addition for both     |
| months, the establishment survey included a portion of the reports that returned    |
| to reporting positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more	      |
| information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm. 				      |
|										      |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or      |
| any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as 	      |
| employed, even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are	      |
| temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not    |
| counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The length    |
| of the reference period does vary across the respondents in the establishment	      |
| survey; one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40	      |
| percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.     |
|										      |
| For the September 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from      |
| the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement   |
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state      |
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both    |
| the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the      |
| LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims   |
| covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level	      |
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise     |
| would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create	      |
| estimates at other points in the time series.					      |
|										      |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 					      |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-september-2020.htm 	      |
| extensively discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey     |
| on the national estimates for September 2020. Despite the considerable decline in   |
| its degree relative to prior months, this misclassification continued to be	      |
| widespread geographically, with BLS analysis indicating that most states again      |
| were affected to at least some extent. However, according to usual practice, the    |
| data from the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data	      |
| integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the   |
| household survey estimates of employed and unemployed people that serve as the      |
| primary inputs to the state models were affected to varying degrees by the	      |
| misclassification, which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for 	      |
| September 2020. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household survey     |
| from March through August (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-    |
| and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).		      |
|										      |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and 	      |
| unemployment totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the 	      |
| preliminary September and revised August estimates for substate areas reflect	      |
| the use of level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their	      |
| model-based control areas. The substate area estimates for both months also were    |
| impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in proportion to the	      |
| impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based control areas.  |
|										      |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a	      |
| monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico  |
| Department of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since  |
| May 2020 similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population	      |
| Survey, which has affected the local area data proportionally.		      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) August September August September
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,235,642 2,257,899 2,237,761 2,248,823 66,431 128,488 57,536 142,991 3.0 5.7 2.6 6.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,104 44,829 45,820 44,459 1,569 3,032 1,365 3,352 3.4 6.8 3.0 7.5

Auburn-Opelika

76,167 75,453 76,841 75,443 2,023 3,698 1,748 4,089 2.7 4.9 2.3 5.4

Birmingham-Hoover

553,359 551,792 551,568 546,666 15,016 30,374 12,963 33,590 2.7 5.5 2.4 6.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,939 98,267 96,754 96,940 2,572 4,970 2,244 5,355 2.6 5.1 2.3 5.5

Decatur

72,327 71,362 72,545 71,254 1,915 3,167 1,619 3,443 2.6 4.4 2.2 4.8

Dothan

64,054 63,937 64,268 63,784 1,935 3,288 1,625 3,702 3.0 5.1 2.5 5.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,024 66,006 66,258 65,012 2,242 3,490 1,964 3,747 3.4 5.3 3.0 5.8

Gadsden

42,344 41,299 42,423 41,232 1,418 2,900 1,227 3,153 3.3 7.0 2.9 7.6

Huntsville

228,311 227,915 228,368 226,459 5,602 10,193 4,867 11,329 2.5 4.5 2.1 5.0

Mobile

188,145 188,231 188,658 188,935 6,925 15,675 6,066 17,562 3.7 8.3 3.2 9.3

Montgomery

172,340 172,262 171,723 171,754 5,103 12,351 4,474 14,119 3.0 7.2 2.6 8.2

Tuscaloosa

118,316 119,672 119,855 119,334 3,347 7,581 2,827 8,373 2.8 6.3 2.4 7.0

Alaska

353,859 335,369 348,825 334,042 18,805 21,353 19,306 21,678 5.3 6.4 5.5 6.5

Anchorage

191,034 184,656 191,583 188,114 9,593 12,161 9,960 12,287 5.0 6.6 5.2 6.5

Fairbanks

44,963 43,184 44,804 43,508 2,056 2,159 2,163 2,224 4.6 5.0 4.8 5.1

Arizona

3,556,056 3,408,977 3,591,467 3,583,467 178,406 214,032 165,431 242,339 5.0 6.3 4.6 6.8

Flagstaff

77,493 66,826 79,489 71,368 4,284 5,273 3,975 5,845 5.5 7.9 5.0 8.2

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,067 83,356 88,269 86,898 5,121 6,208 4,881 7,048 5.8 7.4 5.5 8.1

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,503,198 2,411,379 2,524,737 2,533,940 106,375 141,523 98,530 160,325 4.2 5.9 3.9 6.3

Prescott

107,395 105,732 108,122 110,240 4,953 5,670 4,584 6,286 4.6 5.4 4.2 5.7

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,007 50,003 51,109 52,459 2,999 2,629 2,808 2,965 6.0 5.3 5.5 5.7

Tucson

496,370 476,987 503,048 499,381 23,078 28,210 21,421 32,226 4.6 5.9 4.3 6.5

Yuma

101,414 90,264 102,870 97,557 21,746 14,848 19,790 16,619 21.4 16.4 19.2 17.0

Arkansas

1,364,195 1,345,569 1,364,706 1,336,989 49,499 99,551 45,467 93,607 3.6 7.4 3.3 7.0

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

281,309 278,306 282,574 277,856 7,580 15,899 6,819 14,815 2.7 5.7 2.4 5.3

Fort Smith

118,957 117,282 118,583 117,038 4,437 7,730 4,096 7,386 3.7 6.6 3.5 6.3

Hot Springs

41,798 42,482 41,040 41,668 1,588 4,303 1,452 4,008 3.8 10.1 3.5 9.6

Jonesboro

65,955 66,891 66,406 67,345 1,957 4,426 1,774 4,087 3.0 6.6 2.7 6.1

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

360,444 351,783 356,936 348,307 11,926 29,459 11,233 27,295 3.3 8.4 3.1 7.8

Pine Bluff

34,912 34,099 34,911 33,823 1,858 3,252 1,702 3,211 5.3 9.5 4.9 9.5

California

19,428,941 18,678,585 19,505,846 18,761,209 808,406 2,119,880 704,291 2,017,210 4.2 11.3 3.6 10.8

Bakersfield

397,036 368,318 397,235 369,122 28,832 45,673 24,610 45,661 7.3 12.4 6.2 12.4

Chico

97,641 93,038 99,693 93,862 4,903 7,983 3,998 7,976 5.0 8.6 4.0 8.5

El Centro

72,360 68,236 71,373 67,839 15,967 15,013 13,839 14,564 22.1 22.0 19.4 21.5

Fresno

452,231 442,393 452,958 442,464 29,511 45,691 25,413 45,930 6.5 10.3 5.6 10.4

Hanford-Corcoran

57,580 55,010 57,497 55,213 3,989 5,561 3,444 5,697 6.9 10.1 6.0 10.3

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,730,056 6,485,387 6,781,917 6,513,961 292,389 975,255 263,665 888,299 4.3 15.0 3.9 13.6

Madera

61,847 61,477 62,493 61,600 3,928 5,828 3,301 5,800 6.4 9.5 5.3 9.4

Merced

115,472 112,487 117,807 114,571 8,272 12,090 6,806 12,095 7.2 10.7 5.8 10.6

Modesto

243,873 235,516 246,178 237,143 14,052 24,341 11,873 24,345 5.8 10.3 4.8 10.3

Napa

75,369 71,566 75,913 71,462 2,005 5,692 1,715 5,444 2.7 8.0 2.3 7.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

419,649 404,632 421,441 407,264 16,157 35,333 14,079 34,149 3.9 8.7 3.3 8.4

Redding

74,708 72,260 74,740 72,590 3,226 5,697 2,760 5,674 4.3 7.9 3.7 7.8

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,065,573 2,023,269 2,074,832 2,036,007 90,466 212,391 78,065 212,377 4.4 10.5 3.8 10.4

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,103,466 1,072,056 1,104,416 1,077,584 40,776 96,521 34,581 95,783 3.7 9.0 3.1 8.9

Salinas

229,104 194,764 228,665 194,245 9,587 17,383 8,104 17,088 4.2 8.9 3.5 8.8

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,590,925 1,553,528 1,593,792 1,560,049 53,658 147,537 45,781 140,946 3.4 9.5 2.9 9.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,598,813 2,471,727 2,603,490 2,480,096 71,630 214,781 60,461 212,123 2.8 8.7 2.3 8.6

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,089,659 1,050,816 1,088,233 1,054,268 29,250 76,330 25,135 74,798 2.7 7.3 2.3 7.1

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

139,474 128,900 139,872 130,141 4,180 9,789 3,538 9,371 3.0 7.6 2.5 7.2

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

143,841 128,379 142,734 128,704 5,555 10,894 4,707 10,426 3.9 8.5 3.3 8.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,011 209,910 218,504 211,714 7,366 16,048 6,458 15,610 3.4 7.6 3.0 7.4

Santa Rosa

261,694 250,791 264,030 250,949 7,127 18,861 6,014 18,130 2.7 7.5 2.3 7.2

Stockton-Lodi

329,199 319,738 328,532 322,952 18,623 36,371 16,021 36,758 5.7 11.4 4.9 11.4

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,103 200,812 209,933 202,625 7,908 19,759 6,708 19,727 3.8 9.8 3.2 9.7

