Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
LAU LAU Program Links
SAE SAE Program Links

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, October 30, 2019				USDL-19-1866

Technical information:
 Employment:		(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov   *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- SEPTEMBER 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in September than a year earlier in 254 of the 389 metropolitan 
areas, higher in 104 areas, and unchanged in 31 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. A total of 142 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had 
rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 56 
metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in the remaining 333 areas. The national 
unemployment rate in September was 3.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 3.6 percent 
a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and 
unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national 
household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The 
employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and 
earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments 
are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these 
two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, Ames, IA, and Charleston-North Charleston, SC, had the lowest unemployment rates, 
1.5 percent each. El Centro, CA, and Yuma, AZ, had the highest unemployment rates, 20.7 percent 
and 18.6 percent, respectively. A total of 189 areas had September jobless rates above the U.S. 
rate of 3.3 percent, 184 areas had rates below it, and 16 areas had rates equal to that of the 
nation. (See table 1.)

Florence, SC, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in September (-1.7 
percentage points). Twenty-seven other areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. 
The largest over-the-year rate increase occurred in Jackson, MS (+1.1 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Salt Lake City, 
UT, had the lowest unemployment rate in September, 2.0 percent. New Orleans-Metairie, LA, had the 
highest jobless rate among the large areas, 4.2 percent. Thirty-nine large areas had over-the-year 
unemployment rate decreases, 10 had increases, and 2 had no change. The largest rate decreases 
occurred in Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO (-1.0 percentage point each). 
The largest jobless rate increase was in Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI (+0.6 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are 
essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In September, San Francisco-Redwood 
City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest unemployment rate among the divisions, 1.8 percent. 
Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest division rate, 5.0 percent. (See table 2.)

In September, 30 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 7 had 
increases, and 1 had no change. The largest rate decline occurred in Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL 
(-0.7 percentage point). The largest over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred in Tacoma-
Lakewood, WA (+0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, 56 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment and 
333 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in Dallas-
Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+117,300), New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+109,000), and Houston-
The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+82,800). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment 
occurred in Ocean City, NJ (+9.4 percent), Ithaca, NY (+6.5 percent), and Wilmington, NC (+6.4 
percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 33 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census 
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 18 areas. The largest 
over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in 
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+3.7 percent), Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA (+3.3 percent), and 
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX, and Raleigh, NC (+3.2 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 13 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the 
year and was essentially unchanged in 25 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in employment 
among the metropolitan divisions occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+99,500), followed by 
New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+86,100), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+61,100). 
(See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX 
(+3.8 percent), Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+3.5 percent), and San Francisco-Redwood City-South San 
Francisco, CA (+3.3 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for October is scheduled to be released on Tuesday, 
November 19, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release 
for October is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 27, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) August September August September
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,189,229 2,263,576 2,192,040 2,264,712 90,385 63,655 80,600 57,115 4.1 2.8 3.7 2.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,916 46,723 45,479 46,488 2,223 1,506 2,006 1,357 4.8 3.2 4.4 2.9

Auburn-Opelika

74,283 76,684 75,157 77,944 2,861 1,925 2,538 1,722 3.9 2.5 3.4 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

542,650 559,842 541,584 558,678 20,124 14,396 18,060 12,872 3.7 2.6 3.3 2.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

95,143 99,186 93,672 97,399 3,511 2,421 3,127 2,189 3.7 2.4 3.3 2.2

Decatur

70,125 73,444 70,394 73,117 2,630 1,837 2,340 1,609 3.8 2.5 3.3 2.2

Dothan

62,790 64,322 62,987 63,756 2,691 1,853 2,416 1,609 4.3 2.9 3.8 2.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,059 66,796 65,287 66,732 3,020 2,149 2,626 1,947 4.6 3.2 4.0 2.9

Gadsden

42,630 44,217 42,936 44,179 1,837 1,363 1,625 1,222 4.3 3.1 3.8 2.8

Huntsville

220,420 230,971 220,217 230,782 8,111 5,325 7,264 4,799 3.7 2.3 3.3 2.1

Mobile

185,812 191,304 186,204 192,022 9,102 6,641 8,194 6,025 4.9 3.5 4.4 3.1

Montgomery

171,709 176,634 171,053 176,446 7,111 4,897 6,315 4,448 4.1 2.8 3.7 2.5

Tuscaloosa

114,877 119,549 116,103 120,622 4,512 3,211 3,910 2,813 3.9 2.7 3.4 2.3

Alaska

362,321 354,793 357,350 349,876 20,467 18,730 21,107 19,683 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.6

Anchorage

196,460 192,937 197,327 193,046 10,598 9,558 11,023 10,169 5.4 5.0 5.6 5.3

Fairbanks

46,537 45,473 46,269 45,476 2,174 2,057 2,369 2,208 4.7 4.5 5.1 4.9

Arizona

3,431,669 3,578,207 3,477,406 3,598,050 176,800 198,577 171,484 160,161 5.2 5.5 4.9 4.5

Flagstaff

78,651 79,423 79,297 80,757 4,310 4,772 4,076 3,854 5.5 6.0 5.1 4.8

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

85,783 89,180 86,291 89,383 5,027 5,755 5,033 4,758 5.9 6.5 5.8 5.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,403,041 2,507,467 2,431,209 2,521,320 105,721 118,110 103,507 95,205 4.4 4.7 4.3 3.8

Prescott

105,517 109,272 106,731 109,718 4,868 5,544 4,920 4,464 4.6 5.1 4.6 4.1

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,317 50,951 50,170 51,582 2,842 3,337 2,840 2,721 5.8 6.5 5.7 5.3

Tucson

479,045 502,837 491,077 507,114 22,502 25,841 22,171 20,864 4.7 5.1 4.5 4.1

Yuma

99,612 104,215 100,308 102,526 21,268 24,177 18,891 19,097 21.4 23.2 18.8 18.6

Arkansas

1,352,630 1,359,599 1,353,432 1,363,963 48,951 48,750 46,919 45,693 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

274,988 281,814 275,697 283,708 7,621 7,355 7,261 6,729 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.4

Fort Smith

118,922 118,744 118,788 118,128 4,338 4,440 4,219 4,119 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5

Hot Springs

41,095 41,612 40,425 40,914 1,609 1,565 1,569 1,457 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.6

Jonesboro

64,535 65,333 64,771 65,393 2,010 1,924 1,898 1,782 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

357,677 358,362 355,268 356,778 11,763 11,746 11,341 11,285 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2

Pine Bluff

35,430 35,140 35,370 34,976 1,751 1,847 1,684 1,724 4.9 5.3 4.8 4.9

California

19,378,108 19,425,066 19,478,378 19,564,887 836,713 810,292 756,608 688,584 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.5

Bakersfield

391,151 393,267 391,142 392,381 28,690 28,896 25,317 23,489 7.3 7.3 6.5 6.0

Chico

101,565 101,324 103,546 103,867 4,883 4,906 4,259 3,810 4.8 4.8 4.1 3.7

El Centro

71,717 73,703 71,236 72,747 15,503 17,950 14,219 15,075 21.6 24.4 20.0 20.7

Fresno

449,191 454,439 451,388 456,011 30,031 29,586 26,423 24,275 6.7 6.5 5.9 5.3

Hanford-Corcoran

58,313 58,069 57,958 57,915 3,887 3,996 3,421 3,286 6.7 6.9 5.9 5.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,741,435 6,714,017 6,782,795 6,772,429 308,353 291,132 285,930 267,852 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.0

Madera

60,820 61,520 62,299 62,613 3,872 3,947 3,331 3,151 6.4 6.4 5.3 5.0

Merced

114,783 116,362 117,448 118,452 8,347 8,272 7,069 6,503 7.3 7.1 6.0 5.5

Modesto

244,825 245,077 245,415 244,783 14,679 14,085 12,733 11,339 6.0 5.7 5.2 4.6

Napa

75,232 75,341 76,065 76,061 2,070 2,019 1,867 1,641 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.2

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

421,503 418,456 424,291 421,133 16,933 16,241 15,549 13,347 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.2

