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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, November 29, 2018                     USDL-18-1887

Technical information:
 Employment:    (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:  (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:  (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


         METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- OCTOBER 2018


Unemployment rates were lower in October than a year earlier in 272 of the 388
metropolitan areas, higher in 95 areas, and unchanged in 21 areas, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 102 areas had jobless rates of less
than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll
employment increased over the year in 56 metropolitan areas and was essentially
unchanged in 332 areas. The national unemployment rate in October was 3.5 percent,
not seasonally adjusted, down from 3.9 percent a year earlier.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.1 percent. El Centro, CA,
and Yuma, AZ, had the highest unemployment rates, 19.2 percent and 17.7 percent,
respectively. A total of 194 areas had October jobless rates above the U.S. rate of
3.5 percent, 173 areas had rates below it, and 21 areas had rates equal to that of
the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases occurred in Ocean City, NJ
(-1.9 percentage points), and Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (-1.8 points). Thirty-two
additional areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. Bloomington, IN,
and Texarkana, TX-AR, had the largest over-the-year rate increases in October (+0.9
percentage point each).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest unemployment rate in October,
2.1 percent. Cleveland-Elyria, OH, had the highest jobless rate among the large areas,
4.5 percent. Thirty-six large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 10
had increases, and 5 had no change. The largest rate decreases occurred in Buffalo-
Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY (-1.3 percentage points), and Rochester, NY (-1.2
points). The largest over-the-year rate increases were in Indianapolis-Carmel-
Anderson, IN; Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN; Memphis, TN-MS-AR; and Nashville-
Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN (+0.4 percentage point each).

  _______________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                               |
 |                               Hurricane Michael                               |
 |                                                                               |
 | Hurricane Michael made landfall in the Florida Panhandle on October 10, 2018, |
 | during the reference periods for both the establishment and household surveys.|
 | Response rates for the two surveys were within normal ranges for the affected |
 | areas.                                                                        |
 |_______________________________________________________________________________|


Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
October, San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest
unemployment rate among the divisions, 2.2 percent. Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI,
had the highest division rate, 5.4 percent. (See table 2.)

In October, 30 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases,
5 had increases, and 3 had no change. The largest rate declines occurred in Dutchess
County-Putnam County, NY; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL; and Nassau County-Suffolk
County, NY (-1.1 percentage points each). The largest over-the-year rate increase
was in Elgin, IL (+0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, 56 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 332 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+117,800), Dallas-Fort
Worth-Arlington, TX (+109,000), and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+108,500).
The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Midland, TX
(+9.2 percent), Colorado Springs, CO (+5.4 percent), and Reno, NV (+4.5 percent).
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 37 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in
14 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large
metropolitan areas occurred in Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+4.4 percent), and
Austin-Round Rock, TX, and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+3.9 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 16 of the 38 metropolitan divisions
over the year and was essentially unchanged in 22 divisions. The largest over-the-year
increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey
City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+85,800), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+85,000), and
Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+62,000). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Seattle-Bellevue-
Everett, WA, and Tacoma-Lakewood, WA (+3.6 percent each), followed by Dallas-Plano-
Irving, TX (+3.3 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be
released on Friday, December 21, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The Metropolitan Area
Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be released on
Thursday, January 3, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 388
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Beginning with the release of January 2018 preliminary estimates, payroll employment
data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available estimates including
those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors. Concurrent
sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate
real-time estimates. Previously, the sample-based seasonal factors were forecasted
once annually at the beginning of the year and applied to the sample-based estimates
for the 12 months of the year. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on July 15, 2015. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) September October September October
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

Alabama

2,166,431 2,208,369 2,168,171 2,226,304 79,571 84,194 78,653 84,746 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,006 46,056 45,383 46,382 1,880 2,095 1,867 2,078 4.2 4.5 4.1 4.5

Auburn-Opelika

73,324 74,918 73,808 75,810 2,368 2,633 2,356 2,613 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.4

Birmingham-Hoover

533,105 541,863 533,322 546,447 17,880 18,874 17,797 19,143 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

91,543 94,469 91,035 94,177 3,067 3,228 3,084 3,308 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

Decatur

68,226 69,875 68,368 70,687 2,447 2,457 2,398 2,460 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5

Dothan

62,201 63,111 62,175 62,681 2,315 2,519 2,281 2,561 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.1

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,697 65,929 64,782 66,718 2,618 2,739 2,566 2,711 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.1

Gadsden

42,614 43,229 42,691 43,653 1,636 1,698 1,629 1,731 3.8 3.9 3.8 4.0

Huntsville

215,770 223,539 216,501 228,155 7,022 7,535 6,970 7,662 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4

Mobile

185,281 188,009 185,865 190,214 8,025 8,587 7,823 8,477 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.5

Montgomery

171,062 174,231 172,190 175,753 6,098 6,600 6,077 6,677 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.8

Tuscaloosa

113,731 115,238 113,676 117,134 3,917 4,081 3,849 4,092 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5

Alaska

363,815 355,369 359,848 354,834 24,193 19,801 24,543 20,510 6.6 5.6 6.8 5.8

Anchorage

201,042 196,595 202,015 199,876 12,849 10,347 12,727 10,582 6.4 5.3 6.3 5.3

Fairbanks

46,885 45,820 46,987 46,284 2,747 2,230 2,780 2,324 5.9 4.9 5.9 5.0

Arizona

3,351,088 3,437,172 3,336,707 3,455,227 162,539 168,265 155,387 156,127 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.5

Flagstaff

77,751 78,541 76,582 78,377 3,855 4,030 3,772 3,831 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

83,096 85,392 82,514 85,598 4,761 4,944 4,488 4,518 5.7 5.8 5.4 5.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,329,510 2,399,581 2,320,449 2,413,258 97,359 101,255 93,274 93,413 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.9

Prescott

103,317 105,407 102,441 105,971 4,514 4,829 4,276 4,362 4.4 4.6 4.2 4.1

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,340 49,231 49,404 49,268 2,806 2,827 2,673 2,606 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.3

Tucson

480,619 488,838 476,677 488,335 21,117 21,826 20,267 20,174 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.1

Yuma

96,421 97,655 98,069 101,113 18,271 18,594 17,034 17,852 18.9 19.0 17.4 17.7

Arkansas

1,363,077 1,347,699 1,359,086 1,353,649 48,345 44,798 43,597 44,635 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

275,700 275,097 276,726 276,768 7,557 6,866 6,796 6,886 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5

Fort Smith

120,369 117,357 119,311 117,318 4,936 4,133 4,682 4,103 4.1 3.5 3.9 3.5

Hot Springs

40,391 39,478 39,659 39,712 1,603 1,491 1,430 1,524 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.8

Jonesboro

64,763 64,621 64,419 64,925 1,966 1,808 1,769 1,812 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,361 355,783 356,163 357,312 11,537 10,822 10,370 10,801 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.0

Pine Bluff

35,572 34,527 35,481 34,799 1,680 1,617 1,535 1,631 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.7

California

19,462,033 19,549,346 19,374,412 19,627,398 841,531 767,720 816,310 780,472 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.0

Bakersfield

389,308 389,456 387,218 390,888 29,056 25,509 28,163 25,730 7.5 6.5 7.3 6.6

Chico

104,353 105,619 104,572 106,657 4,961 4,291 4,832 4,477 4.8 4.1 4.6 4.2

El Centro

74,003 74,236 73,265 74,938 14,957 14,332 14,215 14,361 20.2 19.3 19.4 19.2

Fresno

452,568 455,237 446,056 454,084 30,572 26,657 31,993 28,802 6.8 5.9 7.2 6.3

Hanford-Corcoran

57,805 57,513 57,099 57,087 3,920 3,455 3,979 3,653 6.8 6.0 7.0 6.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,804,412 6,796,129 6,772,653 6,819,994 290,348 293,590 276,364 289,836 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.2

Madera

62,410 62,191 61,071 61,250 3,811 3,351 3,808 3,613 6.1 5.4 6.2 5.9

Merced

119,164 120,710 117,584 120,179 8,004 7,091 7,911 7,361 6.7 5.9 6.7 6.1

Modesto

244,722 245,059 241,602 244,027 14,649 12,835 14,569 13,372 6.0 5.2 6.0 5.5

Napa

75,875 75,005 74,992 74,874 2,285 1,905 2,357 1,965 3.0 2.5 3.1 2.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

