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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, December 2, 2021				USDL-21-2074

Technical information: 
 Employment:     (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment:   (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact:   (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	      METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- OCTOBER 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in October than a year earlier in 386 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, higher in 1 area, and unchanged in 2 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. A total of 110 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2
areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the
year in 96 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 293 areas. The national
unemployment rate in October was 4.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 6.6
percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force 
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they 
reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm 
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls 
defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts
and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                   Revisions to Unemployment Data for September 2021                   |
|											|
| Due to the implementation of an improvement in a prior outlier treatment, model-based |
| unemployment levels and rates for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, 	|
| and Wisconsin were subject to larger than typical revisions for September 2021. Data  |
| for non-modeled metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions were affected in 	|
| proportion to the effects on their model-based control areas. See 			|
| www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm for additional information.				|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, Logan, UT-ID, and Provo-Orem, UT, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.1 
percent and 1.2 percent, respectively. El Centro, CA, had the highest rate, 17.7 percent.
A total of 252 areas had October jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 4.3 percent, 127
areas had rates above it, and 10 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. 
(See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in October occurred in Kahului-
Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-14.6 percentage points). Rates fell over the year by at least 5.0 
percentage points in an additional six areas. The only unemployment rate increase was in
Springfield, OH (+0.4 percentage point).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Salt Lake
City, UT, had the lowest jobless rate in October, 1.4 percent, followed by Oklahoma City,
OK, 1.9 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 
7.1 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases. The largest
jobless rate decline was in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-7.1 percentage points). The
smallest over-the-year rate decrease occurred in Jacksonville, FL (-0.6 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In October, Nashua, 
NH-MA, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 2.4 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Glendale, CA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 7.8 percent. (See table 2.)

In October, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases. 
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-6.5 percentage points). The 
smallest rate decrease occurred in Wilmington, DE-MD-NJ (-0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, 96 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll 
employment and 293 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment 
increases occurred in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+326,400), New York-Newark-Jersey
City, NY-NJ-PA (+302,600), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+176,300). The largest 
over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+17.2
percent), Urban Honolulu, HI (+10.5 percent), and Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL (+10.3 percent).
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 47 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census 
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 4 areas. The
largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas
occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+8.5 percent), and Austin-Round Rock, TX, and
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+7.0 percent each). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 26 metropolitan divisions and was 
essentially unchanged in 12 divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year increase in
employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains,
NY-NJ (+247,300), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+227,500), and Dallas-
Plano-Irving, TX (+135,200). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (+6.6 percent), Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine, CA (+6.5 
percent), and Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+6.2 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be released
on Friday, December 17, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and
Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be released on Thursday, December
30, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on October 2021                 |
|			Establishment and Household Survey Data				|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done.										|
|											|
| To reflect the net effect of the contribution of business births (openings) and 	|
| deaths (closings) to the establishment survey estimates, BLS uses a model to account  |
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and 	|
| deaths. Beginning with data for March 2020, BLS introduced special adjustments to its |
| birth-death model to better reflect the net contribution of births and deaths during  |
| the pandemic. BLS has determined that these adjustments are no longer necessary. 	|
| Therefore, beginning with data for October 2021, BLS reverted back to the methodology |
| used prior to the onset of the pandemic. More information about changes to the 	|
| establishment survey's birth-death model is available at 				|
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbdqa.htm#qa9.						|
|											|
| For the October 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the 	|
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-	|
| shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, 	|
| based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. These level 	|
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would |
| have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at 	|
| other points in the time series.							|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-october-2021.htm extensively 	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national   |
| estimates for October 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative 	|
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, 	|
| which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for October 2021.			|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary October and 	|
| revised September estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift 	|
| outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The 	|
| substate area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the household 	|
| survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their  |
| model-based control areas.								|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department |
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey similar in nature 	|
| to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the 	|
| local area data proportionally.							|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) September October September October
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,213,645 2,217,063 2,262,819 2,225,288 151,290 66,201 98,147 60,300 6.8 3.0 4.3 2.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,929 45,484 46,515 45,098 3,541 1,670 2,336 1,567 7.7 3.7 5.0 3.5

Auburn-Opelika

75,691 76,090 78,080 75,646 4,340 1,905 2,776 1,710 5.7 2.5 3.6 2.3

Birmingham-Hoover

542,100 549,335 554,841 551,573 35,541 14,863 23,027 13,659 6.6 2.7 4.2 2.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

95,737 99,854 96,392 99,634 5,662 2,459 3,761 2,156 5.9 2.5 3.9 2.2

Decatur

72,560 72,675 74,619 72,818 3,649 1,694 2,315 1,465 5.0 2.3 3.1 2.0

Dothan

63,685 64,207 65,160 64,167 3,890 1,794 2,543 1,587 6.1 2.8 3.9 2.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,890 64,980 66,802 65,064 3,968 1,959 2,487 1,759 6.1 3.0 3.7 2.7

Gadsden

40,096 39,008 40,730 38,637 3,340 1,389 2,139 1,255 8.3 3.6 5.3 3.2

Huntsville

229,986 234,263 237,103 234,375 12,040 5,330 7,724 4,762 5.2 2.3 3.3 2.0

Mobile

190,086 186,079 194,143 186,104 18,555 7,567 11,972 7,033 9.8 4.1 6.2 3.8

Montgomery

173,278 168,196 175,548 167,954 14,949 6,285 9,861 5,761 8.6 3.7 5.6 3.4

Tuscaloosa

115,645 113,811 117,194 113,573 8,860 3,637 5,738 3,332 7.7 3.2 4.9 2.9

Alaska

335,688 350,820 352,525 350,957 21,941 18,556 20,793 18,644 6.5 5.3 5.9 5.3

Anchorage

188,162 194,338 200,792 197,267 12,455 9,803 11,711 9,689 6.6 5.0 5.8 4.9

Fairbanks

43,479 44,754 45,640 44,837 2,235 1,923 2,145 1,986 5.1 4.3 4.7 4.4

Arizona

3,557,313 3,659,536 3,549,866 3,654,299 249,405 157,998 226,423 133,099 7.0 4.3 6.4 3.6

Flagstaff

75,315 78,107 74,941 77,945 6,005 3,947 5,412 3,381 8.0 5.1 7.2 4.3

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,226 89,477 87,610 89,296 7,253 4,542 6,313 3,901 8.2 5.1 7.2 4.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,511,530 2,596,649 2,511,823 2,596,052 165,156 99,192 152,700 83,273 6.6 3.8 6.1 3.2

Prescott

107,243 111,223 106,874 111,494 6,461 3,883 6,003 3,252 6.0 3.5 5.6 2.9

Sierra Vista-Douglas

52,513 52,831 52,518 52,888 3,018 2,236 2,694 1,914 5.7 4.2 5.1 3.6

Tucson

491,929 500,970 489,785 497,154 33,108 21,561 31,286 18,139 6.7 4.3 6.4 3.6

Yuma

98,890 100,729 96,052 101,156 17,096 14,730 12,116 12,537 17.3 14.6 12.6 12.4

Arkansas

1,340,180 1,356,554 1,330,274 1,344,694 77,940 42,810 63,908 32,021 5.8 3.2 4.8 2.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

281,630 295,094 283,362 295,234 12,467 6,534 10,156 4,850 4.4 2.2 3.6 1.6

Fort Smith

117,862 118,720 117,571 118,161 6,659 3,288 5,627 2,643 5.6 2.8 4.8 2.2

Hot Springs

40,873 40,792 40,302 39,972 3,321 1,580 2,597 1,197 8.1 3.9 6.4 3.0

Jonesboro

65,152 66,485 64,566 66,786 3,410 1,707 2,688 1,251 5.2 2.6 4.2 1.9

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

349,567 348,090 345,028 344,878 22,817 11,603 18,534 8,728 6.5 3.3 5.4 2.5

Pine Bluff

34,264 33,827 33,947 33,507 2,680 1,615 2,268 1,276 7.8 4.8 6.7 3.8

California

18,494,445 19,055,441 18,887,681 19,103,466 1,933,139 1,212,007 1,757,771 1,166,665 10.5 6.4 9.3 6.1