Redding

74,247 74,035 74,457 74,154 3,550 3,238 3,180 2,628 4.8 4.4 4.3 3.5

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,037,316 2,055,084 2,056,474 2,073,858 93,382 90,510 83,652 73,873 4.6 4.4 4.1 3.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,098,331 1,099,502 1,098,987 1,105,865 41,676 40,770 37,042 32,896 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.0

Salinas

229,957 232,544 229,726 232,000 9,991 9,596 8,779 7,725 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.3

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,590,628 1,594,490 1,596,791 1,608,121 55,644 53,856 49,999 43,370 3.5 3.4 3.1 2.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,587,206 2,614,291 2,599,544 2,633,873 73,875 71,877 66,042 57,399 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.2

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,081,202 1,096,727 1,083,709 1,103,039 29,878 29,358 26,864 23,872 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

137,692 137,136 140,167 140,236 4,281 4,171 3,834 3,344 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

142,811 143,726 142,495 143,305 5,775 5,591 4,976 4,497 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

216,261 217,835 216,786 218,080 7,901 7,391 7,021 6,144 3.7 3.4 3.2 2.8

Santa Rosa

263,908 263,389 265,969 266,317 7,315 7,169 6,484 5,727 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.2

Stockton-Lodi

327,846 324,263 329,347 326,747 18,527 18,629 16,534 15,237 5.7 5.7 5.0 4.7

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,992 207,046 210,285 208,354 8,237 7,934 7,379 6,395 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.1

Visalia-Porterville

204,433 205,808 204,285 204,517 18,465 18,863 16,238 15,489 9.0 9.2 7.9 7.6

Yuba City

76,081 75,625 74,834 75,016 4,485 4,441 4,007 3,629 5.9 5.9 5.4 4.8

Colorado

3,114,611 3,173,865 3,124,018 3,177,653 105,339 85,327 101,808 70,068 3.4 2.7 3.3 2.2

Boulder

195,188 198,068 195,113 199,519 5,929 4,712 5,654 3,900 3.0 2.4 2.9 2.0

Colorado Springs

350,965 360,138 352,303 361,244 14,377 11,516 13,876 9,428 4.1 3.2 3.9 2.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,659,265 1,691,910 1,657,922 1,681,980 54,355 44,351 52,774 36,495 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.2

Fort Collins

203,771 206,218 205,748 209,356 6,052 4,795 5,774 3,930 3.0 2.3 2.8 1.9

Grand Junction

75,921 77,214 77,323 78,379 2,990 2,435 2,882 1,995 3.9 3.2 3.7 2.5

Greeley

165,873 168,984 168,595 171,292 5,211 4,291 4,978 3,467 3.1 2.5 3.0 2.0

Pueblo

74,851 75,283 76,176 76,270 3,756 3,094 3,708 2,560 5.0 4.1 4.9 3.4

Connecticut

1,913,198 1,921,604 1,903,862 1,913,866 77,488 68,928 69,691 65,757 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.4

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

470,250 472,797 465,530 468,401 18,856 16,840 17,200 16,168 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.5

Danbury

107,616 108,068 106,370 106,670 3,659 3,228 3,239 2,979 3.4 3.0 3.0 2.8

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

626,865 627,828 625,782 627,948 25,730 23,271 22,961 21,916 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.5

New Haven

324,838 328,936 326,292 329,938 13,216 11,538 11,903 11,098 4.1 3.5 3.6 3.4

Norwich-New London-Westerly

145,464 144,575 142,699 142,307 5,489 4,906 4,961 4,746 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.3

Waterbury

112,017 112,101 112,083 112,244 5,711 4,967 5,063 4,784 5.1 4.4 4.5 4.3

Delaware

485,125 491,379 478,645 484,936 18,779 19,954 17,069 18,200 3.9 4.1 3.6 3.8

Dover

77,287 79,021 77,118 78,516 3,485 3,804 3,038 3,303 4.5 4.8 3.9 4.2

Salisbury(1)

200,335 201,755 191,904 193,451 8,011 8,265 7,499 7,434 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.8

District of Columbia

401,594 407,033 400,542 408,084 23,151 22,084 22,194 21,726 5.8 5.4 5.5 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,383,565 3,468,393 3,381,116 3,461,672 114,503 109,467 105,536 100,140 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9

Florida

10,184,034 10,454,907 10,280,409 10,530,871 372,814 368,469 342,076 317,379 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

337,166 351,897 341,300 354,446 11,977 12,093 10,909 10,283 3.6 3.4 3.2 2.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

128,903 131,880 127,476 131,717 3,710 3,732 3,388 3,121 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.4

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

299,880 306,394 302,622 306,936 11,352 11,472 10,467 9,860 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.2

Gainesville

140,928 142,910 147,173 148,619 4,697 4,746 4,337 4,139 3.3 3.3 2.9 2.8

Homosassa Springs

47,580 48,376 48,210 48,588 2,530 2,522 2,298 2,103 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.3

Jacksonville

775,758 793,580 781,960 795,705 26,833 27,007 24,153 22,924 3.5 3.4 3.1 2.9

Lakeland-Winter Haven

298,551 304,506 301,756 307,299 12,567 12,561 11,502 10,819 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.5

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,120,896 3,217,261 3,149,837 3,237,907 117,341 112,034 109,688 98,537 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.0

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

172,096 177,465 173,402 178,471 6,879 6,714 6,109 5,698 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.2

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

362,688 365,994 365,661 371,395 12,700 12,730 11,604 10,754 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.9

Ocala

135,213 139,066 136,399 140,004 5,920 5,832 5,356 4,892 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.5

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,339,178 1,390,114 1,349,984 1,398,588 44,751 44,820 40,715 38,639 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

277,286 286,209 279,311 286,290 9,795 9,977 8,947 8,484 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.0

Panama City

96,852 95,333 96,222 94,519 3,168 3,422 2,863 2,878 3.3 3.6 3.0 3.0

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,459 229,660 228,283 230,461 7,738 7,784 7,091 6,601 3.4 3.4 3.1 2.9

Port St. Lucie

214,852 221,928 217,048 223,031 9,108 9,040 8,247 7,707 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.5

Punta Gorda

69,681 71,800 70,611 71,985 2,970 2,947 2,722 2,524 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.5

Sebastian-Vero Beach

64,063 66,456 64,568 66,484 2,999 2,903 2,698 2,457 4.7 4.4 4.2 3.7

Sebring

35,660 35,743 36,185 35,788 1,841 1,848 1,657 1,536 5.2 5.2 4.6 4.3

Tallahassee

189,789 196,246 195,975 201,468 6,738 6,819 6,192 5,890 3.6 3.5 3.2 2.9

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,530,284 1,556,718 1,544,955 1,573,942 53,990 54,192 49,206 46,336 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.9

The Villages

31,164 32,231 31,325 32,204 1,616 1,673 1,442 1,324 5.2 5.2 4.6 4.1

Georgia

5,068,005 5,099,799 5,090,466 5,112,188 204,365 188,486 182,202 156,331 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.1

Albany

66,110 66,141 66,806 66,576 3,325 2,946 2,950 2,564 5.0 4.5 4.4 3.9

Athens-Clarke County

100,446 100,695 102,050 101,556 3,805 3,506 3,439 2,879 3.8 3.5 3.4 2.8

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,054,368 3,070,851 3,063,490 3,084,218 118,168 108,647 105,385 89,695 3.9 3.5 3.4 2.9

Augusta-Richmond County

264,995 268,286 265,141 266,503 11,973 10,447 10,316 7,982 4.5 3.9 3.9 3.0

Brunswick

53,501 54,571 53,504 53,925 2,095 1,973 1,840 1,845 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.4

Columbus

123,776 122,808 124,051 122,728 5,921 5,251 5,246 4,442 4.8 4.3 4.2 3.6

Dalton

60,816 60,871 61,230 60,968 2,725 2,635 2,702 2,268 4.5 4.3 4.4 3.7

Gainesville

101,360 103,991 102,630 104,307 3,262 3,016 2,954 2,478 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.4

Hinesville

33,485 33,871 33,497 33,744 1,442 1,447 1,257 1,210 4.3 4.3 3.8 3.6

Macon-Bibb County

103,146 103,617 103,890 103,488 4,531 4,277 4,017 3,461 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.3

Rome

43,566 44,132 43,941 44,346 1,980 1,709 1,758 1,463 4.5 3.9 4.0 3.3

Savannah

187,420 188,131 187,896 186,489 7,049 6,716 6,290 5,508 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.0