426,819 426,825 424,930 430,804 18,308 15,673 17,585 15,757 4.3 3.7 4.1 3.7

Redding

74,745 75,591 75,115 76,698 3,637 3,224 3,581 3,300 4.9 4.3 4.8 4.3

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,034,805 2,056,801 2,035,427 2,073,421 98,697 84,103 94,849 85,991 4.9 4.1 4.7 4.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,089,470 1,088,677 1,083,818 1,095,645 44,109 37,270 42,857 38,747 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.5

Salinas

227,600 228,956 223,229 225,480 10,044 8,858 10,080 9,390 4.4 3.9 4.5 4.2

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,591,530 1,602,368 1,586,193 1,611,458 59,208 50,485 57,506 52,484 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,591,894 2,612,354 2,580,850 2,621,765 79,111 66,454 76,921 68,716 3.1 2.5 3.0 2.6

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,076,774 1,099,189 1,075,272 1,104,948 32,345 27,023 31,349 27,760 3.0 2.5 2.9 2.5

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,279 142,294 142,747 144,558 4,664 3,892 4,494 4,016 3.3 2.7 3.1 2.8

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

143,406 145,054 144,841 147,316 5,862 5,026 5,845 5,243 4.1 3.5 4.0 3.6

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,556 217,264 219,620 219,935 8,139 7,071 8,157 7,377 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.4

Santa Rosa

267,197 271,006 263,884 271,098 7,724 6,568 7,910 6,804 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.5

Stockton-Lodi

327,730 332,774 326,507 332,995 19,162 16,633 18,985 17,350 5.8 5.0 5.8 5.2

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,823 211,522 209,692 211,312 8,858 7,428 8,743 7,684 4.2 3.5 4.2 3.6

Visalia-Porterville

204,865 207,316 201,257 205,035 18,113 16,354 18,379 17,094 8.8 7.9 9.1 8.3

Yuba City

75,151 74,392 73,872 74,582 4,564 4,032 4,547 4,283 6.1 5.4 6.2 5.7

Colorado

3,035,955 3,112,289 3,034,052 3,118,902 82,092 95,928 83,759 96,425 2.7 3.1 2.8 3.1

Boulder

190,292 193,988 188,209 195,698 4,429 5,359 4,600 5,386 2.3 2.8 2.4 2.8

Colorado Springs

344,965 358,684 343,461 362,336 10,879 13,059 10,918 13,017 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,614,214 1,643,442 1,610,520 1,653,341 42,899 49,668 43,429 49,526 2.7 3.0 2.7 3.0

Fort Collins

199,979 205,266 199,844 205,656 4,566 5,440 4,787 5,512 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.7

Grand Junction

75,625 76,518 75,467 76,860 2,627 2,725 2,574 2,750 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6

Greeley

160,498 166,844 162,068 168,082 3,979 4,638 4,080 4,698 2.5 2.8 2.5 2.8

Pueblo

75,355 75,780 75,435 76,113 3,152 3,506 3,135 3,501 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.6

Connecticut

1,903,588 1,904,067 1,900,360 1,914,839 80,486 73,161 78,219 73,471 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.8

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

465,839 465,525 462,369 466,140 19,787 18,005 19,240 18,153 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.9

Danbury

106,889 107,537 106,500 107,795 3,632 3,400 3,481 3,367 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.1

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

623,441 624,240 624,664 629,141 26,511 24,133 25,671 24,040 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.8

New Haven

327,334 326,074 326,224 329,022 13,903 12,511 13,480 12,495 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.8

Norwich-New London-Westerly

143,883 144,995 144,012 144,796 5,914 5,183 5,786 5,153 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.6

Waterbury

111,101 110,385 111,219 111,291 5,694 5,317 5,686 5,426 5.1 4.8 5.1 4.9

Delaware

474,481 481,487 476,851 484,392 21,221 19,801 20,735 17,177 4.5 4.1 4.3 3.5

Dover

77,121 78,495 78,118 79,541 3,732 3,523 3,632 2,985 4.8 4.5 4.6 3.8

Salisbury(1)

191,533 188,926 187,094 186,642 8,658 8,386 9,053 8,199 4.5 4.4 4.8 4.4

District of Columbia

399,944 399,003 401,245 402,104 25,089 23,790 23,895 22,405 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,396,035 3,389,820 3,389,870 3,407,333 123,220 110,858 120,310 109,384 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2

Florida

10,202,985 10,263,010 10,128,026 10,261,846 411,122 313,992 390,619 312,597 4.0 3.1 3.9 3.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

328,669 338,104 331,914 341,552 13,464 9,929 12,368 9,990 4.1 2.9 3.7 2.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

128,497 130,786 126,447 129,377 4,059 3,104 3,856 3,138 3.2 2.4 3.0 2.4

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

301,788 302,394 299,349 301,341 12,441 9,551 11,961 9,735 4.1 3.2 4.0 3.2

Gainesville

146,689 146,956 145,007 146,702 5,152 3,939 4,903 4,049 3.5 2.7 3.4 2.8

Homosassa Springs

48,524 48,363 47,710 48,591 2,616 2,101 2,492 2,105 5.4 4.3 5.2 4.3

Jacksonville

779,374 785,544 770,015 779,798 28,821 22,060 27,231 22,259 3.7 2.8 3.5 2.9

Lakeland-Winter Haven

297,649 300,884 293,779 302,828 13,394 10,410 12,649 10,284 4.5 3.5 4.3 3.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,149,447 3,137,123 3,141,344 3,138,415 134,972 101,948 129,922 100,701 4.3 3.2 4.1 3.2

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

163,836 168,957 166,744 171,687 7,564 5,567 6,977 5,351 4.6 3.3 4.2 3.1

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

362,400 369,295 361,147 369,608 13,558 10,577 12,850 10,550 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.9

Ocala

135,340 136,323 133,139 136,323 6,297 4,903 5,967 4,900 4.7 3.6 4.5 3.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,329,031 1,358,241 1,312,898 1,357,709 47,741 36,918 45,065 36,841 3.6 2.7 3.4 2.7

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

271,905 274,399 268,145 274,901 10,974 8,162 10,368 8,199 4.0 3.0 3.9 3.0

Panama City

97,418 97,609 95,923 95,351 3,527 2,651 3,351 2,612 3.6 2.7 3.5 2.7

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

229,745 228,382 225,060 228,186 8,476 6,579 8,180 6,596 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.9

Port St. Lucie

211,535 212,969 211,355 214,097 9,848 7,530 9,173 7,427 4.7 3.5 4.3 3.5

Punta Gorda

69,607 70,519 70,010 71,108 3,206 2,484 2,995 2,446 4.6 3.5 4.3 3.4

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,208 63,344 62,588 63,707 3,196 2,466 2,925 2,364 5.1 3.9 4.7 3.7

Sebring

35,827 35,743 34,975 35,419 2,039 1,518 1,919 1,491 5.7 4.2 5.5 4.2

Tallahassee

196,281 195,588 193,543 195,901 7,294 5,715 6,920 5,738 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.9

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,535,406 1,545,316 1,521,475 1,542,313 57,207 44,893 54,561 45,027 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.9

The Villages

30,692 30,694 30,281 30,768 1,697 1,328 1,628 1,325 5.5 4.3 5.4 4.3

Georgia

5,099,501 5,119,499 5,082,865 5,137,434 227,050 165,304 223,205 185,183 4.5 3.2 4.4 3.6

Albany

68,180 67,917 68,680 68,577 3,603 2,711 3,487 2,987 5.3 4.0 5.1 4.4

Athens-Clarke County

102,356 104,094 102,162 105,698 4,299 3,117 4,176 3,570 4.2 3.0 4.1 3.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,064,470 3,083,485 3,050,192 3,090,344 129,956 95,232 127,515 105,548 4.2 3.1 4.2 3.4