Bakersfield

382,804 386,476 388,703 390,088 45,541 33,471 41,238 32,251 11.9 8.7 10.6 8.3

Chico

90,474 93,819 92,161 94,691 8,169 5,292 7,334 5,150 9.0 5.6 8.0 5.4

El Centro

67,343 68,462 67,099 68,370 14,928 12,537 13,396 12,084 22.2 18.3 20.0 17.7

Fresno

438,826 445,634 444,044 443,350 46,294 34,477 43,072 33,896 10.5 7.7 9.7 7.6

Hanford-Corcoran

54,769 56,197 55,462 56,219 5,672 4,452 5,409 4,415 10.4 7.9 9.8 7.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,326,521 6,617,635 6,500,469 6,615,644 777,912 489,012 718,838 469,931 12.3 7.4 11.1 7.1

Madera

60,757 62,452 61,003 61,578 5,860 4,525 5,414 4,469 9.6 7.2 8.9 7.3

Merced

114,259 118,309 115,767 117,761 12,106 9,664 11,197 9,468 10.6 8.2 9.7 8.0

Modesto

239,788 244,516 242,064 241,492 24,658 16,977 22,662 16,556 10.3 6.9 9.4 6.9

Napa

67,911 71,297 68,901 71,116 5,635 3,229 5,088 3,173 8.3 4.5 7.4 4.5

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

399,863 411,091 407,702 411,868 35,125 21,649 31,154 20,740 8.8 5.3 7.6 5.0

Redding

72,772 74,487 74,156 75,394 5,803 4,167 5,414 4,054 8.0 5.6 7.3 5.4

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,056,068 2,097,395 2,105,448 2,113,965 217,146 138,560 197,462 133,033 10.6 6.6 9.4 6.3

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,077,451 1,097,847 1,100,332 1,102,586 97,959 60,769 87,778 58,498 9.1 5.5 8.0 5.3

Salinas

213,344 225,111 213,602 222,625 17,297 12,524 15,855 12,340 8.1 5.6 7.4 5.5

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,512,118 1,537,820 1,541,792 1,553,934 145,203 86,162 129,646 82,914 9.6 5.6 8.4 5.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,420,908 2,478,289 2,464,185 2,488,719 218,246 116,795 191,668 111,263 9.0 4.7 7.8 4.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,030,736 1,058,540 1,050,230 1,066,334 76,845 42,039 67,976 40,098 7.5 4.0 6.5 3.8

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

130,677 130,727 133,290 132,631 9,832 5,941 8,564 5,663 7.5 4.5 6.4 4.3

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

131,149 134,044 133,075 134,231 10,871 7,065 9,863 6,920 8.3 5.3 7.4 5.2

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,658 221,486 219,314 220,848 16,110 10,128 14,498 9,857 7.5 4.6 6.6 4.5

Santa Rosa

241,905 249,470 244,334 249,253 18,872 11,083 16,803 10,595 7.8 4.4 6.9 4.3

Stockton-Lodi

330,993 333,570 335,549 333,108 37,380 24,898 34,080 24,142 11.3 7.5 10.2 7.2

Vallejo-Fairfield

199,338 202,339 204,639 202,413 20,208 12,853 18,408 12,394 10.1 6.4 9.0 6.1

Visalia-Porterville

194,135 200,987 195,058 199,223 23,408 18,658 21,741 18,332 12.1 9.3 11.1 9.2

Yuba City

74,685 77,225 75,505 76,750 7,251 5,433 6,723 5,293 9.7 7.0 8.9 6.9

Colorado

3,152,249 3,213,068 3,161,607 3,224,401 213,829 150,422 207,486 143,733 6.8 4.7 6.6 4.5

Boulder

194,964 199,077 193,588 198,953 11,265 7,295 10,707 7,006 5.8 3.7 5.5 3.5

Colorado Springs

363,333 373,188 361,436 373,058 23,565 18,160 22,993 17,235 6.5 4.9 6.4 4.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,685,554 1,726,275 1,682,496 1,725,754 122,272 83,367 117,837 79,211 7.3 4.8 7.0 4.6

Fort Collins

206,002 207,269 208,632 208,979 11,669 8,184 11,267 7,866 5.7 3.9 5.4 3.8

Grand Junction

76,958 76,917 77,068 76,926 4,955 3,760 4,823 3,612 6.4 4.9 6.3 4.7

Greeley

167,019 169,935 170,319 172,780 11,707 8,361 11,472 7,863 7.0 4.9 6.7 4.6

Pueblo

78,153 78,421 79,040 79,193 6,331 5,609 6,487 5,374 8.1 7.2 8.2 6.8

Connecticut

1,843,886 1,815,804 1,841,877 1,828,939 150,477 97,700 141,827 96,333 8.2 5.4 7.7 5.3

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

443,921 438,440 442,358 443,887 37,876 24,335 35,851 24,067 8.5 5.6 8.1 5.4

Danbury

101,655 100,344 101,073 101,074 7,399 4,411 6,921 4,425 7.3 4.4 6.8 4.4

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

609,869 596,107 609,068 599,440 48,507 31,994 45,793 31,457 8.0 5.4 7.5 5.2

New Haven

325,293 322,432 327,288 324,275 24,770 16,320 23,460 16,062 7.6 5.1 7.2 5.0

Norwich-New London-Westerly

135,566 133,516 134,528 133,057 13,397 7,740 11,780 7,560 9.9 5.8 8.8 5.7

Waterbury

109,052 107,647 108,839 107,523 10,352 7,127 9,743 7,041 9.5 6.6 9.0 6.5

Delaware

485,471 485,187 480,007 487,892 35,588 23,785 24,606 22,065 7.3 4.9 5.1 4.5

Dover

79,657 78,445 78,434 78,911 6,362 4,439 4,423 4,089 8.0 5.7 5.6 5.2

Salisbury(1)

188,525 193,842 188,401 191,733 12,140 9,748 10,019 9,310 6.4 5.0 5.3 4.9

District of Columbia

404,522 409,255 405,870 410,910 35,648 24,019 33,338 22,961 8.8 5.9 8.2 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,311,414 3,344,900 3,351,733 3,370,411 226,897 141,217 215,500 132,585 6.9 4.2 6.4 3.9

Florida

10,109,604 10,623,190 10,047,839 10,656,873 740,593 456,901 565,043 425,837 7.3 4.3 5.6 4.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

340,022 361,206 344,738 366,211 20,783 14,339 16,633 14,164 6.1 4.0 4.8 3.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

128,503 134,243 128,599 134,639 5,339 4,351 4,490 4,372 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.2

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

294,268 309,135 294,151 310,740 18,476 13,352 15,038 13,302 6.3 4.3 5.1 4.3

Gainesville

143,488 150,737 143,858 151,468 6,499 5,212 5,578 5,370 4.5 3.5 3.9 3.5

Homosassa Springs

46,628 48,688 45,950 49,128 3,234 2,586 2,685 2,540 6.9 5.3 5.8 5.2

Jacksonville

783,566 830,913 781,464 831,884 40,731 30,754 33,573 30,680 5.2 3.7 4.3 3.7

Lakeland-Winter Haven

318,019 331,641 314,930 331,526 24,964 16,301 19,609 16,160 7.8 4.9 6.2 4.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,068,776 3,159,947 3,021,810 3,158,832 294,753 154,114 207,810 125,897 9.6 4.9 6.9 4.0

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

171,558 184,547 175,044 190,461 10,092 6,570 7,722 6,390 5.9 3.6 4.4 3.4

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

355,587 382,621 358,834 386,977 19,625 14,063 15,881 13,850 5.5 3.7 4.4 3.6

Ocala

138,920 145,310 139,687 146,049 8,414 6,843 7,066 6,771 6.1 4.7 5.1 4.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,282,415 1,352,708 1,266,853 1,356,742 112,078 60,169 86,345 59,406 8.7 4.4 6.8 4.4

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

282,272 299,772 280,311 299,360 15,467 11,305 12,607 11,129 5.5 3.8 4.5 3.7

Panama City

89,050 93,716 88,249 93,395 4,205 3,320 3,522 3,354 4.7 3.5 4.0 3.6

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,933 240,818 227,763 242,821 11,609 9,255 9,834 9,257 5.1 3.8 4.3 3.8

Port St. Lucie

217,161 231,359 215,934 232,151 13,107 9,653 10,489 9,485 6.0 4.2 4.9 4.1

Punta Gorda

70,748 74,266 70,727 75,581 4,269 3,161 3,431 3,086 6.0 4.3 4.9 4.1

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,003 67,398 63,341 68,076 3,984 3,070 3,191 2,963 6.3 4.6 5.0 4.4