Valdosta

63,647 64,402 64,336 64,330 2,694 2,461 2,393 1,976 4.2 3.8 3.7 3.1

Warner Robins

85,106 85,939 85,651 86,024 3,506 3,199 3,166 2,587 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.0

Hawaii

677,025 656,896 673,932 657,846 16,642 16,802 18,180 18,166 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,368 84,495 85,717 83,615 2,046 2,055 2,286 2,265 2.3 2.4 2.7 2.7

Urban Honolulu

461,418 450,637 460,732 451,445 10,847 10,950 11,824 11,854 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6

Idaho

861,882 888,346 858,931 886,486 20,331 23,338 18,905 20,312 2.4 2.6 2.2 2.3

Boise City

363,884 376,945 362,858 375,891 8,493 9,930 7,929 8,565 2.3 2.6 2.2 2.3

Coeur d'Alene

79,073 80,853 77,678 79,612 2,113 2,408 2,013 2,093 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.6

Idaho Falls

70,596 73,436 70,147 73,052 1,406 1,565 1,329 1,469 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0

Lewiston

30,816 31,641 30,883 31,713 844 995 846 877 2.7 3.1 2.7 2.8

Pocatello

40,729 42,513 41,090 42,796 971 1,076 896 974 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.3

Twin Falls

52,762 53,903 52,688 54,595 1,212 1,336 1,114 1,172 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.1

Illinois

6,442,739 6,527,270 6,435,664 6,481,611 278,285 245,998 248,531 230,367 4.3 3.8 3.9 3.6

Bloomington

93,365 93,726 95,452 95,701 4,144 3,351 3,779 3,439 4.4 3.6 4.0 3.6

Carbondale-Marion

58,859 59,842 60,708 61,946 3,038 2,302 2,734 2,308 5.2 3.8 4.5 3.7

Champaign-Urbana

113,948 116,280 121,288 123,439 5,505 4,265 5,023 4,307 4.8 3.7 4.1 3.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,871,777 4,935,857 4,842,910 4,868,877 197,002 180,838 173,982 163,282 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.4

Danville

32,606 32,829 33,280 33,222 2,118 1,712 1,872 1,647 6.5 5.2 5.6 5.0

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

191,486 196,672 191,358 195,618 7,717 7,562 7,479 7,696 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.9

Decatur

49,716 50,455 49,891 50,731 2,885 2,492 2,546 2,487 5.8 4.9 5.1 4.9

Kankakee

55,727 55,362 55,917 56,255 2,936 2,371 2,677 2,383 5.3 4.3 4.8 4.2

Peoria

180,856 180,444 180,698 179,504 9,222 7,702 8,356 7,716 5.1 4.3 4.6 4.3

Rockford

166,203 168,853 166,075 168,924 9,249 9,242 8,220 8,870 5.6 5.5 4.9 5.3

Springfield

113,317 114,564 111,602 112,587 4,962 4,058 4,424 3,966 4.4 3.5 4.0 3.5

Indiana

3,379,958 3,399,531 3,370,504 3,368,659 122,735 109,117 104,423 95,416 3.6 3.2 3.1 2.8

Bloomington

75,545 77,361 79,820 81,315 3,226 2,811 2,509 2,149 4.3 3.6 3.1 2.6

Columbus

45,454 46,163 45,057 45,469 1,257 1,072 1,012 911 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.0

Elkhart-Goshen

116,329 117,224 115,129 115,545 3,385 3,469 2,834 3,107 2.9 3.0 2.5 2.7

Evansville

164,352 165,080 164,742 163,821 5,623 5,051 4,831 4,427 3.4 3.1 2.9 2.7

Fort Wayne

217,416 221,741 216,155 218,499 7,272 6,552 5,962 5,730 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,068,424 1,076,243 1,060,309 1,059,815 36,669 32,051 31,490 27,875 3.4 3.0 3.0 2.6

Kokomo

37,358 38,109 37,095 37,549 1,404 1,311 1,215 1,193 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.2

Lafayette-West Lafayette

109,808 106,690 111,868 108,185 3,852 3,367 3,004 2,720 3.5 3.2 2.7 2.5

Michigan City-La Porte

47,825 47,139 47,437 47,055 2,028 1,865 1,815 1,710 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6

Muncie

53,199 52,456 54,760 53,843 2,282 2,066 1,876 1,712 4.3 3.9 3.4 3.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

158,558 160,954 160,850 160,294 6,148 6,060 5,274 5,350 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.3

Terre Haute

76,008 76,460 76,977 76,553 3,588 3,080 3,141 2,687 4.7 4.0 4.1 3.5

Iowa

1,684,312 1,750,210 1,684,670 1,758,641 40,262 45,560 34,932 38,690 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.2

Ames

55,892 58,705 59,170 62,853 937 1,112 828 930 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.5

Cedar Rapids

143,165 147,632 142,754 148,674 3,760 4,215 3,332 3,652 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.5

Des Moines-West Des Moines

356,113 376,455 351,730 373,448 8,073 9,245 7,190 7,991 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.1

Dubuque

55,092 57,520 54,966 57,663 1,184 1,409 1,018 1,148 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.0

Iowa City

97,290 99,936 96,955 99,891 1,938 2,061 1,696 1,797 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.8

Sioux City

92,223 95,289 92,185 95,556 2,148 2,523 1,891 2,217 2.3 2.6 2.1 2.3

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,784 92,118 89,482 92,624 2,288 3,204 1,925 2,319 2.6 3.5 2.2 2.5

Kansas

1,477,155 1,484,513 1,478,994 1,491,792 51,783 50,401 44,157 41,152 3.5 3.4 3.0 2.8

Lawrence

65,099 64,515 65,732 66,012 2,086 2,066 1,764 1,663 3.2 3.2 2.7 2.5

Manhattan

47,487 46,029 48,821 48,607 1,415 1,437 1,182 1,158 3.0 3.1 2.4 2.4

Topeka

120,280 122,341 118,750 121,075 4,265 4,115 3,635 3,384 3.5 3.4 3.1 2.8

Wichita

309,686 310,116 307,981 310,018 11,842 11,546 10,332 9,593 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.1

Kentucky

2,045,596 2,068,539 2,054,993 2,069,724 84,537 90,176 84,562 77,802 4.1 4.4 4.1 3.8

Bowling Green

82,551 83,740 83,365 84,691 3,090 3,398 2,831 2,803 3.7 4.1 3.4 3.3

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,356 68,358 67,202 67,653 2,658 2,897 2,779 2,487 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.7

Lexington-Fayette

268,317 274,327 270,510 274,722 9,024 9,495 8,567 8,111 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.0

Louisville/Jefferson County

671,416 675,512 671,690 674,354 25,295 26,240 27,170 22,439 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.3

Owensboro

56,053 55,942 56,304 55,856 2,164 2,131 2,050 1,895 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.4

Louisiana

2,099,916 2,089,949 2,093,336 2,095,296 114,224 102,387 102,970 95,226 5.4 4.9 4.9 4.5

Alexandria

63,160 62,589 62,606 62,405 3,805 3,360 3,392 3,099 6.0 5.4 5.4 5.0

Baton Rouge

418,229 417,359 419,065 419,178 20,670 18,975 18,540 17,568 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.2

Hammond

54,581 54,539 54,220 54,872 3,347 2,993 2,992 2,809 6.1 5.5 5.5 5.1

Houma-Thibodaux

88,398 85,620 87,819 85,577 4,646 3,967 4,303 3,804 5.3 4.6 4.9 4.4

Lafayette

212,901 213,223 211,606 212,508 11,359 9,990 10,356 9,469 5.3 4.7 4.9 4.5

Lake Charles

114,042 113,488 113,498 113,714 4,762 4,508 4,351 4,264 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.7

Monroe

78,873 78,107 78,716 78,346 4,556 4,220 4,190 3,974 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.1

New Orleans-Metairie

593,455 597,046 591,335 598,492 31,205 27,092 28,105 25,182 5.3 4.5 4.8 4.2

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,454 183,198 186,762 183,414 10,840 9,586 9,659 8,951 5.8 5.2 5.2 4.9