Augusta-Richmond County

266,940 267,910 267,719 269,224 12,469 9,655 12,660 10,212 4.7 3.6 4.7 3.8

Brunswick

53,019 53,250 52,761 52,896 3,341 1,669 2,471 1,910 6.3 3.1 4.7 3.6

Columbus

125,069 125,715 125,036 126,444 6,334 4,971 6,290 5,428 5.1 4.0 5.0 4.3

Dalton

61,543 61,602 60,575 61,439 3,314 2,459 3,085 2,726 5.4 4.0 5.1 4.4

Gainesville

101,344 103,668 101,136 104,359 3,731 2,675 3,623 3,052 3.7 2.6 3.6 2.9

Hinesville

33,786 33,643 33,519 33,847 1,657 1,155 1,597 1,318 4.9 3.4 4.8 3.9

Macon-Bibb County

106,026 105,042 105,412 105,430 5,265 3,675 5,288 4,350 5.0 3.5 5.0 4.1

Rome

44,653 44,302 44,307 44,484 2,144 1,594 2,056 1,785 4.8 3.6 4.6 4.0

Savannah

184,998 184,380 185,848 184,571 7,731 5,715 7,651 6,425 4.2 3.1 4.1 3.5

Valdosta

64,693 65,370 64,834 66,206 2,937 2,195 2,835 2,501 4.5 3.4 4.4 3.8

Warner Robins

85,529 85,044 85,331 85,637 3,930 2,881 4,411 3,792 4.6 3.4 5.2 4.4

Hawaii

679,436 681,272 678,823 679,733 15,297 17,069 13,948 17,189 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

85,406 86,290 85,372 85,286 2,012 2,143 1,850 2,250 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.6

Urban Honolulu

467,674 467,985 467,092 469,163 10,189 11,109 9,175 10,828 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.3

Idaho

839,287 852,381 843,654 855,429 22,497 18,111 21,928 19,126 2.7 2.1 2.6 2.2

Boise City

347,148 355,160 347,833 353,907 9,419 7,559 9,172 7,898 2.7 2.1 2.6 2.2

Coeur d'Alene

75,666 77,447 75,301 76,947 2,407 1,925 2,377 2,016 3.2 2.5 3.2 2.6

Idaho Falls

67,682 68,569 68,641 69,254 1,637 1,274 1,562 1,314 2.4 1.9 2.3 1.9

Lewiston

31,478 31,828 31,640 32,070 916 819 891 843 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.6

Pocatello

41,233 41,873 42,021 42,621 1,072 863 1,055 921 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.2

Illinois

6,496,827 6,462,858 6,483,672 6,527,645 299,985 245,989 294,392 273,133 4.6 3.8 4.5 4.2

Bloomington

96,433 98,258 96,821 98,956 3,459 3,520 3,475 4,009 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.1

Carbondale-Marion

59,754 60,423 59,894 60,891 2,600 2,555 2,483 2,809 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.6

Champaign-Urbana

121,185 123,906 121,415 125,403 4,443 4,661 4,608 5,356 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,921,065 4,844,568 4,909,919 4,902,724 230,308 177,481 227,138 196,679 4.7 3.7 4.6 4.0

Danville

34,004 34,419 33,906 34,628 1,968 1,746 1,894 1,901 5.8 5.1 5.6 5.5

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

189,440 193,317 188,742 195,423 7,783 7,189 7,222 7,566 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.9

Decatur

49,297 50,325 49,097 50,790 2,478 2,383 2,354 2,690 5.0 4.7 4.8 5.3

Kankakee

55,880 59,365 56,096 59,866 2,532 2,490 2,458 2,781 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.6

Peoria

175,926 179,197 175,671 179,556 8,326 7,826 7,917 8,686 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.8

Rockford

163,699 167,557 163,665 168,964 8,157 7,664 7,686 8,773 5.0 4.6 4.7 5.2

Springfield

109,556 110,644 108,328 110,423 4,278 4,121 4,101 4,568 3.9 3.7 3.8 4.1

Indiana

3,326,645 3,386,095 3,315,355 3,404,398 109,414 101,932 103,227 120,871 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.6

Bloomington

77,343 76,719 77,623 77,925 2,564 2,452 2,493 3,197 3.3 3.2 3.2 4.1

Columbus

44,445 46,026 44,357 46,271 1,107 989 1,061 1,193 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.6

Elkhart-Goshen

112,532 117,577 112,319 118,476 2,533 2,759 2,454 3,396 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.9

Evansville

162,602 164,512 162,144 164,942 4,991 4,765 4,666 5,545 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.4

Fort Wayne

212,799 218,084 211,635 220,369 6,609 5,810 6,005 7,131 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,044,339 1,067,464 1,037,153 1,071,897 32,878 30,593 30,939 35,947 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.4

Kokomo

38,135 39,734 38,021 39,867 1,279 1,193 1,212 1,456 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.7

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,200 114,463 110,550 116,079 3,202 2,915 3,087 3,818 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.3

Michigan City-La Porte

47,378 47,296 47,162 47,412 1,852 1,779 1,765 2,043 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.3

Muncie

55,333 55,784 55,356 56,317 2,161 1,844 2,062 2,299 3.9 3.3 3.7 4.1

South Bend-Mishawaka

159,280 161,156 158,776 162,309 5,471 5,193 5,278 6,045 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.7

Terre Haute

76,509 77,418 76,027 78,482 3,002 3,088 2,857 3,587 3.9 4.0 3.8 4.6

Iowa

1,677,793 1,683,405 1,675,691 1,697,159 46,234 35,881 39,065 31,932 2.8 2.1 2.3 1.9

Ames

59,039 59,790 59,237 60,709 1,107 850 812 640 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.1

Cedar Rapids

142,013 142,714 141,556 143,704 4,378 3,412 3,681 3,022 3.1 2.4 2.6 2.1

Des Moines-West Des Moines

345,131 352,732 345,000 358,633 9,150 7,322 7,748 6,739 2.7 2.1 2.2 1.9

Dubuque

54,274 53,961 54,232 54,898 1,369 1,049 1,104 906 2.5 1.9 2.0 1.7

Iowa City

97,959 98,067 97,534 99,340 2,312 1,729 1,875 1,436 2.4 1.8 1.9 1.4

Sioux City

90,256 90,439 90,198 91,583 2,495 1,935 2,283 1,820 2.8 2.1 2.5 2.0

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,490 87,775 88,141 88,524 2,700 1,981 2,294 1,719 3.1 2.3 2.6 1.9

Kansas

1,476,680 1,483,138 1,477,351 1,495,759 48,648 43,531 45,079 44,785 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0

Lawrence

65,838 66,082 66,051 66,687 1,876 1,726 1,678 1,759 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6

Manhattan

47,967 48,758 48,448 49,249 1,290 1,149 1,133 1,215 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.5

Topeka

118,661 118,083 118,190 119,520 3,863 3,581 3,543 3,836 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.2

Wichita

304,857 306,231 304,863 308,606 11,825 10,201 10,644 10,330 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.3

Kentucky

2,056,757 2,069,558 2,038,572 2,063,185 88,035 88,257 81,100 86,744 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.2

Bowling Green

83,070 84,190 82,288 84,043 3,499 2,933 3,059 3,204 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

66,495 67,201 65,685 66,821 2,780 2,911 2,576 2,804 4.2 4.3 3.9 4.2

Lexington-Fayette

270,372 273,045 270,304 274,520 9,017 8,949 8,351 9,341 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.4

Louisville/Jefferson County

664,758 671,648 657,796 662,709 24,483 27,988 22,798 25,688 3.7 4.2 3.5 3.9

Owensboro

55,840 56,366 55,218 55,852 2,191 2,134 2,125 2,177 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

Louisiana

2,120,750 2,099,174 2,117,409 2,107,987 105,383 104,744 91,126 98,627 5.0 5.0 4.3 4.7

Alexandria

64,939 63,525 64,807 63,835 3,543 3,458 3,023 3,278 5.5 5.4 4.7 5.1

Baton Rouge

422,442 421,622 420,937 420,516 18,288 18,875 15,811 17,813 4.3 4.5 3.8 4.2

Hammond

55,663 55,535 55,550 55,691 3,032 3,023 2,507 2,781 5.4 5.4 4.5 5.0

Houma-Thibodaux

89,128 87,272 88,730 87,154 4,594 4,396 3,940 4,145 5.2 5.0 4.4 4.8

Lafayette

213,673 209,808 212,958 210,564 11,147 10,551 9,772 9,945 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.7

Lake Charles

114,995 115,468 115,182 116,369 4,537 4,405 3,854 4,108 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.5

Monroe

80,103 79,261 80,660 80,337 4,114 4,270 3,597 4,126 5.1 5.4 4.5 5.1

New Orleans-Metairie

598,673 594,103 599,302 599,133 28,479 28,521 24,604 26,536 4.8 4.8 4.1 4.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