Visalia-Porterville

205,322 190,069 204,349 190,630 18,818 23,400 16,238 23,291 9.2 12.3 7.9 12.2

Yuba City

77,142 69,423 76,464 69,255 4,431 7,075 3,798 7,209 5.7 10.2 5.0 10.4

Colorado

3,170,260 3,101,057 3,178,923 3,161,886 83,635 205,114 75,467 195,189 2.6 6.6 2.4 6.2

Boulder

198,688 189,804 199,949 193,903 4,620 10,983 4,205 10,298 2.3 5.8 2.1 5.3

Colorado Springs

357,635 357,079 358,718 364,069 11,321 22,176 10,188 21,493 3.2 6.2 2.8 5.9

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,693,749 1,678,804 1,694,499 1,708,407 43,444 117,939 39,294 111,588 2.6 7.0 2.3 6.5

Fort Collins

205,936 198,555 209,577 204,671 4,714 11,032 4,243 10,630 2.3 5.6 2.0 5.2

Grand Junction

76,940 77,363 77,499 79,482 2,377 4,819 2,140 4,535 3.1 6.2 2.8 5.7

Greeley

170,331 165,695 172,833 169,617 4,251 11,013 3,779 10,661 2.5 6.6 2.2 6.3

Pueblo

76,049 75,309 76,923 77,711 3,011 5,479 2,731 5,796 4.0 7.3 3.6 7.5

Connecticut

1,925,819 1,876,863 1,913,111 1,889,423 73,111 153,218 66,569 142,264 3.8 8.2 3.5 7.5

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

471,036 450,119 465,419 451,595 17,858 38,198 16,362 35,739 3.8 8.5 3.5 7.9

Danbury

108,523 105,166 106,590 104,492 3,422 7,431 3,024 6,952 3.2 7.1 2.8 6.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

630,414 624,186 630,118 630,520 24,687 49,766 22,209 45,919 3.9 8.0 3.5 7.3

New Haven

331,036 327,151 331,059 331,810 12,239 25,136 11,249 23,459 3.7 7.7 3.4 7.1

Norwich-New London-Westerly

145,272 139,446 142,200 139,257 5,141 14,190 4,766 12,732 3.5 10.2 3.4 9.1

Waterbury

112,136 109,183 111,524 109,898 5,268 10,549 4,812 9,795 4.7 9.7 4.3 8.9

Delaware

490,824 503,877 484,356 491,760 20,234 45,877 18,909 40,141 4.1 9.1 3.9 8.2

Dover

78,973 85,298 78,818 83,518 3,853 8,389 3,425 7,196 4.9 9.8 4.3 8.6

Salisbury(1)

204,397 199,717 195,698 188,605 8,214 14,794 7,492 13,018 4.0 7.4 3.8 6.9

District of Columbia

407,817 394,931 407,988 393,146 22,418 34,713 21,886 34,566 5.5 8.8 5.4 8.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,474,085 3,437,684 3,475,733 3,331,141 111,151 237,004 101,288 222,533 3.2 6.9 2.9 6.7

Florida

10,353,589 10,133,146 10,438,897 10,186,223 341,558 766,532 304,238 778,174 3.3 7.6 2.9 7.6

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

344,870 338,229 348,608 338,831 11,657 23,868 10,326 21,539 3.4 7.1 3.0 6.4

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

131,279 125,596 129,964 124,427 3,616 5,559 3,154 5,083 2.8 4.4 2.4 4.1

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

302,442 298,092 304,305 295,414 10,990 20,386 9,844 18,664 3.6 6.8 3.2 6.3

Gainesville

143,717 139,755 150,175 143,424 4,525 6,697 4,109 6,114 3.1 4.8 2.7 4.3

Homosassa Springs

47,414 46,049 47,643 45,435 2,416 3,331 2,101 3,080 5.1 7.2 4.4 6.8

Jacksonville

792,005 775,527 797,492 773,777 25,925 44,041 22,918 39,629 3.3 5.7 2.9 5.1

Lakeland-Winter Haven

308,001 310,303 310,844 310,645 12,179 28,445 10,922 26,050 4.0 9.2 3.5 8.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,157,142 3,063,980 3,176,775 3,128,783 95,162 256,146 85,195 316,182 3.0 8.4 2.7 10.1

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

175,558 173,868 177,330 174,307 6,463 11,897 5,719 10,528 3.7 6.8 3.2 6.0

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

365,827 354,804 370,068 355,415 12,261 21,794 10,784 19,829 3.4 6.1 2.9 5.6

Ocala

137,952 140,990 139,064 141,756 5,605 8,627 4,904 7,945 4.1 6.1 3.5 5.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,372,815 1,341,275 1,381,556 1,328,492 43,231 144,249 38,820 130,220 3.1 10.8 2.8 9.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

287,115 286,196 288,086 286,780 9,538 17,301 8,449 15,827 3.3 6.0 2.9 5.5

Panama City

91,382 87,486 91,453 87,651 3,270 4,414 2,864 4,016 3.6 5.0 3.1 4.6

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

230,915 223,679 231,779 223,881 7,439 12,002 6,572 10,712 3.2 5.4 2.8 4.8

Port St. Lucie

219,592 216,912 220,807 217,922 8,675 14,438 7,696 13,242 4.0 6.7 3.5 6.1

Punta Gorda

71,267 72,048 71,697 72,177 2,819 4,670 2,514 4,283 4.0 6.5 3.5 5.9

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,198 63,672 64,959 63,603 2,794 4,343 2,465 3,994 4.3 6.8 3.8 6.3

Sebring

35,498 35,488 35,809 35,925 1,780 2,376 1,542 2,273 5.0 6.7 4.3 6.3

Tallahassee

192,226 184,983 198,380 186,577 6,534 10,135 5,888 9,141 3.4 5.5 3.0 4.9

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,559,786 1,536,254 1,577,352 1,532,283 52,027 103,610 46,345 92,877 3.3 6.7 2.9 6.1

The Villages

32,764 32,440 32,911 32,419 1,619 2,063 1,340 1,959 4.9 6.4 4.1 6.0

Georgia

5,097,809 4,906,688 5,119,873 4,937,094 186,680 294,883 156,100 309,503 3.7 6.0 3.0 6.3

Albany

66,443 63,473 67,059 63,431 2,996 4,410 2,638 4,682 4.5 6.9 3.9 7.4

Athens-Clarke County

97,867 93,484 98,855 93,944 3,466 4,574 2,867 4,687 3.5 4.9 2.9 5.0

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,081,350 2,976,434 3,102,466 3,000,950 107,739 191,760 89,661 202,149 3.5 6.4 2.9 6.7

Augusta-Richmond County

266,787 257,159 265,767 254,748 10,265 14,082 8,165 13,119 3.8 5.5 3.1 5.1

Brunswick

53,547 46,283 53,084 46,378 1,949 2,732 1,838 2,856 3.6 5.9 3.5 6.2

Columbus

122,109 116,876 122,381 116,794 5,213 7,433 4,423 7,737 4.3 6.4 3.6 6.6

Dalton

58,604 54,886 58,853 55,553 2,592 2,954 2,251 2,842 4.4 5.4 3.8 5.1

Gainesville

101,937 96,500 102,502 96,499 3,006 3,800 2,490 3,871 2.9 3.9 2.4 4.0

Hinesville

34,305 33,504 34,254 33,540 1,425 1,745 1,202 1,833 4.2 5.2 3.5 5.5

Macon-Bibb County

102,646 97,566 102,731 98,977 4,216 6,147 3,437 6,548 4.1 6.3 3.3 6.6

Rome

43,744 42,930 44,060 42,970 1,682 2,105 1,451 2,130 3.8 4.9 3.3 5.0

Savannah

188,537 180,801 187,284 182,747 6,630 11,804 5,480 12,289 3.5 6.5 2.9 6.7

Valdosta

63,560 62,281 63,589 63,050 2,431 3,237 1,966 3,490 3.8 5.2 3.1 5.5

Warner Robins

85,936 80,108 86,186 80,442 3,180 3,829 2,593 3,951 3.7 4.8 3.0 4.9

Hawaii

663,706 639,152 662,543 610,432 17,821 82,216 18,842 93,285 2.7 12.9 2.8 15.3

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,484 82,266 86,453 78,541 2,193 17,382 2,359 18,547 2.5 21.1 2.7 23.6