Maine

713,770 706,577 697,191 688,413 20,139 14,701 19,790 15,503 2.8 2.1 2.8 2.3

Bangor

70,448 69,988 71,085 70,496 2,127 1,487 2,075 1,589 3.0 2.1 2.9 2.3

Lewiston-Auburn

55,593 55,157 55,638 54,746 1,654 1,243 1,606 1,292 3.0 2.3 2.9 2.4

Portland-South Portland

213,399 212,545 209,555 208,322 5,135 3,688 5,052 3,984 2.4 1.7 2.4 1.9

Maryland

3,200,076 3,286,650 3,185,520 3,269,236 126,916 126,420 113,462 109,895 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,494,872 1,542,256 1,486,958 1,533,637 62,172 61,605 53,966 52,452 4.2 4.0 3.6 3.4

California-Lexington Park

55,314 56,494 54,891 55,965 2,260 2,264 1,848 1,729 4.1 4.0 3.4 3.1

Cumberland

43,782 45,515 44,139 45,592 2,429 2,796 2,067 2,378 5.5 6.1 4.7 5.2

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,307 134,071 130,199 134,047 5,378 5,001 5,028 4,463 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.3

Massachusetts

3,847,405 3,886,911 3,795,770 3,816,383 124,140 110,145 115,381 110,521 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.9

Barnstable Town

143,248 143,577 131,177 132,200 4,111 3,777 3,942 3,831 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,830,756 2,864,698 2,799,770 2,820,371 84,942 75,162 78,666 75,480 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.7

Leominster-Gardner

82,140 82,807 81,465 82,024 3,091 2,709 2,762 2,646 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.2

New Bedford

86,541 87,130 85,996 86,545 4,108 3,689 3,832 3,601 4.7 4.2 4.5 4.2

Pittsfield

45,145 45,560 43,312 43,311 1,549 1,530 1,511 1,458 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

Springfield

379,615 386,328 380,281 384,803 15,424 14,247 14,083 13,714 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.6

Worcester

362,130 362,895 360,122 358,103 12,907 11,624 11,893 11,528 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.2

Michigan

4,902,292 4,984,864 4,882,449 4,942,862 199,158 208,276 172,631 184,748 4.1 4.2 3.5 3.7

Ann Arbor

191,635 194,404 192,394 194,543 6,134 6,399 5,404 5,844 3.2 3.3 2.8 3.0

Battle Creek

62,106 62,761 61,736 61,917 2,506 2,797 2,181 2,401 4.0 4.5 3.5 3.9

Bay City

50,132 50,192 49,412 49,274 2,130 2,304 1,786 1,957 4.2 4.6 3.6 4.0

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,916 2,179,641 2,139,652 2,178,072 97,180 98,049 84,818 89,582 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.1

Flint

180,210 184,999 178,422 181,384 8,240 9,037 7,063 7,712 4.6 4.9 4.0 4.3

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

575,000 585,441 570,883 574,072 16,626 18,302 14,728 16,147 2.9 3.1 2.6 2.8

Jackson

73,113 74,274 72,874 73,251 2,724 2,946 2,372 2,514 3.7 4.0 3.3 3.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,027 168,738 167,062 167,894 5,809 6,479 5,121 5,678 3.5 3.8 3.1 3.4

Lansing-East Lansing

241,121 245,445 245,816 249,039 8,032 8,798 7,091 7,809 3.3 3.6 2.9 3.1

Midland

40,276 40,576 39,925 39,899 1,445 1,524 1,254 1,347 3.6 3.8 3.1 3.4

Monroe

75,519 75,612 75,076 74,785 3,631 2,964 2,629 2,489 4.8 3.9 3.5 3.3

Muskegon

78,522 79,822 76,818 77,835 3,329 3,447 2,892 3,062 4.2 4.3 3.8 3.9

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,676 74,969 72,431 73,619 2,917 3,183 2,517 2,606 4.0 4.2 3.5 3.5

Saginaw

86,025 87,420 85,363 85,823 3,812 4,085 3,306 3,528 4.4 4.7 3.9 4.1

Minnesota

3,073,160 3,130,150 3,062,746 3,122,656 80,327 93,948 70,277 77,052 2.6 3.0 2.3 2.5

Duluth

140,972 143,947 142,028 143,903 4,696 5,470 3,921 4,320 3.3 3.8 2.8 3.0

Mankato-North Mankato

59,009 60,914 61,144 62,862 1,320 1,692 1,249 1,388 2.2 2.8 2.0 2.2

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,014,009 2,041,161 1,999,031 2,030,308 51,246 59,483 45,348 49,685 2.5 2.9 2.3 2.4

Rochester

124,747 128,015 123,176 126,050 2,708 3,309 2,380 2,602 2.2 2.6 1.9 2.1

St. Cloud

110,510 113,778 111,326 114,464 2,850 3,223 2,522 2,774 2.6 2.8 2.3 2.4

Mississippi

1,262,141 1,285,260 1,265,313 1,289,763 58,183 72,513 54,900 71,705 4.6 5.6 4.3 5.6

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

162,663 165,889 161,810 165,617 7,778 9,308 7,442 9,350 4.8 5.6 4.6 5.6

Hattiesburg

67,217 69,079 68,256 70,585 2,754 3,493 2,567 3,396 4.1 5.1 3.8 4.8

Jackson

266,573 272,561 266,664 272,623 10,632 13,385 10,221 13,393 4.0 4.9 3.8 4.9

Missouri

3,028,933 3,105,304 3,034,664 3,125,603 100,958 104,774 78,485 73,949 3.3 3.4 2.6 2.4

Cape Girardeau

47,260 48,476 47,473 48,857 1,498 1,671 1,194 1,188 3.2 3.4 2.5 2.4

Columbia

95,015 96,498 97,552 99,508 2,418 2,475 1,851 1,650 2.5 2.6 1.9 1.7

Jefferson City

72,945 74,328 72,668 74,745 2,141 2,239 1,564 1,353 2.9 3.0 2.2 1.8

Joplin

82,309 85,106 83,383 86,987 2,631 2,633 1,979 1,905 3.2 3.1 2.4 2.2

Kansas City

1,134,613 1,162,251 1,129,354 1,154,664 39,796 38,799 31,996 28,702 3.5 3.3 2.8 2.5

St. Joseph

62,447 63,453 62,384 63,872 1,935 1,909 1,490 1,345 3.1 3.0 2.4 2.1

St. Louis(2)

1,456,784 1,498,087 1,452,550 1,499,385 52,284 49,639 42,891 38,658 3.6 3.3 3.0 2.6

Springfield

226,855 233,931 230,016 237,372 6,609 7,415 5,247 5,107 2.9 3.2 2.3 2.2

Montana

535,854 540,798 528,163 531,372 17,426 15,899 16,612 15,732 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0

Billings

87,709 87,436 86,813 86,848 2,697 2,548 2,612 2,478 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.9

Great Falls

37,472 37,609 37,682 37,646 1,271 1,185 1,248 1,156 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.1

Missoula

62,312 63,626 63,389 64,173 1,771 1,666 1,745 1,728 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.7

Nebraska

1,023,665 1,043,554 1,013,831 1,036,039 27,538 32,003 25,238 29,693 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.9

Grand Island

43,541 43,999 43,985 43,989 1,205 1,359 1,105 1,266 2.8 3.1 2.5 2.9

Lincoln

183,348 186,320 182,555 185,281 4,691 5,364 4,285 4,999 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.7

Omaha-Council Bluffs

489,338 508,856 483,647 502,435 13,430 15,357 12,384 14,097 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.8

Nevada

1,505,454 1,551,881 1,511,305 1,559,227 67,878 65,324 67,608 59,097 4.5 4.2 4.5 3.8

Carson City

25,658 26,787 25,721 26,779 1,090 1,050 1,091 955 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.6

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,104,353 1,130,892 1,106,442 1,134,014 52,552 50,459 52,701 45,677 4.8 4.5 4.8 4.0

Reno

252,475 267,280 254,776 269,833 8,978 8,700 8,676 7,904 3.6 3.3 3.4 2.9

New Hampshire

770,239 781,778 757,972 770,239 18,539 19,753 16,354 18,096 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.3

Dover-Durham

85,283 85,902 84,812 85,502 1,942 1,973 1,705 1,901 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.2