Sebring

34,277 36,477 34,524 36,505 2,433 2,077 2,008 1,968 7.1 5.7 5.8 5.4

Tallahassee

191,671 199,153 191,733 201,148 9,957 8,069 8,487 8,217 5.2 4.1 4.4 4.1

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,543,018 1,652,100 1,540,405 1,654,925 92,486 63,770 74,034 63,114 6.0 3.9 4.8 3.8

The Villages

31,875 33,172 31,792 33,204 2,138 1,832 1,741 1,742 6.7 5.5 5.5 5.2

Georgia

4,933,424 5,152,831 5,115,883 5,174,794 315,517 129,720 278,502 125,465 6.4 2.5 5.4 2.4

Albany

64,124 64,454 66,432 64,550 4,871 2,161 4,478 2,095 7.6 3.4 6.7 3.2

Athens-Clarke County

94,112 98,457 98,675 98,800 4,782 2,117 4,438 2,135 5.1 2.2 4.5 2.2

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

2,974,996 3,115,726 3,076,992 3,131,161 205,480 78,776 177,695 75,114 6.9 2.5 5.8 2.4

Augusta-Richmond County

263,722 266,136 271,279 266,471 13,617 7,432 12,803 7,053 5.2 2.8 4.7 2.6

Brunswick

49,940 52,449 51,534 52,557 2,890 1,235 2,555 1,198 5.8 2.4 5.0 2.3

Columbus

119,133 120,954 123,094 121,325 8,042 3,770 6,905 3,501 6.8 3.1 5.6 2.9

Dalton

56,584 58,373 58,675 58,459 2,903 1,501 2,955 1,410 5.1 2.6 5.0 2.4

Gainesville

98,625 104,803 103,540 105,644 3,920 1,776 3,589 1,790 4.0 1.7 3.5 1.7

Hinesville

32,811 34,136 34,141 34,470 1,875 851 1,669 816 5.7 2.5 4.9 2.4

Macon-Bibb County

98,954 103,048 102,518 103,320 6,713 2,848 6,212 2,771 6.8 2.8 6.1 2.7

Rome

41,809 43,618 43,640 43,893 2,199 1,067 2,006 1,051 5.3 2.4 4.6 2.4

Savannah

185,401 199,370 192,829 199,415 12,517 4,912 10,848 4,671 6.8 2.5 5.6 2.3

Valdosta

62,242 65,254 65,584 66,067 3,580 1,563 3,238 1,527 5.8 2.4 4.9 2.3

Warner Robins

83,866 88,482 87,465 89,385 4,061 1,970 4,095 2,252 4.8 2.2 4.7 2.5

Hawaii

608,565 647,465 638,773 644,853 93,068 41,193 89,652 37,608 15.3 6.4 14.0 5.8

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

76,367 80,341 80,986 79,374 18,311 6,485 17,980 6,040 24.0 8.1 22.2 7.6

Urban Honolulu

414,141 445,411 434,818 444,639 56,483 26,346 53,255 23,961 13.6 5.9 12.2 5.4

Idaho

907,941 907,437 903,354 912,723 50,384 19,336 38,223 17,745 5.5 2.1 4.2 1.9

Boise City

386,192 383,457 380,762 382,853 23,109 8,357 17,269 7,645 6.0 2.2 4.5 2.0

Coeur d'Alene

82,621 83,004 81,773 82,841 5,631 2,024 4,268 1,854 6.8 2.4 5.2 2.2

Idaho Falls

75,099 76,416 75,329 76,883 3,171 1,327 2,443 1,236 4.2 1.7 3.2 1.6

Lewiston

31,216 31,555 31,568 31,669 1,440 711 1,166 672 4.6 2.3 3.7 2.1

Pocatello

43,689 44,734 43,454 45,304 2,340 913 1,740 844 5.4 2.0 4.0 1.9

Twin Falls

54,222 53,565 54,163 53,948 2,766 1,146 2,116 1,044 5.1 2.1 3.9 1.9

Illinois

6,358,334 6,223,103 6,324,429 6,263,001 640,189 318,884 474,466 311,052 10.1 5.1 7.5 5.0

Bloomington

93,945 90,745 97,624 90,327 5,431 3,291 4,745 3,306 5.8 3.6 4.9 3.7

Carbondale-Marion

59,695 59,398 61,901 59,720 4,078 2,554 3,455 2,522 6.8 4.3 5.6 4.2

Champaign-Urbana

127,595 127,763 134,552 127,794 7,101 4,657 6,458 4,575 5.6 3.6 4.8 3.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,798,356 4,699,491 4,690,619 4,752,277 534,792 251,360 384,774 241,836 11.1 5.3 8.2 5.1

Danville

32,973 32,470 34,420 32,235 2,572 1,641 2,305 1,634 7.8 5.1 6.7 5.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

186,666 185,663 189,809 186,845 12,593 7,140 10,358 7,335 6.7 3.8 5.5 3.9

Decatur

48,024 46,723 49,171 46,425 4,496 2,916 3,909 2,831 9.4 6.2 7.9 6.1

Kankakee

54,077 53,297 55,710 52,889 4,225 2,648 3,603 2,659 7.8 5.0 6.5 5.0

Peoria

173,536 169,602 179,359 167,088 13,208 7,799 11,369 7,813 7.6 4.6 6.3 4.7

Rockford

162,346 156,692 165,504 155,193 15,065 10,873 12,435 11,027 9.3 6.9 7.5 7.1

Springfield

104,975 102,190 107,936 101,381 7,637 4,407 6,560 4,350 7.3 4.3 6.1 4.3

Indiana

3,321,153 3,313,470 3,342,611 3,313,120 200,335 93,504 171,600 82,954 6.0 2.8 5.1 2.5

Bloomington

77,326 78,185 78,166 78,541 3,748 1,786 3,446 1,761 4.8 2.3 4.4 2.2

Columbus

43,491 44,402 43,850 44,275 2,170 965 1,804 862 5.0 2.2 4.1 1.9

Elkhart-Goshen

111,640 116,131 112,905 116,462 5,815 2,298 4,911 2,070 5.2 2.0 4.3 1.8

Evansville

156,700 152,572 156,584 152,140 8,530 4,485 7,341 3,991 5.4 2.9 4.7 2.6

Fort Wayne

216,574 213,502 217,862 213,883 12,801 5,852 10,905 5,117 5.9 2.7 5.0 2.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,072,290 1,071,466 1,081,894 1,069,843 66,891 29,733 57,448 26,026 6.2 2.8 5.3 2.4

Kokomo

36,121 36,073 35,725 35,578 2,846 1,971 2,229 1,502 7.9 5.5 6.2 4.2

Lafayette-West Lafayette

108,963 111,680 110,612 112,807 5,777 2,712 5,183 2,516 5.3 2.4 4.7 2.2

Michigan City-La Porte

47,011 46,531 47,271 46,489 3,747 1,772 3,242 1,559 8.0 3.8 6.9 3.4

Muncie

52,889 52,415 53,372 52,017 3,250 1,635 2,847 1,485 6.1 3.1 5.3 2.9

South Bend-Mishawaka

155,963 156,619 156,902 157,043 11,276 5,289 9,886 4,595 7.2 3.4 6.3 2.9

Terre Haute

71,452 69,873 71,904 70,103 4,573 2,290 3,945 2,081 6.4 3.3 5.5 3.0

Iowa

1,635,725 1,656,564 1,635,569 1,668,206 69,064 48,439 55,681 48,218 4.2 2.9 3.4 2.9

Ames

56,713 57,800 56,810 58,735 1,606 1,195 1,279 1,234 2.8 2.1 2.3 2.1

Cedar Rapids

138,740 139,026 138,685 139,551 7,615 4,984 5,878 4,738 5.5 3.6 4.2 3.4

Des Moines-West Des Moines

349,785 360,402 350,294 362,694 16,011 10,456 12,700 10,256 4.6 2.9 3.6 2.8

Dubuque

53,520 54,651 53,332 54,967 2,460 1,591 1,982 1,741 4.6 2.9 3.7 3.2

Iowa City

94,175 93,476 93,900 94,807 3,895 2,484 3,065 2,458 4.1 2.7 3.3 2.6

Sioux City

89,879 89,334 90,090 89,748 3,453 2,267 2,886 2,286 3.8 2.5 3.2 2.5

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

86,105 85,942 85,483 86,645 3,972 2,569 3,051 2,552 4.6 3.0 3.6 2.9

Kansas

1,471,196 1,504,432 1,506,390 1,503,338 86,186 52,686 62,077 49,371 5.9 3.5 4.1 3.3