Urban Honolulu

448,845 433,505 447,922 414,989 11,590 47,560 12,283 56,525 2.6 11.0 2.7 13.6

Idaho

888,664 899,430 886,206 917,599 22,457 34,007 20,685 51,561 2.5 3.8 2.3 5.6

Boise City

379,079 384,158 377,772 391,165 9,582 15,771 8,758 23,581 2.5 4.1 2.3 6.0

Coeur d'Alene

81,725 79,134 80,050 80,268 2,319 3,828 2,124 5,745 2.8 4.8 2.7 7.2

Idaho Falls

73,081 76,064 72,613 76,729 1,510 2,031 1,496 3,244 2.1 2.7 2.1 4.2

Lewiston

31,267 30,128 31,246 30,568 918 1,230 804 1,499 2.9 4.1 2.6 4.9

Pocatello

41,837 40,726 42,462 42,377 1,044 1,473 1,001 2,413 2.5 3.6 2.4 5.7

Twin Falls

53,731 54,573 53,876 56,257 1,273 1,868 1,184 2,844 2.4 3.4 2.2 5.1

Illinois

6,459,291 6,327,118 6,426,636 6,367,873 257,769 699,795 222,928 621,131 4.0 11.1 3.5 9.8

Bloomington

94,794 93,464 96,430 94,457 3,629 6,892 3,339 5,914 3.8 7.4 3.5 6.3

Carbondale-Marion

59,041 59,960 60,580 60,380 2,458 5,197 2,210 4,416 4.2 8.7 3.6 7.3

Champaign-Urbana

117,754 120,091 125,984 127,254 4,595 9,022 4,174 7,674 3.9 7.5 3.3 6.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,880,816 4,747,494 4,836,999 4,798,228 187,180 560,723 158,790 502,688 3.8 11.8 3.3 10.5

Danville

33,052 33,451 33,300 33,412 1,828 3,165 1,581 2,793 5.5 9.5 4.7 8.4

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

198,557 189,022 197,006 186,215 8,071 16,091 7,696 13,182 4.1 8.5 3.9 7.1

Decatur

49,107 49,234 48,723 48,362 2,662 5,580 2,388 4,892 5.4 11.3 4.9 10.1

Kankakee

55,978 56,983 56,319 56,548 2,563 5,206 2,314 4,576 4.6 9.1 4.1 8.1

Peoria

177,694 170,548 176,398 167,515 8,248 16,783 7,426 14,319 4.6 9.8 4.2 8.5

Rockford

167,169 166,668 165,703 163,491 9,924 19,234 8,551 16,363 5.9 11.5 5.2 10.0

Springfield

109,837 109,185 107,746 107,315 4,359 9,474 3,819 8,261 4.0 8.7 3.5 7.7

Indiana

3,385,489 3,360,009 3,374,034 3,328,250 113,806 218,724 95,125 194,052 3.4 6.5 2.8 5.8

Bloomington

76,503 77,744 80,806 81,463 2,920 4,303 2,134 3,627 3.8 5.5 2.6 4.5

Columbus

45,408 44,513 44,791 43,847 1,127 2,402 911 2,131 2.5 5.4 2.0 4.9

Elkhart-Goshen

112,661 107,096 111,450 105,634 3,613 6,542 3,092 5,617 3.2 6.1 2.8 5.3

Evansville

163,243 165,763 163,375 163,756 5,170 9,642 4,410 8,368 3.2 5.8 2.7 5.1

Fort Wayne

219,498 217,985 217,975 215,314 6,859 14,175 5,727 12,422 3.1 6.5 2.6 5.8

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,080,875 1,092,168 1,071,170 1,071,951 33,570 71,708 27,875 64,336 3.1 6.6 2.6 6.0

Kokomo

37,037 37,462 36,857 37,037 1,367 2,682 1,186 2,722 3.7 7.2 3.2 7.3

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,961 106,757 113,589 109,945 3,569 6,437 2,739 5,558 3.2 6.0 2.4 5.1

Michigan City-La Porte

47,782 47,829 47,777 47,111 1,930 4,084 1,695 3,611 4.0 8.5 3.5 7.7

Muncie

52,654 51,346 53,971 52,371 2,156 3,692 1,703 3,203 4.1 7.2 3.2 6.1

South Bend-Mishawaka

158,895 155,066 161,272 152,859 6,208 12,851 5,246 11,219 3.9 8.3 3.3 7.3

Terre Haute

75,461 73,719 75,570 73,171 3,205 5,103 2,675 4,444 4.2 6.9 3.5 6.1

Iowa

1,748,009 1,623,853 1,748,279 1,611,521 48,287 100,235 41,466 68,886 2.8 6.2 2.4 4.3

Ames

55,961 55,718 61,172 58,525 1,180 2,475 998 1,614 2.1 4.4 1.6 2.8

Cedar Rapids

150,220 140,151 149,474 136,893 4,480 11,603 3,923 7,531 3.0 8.3 2.6 5.5

Des Moines-West Des Moines

373,278 344,376 369,100 338,616 9,845 23,084 8,612 15,960 2.6 6.7 2.3 4.7

Dubuque

57,018 52,679 57,141 52,604 1,490 3,411 1,226 2,418 2.6 6.5 2.1 4.6

Iowa City

101,449 96,235 100,735 93,969 2,198 5,844 1,935 3,770 2.2 6.1 1.9 4.0

Sioux City

94,301 90,513 94,139 90,316 2,645 4,855 2,303 3,374 2.8 5.4 2.4 3.7

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

90,894 85,423 91,673 84,976 3,384 5,538 2,476 3,925 3.7 6.5 2.7 4.6

Kansas

1,485,168 1,495,227 1,484,776 1,470,103 50,095 106,061 40,121 81,476 3.4 7.1 2.7 5.5

Lawrence

64,895 64,784 65,602 64,661 2,073 4,666 1,635 3,582 3.2 7.2 2.5 5.5

Manhattan

46,202 45,040 48,157 45,694 1,429 2,673 1,130 1,982 3.1 5.9 2.3 4.3

Topeka

120,033 118,678 117,858 115,761 4,078 7,827 3,287 6,148 3.4 6.6 2.8 5.3

Wichita

314,877 320,938 313,230 314,045 11,447 32,902 9,331 25,105 3.6 10.3 3.0 8.0

Kentucky

2,069,554 2,001,943 2,073,191 1,922,687 86,918 146,700 79,648 100,932 4.2 7.3 3.8 5.2

Bowling Green

83,531 77,820 84,784 75,509 3,299 5,486 2,890 3,516 3.9 7.0 3.4 4.7

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,895 64,414 67,369 62,127 2,812 4,725 2,589 3,188 4.1 7.3 3.8 5.1

Lexington-Fayette

273,739 269,465 274,350 258,008 9,184 17,624 8,360 12,068 3.4 6.5 3.0 4.7

Louisville/Jefferson County

676,589 663,691 676,110 640,640 25,696 46,612 22,944 34,235 3.8 7.0 3.4 5.3

Owensboro

55,949 54,682 55,855 52,180 2,068 3,547 1,933 2,519 3.7 6.5 3.5 4.8

Louisiana

2,097,206 2,106,363 2,096,725 2,091,597 112,426 169,537 104,342 171,027 5.4 8.0 5.0 8.2

Alexandria

63,603 63,964 63,463 63,866 3,684 3,871 3,379 3,847 5.8 6.1 5.3 6.0

Baton Rouge

416,428 424,332 416,922 419,728 20,840 30,380 19,274 29,708 5.0 7.2 4.6 7.1

Hammond

54,728 55,942 55,006 55,843 3,318 5,408 3,102 5,241 6.1 9.7 5.6 9.4

Houma-Thibodaux

89,436 90,350 89,363 89,662 4,350 6,105 4,163 6,110 4.9 6.8 4.7 6.8

Lafayette

212,893 216,493 212,471 215,290 10,974 15,997 10,381 15,848 5.2 7.4 4.9 7.4

Lake Charles

109,422 103,311 109,179 100,628 4,974 8,403 4,691 12,097 4.5 8.1 4.3 12.0

Monroe

78,635 83,861 79,013 83,305 4,612 5,741 4,329 5,628 5.9 6.8 5.5 6.8

New Orleans-Metairie

595,480 590,548 594,425 588,432 29,783 56,999 27,617 55,958 5.0 9.7 4.6 9.5

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,694 189,566 185,710 188,011 10,529 14,788 9,800 14,393 5.6 7.8 5.3 7.7

Maine

708,364 694,116 692,599 680,685 16,281 42,985 16,025 36,555 2.3 6.2 2.3 5.4

Bangor

70,530 69,849 71,314 69,769 1,630 3,974 1,623 3,384 2.3 5.7 2.3 4.9

Lewiston-Auburn

55,040 55,886 55,501 54,939 1,380 3,725 1,336 3,192 2.5 6.7 2.4 5.8

Portland-South Portland

212,603 208,386 209,929 203,101 4,098 13,060 4,133 11,031 1.9 6.3 2.0 5.4

Maryland

3,280,077 3,256,662 3,264,649 3,060,968 122,557 233,586 106,899 210,414 3.7 7.2 3.3 6.9

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,534,162 1,515,601 1,521,785 1,419,818 59,725 104,825 50,934 92,937 3.9 6.9 3.3 6.5