Manchester

119,827 121,884 119,295 120,634 2,749 2,952 2,515 2,736 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.3

Portsmouth

79,422 80,174 77,106 78,258 1,700 1,702 1,578 1,599 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0

New Jersey

4,432,697 4,526,095 4,383,803 4,510,317 186,029 155,535 164,888 145,038 4.2 3.4 3.8 3.2

Atlantic City-Hammonton

123,822 125,924 121,338 124,190 6,398 5,537 5,767 5,294 5.2 4.4 4.8 4.3

Ocean City

55,336 58,930 47,752 52,439 2,378 1,952 2,222 1,942 4.3 3.3 4.7 3.7

Trenton

197,417 203,201 194,868 202,828 7,575 6,561 6,561 6,037 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.0

Vineland-Bridgeton

62,815 65,057 63,974 66,170 3,966 3,324 3,510 3,098 6.3 5.1 5.5 4.7

New Mexico

937,988 964,708 939,873 964,575 47,020 48,789 46,039 43,600 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.5

Albuquerque

427,182 439,527 428,686 440,503 20,895 21,547 20,471 19,340 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.4

Farmington

51,123 52,431 52,569 53,575 3,076 3,145 2,964 2,845 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.3

Las Cruces

96,357 98,197 97,040 99,005 5,159 5,483 5,158 4,920 5.4 5.6 5.3 5.0

Santa Fe

75,385 76,302 73,945 74,881 3,161 3,181 3,066 2,754 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.7

New York

9,579,389 9,537,116 9,547,754 9,543,235 385,791 397,978 347,563 354,193 4.0 4.2 3.6 3.7

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

449,926 443,922 449,079 448,824 15,672 16,605 14,886 15,394 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.4

Binghamton

106,378 105,621 107,187 106,115 4,580 4,784 4,205 4,406 4.3 4.5 3.9 4.2

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

545,614 543,070 544,059 542,028 22,767 23,996 20,503 21,435 4.2 4.4 3.8 4.0

Elmira

35,116 34,860 35,333 34,996 1,505 1,490 1,427 1,397 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.0

Glens Falls

62,377 61,297 59,748 59,675 2,074 2,214 1,982 2,071 3.3 3.6 3.3 3.5

Ithaca

48,423 49,747 50,137 52,839 1,730 1,929 1,649 1,835 3.6 3.9 3.3 3.5

Kingston

88,520 88,796 88,912 89,700 3,337 3,480 2,980 3,059 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,933,851 9,967,495 9,872,871 9,944,938 405,720 388,076 361,265 347,110 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5

Rochester

519,766 518,588 523,460 524,649 20,569 21,930 18,858 20,104 4.0 4.2 3.6 3.8

Syracuse

306,427 307,857 306,398 312,637 11,779 12,885 11,017 12,115 3.8 4.2 3.6 3.9

Utica-Rome

130,287 129,226 128,171 128,376 5,101 5,485 4,805 5,041 3.9 4.2 3.7 3.9

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,700 45,539 44,585 44,510 2,012 2,291 1,845 2,093 4.4 5.0 4.1 4.7

North Carolina

4,949,551 5,106,654 4,965,574 5,120,338 198,759 220,748 172,031 178,221 4.0 4.3 3.5 3.5

Asheville

230,455 243,932 234,371 244,951 7,438 8,544 6,291 6,728 3.2 3.5 2.7 2.7

Burlington

79,444 82,132 80,304 82,485 3,082 3,502 2,563 2,790 3.9 4.3 3.2 3.4

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,326,918 1,380,486 1,336,399 1,379,292 49,955 53,630 43,025 42,811 3.8 3.9 3.2 3.1

Durham-Chapel Hill

296,398 302,776 297,513 305,480 10,688 11,915 8,980 9,412 3.6 3.9 3.0 3.1

Fayetteville

144,864 149,304 145,954 150,725 7,890 8,468 6,855 6,964 5.4 5.7 4.7 4.6

Goldsboro

51,779 52,372 52,179 52,865 2,341 2,448 2,028 1,966 4.5 4.7 3.9 3.7

Greensboro-High Point

363,556 371,676 367,301 374,531 15,549 17,246 13,046 13,826 4.3 4.6 3.6 3.7

Greenville

89,229 91,192 89,325 91,612 4,002 4,473 3,305 3,551 4.5 4.9 3.7 3.9

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

171,983 175,383 174,023 176,301 6,356 7,366 5,353 5,906 3.7 4.2 3.1 3.3

Jacksonville

64,247 65,697 62,694 64,819 2,941 3,348 3,076 2,666 4.6 5.1 4.9 4.1

New Bern

51,044 52,133 50,658 52,244 2,186 2,357 2,043 1,864 4.3 4.5 4.0 3.6

Raleigh

711,653 735,873 708,466 736,264 25,202 28,063 21,327 22,498 3.5 3.8 3.0 3.1

Rocky Mount

63,895 64,119 64,065 64,896 3,696 3,784 3,188 3,124 5.8 5.9 5.0 4.8

Wilmington

150,340 155,524 146,351 155,098 5,550 6,121 5,746 4,866 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.1

Winston-Salem

321,541 335,514 325,444 337,712 12,606 13,979 10,603 11,162 3.9 4.2 3.3 3.3

North Dakota

409,703 409,346 403,172 403,519 9,782 9,029 8,020 7,823 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.9

Bismarck

68,266 68,412 66,333 67,231 1,711 1,590 1,407 1,354 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0

Fargo

137,550 138,503 136,031 137,565 3,012 2,825 2,603 2,663 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9

Grand Forks

53,476 53,888 53,896 54,437 1,436 1,361 1,118 1,081 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.0

Ohio

5,762,009 5,879,181 5,730,788 5,810,893 254,959 248,247 238,820 240,319 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.1

Akron

355,908 362,445 354,844 357,849 15,670 15,958 14,869 15,339 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.3

Canton-Massillon

198,791 202,970 197,329 199,986 8,940 8,999 8,680 8,741 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4

Cincinnati

1,117,011 1,155,820 1,113,174 1,141,635 43,595 44,660 41,509 42,118 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

Cleveland-Elyria

1,040,848 1,048,726 1,037,428 1,042,652 52,808 42,986 46,577 42,204 5.1 4.1 4.5 4.0

Columbus

1,084,649 1,112,322 1,075,678 1,099,460 41,202 42,014 39,430 40,788 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

Dayton

385,720 391,905 383,365 388,407 16,345 16,810 15,747 16,229 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.2

Lima

47,866 49,017 47,486 48,173 2,024 2,037 1,907 1,972 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.1

Mansfield

52,488 54,025 52,275 52,994 2,324 2,367 2,215 2,318 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.4

Springfield

62,929 64,221 62,652 63,354 2,798 2,745 2,651 2,674 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2

Toledo

300,258 303,809 300,038 300,719 14,640 13,437 13,728 12,995 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.3

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,186 50,793 49,942 50,324 2,939 2,803 2,675 2,777 5.9 5.5 5.4 5.5

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

239,304 241,091 238,530 238,088 13,484 14,326 12,501 13,165 5.6 5.9 5.2 5.5

Oklahoma

1,828,471 1,855,215 1,834,606 1,857,824 57,711 61,914 53,843 57,829 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.1

Enid

27,240 27,432 27,068 26,995 775 834 719 780 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.9

Lawton

50,732 51,912 50,436 51,529 1,936 1,961 1,758 1,832 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.6

Oklahoma City

676,598 691,582 680,037 690,800 19,848 21,397 18,659 19,922 2.9 3.1 2.7 2.9

Tulsa

476,006 477,923 474,840 479,738 15,295 15,992 14,247 15,022 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.1

Oregon

2,115,832 2,139,838 2,112,722 2,123,310 87,668 94,534 77,800 82,548 4.1 4.4 3.7 3.9