Lawrence

63,665 65,576 65,002 65,864 3,793 2,142 2,749 2,020 6.0 3.3 4.2 3.1

Manhattan

45,450 45,394 46,569 45,735 2,089 1,390 1,557 1,307 4.6 3.1 3.3 2.9

Topeka

117,802 119,987 120,760 118,287 6,452 3,987 4,709 3,826 5.5 3.3 3.9 3.2

Wichita

315,375 315,795 320,043 314,992 26,671 14,592 18,765 14,126 8.5 4.6 5.9 4.5

Kentucky

1,970,842 1,988,911 1,974,175 1,999,061 102,131 76,806 96,299 74,206 5.2 3.9 4.9 3.7

Bowling Green

80,112 81,088 80,740 81,554 3,582 2,867 3,726 2,801 4.5 3.5 4.6 3.4

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

62,959 63,329 62,955 63,701 3,236 2,526 3,086 2,451 5.1 4.0 4.9 3.8

Lexington-Fayette

262,438 264,025 266,283 265,109 12,297 8,654 11,577 8,389 4.7 3.3 4.3 3.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

647,532 653,616 645,539 654,952 34,823 21,628 32,062 20,755 5.4 3.3 5.0 3.2

Owensboro

52,336 52,178 52,171 52,391 2,477 1,922 2,325 1,862 4.7 3.7 4.5 3.6

Louisiana

2,090,267 2,052,539 2,092,397 2,063,763 170,842 101,442 156,155 88,402 8.2 4.9 7.5 4.3

Alexandria

64,498 63,839 64,682 63,136 3,830 2,192 3,434 2,032 5.9 3.4 5.3 3.2

Baton Rouge

423,299 418,797 425,771 421,553 29,752 17,646 27,124 15,663 7.0 4.2 6.4 3.7

Hammond

57,951 56,440 57,853 56,147 5,250 3,395 4,714 2,826 9.1 6.0 8.1 5.0

Houma-Thibodaux

88,684 86,362 88,800 88,571 6,104 4,993 5,618 4,010 6.9 5.8 6.3 4.5

Lafayette

212,758 210,041 211,294 209,826 15,823 8,928 14,100 8,025 7.4 4.3 6.7 3.8

Lake Charles

96,095 98,610 96,124 98,062 12,070 4,639 9,480 4,146 12.6 4.7 9.9 4.2

Monroe

80,108 78,687 80,189 78,657 5,598 3,255 5,109 2,949 7.0 4.1 6.4 3.7

New Orleans-Metairie

590,894 569,450 594,297 579,264 55,922 35,065 53,952 29,324 9.5 6.2 9.1 5.1

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,295 183,482 185,909 183,383 14,347 8,380 13,505 7,633 7.7 4.6 7.3 4.2

Maine

664,210 681,006 669,384 679,722 26,682 27,003 28,120 27,139 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.0

Bangor

67,825 69,167 68,802 69,318 2,477 2,648 2,658 2,721 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9

Lewiston-Auburn

54,182 54,674 54,543 54,919 2,329 2,427 2,404 2,378 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.3

Portland-South Portland

200,916 205,671 202,794 205,328 8,077 7,197 8,330 7,335 4.0 3.5 4.1 3.6

Maryland

3,004,854 3,129,815 3,115,204 3,138,658 206,005 166,135 201,351 159,361 6.9 5.3 6.5 5.1

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,399,614 1,461,642 1,453,319 1,466,986 91,866 74,916 87,797 72,125 6.6 5.1 6.0 4.9

California-Lexington Park

54,069 57,362 56,131 57,274 2,432 2,478 2,315 2,336 4.5 4.3 4.1 4.1

Cumberland

41,602 43,881 42,603 43,713 2,764 2,098 2,509 2,004 6.6 4.8 5.9 4.6

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

127,102 129,864 130,100 131,541 7,553 4,953 6,810 4,620 5.9 3.8 5.2 3.5

Massachusetts

3,641,540 3,703,310 3,675,919 3,721,703 325,035 195,264 296,395 190,582 8.9 5.3 8.1 5.1

Barnstable Town

123,338 126,322 120,025 123,107 10,434 6,857 9,504 6,760 8.5 5.4 7.9 5.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,705,012 2,745,854 2,734,632 2,762,314 233,468 132,363 211,339 128,494 8.6 4.8 7.7 4.7

Leominster-Gardner

77,544 77,906 77,814 78,492 7,658 4,724 6,834 4,602 9.9 6.1 8.8 5.9

New Bedford

83,132 84,275 83,044 84,289 8,617 5,643 7,390 5,564 10.4 6.7 8.9 6.6

Pittsfield

40,338 40,323 40,310 40,269 3,779 2,545 3,508 2,506 9.4 6.3 8.7 6.2

Springfield

357,061 364,172 362,564 366,307 33,054 22,136 30,510 21,589 9.3 6.1 8.4 5.9

Worcester

345,497 348,972 347,787 351,849 29,547 18,779 27,367 18,409 8.6 5.4 7.9 5.2

Michigan

4,851,512 4,749,769 4,853,635 4,757,021 378,479 262,907 350,632 222,277 7.8 5.5 7.2 4.7

Ann Arbor

192,293 187,467 193,087 188,066 10,149 8,659 9,037 7,261 5.3 4.6 4.7 3.9

Battle Creek

60,797 58,699 60,875 58,690 4,408 3,948 4,063 3,540 7.3 6.7 6.7 6.0

Bay City

48,844 47,251 48,723 46,756 3,011 2,803 2,783 2,496 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,133,276 2,076,191 2,136,631 2,094,260 216,078 111,185 203,167 93,869 10.1 5.4 9.5 4.5

Flint

177,827 173,150 178,038 171,217 14,312 14,236 12,997 12,171 8.0 8.2 7.3 7.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

570,331 558,730 570,119 560,224 30,462 25,767 27,216 22,162 5.3 4.6 4.8 4.0

Jackson

72,753 71,073 72,629 71,045 4,728 4,199 4,314 3,656 6.5 5.9 5.9 5.1

Kalamazoo-Portage

165,284 162,414 165,941 162,613 9,628 8,521 8,748 7,416 5.8 5.2 5.3 4.6

Lansing-East Lansing

238,423 239,383 240,260 238,934 13,509 15,207 12,244 10,770 5.7 6.4 5.1 4.5

Midland

39,453 38,735 39,563 38,422 2,086 1,843 1,864 1,631 5.3 4.8 4.7 4.2

Monroe

72,948 72,263 73,470 72,033 4,179 5,036 4,322 3,817 5.7 7.0 5.9 5.3

Muskegon

76,467 73,393 75,926 72,852 6,592 5,742 6,094 5,110 8.6 7.8 8.0 7.0

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,346 70,421 72,122 70,059 4,727 3,947 4,269 3,450 6.5 5.6 5.9 4.9

Saginaw

84,150 81,741 84,068 81,158 6,141 6,102 5,569 5,273 7.3 7.5 6.6 6.5

Minnesota

3,084,862 3,031,568 3,064,787 3,024,795 169,776 84,841 139,664 74,452 5.5 2.8 4.6 2.5

Duluth

141,510 138,945 139,795 139,078 8,455 4,133 6,940 3,730 6.0 3.0 5.0 2.7

Mankato-North Mankato

60,772 59,343 61,689 60,440 2,717 1,434 2,149 1,228 4.5 2.4 3.5 2.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,014,432 1,977,112 1,986,194 1,966,752 122,923 57,892 96,735 50,343 6.1 2.9 4.9 2.6

Rochester

126,747 125,924 126,993 124,680 5,353 2,906 5,100 2,540 4.2 2.3 4.0 2.0

St. Cloud

112,267 109,206 113,038 110,201 5,302 3,137 4,803 2,795 4.7 2.9 4.2 2.5

Mississippi

1,262,195 1,264,279 1,257,756 1,257,761 88,775 58,977 77,610 49,166 7.0 4.7 6.2 3.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,442 168,165 165,188 167,415 12,252 7,989 10,737 6,696 7.5 4.8 6.5 4.0

Hattiesburg

68,748 68,863 68,950 68,813 4,423 2,910 3,878 2,430 6.4 4.2 5.6 3.5

Jackson

263,481 264,434 263,238 264,629 16,898 11,236 14,932 9,412 6.4 4.2 5.7 3.6

Missouri

3,067,041 3,047,465 3,059,501 3,052,994 147,973 86,890 122,696 86,638 4.8 2.9 4.0 2.8