California-Lexington Park

57,708 55,434 57,334 51,566 2,199 2,972 1,680 2,481 3.8 5.4 2.9 4.8

Cumberland

45,340 42,739 45,494 41,480 2,770 3,104 2,352 2,848 6.1 7.3 5.2 6.9

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,522 130,211 133,613 125,532 5,054 8,889 4,501 7,750 3.8 6.8 3.4 6.2

Massachusetts

3,855,804 3,584,444 3,798,668 3,763,988 108,391 401,926 101,529 359,368 2.8 11.2 2.7 9.5

Barnstable Town

142,441 122,632 129,904 125,362 3,706 13,013 3,511 11,531 2.6 10.6 2.7 9.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,853,234 2,660,347 2,814,506 2,779,594 74,105 287,202 69,829 256,644 2.6 10.8 2.5 9.2

Leominster-Gardner

80,415 76,855 80,112 80,101 2,665 9,709 2,428 8,469 3.3 12.6 3.0 10.6

New Bedford

86,248 81,723 85,769 86,827 3,625 10,710 3,301 9,537 4.2 13.1 3.8 11.0

Pittsfield

44,456 40,577 42,408 42,312 1,499 4,774 1,336 4,180 3.4 11.8 3.2 9.9

Springfield

376,056 344,773 377,658 364,053 14,123 39,965 12,716 35,967 3.8 11.6 3.4 9.9

Worcester

363,031 346,409 360,877 363,349 11,556 35,802 10,730 32,142 3.2 10.3 3.0 8.8

Michigan

4,965,356 4,942,980 4,930,761 4,877,818 209,484 437,763 173,033 398,791 4.2 8.9 3.5 8.2

Ann Arbor

195,961 204,743 197,583 202,417 6,179 14,150 5,363 12,182 3.2 6.9 2.7 6.0

Battle Creek

62,248 62,342 61,399 61,230 2,686 6,063 2,192 5,273 4.3 9.7 3.6 8.6

Bay City

50,094 49,397 49,502 48,433 2,202 4,208 1,777 3,610 4.4 8.5 3.6 7.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,183,702 2,096,074 2,177,102 2,093,191 103,756 211,925 86,349 204,750 4.8 10.1 4.0 9.8

Flint

183,576 186,605 180,056 182,729 8,666 19,773 7,021 17,138 4.7 10.6 3.9 9.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

581,784 594,198 574,566 581,315 17,643 42,853 14,788 36,328 3.0 7.2 2.6 6.2

Jackson

73,669 75,302 72,954 73,802 2,822 6,589 2,286 5,639 3.8 8.8 3.1 7.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,857 174,055 167,510 171,543 6,235 13,360 5,198 11,478 3.7 7.7 3.1 6.7

Lansing-East Lansing

242,233 245,257 247,062 241,305 8,449 18,409 7,117 16,106 3.5 7.5 2.9 6.7

Midland

40,174 40,480 39,783 39,743 1,461 2,825 1,225 2,496 3.6 7.0 3.1 6.3

Monroe

74,662 73,885 74,172 72,699 2,846 5,941 2,270 4,997 3.8 8.0 3.1 6.9

Muskegon

78,095 79,897 76,013 77,115 3,298 9,065 2,785 7,874 4.2 11.3 3.7 10.2

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,984 76,525 72,828 74,417 3,052 6,672 2,373 5,645 4.1 8.7 3.3 7.6

Saginaw

86,675 87,135 85,602 85,095 3,893 8,441 3,187 7,358 4.5 9.7 3.7 8.6

Minnesota

3,122,724 3,119,847 3,110,208 3,050,104 94,260 222,327 80,560 163,956 3.0 7.1 2.6 5.4

Duluth

141,574 139,443 142,606 137,229 5,483 11,092 4,453 8,170 3.9 8.0 3.1 6.0

Mankato-North Mankato

60,601 62,353 62,448 61,284 1,700 3,727 1,447 2,654 2.8 6.0 2.3 4.3

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,047,731 2,037,812 2,033,164 1,994,326 59,849 159,610 51,843 118,576 2.9 7.8 2.5 5.9

Rochester

126,987 125,779 125,146 121,811 3,312 7,338 2,738 5,146 2.6 5.8 2.2 4.2

St. Cloud

112,331 114,769 113,417 112,515 3,237 6,814 2,907 5,114 2.9 5.9 2.6 4.5

Mississippi

1,272,644 1,235,384 1,276,039 1,292,856 71,648 97,273 68,196 87,566 5.6 7.9 5.3 6.8

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,130 162,835 163,446 168,842 9,258 13,425 8,951 12,032 5.6 8.2 5.5 7.1

Hattiesburg

67,420 66,995 68,327 70,923 3,428 4,827 3,225 4,204 5.1 7.2 4.7 5.9

Jackson

266,411 258,425 267,680 273,541 13,251 18,205 12,721 16,723 5.0 7.0 4.8 6.1

Missouri

3,077,694 3,067,869 3,083,575 2,999,711 108,761 217,535 82,035 127,907 3.5 7.1 2.7 4.3

Cape Girardeau

47,932 44,593 48,271 44,397 1,739 2,774 1,302 1,716 3.6 6.2 2.7 3.9

Columbia

96,631 96,085 99,063 96,116 2,586 4,944 1,841 2,795 2.7 5.1 1.9 2.9

Jefferson City

75,366 74,621 74,397 73,674 2,317 4,349 1,498 2,034 3.1 5.8 2.0 2.8

Joplin

84,494 83,951 84,438 82,963 2,746 5,335 2,121 3,215 3.2 6.4 2.5 3.9

Kansas City

1,145,001 1,138,617 1,135,510 1,112,978 39,762 82,786 30,234 54,932 3.5 7.3 2.7 4.9

St. Joseph

63,140 62,619 63,056 61,576 1,966 3,441 1,467 2,048 3.1 5.5 2.3 3.3

St. Louis(2)

1,484,459 1,470,206 1,481,679 1,432,658 51,923 116,910 40,927 78,280 3.5 8.0 2.8 5.5

Springfield

233,578 232,754 236,255 229,763 7,739 13,606 5,698 7,871 3.3 5.8 2.4 3.4

Montana

542,082 539,657 534,592 533,615 16,824 28,849 15,869 24,667 3.1 5.3 3.0 4.6

Billings

88,105 88,631 87,721 87,218 2,689 4,564 2,497 3,922 3.1 5.1 2.8 4.5

Great Falls

37,579 38,402 37,879 37,655 1,249 2,123 1,158 1,847 3.3 5.5 3.1 4.9

Missoula

63,580 65,898 64,326 65,290 1,768 3,679 1,747 3,073 2.8 5.6 2.7 4.7

Nebraska

1,039,417 1,041,214 1,029,469 1,025,888 31,306 40,666 28,495 33,503 3.0 3.9 2.8 3.3

Grand Island

43,848 43,837 43,861 43,164 1,335 2,158 1,272 1,781 3.0 4.9 2.9 4.1

Lincoln

187,113 192,771 186,301 188,679 5,261 7,350 4,811 5,998 2.8 3.8 2.6 3.2

Omaha-Council Bluffs

502,944 502,563 495,050 488,879 15,231 23,270 13,715 18,642 3.0 4.6 2.8 3.8

Nevada

1,548,152 1,496,154 1,552,411 1,523,754 59,708 199,689 57,740 191,838 3.9 13.3 3.7 12.6

Carson City

26,435 25,603 26,399 26,455 960 1,871 933 1,798 3.6 7.3 3.5 6.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,137,375 1,103,342 1,138,060 1,119,011 46,143 171,841 44,606 165,647 4.1 15.6 3.9 14.8

Reno

258,292 246,428 260,154 252,402 7,943 18,003 7,747 16,833 3.1 7.3 3.0 6.7

New Hampshire

783,726 745,381 772,689 737,013 19,639 47,833 17,831 41,311 2.5 6.4 2.3 5.6

Dover-Durham

86,621 81,461 86,386 80,240 1,988 4,995 1,885 4,288 2.3 6.1 2.2 5.3

Manchester

122,099 119,414 122,240 118,405 2,940 7,788 2,702 6,756 2.4 6.5 2.2 5.7

Portsmouth

80,182 75,412 78,182 73,649 1,724 4,464 1,596 3,894 2.2 5.9 2.0 5.3

New Jersey

4,530,548 4,596,237 4,496,207 4,312,144 166,692 511,272 152,067 280,229 3.7 11.1 3.4 6.5