189,049 185,536 188,002 185,805 9,974 9,836 8,856 9,429 5.3 5.3 4.7 5.1

Maine

702,255 702,804 702,650 704,726 19,418 21,006 19,379 22,292 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.2

Bangor

71,099 70,441 71,503 71,498 2,043 2,191 2,064 2,375 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.3

Lewiston-Auburn

55,820 55,955 56,433 56,796 1,526 1,707 1,507 1,803 2.7 3.1 2.7 3.2

Portland-South Portland

210,004 211,876 209,220 212,003 4,828 5,354 4,809 5,698 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.7

Maryland

3,229,574 3,207,608 3,224,637 3,229,798 124,509 123,648 127,143 121,618 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,506,404 1,497,946 1,504,768 1,510,872 60,103 58,846 60,877 57,837 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.8

California-Lexington Park

55,245 54,813 55,318 55,195 2,014 2,024 2,102 1,952 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.5

Cumberland

44,685 44,171 44,858 44,602 2,154 2,205 2,210 2,162 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.8

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,515 131,839 131,298 134,025 5,110 5,234 5,126 5,163 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9

Massachusetts

3,639,953 3,814,745 3,637,788 3,820,853 126,627 120,367 111,544 109,703 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.9

Barnstable Town

126,734 132,338 123,051 127,750 4,378 4,129 4,004 3,888 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.0

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,681,308 2,810,408 2,686,390 2,821,460 86,831 82,190 76,931 74,744 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.6

Leominster-Gardner

77,765 80,967 77,558 81,200 3,042 2,881 2,691 2,638 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.2

New Bedford

83,826 87,454 83,470 87,614 4,314 4,005 3,799 3,639 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.2

Pittsfield

43,018 44,204 42,743 44,120 1,719 1,583 1,511 1,474 4.0 3.6 3.5 3.3

Springfield

366,735 379,727 367,870 382,224 15,265 14,689 13,553 13,496 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.5

Worcester

350,037 366,911 350,497 367,574 12,883 12,420 11,508 11,544 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.1

Michigan

4,914,046 4,884,529 4,884,824 4,907,170 221,097 169,211 204,681 185,438 4.5 3.5 4.2 3.8

Ann Arbor

195,564 195,148 194,956 197,039 7,666 5,531 6,635 5,768 3.9 2.8 3.4 2.9

Battle Creek

63,017 62,457 62,917 62,973 3,056 2,237 2,859 2,283 4.8 3.6 4.5 3.6

Bay City

50,832 50,032 50,477 50,295 2,474 1,834 2,297 1,876 4.9 3.7 4.6 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,140,148 2,126,331 2,121,865 2,137,075 98,430 79,170 91,876 93,014 4.6 3.7 4.3 4.4

Flint

182,317 179,621 181,678 180,957 9,893 7,271 9,111 7,494 5.4 4.0 5.0 4.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

570,129 575,643 569,502 577,624 20,030 15,042 18,509 15,254 3.5 2.6 3.3 2.6

Jackson

74,088 72,814 74,076 73,587 3,291 2,448 3,035 2,505 4.4 3.4 4.1 3.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,774 166,345 167,954 167,697 7,181 5,268 6,630 5,325 4.3 3.2 3.9 3.2

Lansing-East Lansing

249,042 248,668 249,664 251,686 10,344 7,288 9,415 7,481 4.2 2.9 3.8 3.0

Midland

40,219 39,907 39,831 39,908 1,739 1,292 1,621 1,317 4.3 3.2 4.1 3.3

Monroe

77,123 76,028 76,820 76,795 4,218 2,707 3,748 3,066 5.5 3.6 4.9 4.0

Muskegon

77,948 76,723 77,419 76,577 4,045 2,970 3,799 3,050 5.2 3.9 4.9 4.0

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,657 72,792 72,881 72,802 3,326 2,596 3,061 2,623 4.5 3.6 4.2 3.6

Saginaw

87,431 86,721 86,953 87,331 4,445 3,399 4,110 3,429 5.1 3.9 4.7 3.9

Minnesota

3,071,191 3,073,214 3,059,916 3,084,915 87,539 68,528 73,290 66,585 2.9 2.2 2.4 2.2

Duluth

144,968 143,439 143,478 144,125 5,152 3,921 4,409 3,916 3.6 2.7 3.1 2.7

Mankato-North Mankato

61,133 62,374 62,673 63,942 1,430 1,214 1,169 1,111 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.7

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,009,183 2,005,919 1,989,206 2,007,145 56,297 44,267 47,244 42,572 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.1

Rochester

121,291 120,459 121,444 121,328 2,882 2,313 2,475 2,247 2.4 1.9 2.0 1.9

St. Cloud

111,472 111,990 112,240 113,096 3,028 2,453 2,565 2,372 2.7 2.2 2.3 2.1

Mississippi

1,276,196 1,279,584 1,272,072 1,273,283 59,527 58,078 56,161 53,982 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.2

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

163,118 162,996 163,048 161,876 7,964 7,804 7,584 7,181 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.4

Hattiesburg

68,185 68,964 68,694 69,038 2,788 2,733 2,593 2,559 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7

Jackson

270,314 271,424 271,996 271,645 11,106 10,865 10,561 10,160 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.7

Missouri

3,052,192 3,056,664 3,031,234 3,070,323 99,677 80,603 82,841 71,387 3.3 2.6 2.7 2.3

Cape Girardeau

47,801 48,356 47,640 48,602 1,569 1,219 1,177 1,070 3.3 2.5 2.5 2.2

Columbia

98,483 98,626 97,929 99,177 2,314 1,896 1,617 1,564 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.6

Jefferson City

74,231 73,975 73,827 74,533 2,079 1,607 1,505 1,370 2.8 2.2 2.0 1.8

Joplin

84,342 84,385 83,774 85,108 2,592 2,026 1,939 1,768 3.1 2.4 2.3 2.1

Kansas City

1,129,613 1,141,755 1,128,230 1,147,245 37,014 32,122 38,062 30,922 3.3 2.8 3.4 2.7

St. Joseph

64,767 65,310 64,759 66,154 1,931 1,525 1,594 1,387 3.0 2.3 2.5 2.1

St. Louis(2)

1,459,184 1,468,941 1,447,509 1,474,856 49,769 42,674 41,432 41,059 3.4 2.9 2.9 2.8

Springfield

230,575 231,168 227,113 231,350 6,650 5,372 4,778 4,519 2.9 2.3 2.1 2.0

Montana

525,710 523,111 524,892 524,858 18,235 16,520 19,394 17,279 3.5 3.2 3.7 3.3

Billings

87,345 86,396 87,035 86,446 2,830 2,604 2,844 2,629 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.0

Great Falls

37,944 37,443 37,958 37,531 1,321 1,250 1,336 1,225 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.3

Missoula

62,777 62,283 62,847 62,962 1,935 1,731 2,026 1,838 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.9

Nebraska

1,000,098 1,012,180 1,005,465 1,024,158 27,212 25,895 25,672 27,008 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6

Grand Island

43,388 43,808 43,093 43,653 1,142 1,140 1,126 1,169 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7

Lincoln

177,875 180,820 178,441 182,852 4,523 4,367 4,238 4,524 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5

Omaha-Council Bluffs

476,787 485,664 480,238 492,438 13,455 12,665 12,626 12,840 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6

Nevada

1,473,917 1,519,245 1,474,068 1,526,445 72,059 67,150 68,899 63,591 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.2

Carson City

25,785 26,348 25,850 26,505 1,169 1,098 1,160 1,056 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.0

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,079,780 1,113,821 1,081,602 1,117,989 55,862 52,255 53,223 49,173 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.4

Reno

245,136 252,990 245,215 256,430 9,457 8,653 9,118 8,382 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.3

New Hampshire

743,350 758,780 744,206 758,608 18,490 17,479 17,199 15,562 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.1

Dover-Durham

83,905 86,115 85,184 86,718 1,902 1,814 1,763 1,654 2.3 2.1 2.1 1.9

Manchester

115,748 118,078 115,887 118,572 2,890 2,689 2,690 2,391 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.0

Portsmouth

76,297 78,139 76,256 78,306 1,756 1,678 1,639 1,578 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0

New Jersey

4,505,265 4,457,867 4,498,988 4,486,971 210,108 182,302 198,549 160,343 4.7 4.1 4.4 3.6