Cape Girardeau

47,992 47,546 48,209 47,859 1,937 1,123 1,662 1,280 4.0 2.4 3.4 2.7

Columbia

97,794 98,487 98,050 98,554 3,238 1,789 2,680 2,122 3.3 1.8 2.7 2.2

Jefferson City

75,027 75,744 75,613 75,633 2,348 1,412 1,985 1,665 3.1 1.9 2.6 2.2

Joplin

83,132 82,841 83,737 82,964 3,721 1,895 3,085 2,178 4.5 2.3 3.7 2.6

Kansas City

1,128,697 1,161,811 1,137,424 1,156,926 61,334 40,914 48,273 34,606 5.4 3.5 4.2 3.0

St. Joseph

62,289 62,255 62,993 62,229 2,342 1,420 2,001 1,514 3.8 2.3 3.2 2.4

St. Louis(2)

1,464,965 1,441,089 1,466,228 1,436,088 84,147 46,094 68,146 46,142 5.7 3.2 4.6 3.2

Springfield

236,244 237,054 236,252 237,591 9,131 4,848 7,472 5,607 3.9 2.0 3.2 2.4

Montana

540,272 541,696 535,846 543,300 24,489 10,432 21,997 10,430 4.5 1.9 4.1 1.9

Billings

89,162 89,017 88,089 89,286 3,890 1,656 3,506 1,634 4.4 1.9 4.0 1.8

Great Falls

37,645 36,752 37,354 36,579 1,822 727 1,611 718 4.8 2.0 4.3 2.0

Missoula

63,831 63,780 63,259 63,942 3,066 1,224 2,670 1,210 4.8 1.9 4.2 1.9

Nebraska

1,023,637 1,018,937 1,026,253 1,025,331 37,866 14,236 32,565 14,149 3.7 1.4 3.2 1.4

Grand Island

43,992 43,013 43,668 43,192 1,984 620 1,710 640 4.5 1.4 3.9 1.5

Lincoln

184,724 186,557 185,235 187,814 6,775 2,426 5,914 2,416 3.7 1.3 3.2 1.3

Omaha-Council Bluffs

488,100 489,279 488,674 493,762 20,796 8,526 17,359 8,356 4.3 1.7 3.6 1.7

Nevada

1,539,088 1,532,268 1,545,346 1,548,488 200,711 97,560 179,300 89,062 13.0 6.4 11.6 5.8

Carson City

26,421 26,460 26,583 26,767 1,883 1,020 1,715 964 7.1 3.9 6.5 3.6

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,127,780 1,118,530 1,127,859 1,128,058 173,161 82,595 154,325 74,973 15.4 7.4 13.7 6.6

Reno

259,406 262,683 262,548 266,459 17,736 9,231 15,912 8,598 6.8 3.5 6.1 3.2

New Hampshire

758,568 742,973 757,004 736,816 40,858 17,896 31,922 16,273 5.4 2.4 4.2 2.2

Dover-Durham

84,391 83,126 84,518 82,878 4,074 1,925 3,317 1,746 4.8 2.3 3.9 2.1

Manchester

120,171 116,014 119,829 115,157 6,690 2,692 5,219 2,443 5.6 2.3 4.4 2.1

Portsmouth

77,205 76,436 76,208 75,678 3,626 1,734 3,012 1,630 4.7 2.3 4.0 2.2

New Jersey

4,348,286 4,388,170 4,370,856 4,428,836 333,020 276,019 310,742 241,603 7.7 6.3 7.1 5.5

Atlantic City-Hammonton

116,607 117,272 115,921 118,079 13,586 10,612 12,345 9,282 11.7 9.0 10.6 7.9

Ocean City

46,891 50,273 45,487 45,222 3,483 3,183 3,330 3,021 7.4 6.3 7.3 6.7

Trenton

199,975 201,974 201,562 204,968 11,911 10,274 11,323 8,928 6.0 5.1 5.6 4.4

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,258 65,447 64,899 65,754 5,085 4,989 4,690 4,304 7.9 7.6 7.2 6.5

New Mexico

961,466 945,693 960,387 951,708 82,725 54,704 76,687 50,080 8.6 5.8 8.0 5.3

Albuquerque

444,293 430,423 438,584 433,813 36,915 23,893 33,797 21,929 8.3 5.6 7.7 5.1

Farmington

51,781 48,909 50,998 49,536 5,426 3,391 4,861 3,078 10.5 6.9 9.5 6.2

Las Cruces

99,715 96,985 98,307 97,396 7,669 5,534 7,117 5,032 7.7 5.7 7.2 5.2

Santa Fe

73,093 68,881 70,914 69,065 6,147 3,732 5,540 3,449 8.4 5.4 7.8 5.0

New York

9,303,744 9,247,695 9,195,073 9,259,759 916,728 578,011 761,164 551,937 9.9 6.3 8.3 6.0

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,355 442,983 446,723 443,740 24,696 17,148 22,766 16,459 5.5 3.9 5.1 3.7

Binghamton

103,028 101,714 102,378 101,577 6,216 4,512 5,898 4,439 6.0 4.4 5.8 4.4

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

531,692 534,208 533,355 529,965 36,787 25,145 33,905 24,736 6.9 4.7 6.4 4.7

Elmira

35,101 34,820 34,843 34,633 2,183 1,609 2,116 1,551 6.2 4.6 6.1 4.5

Glens Falls

58,589 59,016 58,079 57,970 2,945 2,345 2,857 2,234 5.0 4.0 4.9 3.9

Ithaca

47,489 47,247 47,380 47,086 2,227 1,634 2,099 1,637 4.7 3.5 4.4 3.5

Kingston

86,021 84,621 85,363 84,493 5,135 3,548 4,677 3,397 6.0 4.2 5.5 4.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,656,077 9,628,534 9,570,705 9,686,376 995,945 659,904 834,672 611,764 10.3 6.9 8.7 6.3

Rochester

509,460 516,278 510,925 518,628 31,850 22,430 29,616 21,573 6.3 4.3 5.8 4.2

Syracuse

302,564 296,197 300,385 293,713 18,530 13,161 17,089 12,760 6.1 4.4 5.7 4.3

Utica-Rome

126,856 125,626 126,762 125,673 7,427 5,737 7,155 5,532 5.9 4.6 5.6 4.4

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,756 43,685 43,196 43,314 2,331 1,851 2,211 1,816 5.3 4.2 5.1 4.2

North Carolina

5,016,045 5,055,808 5,053,339 5,069,845 357,508 190,792 325,068 184,904 7.1 3.8 6.4 3.6

Asheville

230,131 230,016 230,966 230,552 16,324 7,448 14,202 7,002 7.1 3.2 6.1 3.0

Burlington

81,613 82,900 82,227 83,050 5,745 3,138 5,229 2,990 7.0 3.8 6.4 3.6

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,367,125 1,374,275 1,381,117 1,379,737 97,507 50,293 88,197 49,037 7.1 3.7 6.4 3.6

Durham-Chapel Hill

303,715 312,374 308,252 315,285 18,534 9,693 16,849 9,285 6.1 3.1 5.5 2.9

Fayetteville

147,892 146,086 148,401 145,976 13,926 8,086 12,767 7,995 9.4 5.5 8.6 5.5

Goldsboro

51,526 50,795 51,761 51,086 3,289 2,041 3,117 1,990 6.4 4.0 6.0 3.9

Greensboro-High Point

365,079 361,647 365,164 363,011 29,871 15,606 26,933 15,267 8.2 4.3 7.4 4.2

Greenville

89,243 92,827 90,477 92,928 6,275 3,601 5,598 3,447 7.0 3.9 6.2 3.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

172,576 175,598 174,389 175,635 12,046 6,195 10,860 5,956 7.0 3.5 6.2 3.4

Jacksonville

65,321 65,105 66,003 64,992 4,410 2,614 4,148 2,488 6.8 4.0 6.3 3.8

New Bern

51,076 50,878 51,650 50,733 3,227 1,879 3,028 1,798 6.3 3.7 5.9 3.5

Raleigh

721,469 741,054 728,675 744,593 45,032 23,378 40,898 22,471 6.2 3.2 5.6 3.0

Rocky Mount

63,537 62,953 64,249 63,549 6,166 3,583 5,638 3,701 9.7 5.7 8.8 5.8

Wilmington

151,764 155,742 151,675 156,064 9,783 5,100 8,788 4,845 6.4 3.3 5.8 3.1

Winston-Salem

325,162 327,466 327,163 329,016 22,903 11,981 20,882 11,659 7.0 3.7 6.4 3.5

North Dakota

406,373 404,257 404,500 401,945 16,530 10,475 15,099 9,297 4.1 2.6 3.7 2.3

Bismarck

69,649 69,566 69,218 69,057 2,259 1,636 2,055 1,415 3.2 2.4 3.0 2.0

Fargo

141,868 142,929 141,024 142,657 4,586 2,914 4,114 2,530 3.2 2.0 2.9 1.8

Grand Forks

53,292 52,146 53,975 52,588 1,871 1,267 1,698 1,118 3.5 2.4 3.1 2.1

Ohio

5,669,149 5,653,113 5,707,208 5,691,055 413,661 245,635 282,046 217,278 7.3 4.3 4.9 3.8