Atlantic City-Hammonton

124,209 123,426 121,817 112,978 5,924 22,119 5,545 11,414 4.8 17.9 4.6 10.1

Ocean City

55,575 47,778 48,624 42,138 2,094 5,374 2,038 2,923 3.8 11.2 4.2 6.9

Trenton

204,770 207,745 202,650 195,117 7,025 18,047 6,325 9,932 3.4 8.7 3.1 5.1

Vineland-Bridgeton

63,760 67,481 65,097 63,406 3,550 7,790 3,228 4,285 5.6 11.5 5.0 6.8

New Mexico

955,627 895,414 955,891 950,489 47,067 103,411 44,186 88,644 4.9 11.5 4.6 9.3

Albuquerque

436,236 414,371 437,729 441,306 20,809 46,047 19,579 39,414 4.8 11.1 4.5 8.9

Farmington

50,950 48,047 52,136 51,069 3,009 6,587 2,865 5,746 5.9 13.7 5.5 11.3

Las Cruces

97,287 87,716 97,576 93,867 5,304 9,583 5,031 8,135 5.5 10.9 5.2 8.7

Santa Fe

76,039 68,344 75,124 71,759 3,078 7,858 2,785 6,600 4.0 11.5 3.7 9.2

New York

9,539,835 9,518,455 9,504,828 9,107,525 393,551 1,193,794 342,694 854,249 4.1 12.5 3.6 9.4

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

448,231 455,428 448,228 437,278 16,845 39,618 15,397 23,772 3.8 8.7 3.4 5.4

Binghamton

105,407 109,301 105,922 105,158 4,844 10,166 4,399 5,983 4.6 9.3 4.2 5.7

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

542,821 559,825 541,098 531,378 24,303 59,780 21,403 35,419 4.5 10.7 4.0 6.7

Elmira

34,435 37,334 35,206 35,638 1,496 3,566 1,381 2,113 4.3 9.6 3.9 5.9

Glens Falls

61,952 59,592 59,475 57,138 2,245 4,815 2,067 2,855 3.6 8.1 3.5 5.0

Ithaca

47,830 50,467 49,325 49,621 1,936 3,578 1,813 2,155 4.0 7.1 3.7 4.3

Kingston

87,711 91,654 88,179 88,058 3,535 8,432 3,066 4,961 4.0 9.2 3.5 5.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,973,169 9,967,748 9,920,695 9,469,019 390,189 1,298,424 340,900 900,503 3.9 13.0 3.4 9.5

Rochester

519,422 517,372 521,893 500,699 22,206 50,708 20,063 30,580 4.3 9.8 3.8 6.1

Syracuse

308,429 307,045 307,324 294,832 13,057 29,774 12,098 17,877 4.2 9.7 3.9 6.1

Utica-Rome

130,325 131,029 128,295 125,328 5,564 12,014 5,038 7,154 4.3 9.2 3.9 5.7

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,724 42,602 43,876 41,926 2,295 3,874 2,064 2,262 5.1 9.1 4.7 5.4

North Carolina

5,074,829 4,815,116 5,094,495 4,918,620 210,207 325,823 174,618 343,190 4.1 6.8 3.4 7.0

Asheville

237,070 220,986 239,379 224,445 8,089 15,401 6,552 15,687 3.4 7.0 2.7 7.0

Burlington

82,566 79,162 82,832 80,514 3,412 5,230 2,790 5,510 4.1 6.6 3.4 6.8

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,375,195 1,317,126 1,375,200 1,332,637 51,412 93,746 42,684 93,276 3.7 7.1 3.1 7.0

Durham-Chapel Hill

306,525 286,748 307,061 293,956 11,383 17,010 9,249 17,763 3.7 5.9 3.0 6.0

Fayetteville

147,421 138,901 148,977 142,849 7,995 12,606 6,781 13,318 5.4 9.1 4.6 9.3

Goldsboro

51,194 47,463 51,747 49,544 2,295 2,963 1,895 3,171 4.5 6.2 3.7 6.4

Greensboro-High Point

371,044 349,501 373,405 358,747 16,436 27,347 13,549 28,626 4.4 7.8 3.6 8.0

Greenville

88,562 82,958 91,113 86,061 4,234 5,454 3,462 6,020 4.8 6.6 3.8 7.0

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,843 161,329 175,963 165,392 6,989 10,943 5,764 11,622 4.0 6.8 3.3 7.0

Jacksonville

65,310 63,114 65,232 64,085 3,213 3,981 2,634 4,235 4.9 6.3 4.0 6.6

New Bern

51,764 48,583 51,900 49,800 2,229 2,854 1,816 3,106 4.3 5.9 3.5 6.2

Raleigh

735,424 686,514 735,976 700,412 26,946 41,272 22,203 43,054 3.7 6.0 3.0 6.1

Rocky Mount

63,629 61,215 64,421 62,945 3,571 5,515 3,037 5,909 5.6 9.0 4.7 9.4

Wilmington

155,391 144,478 154,940 147,066 5,938 9,105 4,841 9,383 3.8 6.3 3.1 6.4

Winston-Salem

330,571 311,596 333,311 319,845 13,225 20,654 10,870 22,032 4.0 6.6 3.3 6.9

North Dakota

410,255 403,650 403,896 396,445 9,123 19,518 7,434 15,086 2.2 4.8 1.8 3.8

Bismarck

68,814 68,466 66,901 66,699 1,613 2,665 1,291 2,058 2.3 3.9 1.9 3.1

Fargo

139,563 140,982 139,032 140,565 2,852 5,547 2,616 4,244 2.0 3.9 1.9 3.0

Grand Forks

53,170 52,872 53,718 52,928 1,360 2,419 1,057 1,757 2.6 4.6 2.0 3.3

Ohio

5,848,312 5,794,178 5,805,781 5,626,736 246,429 512,028 225,181 451,966 4.2 8.8 3.9 8.0

Akron

362,314 351,607 360,237 347,318 15,849 31,873 14,414 28,352 4.4 9.1 4.0 8.2

Canton-Massillon

199,759 196,818 198,109 192,760 8,903 16,979 8,188 15,075 4.5 8.6 4.1 7.8

Cincinnati

1,136,205 1,139,882 1,132,137 1,112,467 44,291 90,479 40,421 77,093 3.9 7.9 3.6 6.9

Cleveland-Elyria

1,049,822 1,022,852 1,045,516 928,936 42,284 107,120 38,501 92,020 4.0 10.5 3.7 9.9

Columbus

1,112,562 1,097,993 1,101,267 1,079,910 42,090 91,214 38,717 81,435 3.8 8.3 3.5 7.5

Dayton

393,463 396,571 390,071 389,900 16,750 34,514 15,323 30,900 4.3 8.7 3.9 7.9

Lima

48,427 47,607 47,614 46,303 2,014 4,026 1,843 3,527 4.2 8.5 3.9 7.6

Mansfield

52,294 52,715 51,969 52,376 2,356 4,552 2,187 4,094 4.5 8.6 4.2 7.8

Springfield

63,507 64,215 62,697 63,333 2,736 5,371 2,530 4,746 4.3 8.4 4.0 7.5

Toledo

303,370 304,877 303,225 298,846 13,289 28,739 12,189 25,515 4.4 9.4 4.0 8.5

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,519 50,729 51,231 50,363 2,830 5,459 2,749 4,905 5.5 10.8 5.4 9.7

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

240,770 229,703 238,646 226,101 14,361 25,838 12,584 22,219 6.0 11.2 5.3 9.8

Oklahoma

1,836,797 1,825,927 1,844,419 1,878,159 60,607 103,429 57,872 95,398 3.3 5.7 3.1 5.1

Enid

27,078 25,943 26,835 26,408 812 1,389 777 1,296 3.0 5.4 2.9 4.9

Lawton

50,537 50,031 50,687 51,213 1,902 2,828 1,815 2,622 3.8 5.7 3.6 5.1

Oklahoma City

682,873 684,201 688,813 706,130 21,040 38,196 20,024 34,848 3.1 5.6 2.9 4.9

Tulsa

481,898 472,710 483,152 485,872 15,638 28,772 15,033 26,439 3.2 6.1 3.1 5.4

Oregon

2,123,490 2,088,833 2,109,356 2,058,198 82,140 177,552 64,940 149,915 3.9 8.5 3.1 7.3

Albany

58,418 58,604 58,338 57,982 2,607 4,857 2,103 4,396 4.5 8.3 3.6 7.6

Bend-Redmond

97,993 94,530 96,932 94,150 3,524 7,667 2,823 6,347 3.6 8.1 2.9 6.7

Corvallis

46,439 44,669 47,015 45,281 1,627 2,956 1,318 2,480 3.5 6.6 2.8 5.5

Eugene

179,490 183,346 179,020 181,746 7,804 15,521 6,138 13,431 4.3 8.5 3.4 7.4

Grants Pass

36,275 34,806 35,985 34,513 1,833 3,067 1,375 2,498 5.1 8.8 3.8 7.2

Medford

104,367 104,335 104,447 102,588 4,668 8,967 3,408 7,468 4.5 8.6 3.3 7.3

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,333,061 1,320,005 1,325,943 1,293,685 49,971 119,714 40,577 99,453 3.7 9.1 3.1 7.7