Albany

58,600 59,071 58,246 58,677 2,803 2,979 2,479 2,655 4.8 5.0 4.3 4.5

Bend-Redmond

96,681 98,704 96,039 98,168 3,682 4,024 3,402 3,567 3.8 4.1 3.5 3.6

Corvallis

46,556 46,998 47,591 47,078 1,662 1,866 1,464 1,672 3.6 4.0 3.1 3.6

Eugene

180,244 180,479 180,940 180,556 8,338 8,966 7,455 7,785 4.6 5.0 4.1 4.3

Grants Pass

36,261 36,933 36,213 36,645 1,995 2,106 1,688 1,740 5.5 5.7 4.7 4.7

Medford

104,877 106,936 105,704 105,821 5,092 5,378 4,353 4,348 4.9 5.0 4.1 4.1

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,314,210 1,341,086 1,314,910 1,333,095 51,702 57,184 46,360 50,530 3.9 4.3 3.5 3.8

Salem

204,450 206,430 202,854 203,742 8,998 9,805 7,783 8,403 4.4 4.7 3.8 4.1

Pennsylvania

6,443,881 6,539,968 6,414,056 6,516,799 295,479 294,784 249,244 254,595 4.6 4.5 3.9 3.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

435,035 443,358 434,215 443,025 21,014 20,071 18,042 17,558 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.0

Altoona

60,216 61,416 59,095 60,281 2,704 2,834 2,192 2,387 4.5 4.6 3.7 4.0

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,387 43,293 42,609 43,750 1,924 1,837 1,619 1,599 4.5 4.2 3.8 3.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,006 79,702 77,286 79,084 2,944 3,070 2,596 2,648 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.3

East Stroudsburg

82,715 83,916 81,496 82,923 4,670 4,431 4,027 4,040 5.6 5.3 4.9 4.9

Erie

129,141 131,111 129,514 131,089 5,939 5,669 5,070 5,011 4.6 4.3 3.9 3.8

Gettysburg

55,442 56,043 55,338 56,054 1,924 1,883 1,695 1,608 3.5 3.4 3.1 2.9

Harrisburg-Carlisle

301,544 304,187 297,676 298,762 11,772 11,992 10,081 10,477 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.5

Johnstown

57,908 58,966 57,816 58,618 3,330 3,296 2,556 2,594 5.8 5.6 4.4 4.4

Lancaster

286,236 290,060 282,442 287,704 10,375 10,527 8,725 8,898 3.6 3.6 3.1 3.1

Lebanon

71,978 73,350 71,301 73,017 2,957 2,946 2,449 2,587 4.1 4.0 3.4 3.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,079,105 3,137,344 3,071,271 3,138,757 141,004 136,384 121,262 120,829 4.6 4.3 3.9 3.8

Pittsburgh

1,203,037 1,215,503 1,198,202 1,210,481 54,019 53,996 44,719 45,910 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.8

Reading

213,100 217,656 212,334 216,924 9,575 9,739 8,238 8,518 4.5 4.5 3.9 3.9

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

275,923 278,113 274,889 276,440 15,259 15,414 12,578 12,839 5.5 5.5 4.6 4.6

State College

79,412 80,261 81,008 83,226 2,630 2,496 2,409 2,493 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.0

Williamsport

57,014 57,621 56,703 57,440 2,713 2,644 2,396 2,413 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.2

York-Hanover

235,095 237,083 233,317 235,751 9,902 9,612 8,310 8,230 4.2 4.1 3.6 3.5

Rhode Island

560,074 562,876 556,243 555,577 22,413 21,711 19,927 18,169 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.3

Providence-Warwick

694,236 699,078 690,039 690,612 27,571 26,408 24,635 22,855 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.3

South Carolina

2,329,822 2,393,115 2,316,250 2,362,207 85,385 70,229 75,024 42,424 3.7 2.9 3.2 1.8

Charleston-North Charleston

383,802 394,446 379,444 389,578 11,925 9,920 10,426 5,765 3.1 2.5 2.7 1.5

Columbia

399,920 406,436 398,315 400,834 14,188 11,311 12,356 6,899 3.5 2.8 3.1 1.7

Florence

95,468 98,375 95,738 97,035 3,971 3,191 3,521 1,944 4.2 3.2 3.7 2.0

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

422,329 434,191 422,758 431,566 14,091 11,569 12,372 7,023 3.3 2.7 2.9 1.6

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,299 93,792 87,182 90,338 3,035 2,512 2,567 1,417 3.4 2.7 2.9 1.6

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

205,202 212,851 197,972 206,953 8,584 7,872 8,101 5,437 4.2 3.7 4.1 2.6

Spartanburg

158,863 164,541 159,229 164,290 5,602 4,516 4,730 2,698 3.5 2.7 3.0 1.6

Sumter

43,985 44,799 44,037 44,304 1,877 1,557 1,651 951 4.3 3.5 3.7 2.1

South Dakota

462,612 471,393 457,620 467,110 13,207 13,904 11,976 12,793 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.7

Rapid City

77,891 78,792 74,258 76,211 2,221 2,353 2,088 2,224 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9

Sioux Falls

152,829 158,829 150,927 156,821 3,657 3,857 3,320 3,636 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3

Tennessee

3,228,446 3,351,613 3,238,611 3,348,795 118,715 112,963 108,475 105,102 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.1

Chattanooga

269,010 276,453 270,765 277,795 10,028 9,453 8,941 8,415 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.0

Clarksville

114,201 118,567 114,427 119,117 5,075 5,031 4,662 4,582 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.8

Cleveland

56,557 58,079 56,991 58,552 2,237 2,191 2,009 1,997 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.4

Jackson

63,858 66,278 63,874 66,435 2,539 2,354 2,315 2,273 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.4

Johnson City

89,469 92,400 90,746 93,274 3,607 3,450 3,315 3,200 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.4

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

135,549 141,348 136,352 141,266 5,134 5,019 4,669 4,654 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3

Knoxville

419,393 436,803 421,356 437,524 14,514 13,864 13,192 12,662 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.9

Memphis

630,762 651,867 630,566 648,472 27,126 27,347 25,207 26,401 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.1

Morristown

50,513 52,513 50,959 52,856 2,018 1,996 1,841 1,861 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,038,211 1,081,048 1,044,488 1,081,129 30,490 28,640 28,024 26,472 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.4

Texas

13,768,541 14,015,597 13,849,870 14,112,718 546,121 506,768 512,839 471,617 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.3

Abilene

76,185 76,200 76,989 77,098 2,624 2,461 2,475 2,277 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.0

Amarillo

130,613 131,500 131,430 131,954 3,755 3,551 3,538 3,287 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,191,906 1,209,485 1,200,200 1,217,793 36,619 33,709 34,647 31,907 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.6

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,489 175,306 176,073 177,402 10,817 10,295 9,941 9,343 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

164,955 164,514 164,420 164,785 10,286 9,231 9,345 8,523 6.2 5.6 5.7 5.2

College Station-Bryan

129,465 130,340 134,390 135,820 4,173 3,863 3,815 3,571 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6

Corpus Christi

206,691 207,203 206,181 208,180 10,282 9,097 9,716 8,457 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.1

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,884,415 3,986,660 3,908,721 4,014,600 141,261 132,416 132,835 123,217 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.1

El Paso

357,476 358,532 361,408 363,848 15,659 14,265 14,953 13,524 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.7

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,364,448 3,428,723 3,385,469 3,453,586 148,251 134,140 139,555 124,714 4.4 3.9 4.1 3.6

Killeen-Temple

174,219 177,748 175,539 178,533 7,512 6,758 7,113 6,366 4.3 3.8 4.1 3.6

Laredo

116,493 116,976 116,247 118,042 4,382 4,330 4,138 3,981 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4

Longview

97,330 96,426 97,848 96,954 4,057 3,749 3,839 3,546 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.7

Lubbock

161,989 163,364 162,366 164,328 5,229 4,796 4,832 4,419 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.7

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

343,059 350,469 344,547 352,710 22,804 22,431 20,964 20,636 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9

Midland

106,105 107,381 107,143 107,912 2,268 2,380 2,153 2,207 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0

Odessa

84,933 86,624 86,184 87,152 2,318 2,440 2,144 2,306 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.6

San Angelo

55,475 55,704 55,816 56,037 1,808 1,727 1,736 1,602 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,185,569 1,205,236 1,190,400 1,216,393 41,056 38,651 38,527 35,929 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

Sherman-Denison

63,571 64,358 63,609 64,498 2,093 2,038 1,994 1,906 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0