Atlantic City-Hammonton

121,591 124,151 120,465 122,584 8,035 6,399 7,827 5,799 6.6 5.2 6.5 4.7

Ocean City

49,997 49,548 44,823 46,347 2,974 2,472 3,370 2,595 5.9 5.0 7.5 5.6

Trenton

198,396 199,411 198,765 200,932 8,304 7,247 7,821 6,363 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,292 65,326 66,751 65,280 4,414 3,891 4,221 3,322 6.7 6.0 6.3 5.1

New Mexico

930,215 943,589 933,360 951,378 55,508 43,462 53,585 42,945 6.0 4.6 5.7 4.5

Albuquerque

426,549 435,521 428,236 440,798 24,342 19,342 23,482 19,044 5.7 4.4 5.5 4.3

Farmington

53,192 53,524 53,413 54,035 3,496 2,651 3,327 2,600 6.6 5.0 6.2 4.8

Las Cruces

93,241 93,307 93,446 93,867 6,023 4,858 5,744 4,790 6.5 5.2 6.1 5.1

Santa Fe

73,038 74,150 73,660 74,720 3,764 2,899 3,659 2,899 5.2 3.9 5.0 3.9

New York

9,743,446 9,740,425 9,683,391 9,787,056 446,739 365,727 429,759 352,282 4.6 3.8 4.4 3.6

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

453,697 453,365 451,231 459,919 19,300 15,355 18,345 14,459 4.3 3.4 4.1 3.1

Binghamton

108,884 108,031 108,106 108,886 5,576 4,356 5,297 4,108 5.1 4.0 4.9 3.8

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

553,287 555,682 549,474 558,160 27,806 21,122 26,743 20,075 5.0 3.8 4.9 3.6

Elmira

35,760 35,371 35,514 35,075 1,934 1,476 1,846 1,381 5.4 4.2 5.2 3.9

Glens Falls

60,660 61,132 60,029 60,922 2,671 2,053 2,541 1,988 4.4 3.4 4.2 3.3

Ithaca

51,224 52,473 51,183 52,783 2,302 1,708 2,121 1,609 4.5 3.3 4.1 3.0

Kingston

89,247 90,313 89,102 91,374 3,934 3,083 3,820 2,897 4.4 3.4 4.3 3.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,126,576 10,069,305 10,086,557 10,130,101 455,826 388,363 435,435 364,421 4.5 3.9 4.3 3.6

Rochester

525,232 529,079 523,399 530,953 25,327 19,500 24,381 18,406 4.8 3.7 4.7 3.5

Syracuse

309,071 309,547 307,139 311,897 15,345 11,406 14,528 10,802 5.0 3.7 4.7 3.5

Utica-Rome

129,710 129,611 128,512 130,228 6,386 4,975 6,154 4,739 4.9 3.8 4.8 3.6

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,544 45,291 44,692 44,975 2,514 1,898 2,488 1,842 5.5 4.2 5.6 4.1

North Carolina

4,989,623 4,957,232 4,972,021 5,013,870 211,307 152,193 211,534 170,887 4.2 3.1 4.3 3.4

Asheville

232,164 229,524 231,603 231,512 7,977 5,620 7,864 6,402 3.4 2.4 3.4 2.8

Burlington

80,485 79,395 79,973 80,614 3,226 2,279 3,210 2,565 4.0 2.9 4.0 3.2

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,329,873 1,333,951 1,333,393 1,351,190 54,002 38,836 54,199 42,787 4.1 2.9 4.1 3.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

298,524 298,279 297,061 300,555 11,309 7,972 11,206 9,014 3.8 2.7 3.8 3.0

Fayetteville

148,031 145,174 147,278 148,132 8,062 6,024 8,043 6,710 5.4 4.1 5.5 4.5

Goldsboro

53,549 51,907 53,260 52,627 2,518 1,804 2,516 2,004 4.7 3.5 4.7 3.8

Greensboro-High Point

371,335 367,972 369,649 373,486 16,676 11,641 16,605 13,091 4.5 3.2 4.5 3.5

Greenville

90,489 89,246 89,484 89,360 4,113 2,934 4,057 3,290 4.5 3.3 4.5 3.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,671 174,034 173,730 176,224 6,868 4,786 7,071 5,471 3.9 2.8 4.1 3.1

Jacksonville

64,655 63,513 63,973 65,249 3,145 2,569 3,182 2,853 4.9 4.0 5.0 4.4

New Bern

51,835 50,551 51,382 51,398 2,342 1,793 2,293 2,085 4.5 3.5 4.5 4.1

Raleigh

705,010 711,287 702,996 719,031 26,506 18,799 26,356 21,202 3.8 2.6 3.7 2.9

Rocky Mount

65,595 62,497 65,584 64,115 4,068 2,855 4,100 3,100 6.2 4.6 6.3 4.8

Wilmington

147,947 141,885 145,971 145,094 5,778 4,861 5,957 5,301 3.9 3.4 4.1 3.7

Winston-Salem

327,583 325,145 326,159 330,187 13,257 9,463 13,266 10,724 4.0 2.9 4.1 3.2

North Dakota

414,703 401,220 413,442 401,062 8,221 9,029 7,532 7,920 2.0 2.3 1.8 2.0

Bismarck

68,454 67,015 68,590 67,298 1,418 1,578 1,277 1,405 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.1

Fargo

137,947 135,265 137,919 135,646 2,646 2,781 2,274 2,480 1.9 2.1 1.6 1.8

Grand Forks

55,984 54,795 55,896 55,303 1,212 1,206 990 1,024 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.9

Ohio

5,800,421 5,728,075 5,780,912 5,784,462 270,887 233,676 252,102 247,409 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.3

Akron

362,526 359,617 364,432 364,471 16,912 14,528 16,158 15,635 4.7 4.0 4.4 4.3

Canton-Massillon

200,401 197,104 201,332 199,771 9,556 8,507 9,309 9,186 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.6

Cincinnati

1,113,959 1,107,975 1,109,555 1,119,286 45,036 40,851 43,537 43,396 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.9

Cleveland-Elyria

1,037,329 1,039,724 1,022,335 1,039,643 53,335 46,123 48,185 46,414 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.5

Columbus

1,080,394 1,066,695 1,078,637 1,084,773 41,845 38,030 39,737 40,666 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7

Dayton

389,125 386,783 391,910 391,210 17,165 15,390 16,517 16,465 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.2

Lima

48,649 47,174 48,855 47,882 2,246 1,872 2,108 2,021 4.6 4.0 4.3 4.2

Mansfield

53,109 52,464 53,071 52,986 2,670 2,179 2,567 2,390 5.0 4.2 4.8 4.5

Springfield

63,659 63,079 63,636 63,813 2,825 2,579 2,699 2,784 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.4

Toledo

305,985 299,096 305,125 302,769 16,414 13,450 14,656 14,219 5.4 4.5 4.8 4.7

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,052 50,033 50,899 50,451 3,010 2,640 2,975 2,767 5.9 5.3 5.8 5.5

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

247,403 237,010 244,426 239,752 17,789 12,328 13,569 13,242 7.2 5.2 5.6 5.5

Oklahoma

1,846,157 1,854,750 1,848,467 1,861,101 75,274 55,582 73,847 55,951 4.1 3.0 4.0 3.0

Enid

27,714 27,550 27,719 27,645 1,062 753 1,023 748 3.8 2.7 3.7 2.7

Lawton

51,837 51,436 51,931 51,894 2,306 1,826 2,265 1,883 4.4 3.6 4.4 3.6

Oklahoma City

677,643 684,431 677,142 686,335 25,003 19,192 24,204 19,195 3.7 2.8 3.6 2.8

Tulsa

479,487 486,604 482,606 488,186 20,489 14,682 20,482 14,972 4.3 3.0 4.2 3.1

Oregon

2,134,310 2,122,489 2,130,000 2,128,399 85,082 78,804 84,155 85,675 4.0 3.7 4.0 4.0

Albany

58,123 58,547 58,834 59,213 2,714 2,506 2,690 2,695 4.7 4.3 4.6 4.6

Bend-Redmond

95,503 96,848 94,665 96,165 3,663 3,408 3,792 3,753 3.8 3.5 4.0 3.9

Corvallis

47,937 47,183 48,972 48,732 1,618 1,475 1,489 1,608 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.3