Akron

356,229 349,416 349,376 352,644 26,299 15,778 16,470 13,898 7.4 4.5 4.7 3.9

Canton-Massillon

196,117 193,358 194,089 193,849 13,947 8,631 8,845 7,663 7.1 4.5 4.6 4.0

Cincinnati

1,118,567 1,119,886 1,107,014 1,125,161 72,495 43,721 49,117 39,203 6.5 3.9 4.4 3.5

Cleveland-Elyria

904,577 989,687 993,232 1,000,137 79,698 41,450 71,639 36,842 8.8 4.2 7.2 3.7

Columbus

1,113,915 1,095,609 1,104,560 1,106,344 75,713 43,817 47,616 38,611 6.8 4.0 4.3 3.5

Dayton

392,289 380,280 385,751 383,363 28,689 17,088 18,142 15,295 7.3 4.5 4.7 4.0

Lima

47,915 47,977 47,808 47,889 3,262 2,750 2,257 2,033 6.8 5.7 4.7 4.2

Mansfield

51,847 50,476 51,090 50,899 3,796 2,547 2,424 2,225 7.3 5.0 4.7 4.4

Springfield

62,630 61,810 61,864 62,805 4,395 2,919 2,836 3,140 7.0 4.7 4.6 5.0

Toledo

302,361 291,095 297,369 294,170 23,739 14,393 14,935 12,483 7.9 4.9 5.0 4.2

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,634 49,582 49,747 49,517 4,575 2,438 3,316 2,163 9.0 4.9 6.7 4.4

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

234,561 226,195 229,821 226,606 20,811 12,532 13,818 11,134 8.9 5.5 6.0 4.9

Oklahoma

1,864,238 1,858,409 1,863,676 1,864,164 103,246 37,895 91,394 37,182 5.5 2.0 4.9 2.0

Enid

27,326 27,130 27,007 27,198 1,395 485 1,230 480 5.1 1.8 4.6 1.8

Lawton

50,964 50,746 50,783 50,702 2,845 1,139 2,520 1,108 5.6 2.2 5.0 2.2

Oklahoma City

694,770 698,038 691,125 697,110 37,849 13,362 33,029 12,909 5.4 1.9 4.8 1.9

Tulsa

484,409 481,038 483,962 481,119 28,583 10,255 25,386 10,347 5.9 2.1 5.2 2.2

Oregon

2,116,300 2,174,392 2,128,309 2,171,416 155,374 90,411 137,983 74,443 7.3 4.2 6.5 3.4

Albany

59,041 60,860 58,996 60,909 4,580 2,816 3,880 2,339 7.8 4.6 6.6 3.8

Bend-Redmond

99,183 101,341 100,072 100,699 6,610 4,087 6,045 3,415 6.7 4.0 6.0 3.4

Corvallis

45,527 47,527 46,573 48,063 2,579 1,571 2,294 1,290 5.7 3.3 4.9 2.7

Eugene

177,449 182,004 177,930 181,716 13,942 8,292 11,946 6,795 7.9 4.6 6.7 3.7

Grants Pass

36,667 37,393 37,031 37,121 2,596 1,841 2,371 1,525 7.1 4.9 6.4 4.1

Medford

106,692 108,688 107,133 108,913 7,772 4,695 6,791 3,810 7.3 4.3 6.3 3.5

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,315,702 1,355,499 1,345,132 1,362,892 102,044 54,336 90,217 46,709 7.8 4.0 6.7 3.4

Salem

206,982 211,184 207,387 209,917 13,555 8,588 12,078 7,053 6.5 4.1 5.8 3.4

Pennsylvania

6,331,317 6,259,553 6,316,802 6,268,875 444,222 336,615 403,395 304,589 7.0 5.4 6.4 4.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

431,195 431,695 431,758 436,849 30,062 23,624 27,269 21,446 7.0 5.5 6.3 4.9

Altoona

58,947 56,971 58,606 56,964 3,467 2,851 3,186 2,657 5.9 5.0 5.4 4.7

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,179 42,881 42,215 43,141 2,197 1,876 2,057 1,743 5.2 4.4 4.9 4.0

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,620 75,467 76,647 75,835 4,428 3,190 4,024 2,912 5.8 4.2 5.3 3.8

East Stroudsburg

80,723 79,526 79,711 79,974 6,978 5,414 6,198 4,853 8.6 6.8 7.8 6.1

Erie

125,951 123,594 125,063 123,152 9,161 7,318 8,603 6,725 7.3 5.9 6.9 5.5

Gettysburg

53,990 54,823 54,405 55,572 2,469 1,935 2,260 1,785 4.6 3.5 4.2 3.2

Harrisburg-Carlisle

298,300 295,408 297,546 296,341 17,450 13,450 16,067 12,275 5.8 4.6 5.4 4.1

Johnstown

55,716 52,812 55,254 53,012 3,660 3,166 3,334 2,878 6.6 6.0 6.0 5.4

Lancaster

281,541 277,924 280,900 278,218 15,348 11,689 13,681 10,633 5.5 4.2 4.9 3.8

Lebanon

71,596 70,402 71,660 70,641 4,257 3,227 3,850 2,915 5.9 4.6 5.4 4.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,058,958 3,050,824 3,058,858 3,063,502 232,410 172,840 207,026 155,330 7.6 5.7 6.8 5.1

Pittsburgh

1,172,221 1,162,230 1,170,782 1,161,094 82,317 62,101 74,469 55,582 7.0 5.3 6.4 4.8

Reading

209,273 202,966 208,121 204,092 15,276 11,527 13,745 10,503 7.3 5.7 6.6 5.1

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

270,063 266,130 270,937 267,141 21,231 17,132 19,395 15,299 7.9 6.4 7.2 5.7

State College

75,792 75,373 75,621 76,370 3,079 2,833 2,898 2,655 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.5

Williamsport

55,484 55,398 55,228 54,961 3,520 3,032 3,345 2,730 6.3 5.5 6.1 5.0

York-Hanover

230,767 230,577 230,809 231,215 13,456 10,440 12,363 9,456 5.8 4.5 5.4 4.1

Rhode Island

557,852 574,862 535,404 549,410 57,597 25,182 34,464 22,614 10.3 4.4 6.4 4.1

Providence-Warwick

688,481 706,240 667,408 681,533 69,428 32,873 45,008 30,242 10.1 4.7 6.7 4.4

South Carolina

2,411,907 2,391,009 2,429,463 2,397,287 122,607 78,040 121,135 73,747 5.1 3.3 5.0 3.1

Charleston-North Charleston

398,005 397,389 400,480 398,974 20,477 11,489 19,659 11,031 5.1 2.9 4.9 2.8

Columbia

409,329 406,171 414,244 407,651 18,813 12,361 19,051 11,527 4.6 3.0 4.6 2.8

Florence

99,148 97,538 100,144 97,300 5,293 3,368 5,222 3,129 5.3 3.5 5.2 3.2

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

440,625 436,946 441,806 440,153 19,494 12,410 19,569 11,871 4.4 2.8 4.4 2.7

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

90,311 92,108 91,739 92,221 3,648 2,399 3,766 2,334 4.0 2.6 4.1 2.5

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

202,890 204,138 201,790 202,369 13,516 8,473 12,958 8,070 6.7 4.2 6.4 4.0

Spartanburg

173,093 172,193 174,360 172,976 9,384 5,722 8,964 5,337 5.4 3.3 5.1 3.1

Sumter

43,875 43,247 44,827 43,065 2,670 1,650 2,571 1,544 6.1 3.8 5.7 3.6

South Dakota

475,314 468,829 474,621 472,852 17,295 10,093 14,963 11,000 3.6 2.2 3.2 2.3

Rapid City

77,731 76,339 76,305 75,509 3,116 1,754 2,619 1,901 4.0 2.3 3.4 2.5

Sioux Falls

159,541 158,032 158,870 159,149 5,207 2,970 4,532 3,203 3.3 1.9 2.9 2.0

Tennessee

3,379,104 3,286,432 3,405,856 3,295,071 256,163 116,084 253,529 110,316 7.6 3.5 7.4 3.3