Salem

204,630 197,885 203,390 193,805 8,539 14,898 6,637 13,086 4.2 7.5 3.3 6.8

Pennsylvania

6,542,283 6,348,400 6,506,111 6,355,432 314,579 675,132 271,125 489,395 4.8 10.6 4.2 7.7

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

444,342 436,698 443,189 432,136 21,460 46,477 18,689 32,137 4.8 10.6 4.2 7.4

Altoona

60,599 57,915 59,563 57,629 3,017 5,409 2,521 3,828 5.0 9.3 4.2 6.6

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,715 42,117 42,969 42,846 1,952 3,332 1,685 2,427 4.6 7.9 3.9 5.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,733 77,057 78,005 76,922 3,283 6,774 2,810 4,963 4.2 8.8 3.6 6.5

East Stroudsburg

84,044 79,408 82,865 78,931 4,744 10,329 4,317 7,704 5.6 13.0 5.2 9.8

Erie

129,231 123,744 129,126 123,707 6,022 13,829 5,294 10,098 4.7 11.2 4.1 8.2

Gettysburg

55,861 54,582 55,672 55,095 2,015 3,943 1,694 2,750 3.6 7.2 3.0 5.0

Harrisburg-Carlisle

307,279 301,032 302,473 299,830 12,808 26,407 11,139 19,135 4.2 8.8 3.7 6.4

Johnstown

57,977 55,116 57,805 55,248 3,506 5,855 2,737 4,060 6.0 10.6 4.7 7.3

Lancaster

290,354 290,361 287,049 289,974 11,250 23,604 9,448 16,852 3.9 8.1 3.3 5.8

Lebanon

73,701 71,360 72,909 71,710 3,157 6,472 2,800 4,694 4.3 9.1 3.8 6.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,140,341 3,112,881 3,133,899 3,063,353 144,876 345,020 127,916 242,969 4.6 11.1 4.1 7.9

Pittsburgh

1,219,296 1,176,348 1,214,109 1,177,658 57,504 128,150 48,923 91,915 4.7 10.9 4.0 7.8

Reading

217,962 221,761 216,562 222,535 10,420 22,983 9,087 16,738 4.8 10.4 4.2 7.5

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,184 262,539 276,306 263,276 16,449 31,229 13,704 23,296 5.9 11.9 5.0 8.8

State College

79,777 74,769 81,121 76,982 2,663 4,646 2,641 3,443 3.3 6.2 3.3 4.5

Williamsport

57,284 52,241 57,022 52,421 2,821 5,311 2,556 3,927 4.9 10.2 4.5 7.5

York-Hanover

238,284 232,162 236,323 232,522 10,279 20,922 8,761 14,654 4.3 9.0 3.7 6.3

Rhode Island

560,466 545,964 556,320 561,629 20,937 70,846 17,493 56,738 3.7 13.0 3.1 10.1

Providence-Warwick

695,676 675,374 691,449 699,280 25,568 85,507 21,777 70,023 3.7 12.7 3.1 10.0

South Carolina

2,385,686 2,432,302 2,366,932 2,383,208 67,954 161,940 47,844 112,485 2.8 6.7 2.0 4.7

Charleston-North Charleston

397,744 402,287 394,271 391,981 9,625 27,658 6,524 18,794 2.4 6.9 1.7 4.8

Columbia

404,596 411,689 403,454 406,216 10,914 24,541 7,758 17,254 2.7 6.0 1.9 4.2

Florence

97,973 101,749 97,056 99,949 3,058 6,895 2,169 4,839 3.1 6.8 2.2 4.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

434,460 449,853 434,212 446,955 11,183 26,009 7,903 17,925 2.6 5.8 1.8 4.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

92,253 95,714 89,753 90,938 2,433 4,926 1,601 3,356 2.6 5.1 1.8 3.7

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

208,894 199,881 202,903 193,315 7,719 16,234 5,886 12,568 3.7 8.1 2.9 6.5

Spartanburg

164,793 167,832 165,304 165,339 4,393 12,326 3,054 8,604 2.7 7.3 1.8 5.2

Sumter

43,309 44,065 43,401 43,530 1,491 3,473 1,062 2,416 3.4 7.9 2.4 5.6

South Dakota

468,482 464,400 463,200 461,229 15,340 21,994 14,012 17,457 3.3 4.7 3.0 3.8

Rapid City

78,050 74,066 75,615 73,756 2,596 3,924 2,445 3,115 3.3 5.3 3.2 4.2

Sioux Falls

156,227 155,119 154,556 153,498 4,296 6,611 4,013 5,245 2.7 4.3 2.6 3.4

Tennessee

3,339,297 3,383,046 3,351,337 3,309,301 113,486 292,237 105,792 204,646 3.4 8.6 3.2 6.2

Chattanooga

276,499 280,787 278,053 276,703 9,445 19,153 8,433 14,095 3.4 6.8 3.0 5.1

Clarksville

117,800 117,867 117,959 115,213 5,053 10,076 4,723 7,015 4.3 8.5 4.0 6.1

Cleveland

60,825 61,949 60,793 60,540 2,201 4,427 2,012 3,116 3.6 7.1 3.3 5.1

Jackson

64,876 65,633 65,310 64,398 2,351 5,531 2,269 3,999 3.6 8.4 3.5 6.2

Johnson City

91,220 90,426 92,516 89,412 3,461 6,633 3,214 4,563 3.8 7.3 3.5 5.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,876 134,885 137,463 131,815 5,102 9,546 4,717 7,265 3.7 7.1 3.4 5.5

Knoxville

430,826 435,019 433,316 430,247 13,922 28,991 12,737 20,103 3.2 6.7 2.9 4.7

Memphis

644,138 662,101 644,028 649,953 27,316 78,992 26,168 57,978 4.2 11.9 4.1 8.9

Morristown

52,634 53,386 53,167 52,527 1,992 3,912 1,863 2,785 3.8 7.3 3.5 5.3

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,089,174 1,095,664 1,095,969 1,073,308 28,936 91,542 26,809 63,384 2.7 8.4 2.4 5.9

Texas

14,030,092 14,330,374 14,111,297 14,208,368 523,448 1,000,259 482,829 1,177,593 3.7 7.0 3.4 8.3

Abilene

78,712 80,016 79,741 79,635 2,520 3,951 2,309 4,717 3.2 4.9 2.9 5.9

Amarillo

131,934 129,550 132,435 129,137 3,627 5,515 3,332 6,616 2.7 4.3 2.5 5.1

Austin-Round Rock

1,235,631 1,276,878 1,244,523 1,260,538 35,066 70,449 32,924 80,838 2.8 5.5 2.6 6.4

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,821 172,162 174,166 173,178 10,531 17,782 9,463 21,667 6.1 10.3 5.4 12.5

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,322 170,009 167,073 166,697 9,494 15,863 8,675 18,515 5.7 9.3 5.2 11.1

College Station-Bryan

130,345 137,938 136,791 139,779 3,989 6,463 3,655 7,673 3.1 4.7 2.7 5.5

Corpus Christi

206,439 207,487 206,018 203,870 9,319 17,411 8,584 20,567 4.5 8.4 4.2 10.1

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,977,030 4,086,580 4,003,204 4,042,966 137,239 258,180 126,589 301,641 3.5 6.3 3.2 7.5

El Paso

362,632 372,014 367,043 368,347 14,617 27,093 13,743 31,894 4.0 7.3 3.7 8.7

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,417,221 3,490,697 3,440,488 3,482,166 138,646 284,200 127,777 335,536 4.1 8.1 3.7 9.6

Killeen-Temple

176,406 180,050 177,814 178,626 6,998 10,920 6,545 13,161 4.0 6.1 3.7 7.4

Laredo

118,413 119,165 118,808 118,270 4,454 9,380 4,059 11,098 3.8 7.9 3.4 9.4

Longview

99,364 98,732 99,798 97,476 3,869 7,229 3,629 8,748 3.9 7.3 3.6 9.0

Lubbock

163,538 164,873 163,770 163,206 4,920 8,533 4,486 9,957 3.0 5.2 2.7 6.1

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

351,616 362,084 352,630 360,600 23,156 39,326 21,100 46,316 6.6 10.9 6.0 12.8

Midland

110,710 106,351 110,728 105,145 2,502 8,582 2,296 10,108 2.3 8.1 2.1 9.6

Odessa

87,710 87,776 88,187 87,972 2,547 9,748 2,385 11,624 2.9 11.1 2.7 13.2

San Angelo

55,154 54,008 55,419 53,799 1,763 3,202 1,619 3,840 3.2 5.9 2.9 7.1

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,204,321 1,235,047 1,211,007 1,219,010 39,982 81,396 36,846 94,647 3.3 6.6 3.0 7.8