Eugene

183,160 183,092 185,148 184,837 8,020 7,544 7,872 8,107 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.4

Grants Pass

36,332 36,127 36,008 36,104 1,813 1,717 1,804 1,889 5.0 4.8 5.0 5.2

Medford

106,149 106,166 106,492 106,300 4,660 4,442 4,537 4,751 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.5

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,323,059 1,318,353 1,325,764 1,330,824 50,979 46,531 50,291 50,420 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.8

Salem

205,685 203,370 203,944 203,555 8,517 7,875 8,247 8,544 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.2

Pennsylvania

6,421,837 6,423,332 6,383,896 6,455,032 283,990 250,856 274,047 252,191 4.4 3.9 4.3 3.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

435,476 435,165 433,564 441,725 19,551 18,297 18,879 18,119 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.1

Altoona

60,194 59,651 58,737 59,513 2,522 2,214 2,383 2,252 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,959 42,579 42,656 42,609 1,819 1,644 1,749 1,612 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.8

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,196 76,923 75,439 76,680 2,946 2,610 2,828 2,597 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.4

East Stroudsburg

81,615 81,289 80,667 81,588 4,394 4,033 4,293 4,013 5.4 5.0 5.3 4.9

Erie

130,995 129,001 129,819 129,163 6,435 5,125 6,281 5,288 4.9 4.0 4.8 4.1

Gettysburg

55,542 56,490 55,184 56,249 1,780 1,709 1,682 1,715 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0

Harrisburg-Carlisle

296,175 297,246 293,402 296,840 11,456 10,113 10,904 10,078 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.4

Johnstown

59,236 58,650 59,211 59,572 3,074 2,595 2,919 2,630 5.2 4.4 4.9 4.4

Lancaster

279,976 282,313 276,882 282,386 9,723 8,741 9,339 8,779 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.1

Lebanon

70,558 70,662 69,587 70,211 2,631 2,450 2,520 2,463 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,088,445 3,097,567 3,087,668 3,120,672 142,234 126,284 136,774 121,489 4.6 4.1 4.4 3.9

Pittsburgh

1,206,030 1,200,822 1,199,481 1,210,143 52,987 45,168 51,107 45,590 4.4 3.8 4.3 3.8

Reading

211,882 213,331 210,186 213,310 8,944 8,268 8,604 8,255 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.9

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

279,103 279,736 278,172 281,162 13,782 12,674 13,426 12,783 4.9 4.5 4.8 4.5

State College

79,305 78,661 79,565 80,521 2,602 2,411 2,475 2,406 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0

Williamsport

57,533 56,172 56,757 56,091 2,818 2,427 2,676 2,349 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.2

York-Hanover

233,995 234,979 232,241 235,963 9,406 8,342 8,974 8,259 4.0 3.6 3.9 3.5

Rhode Island

555,698 559,261 556,526 558,063 22,433 19,529 22,789 17,191 4.0 3.5 4.1 3.1

Providence-Warwick

683,653 693,260 684,600 692,775 27,427 24,459 27,078 21,714 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.1

South Carolina

2,317,579 2,297,655 2,316,025 2,316,491 98,002 76,269 96,947 76,757 4.2 3.3 4.2 3.3

Charleston-North Charleston

378,085 373,762 378,094 380,758 13,765 10,552 13,350 10,601 3.6 2.8 3.5 2.8

Columbia

401,664 397,648 401,752 399,043 17,140 12,617 17,029 12,660 4.3 3.2 4.2 3.2

Florence

95,385 94,287 94,762 94,785 4,519 3,606 4,549 3,568 4.7 3.8 4.8 3.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

425,634 421,195 425,887 425,513 16,007 12,611 15,686 12,801 3.8 3.0 3.7 3.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

85,706 86,312 85,466 86,500 3,451 2,579 3,384 2,664 4.0 3.0 4.0 3.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

196,327 195,398 192,955 195,065 9,275 7,681 9,423 8,128 4.7 3.9 4.9 4.2

Spartanburg

159,669 157,257 158,912 158,454 6,345 4,805 6,248 4,854 4.0 3.1 3.9 3.1

Sumter

44,084 43,606 44,029 43,853 2,300 1,698 2,258 1,689 5.2 3.9 5.1 3.9

South Dakota

454,086 456,501 457,090 459,632 13,828 11,773 13,567 11,995 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.6

Rapid City

74,078 75,095 74,239 75,163 2,331 2,041 2,319 2,107 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.8

Sioux Falls

148,662 149,964 151,018 152,686 3,816 3,248 3,794 3,327 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.2

Tennessee

3,222,941 3,234,140 3,213,444 3,251,426 105,030 119,695 101,958 120,258 3.3 3.7 3.2 3.7

Chattanooga

268,908 273,388 268,966 273,923 9,430 9,408 9,344 10,081 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.7

Clarksville

112,398 113,057 111,433 114,003 4,645 5,046 4,296 4,944 4.1 4.5 3.9 4.3

Cleveland

57,806 58,049 57,924 58,425 1,901 2,219 1,840 2,232 3.3 3.8 3.2 3.8

Jackson

64,025 64,634 63,774 64,861 2,228 2,582 2,277 2,588 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.0

Johnson City

90,869 90,201 90,698 91,305 3,297 3,682 3,165 3,641 3.6 4.1 3.5 4.0

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,292 138,391 137,525 138,724 5,108 5,044 4,880 5,040 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.6

Knoxville

422,077 418,865 419,636 419,996 12,972 14,565 12,432 14,712 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.5

Memphis

630,288 637,304 631,213 642,577 24,268 27,404 23,946 27,284 3.9 4.3 3.8 4.2

Morristown

51,421 51,799 51,525 52,256 1,831 2,023 1,730 2,001 3.6 3.9 3.4 3.8

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,023,563 1,029,157 1,021,435 1,036,101 26,294 30,677 25,039 30,506 2.6 3.0 2.5 2.9

Texas

13,619,456 13,802,138 13,536,215 13,869,529 548,848 517,036 501,634 478,909 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5

Abilene

75,972 76,468 75,542 76,782 2,616 2,527 2,444 2,377 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1

Amarillo

130,910 132,485 130,923 133,467 3,605 3,600 3,352 3,360 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,161,052 1,193,565 1,155,097 1,198,220 33,831 34,628 31,553 32,367 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.7

Beaumont-Port Arthur

175,159 170,423 173,882 172,072 14,349 10,075 11,508 8,934 8.2 5.9 6.6 5.2

Brownsville-Harlingen

165,654 165,636 163,623 164,994 10,564 9,455 9,410 8,555 6.4 5.7 5.8 5.2

College Station-Bryan

131,926 133,973 132,986 135,709 3,860 3,877 3,563 3,623 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.7

Corpus Christi

207,672 205,634 205,665 207,372 12,552 9,883 11,334 8,848 6.0 4.8 5.5 4.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,835,897 3,900,738 3,813,603 3,928,333 129,572 133,091 121,199 124,862 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

El Paso

357,207 360,428 354,192 362,010 15,288 15,189 14,368 14,108 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,338,453 3,405,254 3,317,087 3,420,931 161,658 140,823 144,787 128,813 4.8 4.1 4.4 3.8

Killeen-Temple

175,863 177,272 174,686 178,206 6,906 7,141 6,466 6,780 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.8

Laredo

115,156 114,382 113,960 114,961 4,165 4,163 3,882 3,983 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5

Longview

97,469 97,004 96,896 97,616 4,418 3,912 4,138 3,721 4.5 4.0 4.3 3.8

Lubbock

161,882 164,355 161,446 165,169 4,700 4,909 4,315 4,530 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.7

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

339,158 341,127 337,542 340,899 23,041 21,141 19,978 18,618 6.8 6.2 5.9 5.5

Midland

94,345 100,435 93,231 100,864 2,455 2,179 2,210 2,073 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.1

Odessa

80,082 80,451 79,357 80,893 2,730 2,192 2,505 2,044 3.4 2.7 3.2 2.5

San Angelo

55,004 55,250 54,664 55,465 1,795 1,775 1,666 1,673 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,179,014 1,176,710 1,168,449 1,180,724 38,083 38,791 35,453 36,396 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.1

Sherman-Denison

62,261 63,360 61,739 63,831 2,007 2,000 1,855 1,896 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0