Chattanooga

274,997 273,895 279,457 274,491 17,036 7,917 17,160 7,911 6.2 2.9 6.1 2.9

Clarksville

119,152 117,311 120,593 118,090 8,440 4,716 8,633 4,531 7.1 4.0 7.2 3.8

Cleveland

61,024 59,234 62,035 60,299 3,934 1,930 4,369 1,891 6.4 3.3 7.0 3.1

Jackson

66,352 64,064 66,857 64,213 5,042 2,265 5,025 2,089 7.6 3.5 7.5 3.3

Johnson City

92,853 89,468 94,287 89,697 5,717 2,995 6,430 2,927 6.2 3.3 6.8 3.3

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

135,873 132,547 137,495 132,703 8,818 4,482 9,229 4,271 6.5 3.4 6.7 3.2

Knoxville

435,637 428,595 441,756 430,464 25,082 12,301 27,282 12,155 5.8 2.9 6.2 2.8

Memphis

661,047 641,574 667,369 641,955 70,035 31,133 66,092 28,699 10.6 4.9 9.9 4.5

Morristown

53,234 52,094 54,214 52,383 3,404 1,772 3,603 1,770 6.4 3.4 6.6 3.4

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,099,745 1,080,409 1,099,505 1,083,060 79,313 32,371 69,627 30,157 7.2 3.0 6.3 2.8

Texas

13,993,842 14,253,139 14,186,427 14,315,455 1,116,437 704,154 976,056 681,201 8.0 4.9 6.9 4.8

Abilene

78,275 81,328 79,050 81,716 4,442 3,181 3,965 3,140 5.7 3.9 5.0 3.8

Amarillo

131,924 135,401 134,446 135,969 6,205 4,605 5,792 4,494 4.7 3.4 4.3 3.3

Austin-Round Rock

1,245,731 1,304,761 1,267,731 1,318,809 77,019 45,841 65,889 44,568 6.2 3.5 5.2 3.4

Beaumont-Port Arthur

170,954 173,440 172,720 174,033 20,396 13,810 17,535 13,165 11.9 8.0 10.2 7.6

Brownsville-Harlingen

168,933 170,210 170,201 169,247 17,406 12,347 15,898 11,947 10.3 7.3 9.3 7.1

College Station-Bryan

132,028 132,885 136,391 134,984 7,256 5,105 6,531 5,053 5.5 3.8 4.8 3.7

Corpus Christi

201,999 204,121 203,433 204,147 19,340 12,940 17,153 12,460 9.6 6.3 8.4 6.1

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,995,416 4,107,945 4,064,538 4,134,941 286,877 180,215 251,614 173,726 7.2 4.4 6.2 4.2

El Paso

367,005 369,452 371,017 370,445 30,104 19,735 26,906 19,456 8.2 5.3 7.3 5.3

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,396,370 3,438,106 3,423,473 3,454,769 318,998 191,437 272,957 184,892 9.4 5.6 8.0 5.4

Killeen-Temple

178,284 181,384 180,285 183,085 12,521 9,201 11,135 9,045 7.0 5.1 6.2 4.9

Laredo

115,778 116,307 116,732 116,843 10,456 6,289 9,275 6,187 9.0 5.4 7.9 5.3

Longview

95,896 97,307 97,006 97,319 8,239 5,272 7,502 5,186 8.6 5.4 7.7 5.3

Lubbock

162,620 166,461 165,884 167,483 9,405 6,499 8,492 6,363 5.8 3.9 5.1 3.8

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

360,711 367,754 362,660 367,011 43,564 29,313 37,814 27,933 12.1 8.0 10.4 7.6

Midland

97,547 100,016 98,709 100,396 9,595 4,930 8,686 4,740 9.8 4.9 8.8 4.7

Odessa

81,172 79,470 81,869 79,734 10,996 5,505 10,066 5,311 13.5 6.9 12.3 6.7

San Angelo

54,376 54,844 55,350 54,728 3,613 2,384 3,208 2,314 6.6 4.3 5.8 4.2

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,203,657 1,235,629 1,224,279 1,243,279 89,657 55,253 77,731 53,470 7.4 4.5 6.3 4.3

Sherman-Denison

64,661 66,670 65,392 66,673 3,769 2,750 3,375 2,640 5.8 4.1 5.2 4.0

Texarkana

63,174 63,261 63,725 63,256 4,312 2,916 3,762 2,680 6.8 4.6 5.9 4.2

Tyler

108,873 114,619 110,525 115,110 7,423 4,958 6,648 4,810 6.8 4.3 6.0 4.2

Victoria

44,433 44,098 44,684 44,097 3,807 2,508 3,424 2,449 8.6 5.7 7.7 5.6

Waco

128,177 131,036 130,104 132,042 7,857 5,595 7,091 5,429 6.1 4.3 5.5 4.1

Wichita Falls

63,875 65,255 64,695 64,944 4,388 2,897 4,005 2,796 6.9 4.4 6.2 4.3

Utah

1,641,771 1,678,874 1,637,265 1,690,427 66,216 26,304 55,454 23,540 4.0 1.6 3.4 1.4

Logan

73,258 75,801 73,640 76,871 1,932 893 1,587 850 2.6 1.2 2.2 1.1

Ogden-Clearfield

339,247 344,370 338,137 346,237 12,377 5,196 10,449 4,643 3.6 1.5 3.1 1.3

Provo-Orem

325,087 335,249 325,174 338,569 10,530 4,528 8,983 4,170 3.2 1.4 2.8 1.2

St. George

81,268 83,756 81,257 84,615 3,621 1,382 2,994 1,219 4.5 1.7 3.7 1.4

Salt Lake City

677,121 691,136 675,472 695,774 30,196 11,386 25,018 10,028 4.5 1.6 3.7 1.4

Vermont

318,926 317,614 317,381 318,180 14,262 6,300 9,080 5,276 4.5 2.0 2.9 1.7

Burlington-South Burlington

118,496 117,694 117,712 117,670 4,737 2,063 2,971 1,712 4.0 1.8 2.5 1.5

Virginia

4,289,848 4,219,252 4,279,784 4,268,231 276,693 135,652 243,607 126,949 6.4 3.2 5.7 3.0

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

87,870 90,674 87,895 91,645 4,391 2,544 3,733 2,421 5.0 2.8 4.2 2.6

Charlottesville

117,079 113,351 116,233 115,602 6,676 3,358 5,738 3,126 5.7 3.0 4.9 2.7

Harrisonburg

64,529 66,057 65,452 67,146 3,032 1,801 2,625 1,795 4.7 2.7 4.0 2.7

Lynchburg

119,318 116,202 119,513 118,454 7,251 3,961 6,309 3,845 6.1 3.4 5.3 3.2

Richmond

671,351 642,928 664,740 648,050 48,012 23,296 41,990 21,891 7.2 3.6 6.3 3.4

Roanoke

154,192 151,178 152,957 152,640 9,023 4,877 7,997 4,922 5.9 3.2 5.2 3.2

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,193 59,738 59,690 60,210 2,995 1,696 2,635 1,518 5.1 2.8 4.4 2.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

845,786 816,613 839,222 819,339 64,050 31,430 55,220 29,691 7.6 3.8 6.6 3.6

Winchester

73,710 74,656 74,052 75,767 3,358 1,793 2,955 1,779 4.6 2.4 4.0 2.3

Washington

3,869,556 3,950,407 3,978,552 3,945,053 293,324 172,432 250,226 173,356 7.6 4.4 6.3 4.4

Bellingham

109,862 114,090 118,551 115,492 9,202 4,907 7,814 4,929 8.4 4.3 6.6 4.3

Bremerton-Silverdale

125,221 125,812 134,351 127,376 8,665 4,662 7,421 4,836 6.9 3.7 5.5 3.8

Kennewick-Richland

143,572 148,709 148,953 148,090 10,030 6,184 8,388 6,227 7.0 4.2 5.6 4.2

Longview

47,579 47,700 50,350 48,526 4,046 2,266 3,422 2,267 8.5 4.8 6.8 4.7

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,863 62,201 63,935 62,667 5,015 2,768 4,223 2,846 8.2 4.5 6.6 4.5