Sherman-Denison

64,139 66,052 64,164 65,137 2,112 3,317 1,955 3,986 3.3 5.0 3.0 6.1

Texarkana

64,651 65,931 65,295 65,815 2,916 4,439 2,662 4,791 4.5 6.7 4.1 7.3

Tyler

107,003 110,422 107,227 108,652 3,818 6,627 3,507 7,858 3.6 6.0 3.3 7.2

Victoria

45,915 46,089 46,044 46,091 1,639 3,445 1,541 4,051 3.6 7.5 3.3 8.8

Waco

126,652 131,926 126,770 130,180 4,538 7,066 4,066 8,295 3.6 5.4 3.2 6.4

Wichita Falls

65,249 65,921 65,490 65,180 2,159 3,854 1,977 4,647 3.3 5.8 3.0 7.1

Utah

1,615,398 1,627,819 1,615,873 1,661,609 42,719 68,500 34,864 78,105 2.6 4.2 2.2 4.7

Logan

67,983 71,142 71,824 73,568 1,578 1,880 1,278 2,243 2.3 2.6 1.8 3.0

Ogden-Clearfield

335,595 342,962 333,365 347,526 8,880 12,658 7,186 14,667 2.6 3.7 2.2 4.2

Provo-Orem

312,210 318,616 316,482 324,296 7,782 10,780 6,292 12,379 2.5 3.4 2.0 3.8

St. George

77,311 78,128 77,038 79,788 2,398 3,742 1,929 4,182 3.1 4.8 2.5 5.2

Salt Lake City

675,391 672,189 671,371 689,433 17,526 31,687 14,447 35,784 2.6 4.7 2.2 5.2

Vermont

344,368 327,284 338,959 319,536 7,910 15,114 7,834 13,166 2.3 4.6 2.3 4.1

Burlington-South Burlington

127,344 118,712 125,847 116,286 2,509 5,075 2,521 4,306 2.0 4.3 2.0 3.7

Virginia

4,422,123 4,349,621 4,420,479 4,270,035 130,261 274,118 114,346 258,039 2.9 6.3 2.6 6.0

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

91,090 87,423 92,265 87,693 2,851 4,863 2,538 4,132 3.1 5.6 2.8 4.7

Charlottesville

120,948 120,951 125,188 119,522 3,360 6,753 2,844 6,257 2.8 5.6 2.3 5.2

Harrisonburg

65,702 63,794 68,100 63,994 1,930 3,150 1,650 2,849 2.9 4.9 2.4 4.5

Lynchburg

123,833 119,451 124,212 115,782 4,283 7,083 3,775 6,798 3.5 5.9 3.0 5.9

Richmond

690,208 682,405 688,763 668,870 21,787 47,188 19,010 44,799 3.2 6.9 2.8 6.7

Roanoke

159,213 154,625 158,666 152,245 4,724 9,208 4,152 8,426 3.0 6.0 2.6 5.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,549 62,349 61,070 60,837 1,650 3,044 1,435 2,781 2.7 4.9 2.3 4.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

866,839 860,924 861,205 842,002 28,282 63,313 24,754 59,728 3.3 7.4 2.9 7.1

Winchester

74,830 70,555 74,492 69,442 2,065 3,464 1,810 3,212 2.8 4.9 2.4 4.6

Washington

3,930,563 3,961,525 3,937,562 3,906,624 160,846 329,787 144,349 289,622 4.1 8.3 3.7 7.4

Bellingham

114,378 119,000 113,899 116,057 5,731 11,098 4,962 9,316 5.0 9.3 4.4 8.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

128,041 134,607 127,763 130,022 5,748 10,237 4,993 8,781 4.5 7.6 3.9 6.8

Kennewick-Richland

149,340 154,888 147,996 156,898 7,280 12,961 6,119 10,172 4.9 8.4 4.1 6.5

Longview

47,709 50,033 47,521 48,459 2,845 4,702 2,443 4,092 6.0 9.4 5.1 8.4

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,724 64,363 62,815 62,287 3,351 6,161 2,882 5,112 5.3 9.6 4.6 8.2

Olympia-Tumwater

141,325 146,499 142,510 142,205 6,731 11,983 5,938 10,142 4.8 8.2 4.2 7.1

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,180,017 2,191,183 2,187,696 2,162,810 71,067 172,522 68,912 160,084 3.3 7.9 3.1 7.4

Spokane-Spokane Valley

275,597 276,565 277,095 269,397 14,155 25,317 11,912 20,771 5.1 9.2 4.3 7.7

Walla Walla

32,106 31,917 32,308 32,183 1,504 2,213 1,292 1,860 4.7 6.9 4.0 5.8

Wenatchee

70,115 66,243 69,193 69,933 3,251 5,422 2,477 4,280 4.6 8.2 3.6 6.1

Yakima

137,152 136,871 139,342 140,742 8,402 13,651 6,137 10,106 6.1 10.0 4.4 7.2

West Virginia

801,184 773,661 803,603 775,287 38,253 68,023 34,801 61,088 4.8 8.8 4.3 7.9

Beckley

47,314 47,446 47,222 47,268 2,298 4,459 2,050 4,078 4.9 9.4 4.3 8.6

Charleston

94,155 92,406 93,556 91,788 4,462 9,287 4,062 8,404 4.7 10.1 4.3 9.2

Huntington-Ashland

147,059 147,618 147,734 145,364 7,355 12,916 6,645 10,721 5.0 8.7 4.5 7.4

Morgantown

70,752 69,379 71,670 70,692 2,732 4,688 2,426 4,094 3.9 6.8 3.4 5.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,303 39,331 39,383 39,535 1,980 3,372 1,752 3,187 5.0 8.6 4.4 8.1

Wheeling

65,687 61,004 65,672 60,678 3,273 6,085 3,163 5,478 5.0 10.0 4.8 9.0

Wisconsin

3,120,077 3,069,118 3,096,038 3,125,991 106,141 188,177 88,493 147,470 3.4 6.1 2.9 4.7

Appleton

131,519 129,093 129,909 130,181 3,921 6,621 3,250 4,885 3.0 5.1 2.5 3.8

Eau Claire

91,660 90,860 91,589 91,644 2,981 5,153 2,416 3,609 3.3 5.7 2.6 3.9

Fond du Lac

57,481 57,907 57,372 58,490 1,890 2,701 1,491 2,031 3.3 4.7 2.6 3.5

Green Bay

173,782 173,731 172,924 176,029 5,647 9,775 4,746 7,334 3.2 5.6 2.7 4.2

Janesville-Beloit

86,236 84,778 85,040 85,814 3,432 5,714 2,878 4,484 4.0 6.7 3.4 5.2

La Crosse-Onalaska

75,908 74,390 76,395 76,953 2,167 3,819 1,845 2,747 2.9 5.1 2.4 3.6

Madison

389,748 372,630 386,750 394,610 9,906 19,038 8,521 15,109 2.5 5.1 2.2 3.8

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

825,095 828,137 816,430 834,871 31,740 61,712 26,691 50,317 3.8 7.5 3.3 6.0

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,648 91,513 91,009 93,164 3,039 4,668 2,453 3,325 3.3 5.1 2.7 3.6

Racine

99,792 101,378 98,011 102,119 4,368 7,015 3,588 5,751 4.4 6.9 3.7 5.6

Sheboygan

63,409 62,232 62,228 62,868 1,758 3,106 1,483 2,338 2.8 5.0 2.4 3.7

Wausau

73,651 72,943 73,060 73,786 2,155 3,317 1,779 2,582 2.9 4.5 2.4 3.5

Wyoming

296,141 295,240 293,770 295,442 9,825 17,874 9,663 16,324 3.3 6.1 3.3 5.5

Casper

39,398 39,532 39,108 39,149 1,446 3,737 1,445 3,412 3.7 9.5 3.7 8.7

Cheyenne

48,570 48,701 47,863 48,340 1,645 2,507 1,617 2,391 3.4 5.1 3.4 4.9

Puerto Rico

1,078,607 1,048,938 1,066,859 1,048,264 75,758 88,480 87,618 97,905 7.0 8.4 8.2 9.3

Aguadilla-Isabela

85,027 81,334 84,205 81,472 7,372 7,329 8,474 8,079 8.7 9.0 10.1 9.9

Arecibo

52,091 52,101 51,774 51,979 4,251 4,181 4,864 4,506 8.2 8.0 9.4 8.7

Guayama

19,406 18,449 19,336 18,429 2,113 1,510 2,398 1,632 10.9 8.2 12.4 8.9

Mayaguez

26,755 25,505 26,505 25,623 2,367 2,094 2,627 2,272 8.8 8.2 9.9 8.9

Ponce

91,183 88,287 91,098 88,694 9,027 7,610 10,538 8,401 9.9 8.6 11.6 9.5

San German

34,030 32,754 34,068 32,777 3,202 2,906 3,557 3,110 9.4 8.9 10.4 9.5

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

729,431 711,759 719,338 710,576 43,035 59,273 49,874 65,937 5.9 8.3 6.9 9.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) August September August September
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,428,941 18,678,585 19,505,846 18,761,209 808,406 2,119,880 704,291 2,017,210 4.2 11.3 3.6 10.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,730,056 6,485,387 6,781,917 6,513,961 292,389 975,255 263,665 888,299 4.3 15.0 3.9 13.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,617,548 1,549,707 1,629,470 1,571,557 48,081 147,078 40,994 142,212 3.0 9.5 2.5 9.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,112,508 4,935,680 5,152,447 4,942,404 244,308 828,177 222,671 746,087 4.8 16.8 4.3 15.1