Texarkana

64,821 64,936 64,417 65,402 2,758 3,360 2,543 3,140 4.3 5.2 3.9 4.8

Tyler

106,876 108,806 106,561 110,264 4,047 3,792 4,441 3,724 3.8 3.5 4.2 3.4

Victoria

45,946 44,717 45,801 44,945 2,185 1,717 1,960 1,587 4.8 3.8 4.3 3.5

Waco

125,408 125,445 123,820 125,264 4,645 4,319 4,264 4,046 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.2

Wichita Falls

64,725 64,825 64,512 65,248 2,161 2,156 1,989 2,010 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1

Utah

1,571,088 1,576,960 1,574,321 1,571,635 46,718 47,651 46,298 43,192 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.7

Logan

70,115 70,557 71,098 71,155 1,704 1,784 1,691 1,640 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3

Ogden-Clearfield

327,540 325,229 328,540 324,419 10,038 10,122 10,446 9,167 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.8

Provo-Orem

301,742 306,475 303,102 305,400 8,255 8,631 7,961 7,706 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.5

St. George

71,671 73,450 72,118 73,489 2,256 2,404 2,218 2,186 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.0

Salt Lake City

655,847 656,989 656,489 655,246 19,079 19,603 18,605 17,776 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7

Vermont

343,810 342,964 344,217 342,283 9,919 9,567 7,783 6,224 2.9 2.8 2.3 1.8

Burlington-South Burlington

125,457 124,483 125,485 125,685 3,118 3,040 2,445 1,979 2.5 2.4 1.9 1.6

Virginia

4,327,531 4,323,618 4,302,973 4,345,779 155,426 118,444 146,155 119,863 3.6 2.7 3.4 2.8

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

91,676 91,060 90,351 92,134 3,584 2,591 3,268 2,587 3.9 2.8 3.6 2.8

Charlottesville

120,990 123,805 119,298 123,226 3,785 2,954 3,532 3,020 3.1 2.4 3.0 2.5

Harrisonburg

66,253 66,111 65,920 66,660 2,364 1,780 2,159 1,802 3.6 2.7 3.3 2.7

Lynchburg

123,157 123,306 122,029 123,765 5,108 3,794 4,750 3,788 4.1 3.1 3.9 3.1

Richmond

680,528 677,868 676,856 683,502 25,824 19,803 24,323 19,976 3.8 2.9 3.6 2.9

Roanoke

157,647 158,175 156,567 159,130 5,842 4,200 5,419 4,260 3.7 2.7 3.5 2.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,185 59,518 58,887 60,132 2,038 1,503 1,994 1,571 3.4 2.5 3.4 2.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

853,478 848,763 845,376 852,412 33,988 25,857 32,041 26,114 4.0 3.0 3.8 3.1

Winchester

71,444 72,494 71,447 73,338 2,276 1,858 2,125 1,908 3.2 2.6 3.0 2.6

Washington

3,761,882 3,792,019 3,757,972 3,823,627 168,840 147,755 163,671 152,043 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.0

Bellingham

109,443 110,179 110,998 113,986 5,163 4,350 4,876 4,746 4.7 3.9 4.4 4.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

120,467 120,517 122,331 123,363 5,719 4,898 5,516 5,263 4.7 4.1 4.5 4.3

Kennewick-Richland

140,401 140,290 139,449 141,454 6,577 5,712 6,601 6,284 4.7 4.1 4.7 4.4

Longview

45,842 45,910 46,232 46,471 2,554 2,220 2,462 2,398 5.6 4.8 5.3 5.2

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

59,690 59,533 59,699 60,951 2,937 2,615 2,853 2,851 4.9 4.4 4.8 4.7

Olympia-Tumwater

135,308 135,368 136,595 139,037 6,313 5,507 6,207 5,907 4.7 4.1 4.5 4.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,086,860 2,117,734 2,077,400 2,115,242 88,504 77,182 84,643 74,916 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.5

Spokane-Spokane Valley

262,877 258,901 266,049 267,148 12,823 11,486 12,607 12,311 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.6

Walla Walla

31,590 31,359 32,956 33,172 1,357 1,180 1,370 1,305 4.3 3.8 4.2 3.9

Wenatchee

68,207 68,983 66,730 68,921 2,574 2,265 2,621 2,641 3.8 3.3 3.9 3.8

Yakima

135,208 138,124 131,823 138,216 6,215 5,551 6,297 6,517 4.6 4.0 4.8 4.7

West Virginia

785,351 782,682 783,319 785,538 35,865 34,947 36,014 36,147 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6

Beckley

45,844 45,049 45,501 45,129 2,282 2,138 2,287 2,268 5.0 4.7 5.0 5.0

Charleston

95,724 94,427 95,042 94,263 4,541 4,343 4,595 4,465 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.7

Huntington-Ashland

148,445 146,045 147,792 146,711 7,379 7,067 7,157 7,231 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.9

Morgantown

68,431 69,595 68,837 70,219 2,431 2,672 2,445 2,729 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.9

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,528 38,064 38,333 38,096 1,875 1,742 1,866 1,831 4.9 4.6 4.9 4.8

Wheeling

64,724 63,552 64,878 64,460 3,167 2,846 3,183 2,920 4.9 4.5 4.9 4.5

Wisconsin

3,166,604 3,147,177 3,159,058 3,148,847 92,134 80,668 86,267 81,663 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6

Appleton

132,592 132,987 132,802 132,595 3,412 3,107 3,577 3,114 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.3

Eau Claire

93,455 93,011 93,530 93,450 2,495 2,114 2,325 2,223 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.4

Fond du Lac

57,959 58,059 57,792 58,196 1,405 1,222 1,354 1,292 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.2

Green Bay

176,343 175,632 175,779 175,793 4,686 4,143 4,478 4,238 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.4

Janesville-Beloit

85,906 84,290 85,471 83,927 2,764 2,408 2,563 2,354 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.8

La Crosse-Onalaska

78,855 78,733 79,465 79,193 2,031 1,626 1,874 1,716 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.2

Madison

391,551 392,807 393,304 392,931 8,966 7,681 8,504 8,164 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

837,844 827,803 831,125 825,377 27,892 24,943 25,623 24,447 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.0

Oshkosh-Neenah

94,342 93,752 94,310 93,834 2,571 2,184 2,424 2,260 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.4

Racine

100,560 99,106 99,449 98,494 3,733 3,302 3,358 3,137 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.2

Sheboygan

63,760 63,799 63,092 63,142 1,623 1,368 1,543 1,410 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.2

Wausau

74,118 74,720 74,257 74,938 1,967 1,655 1,817 1,708 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.3

Wyoming

292,678 285,812 292,185 287,291 10,386 10,605 10,771 10,094 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.5

Casper

38,992 37,580 39,376 38,348 1,751 1,698 1,789 1,624 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.2

Cheyenne

47,242 45,904 47,665 46,896 1,602 1,705 1,671 1,625 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.5

Puerto Rico

1,091,617 1,088,594 1,055,201 1,082,287 120,527 93,171 120,289 89,486 11.0 8.6 11.4 8.3

Aguadilla-Isabela

87,712 86,500 85,721 85,975 12,302 9,707 12,928 9,236 14.0 11.2 15.1 10.7

Arecibo

51,919 51,597 50,657 51,832 6,277 5,167 6,782 5,182 12.1 10.0 13.4 10.0

Guayama

21,183 20,557 20,276 20,297 3,558 2,582 3,235 2,454 16.8 12.6 16.0 12.1

Mayaguez

27,449 26,850 26,840 26,689 3,850 2,827 3,899 2,761 14.0 10.5 14.5 10.3

Ponce

93,000 91,789 90,722 91,145 13,324 10,240 13,015 9,809 14.3 11.2 14.3 10.8

San German

35,673 34,239 35,036 33,959 5,953 3,959 6,235 3,723 16.7 11.6 17.8 11.0

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

730,426 737,068 702,181 732,695 67,703 53,334 67,026 51,346 9.3 7.2 9.5 7.0

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) September October September October
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

California

19,462,033 19,549,346 19,374,412 19,627,398 841,531 767,720 816,310 780,472 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,804,412 6,796,129 6,772,653 6,819,994 290,348 293,590 276,364 289,836 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.2