Texarkana

63,938 64,108 65,016 64,668 3,306 2,860 3,384 2,640 5.2 4.5 5.2 4.1

Tyler

107,345 107,877 107,417 108,148 4,007 3,712 3,746 3,434 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.2

Victoria

46,329 46,007 46,734 46,143 1,778 1,599 1,678 1,520 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.3

Waco

125,210 126,208 125,575 126,296 4,614 4,408 4,260 3,989 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2

Wichita Falls

65,219 65,456 65,396 65,492 2,235 2,116 2,115 1,950 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.0

Utah

1,573,609 1,615,662 1,575,536 1,612,173 52,341 45,474 46,039 32,746 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.0

Logan

66,993 69,053 70,700 72,415 1,953 1,673 1,726 1,209 2.9 2.4 2.4 1.7

Ogden-Clearfield

327,030 338,831 325,273 335,985 11,177 9,483 9,763 6,763 3.4 2.8 3.0 2.0

Provo-Orem

304,419 312,217 308,745 313,306 9,323 8,225 8,378 5,874 3.1 2.6 2.7 1.9

St. George

74,632 77,542 74,607 77,161 2,822 2,525 2,359 1,783 3.8 3.3 3.2 2.3

Salt Lake City

657,061 671,753 652,937 667,621 21,428 18,718 18,927 13,629 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.0

Vermont

349,489 346,731 343,991 339,639 8,779 7,591 8,567 7,527 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.2

Burlington-South Burlington

128,227 128,136 126,742 126,122 2,814 2,384 2,736 2,399 2.2 1.9 2.2 1.9

Virginia

4,316,700 4,432,630 4,315,374 4,416,423 133,643 121,896 118,118 108,269 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.5

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

88,899 91,180 90,745 92,082 2,921 2,652 2,560 2,381 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.6

Charlottesville

116,359 121,191 120,469 123,998 3,492 3,151 2,959 2,693 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.2

Harrisonburg

63,318 65,828 66,004 67,973 2,011 1,805 1,779 1,557 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.3

Lynchburg

121,761 125,049 122,444 124,830 4,391 4,002 3,772 3,561 3.6 3.2 3.1 2.9

Richmond

677,246 692,785 672,021 686,888 22,252 20,365 19,764 18,020 3.3 2.9 2.9 2.6

Roanoke

155,166 160,805 156,381 160,383 4,826 4,436 4,165 3,933 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,667 60,890 59,221 61,027 1,698 1,548 1,498 1,359 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

853,284 872,107 842,466 862,411 29,082 26,608 25,733 23,592 3.4 3.1 3.1 2.7

Winchester

71,172 74,829 71,548 74,298 2,163 1,928 1,878 1,708 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.3

Washington

3,793,102 3,930,463 3,805,427 3,939,241 161,104 177,991 151,394 163,840 4.2 4.5 4.0 4.2

Bellingham

110,277 116,305 110,181 114,900 5,009 6,388 4,494 5,745 4.5 5.5 4.1 5.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

121,750 128,231 121,974 127,702 5,268 6,425 5,014 5,786 4.3 5.0 4.1 4.5

Kennewick-Richland

142,316 149,498 140,277 149,029 6,683 8,061 5,914 7,032 4.7 5.4 4.2 4.7

Longview

45,630 47,214 45,827 47,155 2,557 3,164 2,288 2,819 5.6 6.7 5.0 6.0

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,499 63,473 60,574 62,753 2,878 3,723 2,695 3,326 4.8 5.9 4.4 5.3

Olympia-Tumwater

135,850 142,468 137,520 143,271 6,099 7,482 5,678 6,843 4.5 5.3 4.1 4.8

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,110,158 2,180,769 2,117,773 2,190,618 79,795 78,053 78,754 76,622 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.5

Spokane-Spokane Valley

262,416 276,039 265,287 276,698 13,080 15,745 11,819 13,780 5.0 5.7 4.5 5.0

Walla Walla

31,325 32,100 31,659 32,291 1,317 1,681 1,208 1,498 4.2 5.2 3.8 4.6

Wenatchee

71,569 73,775 70,507 71,493 2,834 3,611 2,316 2,863 4.0 4.9 3.3 4.0

Yakima

133,346 136,851 134,122 138,488 7,422 9,361 5,687 7,119 5.6 6.8 4.2 5.1

West Virginia

781,977 802,889 785,466 806,057 39,171 36,565 35,285 33,516 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.2

Beckley

45,702 46,999 45,499 46,683 2,379 2,203 2,144 1,997 5.2 4.7 4.7 4.3

Charleston

92,734 94,283 92,337 93,870 4,788 4,283 4,375 3,938 5.2 4.5 4.7 4.2

Huntington-Ashland

144,538 146,139 144,981 146,689 7,629 7,290 7,064 6,611 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.5

Morgantown

67,260 67,591 68,786 70,206 2,976 2,587 2,722 2,326 4.4 3.8 4.0 3.3

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,039 38,977 37,936 38,889 2,005 1,898 1,760 1,698 5.3 4.9 4.6 4.4

Wheeling

66,513 68,885 66,859 68,304 3,186 3,220 2,873 3,191 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.7

Wisconsin

3,134,631 3,146,641 3,112,050 3,109,119 91,338 105,290 73,637 91,323 2.9 3.3 2.4 2.9

Appleton

131,954 131,633 130,239 129,432 3,543 3,876 2,846 3,350 2.7 2.9 2.2 2.6

Eau Claire

92,333 92,848 91,702 91,579 2,345 2,949 1,935 2,488 2.5 3.2 2.1 2.7

Fond du Lac

57,627 57,434 57,500 57,087 1,560 1,873 1,116 1,540 2.7 3.3 1.9 2.7

Green Bay

176,585 178,203 175,294 175,554 4,779 5,587 3,790 4,887 2.7 3.1 2.2 2.8

Janesville-Beloit

85,971 87,214 84,703 85,660 2,670 3,403 2,198 2,965 3.1 3.9 2.6 3.5

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,738 77,721 77,258 77,856 1,889 2,155 1,506 1,892 2.5 2.8 1.9 2.4

Madison

385,836 385,820 384,983 383,511 8,448 9,763 7,048 8,745 2.2 2.5 1.8 2.3

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

831,105 835,015 821,475 822,782 28,077 31,573 22,748 27,623 3.4 3.8 2.8 3.4

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,577 92,974 92,097 91,884 2,646 3,014 1,997 2,517 2.9 3.2 2.2 2.7

Racine

100,441 100,736 98,892 98,862 3,720 4,331 3,012 3,710 3.7 4.3 3.0 3.8

Sheboygan

63,497 64,386 62,771 63,195 1,534 1,744 1,245 1,533 2.4 2.7 2.0 2.4

Wausau

73,640 74,520 72,991 73,096 1,923 2,148 1,506 1,844 2.6 2.9 2.1 2.5

Wyoming

292,187 292,452 289,631 292,419 10,687 10,138 10,693 9,716 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.3

Casper

38,813 39,092 38,365 38,985 1,657 1,494 1,706 1,458 4.3 3.8 4.4 3.7

Cheyenne

47,934 47,944 46,795 47,426 1,790 1,688 1,732 1,616 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4

Puerto Rico

1,078,694 1,073,450 1,080,804 1,062,293 98,857 75,597 93,881 87,206 9.2 7.0 8.7 8.2

Aguadilla-Isabela

86,205 84,962 86,225 84,160 10,025 7,372 9,734 8,445 11.6 8.7 11.3 10.0

Arecibo

51,673 51,928 51,711 51,428 5,448 4,242 5,197 4,854 10.5 8.2 10.1 9.4

Guayama

19,921 19,549 19,933 19,454 2,728 2,114 2,598 2,389 13.7 10.8 13.0 12.3

Mayaguez

27,312 27,554 27,492 27,256 3,107 2,353 2,946 2,600 11.4 8.5 10.7 9.5

Ponce

91,185 90,478 91,097 90,396 10,670 9,036 10,238 10,516 11.7 10.0 11.2 11.6

San German

34,725 35,079 35,243 34,776 4,260 3,189 3,972 3,543 12.3 9.1 11.3 10.2

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

726,350 723,813 728,609 714,765 56,983 42,909 53,827 49,580 7.8 5.9 7.4 6.9

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) August September August September
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,378,108 19,425,066 19,478,378 19,564,887 836,713 810,292 756,608 688,584 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,741,435 6,714,017 6,782,795 6,772,429 308,353 291,132 285,930 267,852 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.0