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,598,813 2,471,727 2,603,490 2,480,096 71,630 214,781 60,461 212,123 2.8 8.7 2.3 8.6

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,408,349 1,336,164 1,410,224 1,342,261 44,702 126,348 37,895 124,673 3.2 9.5 2.7 9.3

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,049,571 1,002,738 1,052,244 1,004,459 23,503 79,456 19,693 78,810 2.2 7.9 1.9 7.8

San Rafael

140,893 132,825 141,022 133,376 3,425 8,977 2,873 8,640 2.4 6.8 2.0 6.5

District of Columbia

407,817 394,931 407,988 393,146 22,418 34,713 21,886 34,566 5.5 8.8 5.4 8.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,474,085 3,437,684 3,475,733 3,331,141 111,151 237,004 101,288 222,533 3.2 6.9 2.9 6.7

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

705,323 709,326 704,141 669,108 20,813 47,816 19,322 43,158 3.0 6.7 2.7 6.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,768,762 2,728,358 2,771,592 2,662,033 90,338 189,188 81,966 179,375 3.3 6.9 3.0 6.7

Florida

10,353,589 10,133,146 10,438,897 10,186,223 341,558 766,532 304,238 778,174 3.3 7.6 2.9 7.6

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,157,142 3,063,980 3,176,775 3,128,783 95,162 256,146 85,195 316,182 3.0 8.4 2.7 10.1

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,046,333 1,018,318 1,054,173 1,016,854 33,329 93,669 29,858 83,428 3.2 9.2 2.8 8.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,377,292 1,351,355 1,384,761 1,412,041 35,333 107,507 31,696 183,595 2.6 8.0 2.3 13.0

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

733,517 694,307 737,841 699,888 26,500 54,970 23,641 49,159 3.6 7.9 3.2 7.0

Illinois

6,459,291 6,327,118 6,426,636 6,367,873 257,769 699,795 222,928 621,131 4.0 11.1 3.5 9.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,880,816 4,747,494 4,836,999 4,798,228 187,180 560,723 158,790 502,688 3.8 11.8 3.3 10.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,739,554 3,620,931 3,697,145 3,682,563 140,878 460,323 117,332 416,405 3.8 12.7 3.2 11.3

Elgin

328,335 324,094 329,522 321,094 13,339 31,670 11,998 26,616 4.1 9.8 3.6 8.3

Gary(3)

342,866 339,124 342,139 334,763 14,812 29,420 13,357 26,369 4.3 8.7 3.9 7.9

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

470,061 463,345 468,193 459,808 18,151 39,310 16,103 33,298 3.9 8.5 3.4 7.2

Massachusetts

3,855,804 3,584,444 3,798,668 3,763,988 108,391 401,926 101,529 359,368 2.8 11.2 2.7 9.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,853,234 2,660,347 2,814,506 2,779,594 74,105 287,202 69,829 256,644 2.6 10.8 2.5 9.2

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,706,129 1,579,973 1,681,666 1,658,031 40,992 169,466 39,455 152,074 2.4 10.7 2.3 9.2

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,401 107,027 111,506 112,235 3,637 14,435 3,288 12,874 3.2 13.5 2.9 11.5

Framingham

164,569 152,776 161,841 160,006 3,899 14,028 3,658 12,459 2.4 9.2 2.3 7.8

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

120,557 110,835 118,485 113,741 3,341 10,850 3,050 9,570 2.8 9.8 2.6 8.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

100,141 97,152 98,655 100,587 3,852 15,169 3,530 13,646 3.8 15.6 3.6 13.6

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

200,378 183,026 197,688 192,006 5,699 19,195 5,213 17,161 2.8 10.5 2.6 8.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,906 83,871 86,798 89,136 2,533 11,892 2,377 10,800 2.9 14.2 2.7 12.1

Nashua(2)

178,537 172,261 176,835 171,554 4,905 11,997 4,371 10,335 2.7 7.0 2.5 6.0

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,843 90,855 94,138 95,465 2,438 10,323 2,385 9,216 2.6 11.4 2.5 9.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,773 82,571 86,894 86,833 2,809 9,847 2,502 8,509 3.2 11.9 2.9 9.8

Michigan

4,965,356 4,942,980 4,930,761 4,877,818 209,484 437,763 173,033 398,791 4.2 8.9 3.5 8.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,183,702 2,096,074 2,177,102 2,093,191 103,756 211,925 86,349 204,750 4.8 10.1 4.0 9.8

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

816,837 790,830 813,948 793,505 46,351 101,121 38,138 98,975 5.7 12.8 4.7 12.5

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,366,864 1,305,244 1,363,153 1,299,685 57,405 110,803 48,210 105,774 4.2 8.5 3.5 8.1

New York

9,539,835 9,518,455 9,504,828 9,107,525 393,551 1,193,794 342,694 854,249 4.1 12.5 3.6 9.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,973,169 9,967,748 9,920,695 9,469,019 390,189 1,298,424 340,900 900,503 3.9 13.0 3.4 9.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

195,451 196,100 194,934 187,998 7,468 18,142 6,919 10,779 3.8 9.3 3.5 5.7

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,499,508 1,516,381 1,484,842 1,445,311 58,482 157,950 50,604 91,785 3.9 10.4 3.4 6.4

Newark(3)

1,243,940 1,256,702 1,234,117 1,178,665 46,985 139,275 43,375 77,410 3.8 11.1 3.5 6.6

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,034,270 6,998,565 7,006,802 6,657,045 277,254 983,057 240,002 720,529 3.9 14.0 3.4 10.8

Pennsylvania

6,542,283 6,348,400 6,506,111 6,355,432 314,579 675,132 271,125 489,395 4.8 10.6 4.2 7.7

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,140,341 3,112,881 3,133,899 3,063,353 144,876 345,020 127,916 242,969 4.6 11.1 4.1 7.9

Camden(3)

635,863 652,246 635,673 612,651 24,808 67,136 22,405 35,963 3.9 10.3 3.5 5.9

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,100,898 1,046,017 1,091,969 1,048,490 43,790 93,763 37,800 67,656 4.0 9.0 3.5 6.5

Philadelphia

1,022,756 1,028,001 1,027,002 1,026,699 60,025 148,886 52,740 109,302 5.9 14.5 5.1 10.6

Wilmington(3)

380,824 386,617 379,255 375,513 16,253 35,235 14,971 30,048 4.3 9.1 3.9 8.0

Texas

14,030,092 14,330,374 14,111,297 14,208,368 523,448 1,000,259 482,829 1,177,593 3.7 7.0 3.4 8.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,977,030 4,086,580 4,003,204 4,042,966 137,239 258,180 126,589 301,641 3.5 6.3 3.2 7.5

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,682,143 2,768,269 2,698,546 2,738,355 92,593 172,763 85,415 202,229 3.5 6.2 3.2 7.4

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,294,887 1,318,311 1,304,658 1,304,611 44,646 85,417 41,174 99,412 3.4 6.5 3.2 7.6

Washington

3,930,563 3,961,525 3,937,562 3,906,624 160,846 329,787 144,349 289,622 4.1 8.3 3.7 7.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,180,017 2,191,183 2,187,696 2,162,810 71,067 172,522 68,912 160,084 3.3 7.9 3.1 7.4

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,739,556 1,731,855 1,746,456 1,718,462 48,753 126,717 49,683 121,988 2.8 7.3 2.8 7.1

Tacoma-Lakewood

440,461 459,328 441,240 444,348 22,314 45,805 19,229 38,096 5.1 10.0 4.4 8.6

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area August September Change from
September 2019 to September 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,076.8 1,993.7 2,073.8 2,003.0 -70.8 -3.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.3 43.7 47.2 43.7 -3.5 -7.4

Auburn-Opelika

67.3 64.2 67.9 65.0 -2.9 -4.3

Birmingham-Hoover

547.9 521.8 545.7 522.0 -23.7 -4.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

81.5 78.8 79.9 78.5 -1.4 -1.8

Decatur

57.4 54.3 57.6 55.2 -2.4 -4.2

Dothan

59.9 57.7 60.1 57.9 -2.2 -3.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.3 55.6 57.5 55.2 -2.3 -4.0

Gadsden

37.4 34.2 37.4 34.5 -2.9 -7.8

Huntsville

245.4 236.2 244.9 237.1 -7.8 -3.2

Mobile

186.5 174.4