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,632,752 1,628,659 1,626,133 1,640,135 53,348 45,566 51,870 47,097 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,171,660 5,167,470 5,146,520 5,179,859 237,000 248,024 224,494 242,739 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,591,894 2,612,354 2,580,850 2,621,765 79,111 66,454 76,921 68,716 3.1 2.5 3.0 2.6

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,421,076 1,431,969 1,415,172 1,436,692 48,612 40,862 47,138 42,331 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,028,948 1,035,719 1,023,537 1,039,891 26,752 22,362 26,152 22,995 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.2

San Rafael

141,870 144,666 142,141 145,182 3,747 3,230 3,631 3,390 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.3

District of Columbia

399,944 399,003 401,245 402,104 25,089 23,790 23,895 22,405 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,396,035 3,389,820 3,389,870 3,407,333 123,220 110,858 120,310 109,384 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

692,842 692,660 689,632 694,460 22,298 22,432 23,148 21,991 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,703,193 2,697,160 2,700,238 2,712,873 100,922 88,426 97,162 87,393 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.2

Florida

10,202,985 10,263,010 10,128,026 10,261,846 411,122 313,992 390,619 312,597 4.0 3.1 3.9 3.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,149,447 3,137,123 3,141,344 3,138,415 134,972 101,948 129,922 100,701 4.3 3.2 4.1 3.2

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,035,384 1,043,575 1,031,719 1,046,368 38,410 29,572 36,940 29,495 3.7 2.8 3.6 2.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,387,270 1,364,440 1,386,660 1,357,854 67,082 49,458 65,325 48,791 4.8 3.6 4.7 3.6

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

726,793 729,108 722,965 734,193 29,480 22,918 27,657 22,415 4.1 3.1 3.8 3.1

Illinois

6,496,827 6,462,858 6,483,672 6,527,645 299,985 245,989 294,392 273,133 4.6 3.8 4.5 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,921,065 4,844,568 4,909,919 4,902,724 230,308 177,481 227,138 196,679 4.7 3.7 4.6 4.0

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,797,676 3,702,559 3,788,939 3,751,182 184,964 133,726 183,508 148,095 4.9 3.6 4.8 3.9

Elgin

321,282 330,529 322,586 333,675 12,932 12,976 12,648 14,548 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.4

Gary(3)

339,134 341,515 338,299 343,984 15,261 13,983 14,295 15,719 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.6

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

462,973 469,965 460,095 473,883 17,151 16,796 16,687 18,317 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.9

Massachusetts

3,639,953 3,814,745 3,637,788 3,820,853 126,627 120,367 111,544 109,703 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,681,308 2,810,408 2,686,390 2,821,460 86,831 82,190 76,931 74,744 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.6

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,594,487 1,677,380 1,598,473 1,685,029 49,728 46,924 43,731 42,649 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

106,178 111,189 106,313 111,684 4,256 4,023 3,663 3,629 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.2

Framingham

155,996 162,069 155,560 162,669 4,672 4,374 4,100 4,037 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.5

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

114,124 118,555 113,886 118,705 3,483 3,415 3,202 3,165 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

96,074 100,556 96,325 100,625 4,452 4,267 3,984 3,829 4.6 4.2 4.1 3.8

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

188,437 197,889 188,882 198,316 6,478 6,117 5,800 5,581 3.4 3.1 3.1 2.8

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

83,987 88,440 83,958 88,488 2,917 2,853 2,532 2,584 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.9

Nashua(2)

167,979 172,795 168,888 173,614 4,660 4,421 4,479 4,036 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.3

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

90,751 94,252 91,028 94,741 3,035 2,875 2,683 2,600 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

83,295 87,283 83,077 87,589 3,150 2,921 2,757 2,634 3.8 3.3 3.3 3.0

Michigan

4,914,046 4,884,529 4,884,824 4,907,170 221,097 169,211 204,681 185,438 4.5 3.5 4.2 3.8

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,140,148 2,126,331 2,121,865 2,137,075 98,430 79,170 91,876 93,014 4.6 3.7 4.3 4.4

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

801,271 795,127 793,709 799,637 46,349 36,080 42,170 42,987 5.8 4.5 5.3 5.4

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,338,876 1,331,206 1,328,156 1,337,438 52,081 43,091 49,706 50,027 3.9 3.2 3.7 3.7

New York

9,743,446 9,740,425 9,683,391 9,787,056 446,739 365,727 429,759 352,282 4.6 3.8 4.4 3.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,126,576 10,069,305 10,086,557 10,130,101 455,826 388,363 435,435 364,421 4.5 3.9 4.3 3.6

Dutchess County-Putnam County

196,341 198,370 196,256 200,713 8,674 6,657 8,204 6,273 4.4 3.4 4.2 3.1

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,499,055 1,506,698 1,484,358 1,509,528 64,841 49,876 62,174 46,774 4.3 3.3 4.2 3.1

Newark(3)

1,239,437 1,219,577 1,237,681 1,231,850 58,440 51,581 54,958 45,292 4.7 4.2 4.4 3.7

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,191,743 7,144,660 7,168,262 7,188,010 323,871 280,249 310,099 266,082 4.5 3.9 4.3 3.7

Pennsylvania

6,421,837 6,423,332 6,383,896 6,455,032 283,990 250,856 274,047 252,191 4.4 3.9 4.3 3.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,088,445 3,097,567 3,087,668 3,120,672 142,234 126,284 136,774 121,489 4.6 4.1 4.4 3.9

Camden(3)

642,430 637,417 642,350 642,156 30,439 26,767 28,797 23,390 4.7 4.2 4.5 3.6

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,069,928 1,071,398 1,065,425 1,077,234 39,392 34,996 37,498 35,234 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.3

Philadelphia

1,001,022 1,007,394 1,000,178 1,016,015 55,108 48,523 53,638 48,817 5.5 4.8 5.4 4.8

Wilmington(3)

375,065 381,358 379,715 385,267 17,295 15,998 16,841 14,048 4.6 4.2 4.4 3.6

Texas

13,619,456 13,802,138 13,536,215 13,869,529 548,848 517,036 501,634 478,909 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,835,897 3,900,738 3,813,603 3,928,333 129,572 133,091 121,199 124,862 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,588,554 2,639,760 2,576,095 2,659,876 87,150 90,134 81,694 84,448 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,247,343 1,260,978 1,237,508 1,268,457 42,422 42,957 39,505 40,414 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

Washington

3,761,882 3,792,019 3,757,972 3,823,627 168,840 147,755 163,671 152,043 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,086,860 2,117,734 2,077,400 2,115,242 88,504 77,182 84,643 74,916 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.5

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,669,438 1,696,604 1,656,221 1,684,471 67,548 58,721 64,004 55,166 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.3

Tacoma-Lakewood

417,422 421,130 421,179 430,771 20,956 18,461 20,639 19,750 5.0 4.4 4.9 4.6

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area September October Change from
October 2017 to October 2018(p)
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,021.2 2,050.5 2,028.2 2,062.7 34.5 1.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.8 47.6 47.3 47.5 0.2 0.4

Auburn-Opelika

65.0 65.9 65.5 66.4 0.9 1.4

Birmingham-Hoover

532.1 537.9 532.1 538.2 6.1 1.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

75.5 78.0 74.9 77.2 2.3 3.1

Decatur

54.0 55.2 54.3 55.4 1.1 2.0

Dothan

58.2 58.8 58.4 58.1 -0.3 -0.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.5 57.5 56.6 58.1 1.5 2.7

Gadsden

37.8 38.5 38.1 38.5 0.4 1.0

Huntsville

233.4 240.6 233.9 244.2 10.3 4.4

Mobile

184.6 186.2 185.5 187.4 1.9 1.0

Montgomery

177.7 179.9 179.0 180.0 1.0 0.6

Tuscaloosa

109.1 110.0 109.1 111.4 2.3 2.1


Alaska

340.2 337.5 322.9 324.0 1.1 0.3

Anchorage

179.6 179.5 175.5 176.1 0.6 0.3

Fairbanks

38.9 38.7 37.7 38.0 0.3 0.8


Arizona

2,794.5 2,878.3 2,813.8 2,901.6 87.8 3.1

Flagstaff

69.7 70.5 69.1 70.2 1.1 1.6

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

50.1 51.4 50.3 52.1 1.8 3.6

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,049.2 2,123.8 2,067.1 2,143.8 76.7 3.7

Prescott

64.4 65.9 64.8 66.5 1.7 2.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas

33.3 33.1 33.6