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,619,377 1,613,708 1,630,989 1,631,857 50,807 48,351 45,179 39,080 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,122,058 5,100,309 5,151,806 5,140,572 257,546 242,781 240,751 228,772 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,587,206 2,614,291 2,599,544 2,633,873 73,875 71,877 66,042 57,399 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.2

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,411,185 1,421,237 1,418,048 1,432,005 45,427 44,808 40,617 35,962 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.5

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,034,672 1,051,011 1,039,457 1,058,733 24,863 23,640 22,227 18,708 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.8

San Rafael

141,349 142,043 142,039 143,135 3,585 3,429 3,198 2,729 2.5 2.4 2.3 1.9

District of Columbia

401,594 407,033 400,542 408,084 23,151 22,084 22,194 21,726 5.8 5.4 5.5 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,383,565 3,468,393 3,381,116 3,461,672 114,503 109,467 105,536 100,140 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

687,305 703,572 686,149 699,270 21,123 21,491 20,690 19,783 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,696,260 2,764,821 2,694,967 2,762,402 93,380 87,976 84,846 80,357 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.9

Florida

10,184,034 10,454,907 10,280,409 10,530,871 372,814 368,469 342,076 317,379 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,120,896 3,217,261 3,149,837 3,237,907 117,341 112,034 109,688 98,537 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.0

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,033,399 1,051,203 1,043,978 1,060,561 35,425 34,952 32,319 30,058 3.4 3.3 3.1 2.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,364,261 1,427,194 1,376,079 1,433,823 54,245 49,372 52,205 44,753 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.1

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

723,236 738,864 729,780 743,523 27,671 27,710 25,164 23,726 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.2

Illinois

6,442,739 6,527,270 6,435,664 6,481,611 278,285 245,998 248,531 230,367 4.3 3.8 3.9 3.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,871,777 4,935,857 4,842,910 4,868,877 197,002 180,838 173,982 163,282 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.4

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,732,627 3,785,022 3,705,981 3,720,717 145,780 137,073 128,020 120,780 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.2

Elgin

328,262 331,110 328,885 332,097 15,397 12,373 14,016 12,397 4.7 3.7 4.3 3.7

Gary(3)

342,690 343,787 342,113 341,412 15,891 14,254 14,322 13,439 4.6 4.1 4.2 3.9

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

468,198 475,938 465,931 474,651 19,934 17,138 17,624 16,666 4.3 3.6 3.8 3.5

Massachusetts

3,847,405 3,886,911 3,795,770 3,816,383 124,140 110,145 115,381 110,521 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,830,756 2,864,698 2,799,770 2,820,371 84,942 75,162 78,666 75,480 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,691,923 1,713,972 1,672,618 1,685,517 47,938 41,594 44,999 42,876 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,659 112,981 110,918 111,618 4,308 3,705 3,847 3,588 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.2

Framingham

164,523 165,235 162,457 162,707 4,543 3,963 4,190 3,983 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.4

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

119,204 120,393 117,299 117,835 3,544 3,380 3,250 3,229 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

100,289 99,600 98,809 97,264 4,366 3,905 4,080 3,789 4.4 3.9 4.1 3.9

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,997 201,572 196,730 198,067 6,447 5,786 5,865 5,665 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,679 88,669 86,901 87,250 2,850 2,569 2,745 2,581 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.0

Nashua(2)

173,708 177,497 172,806 177,471 4,839 4,930 4,141 4,451 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,981 96,243 94,325 95,148 2,920 2,476 2,753 2,593 3.1 2.6 2.9 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,793 88,536 86,907 87,494 3,187 2,854 2,796 2,725 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.1

Michigan

4,902,292 4,984,864 4,882,449 4,942,862 199,158 208,276 172,631 184,748 4.1 4.2 3.5 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,916 2,179,641 2,139,652 2,178,072 97,180 98,049 84,818 89,582 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.1

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

799,363 811,708 797,051 811,816 46,163 43,867 38,591 39,662 5.8 5.4 4.8 4.9

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,342,552 1,367,933 1,342,601 1,366,256 51,016 54,182 46,227 49,920 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.7

New York

9,579,389 9,537,116 9,547,754 9,543,235 385,791 397,978 347,563 354,193 4.0 4.2 3.6 3.7

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,933,851 9,967,495 9,872,871 9,944,938 405,720 388,076 361,265 347,110 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

194,970 194,815 194,104 194,890 6,842 7,368 6,444 6,930 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,496,422 1,488,953 1,483,657 1,483,748 54,656 57,877 48,286 50,822 3.7 3.9 3.3 3.4

Newark(3)

1,215,339 1,241,926 1,204,337 1,241,490 52,273 43,849 46,819 41,373 4.3 3.5 3.9 3.3

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,027,120 7,041,801 6,990,773 7,024,810 291,949 278,982 259,716 247,985 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.5

Pennsylvania

6,443,881 6,539,968 6,414,056 6,516,799 295,479 294,784 249,244 254,595 4.6 4.5 3.9 3.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,079,105 3,137,344 3,071,271 3,138,757 141,004 136,384 121,262 120,829 4.6 4.3 3.9 3.8

Camden(3)

621,019 630,389 618,847 633,304 27,634 23,114 24,157 21,304 4.4 3.7 3.9 3.4

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,078,286 1,096,965 1,070,509 1,092,673 40,823 40,969 34,847 35,496 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.2

Philadelphia

1,002,635 1,025,668 1,006,353 1,029,580 56,811 56,238 48,325 49,530 5.7 5.5 4.8 4.8

Wilmington(3)

377,165 384,322 375,562 383,200 15,736 16,063 13,933 14,499 4.2 4.2 3.7 3.8

Texas

13,768,541 14,015,597 13,849,870 14,112,718 546,121 506,768 512,839 471,617 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,884,415 3,986,660 3,908,721 4,014,600 141,261 132,416 132,835 123,217 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.1

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,620,676 2,704,040 2,636,444 2,720,428 95,540 89,274 90,093 83,077 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.1

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,263,739 1,282,620 1,272,277 1,294,172 45,721 43,142 42,742 40,140 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.1

Washington

3,793,102 3,930,463 3,805,427 3,939,241 161,104 177,991 151,394 163,840 4.2 4.5 4.0 4.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,110,158 2,180,769 2,117,773 2,190,618 79,795 78,053 78,754 76,622 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.5

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,688,760 1,738,014 1,695,957 1,748,208 58,923 53,201 59,706 54,384 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.1

Tacoma-Lakewood

421,398 442,755 421,816 442,410 20,872 24,852 19,048 22,238 5.0 5.6 4.5 5.0

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area August September Change from
September 2018 to September 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,045.3 2,083.2 2,047.2 2,093.8 46.6 2.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.4 47.5 46.8 47.5 0.7 1.5

Auburn-Opelika

65.5 66.6 66.5 68.6 2.1 3.2

Birmingham-Hoover

540.0 546.6 539.4 548.2 8.8 1.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.2 81.5 77.5 79.7 2.2 2.8

Decatur

55.9 57.5 56.1 57.4 1.3 2.3

Dothan

58.9 59.4 58.8 58.9 0.1 0.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.6 57.3 57.1 57.5 0.4 0.7

Gadsden

37.8 38.6 38.1 38.8 0.7 1.8

Huntsville

237.6 245.1 237.3 245.6 8.3 3.5

Mobile

184.8 187.0 185.3 188.4 3.1 1.7

Montgomery

177.4 179.5 176.8 180.0 3.2 1.8

Tuscaloosa

110.2 112.6 111.3 113.7 2.4 2.2


Alaska

349.1 353.2 338.7 343.1 4.4 1.3

Anchorage

179.2 181.4 179.0 179.7 0.7 0.4

Fairbanks

39.4 39.5 38.9 39.4 0.5 1.3


Arizona

2,845.9 2,920.1 2,877.0 2,942.0 65.0 2.3

Flagstaff

70.0 69.2 70.4 70.5 0.1 0.1

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

51.4 52.3 51.6 52.6 1.0 1.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,102.8 2,158.3<