Olympia-Tumwater

139,884 144,507 150,459 145,411 10,010 5,398 8,448 5,562 7.2 3.7 5.6 3.8

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,167,028 2,201,497 2,189,034 2,187,456 165,562 101,295 142,766 100,534 7.6 4.6 6.5 4.6

Spokane-Spokane Valley

271,658 284,415 290,329 287,267 20,503 10,940 16,823 11,103 7.5 3.8 5.8 3.9

Walla Walla

31,851 33,499 32,998 34,182 1,817 1,090 1,539 1,120 5.7 3.3 4.7 3.3

Wenatchee

66,066 66,892 65,790 65,470 4,209 2,352 3,553 2,446 6.4 3.5 5.4 3.7

Yakima

134,624 138,202 127,942 135,356 9,884 5,929 8,370 6,105 7.3 4.3 6.5 4.5

West Virginia

794,260 791,828 793,957 791,023 57,454 25,731 50,108 22,975 7.2 3.2 6.3 2.9

Beckley

47,044 47,012 47,206 46,754 3,828 1,631 3,326 1,459 8.1 3.5 7.0 3.1

Charleston

92,727 92,012 92,484 91,488 7,906 3,203 6,768 2,815 8.5 3.5 7.3 3.1

Huntington-Ashland

146,152 144,693 145,532 145,268 10,153 5,460 8,288 4,988 6.9 3.8 5.7 3.4

Morgantown

70,516 72,417 70,981 72,889 3,846 2,043 3,339 1,828 5.5 2.8 4.7 2.5

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,573 37,846 38,769 37,670 2,973 1,314 2,602 1,175 7.7 3.5 6.7 3.1

Wheeling

63,451 61,898 62,570 62,645 5,095 2,600 3,705 2,296 8.0 4.2 5.9 3.7

Wisconsin

3,129,027 3,104,266 3,055,281 3,102,582 153,718 83,336 130,864 70,543 4.9 2.7 4.3 2.3

Appleton

132,429 132,099 129,190 132,325 5,092 2,817 4,392 2,419 3.8 2.1 3.4 1.8

Eau Claire

92,782 94,373 91,803 94,806 3,754 2,098 3,187 1,797 4.0 2.2 3.5 1.9

Fond du Lac

56,982 58,258 55,991 58,254 2,127 1,277 1,866 1,081 3.7 2.2 3.3 1.9

Green Bay

174,699 175,147 170,601 175,191 7,658 4,176 6,721 3,576 4.4 2.4 3.9 2.0

Janesville-Beloit

86,443 86,824 84,125 86,865 4,687 2,937 3,879 2,492 5.4 3.4 4.6 2.9

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,855 76,868 75,644 77,367 2,857 1,608 2,463 1,385 3.7 2.1 3.3 1.8

Madison

393,577 395,617 386,891 395,328 15,754 8,154 13,377 6,995 4.0 2.1 3.5 1.8

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

828,971 817,836 806,608 812,168 52,454 27,202 44,393 22,676 6.3 3.3 5.5 2.8

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,239 94,011 90,930 93,842 3,469 2,134 3,171 1,830 3.7 2.3 3.5 2.0

Racine

98,987 97,693 96,568 97,303 6,004 3,403 5,232 2,811 6.1 3.5 5.4 2.9

Sheboygan

62,764 63,022 61,138 63,429 2,443 1,402 2,102 1,175 3.9 2.2 3.4 1.9

Wausau

73,416 73,912 71,538 73,816 2,680 1,538 2,284 1,308 3.7 2.1 3.2 1.8

Wyoming

298,662 292,998 294,677 292,278 16,320 8,004 12,954 7,221 5.5 2.7 4.4 2.5

Casper

40,201 38,638 40,237 39,098 3,404 1,441 2,639 1,280 8.5 3.7 6.6 3.3

Cheyenne

50,409 49,008 50,521 49,389 2,400 1,261 1,906 1,115 4.8 2.6 3.8 2.3

Puerto Rico

1,069,225 1,091,928 1,051,356 1,086,652 100,195 86,320 88,801 77,572 9.4 7.9 8.4 7.1

Aguadilla-Isabela

84,135 86,793 82,653 86,376 8,322 8,109 7,315 7,262 9.9 9.3 8.9 8.4

Arecibo

51,715 53,667 50,885 53,119 4,594 4,164 4,171 3,803 8.9 7.8 8.2 7.2

Guayama

19,311 19,952 18,981 19,825 1,613 1,672 1,515 1,529 8.4 8.4 8.0 7.7

Mayaguez

26,467 27,302 25,915 27,121 2,373 2,462 2,124 2,237 9.0 9.0 8.2 8.2

Ponce

88,611 92,412 87,235 91,228 8,587 9,256 7,680 8,359 9.7 10.0 8.8 9.2

San German

33,473 36,124 33,311 36,039 3,169 3,513 2,852 3,118 9.5 9.7 8.6 8.7

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

725,131 732,333 711,681 729,684 67,514 52,492 59,500 47,090 9.3 7.2 8.4 6.5

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) September October September October
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

18,494,445 19,055,441 18,887,681 19,103,466 1,933,139 1,212,007 1,757,771 1,166,665 10.5 6.4 9.3 6.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,326,521 6,617,635 6,500,469 6,615,644 777,912 489,012 718,838 469,931 12.3 7.4 11.1 7.1

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,521,576 1,582,501 1,554,865 1,588,300 146,059 79,570 127,455 75,392 9.6 5.0 8.2 4.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,804,945 5,035,134 4,945,604 5,027,344 631,853 409,442 591,383 394,539 13.2 8.1 12.0 7.8

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,420,908 2,478,289 2,464,185 2,488,719 218,246 116,795 191,668 111,263 9.0 4.7 7.8 4.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,330,461 1,345,698 1,353,344 1,350,221 128,683 72,064 114,083 68,922 9.7 5.4 8.4 5.1

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

962,919 998,676 979,843 1,004,240 80,583 39,911 69,770 37,763 8.4 4.0 7.1 3.8

San Rafael

127,528 133,915 130,998 134,258 8,980 4,820 7,815 4,578 7.0 3.6 6.0 3.4

District of Columbia

404,522 409,255 405,870 410,910 35,648 24,019 33,338 22,961 8.8 5.9 8.2 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,311,414 3,344,900 3,351,733 3,370,411 226,897 141,217 215,500 132,585 6.9 4.2 6.4 3.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

645,260 673,361 667,585 674,486 41,808 32,608 41,669 30,938 6.5 4.8 6.2 4.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,666,154 2,671,539 2,684,148 2,695,925 185,089 108,609 173,831 101,647 6.9 4.1 6.5 3.8

Florida

10,109,604 10,623,190 10,047,839 10,656,873 740,593 456,901 565,043 425,837 7.3 4.3 5.6 4.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,068,776 3,159,947 3,021,810 3,158,832 294,753 154,114 207,810 125,897 9.6 4.9 6.9 4.0

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,008,017 1,051,490 1,004,367 1,062,260 78,058 45,855 60,774 44,786 7.7 4.4 6.1 4.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,352,247 1,360,391 1,306,434 1,341,452 170,076 77,449 110,612 50,950 12.6 5.7 8.5 3.8

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

708,512 748,066 711,009 755,120 46,619 30,810 36,424 30,161 6.6 4.1 5.1 4.0

Illinois

6,358,334 6,223,103 6,324,429 6,263,001 640,189 318,884 474,466 311,052 10.1 5.1 7.5 5.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,798,356 4,699,491 4,690,619 4,752,277 534,792 251,360 384,774 241,836 11.1 5.3 8.2 5.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,690,447 3,617,025 3,567,543 3,674,024 451,442 207,161 314,358 199,423 12.2 5.7 8.8 5.4

Elgin

316,965 308,960 325,306 307,781 24,656 13,687 20,818 13,707 7.8 4.4 6.4 4.5

Gary(3)

329,959 322,161 329,296 323,110 27,302 13,271 22,737 11,927 8.3 4.1 6.9 3.7

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

460,985 451,345 468,474 447,362 31,392 17,241 26,861 16,779 6.8 3.8 5.7 3.8

Massachusetts

3,641,540 3,703,310 3,675,919 3,721,703 325,035 195,264 296,395 190,582 8.9 5.3 8.1 5.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,705,012 2,745,854 2,734,632 2,762,314 233,468 132,363 211,339 128,494 8.6 4.8 7.7 4.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,607,071 1,642,694 1,628,080 1,654,311 137,590 78,672 127,110 76,518 8.6 4.8 7.8 4.6

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

108,083 108,677 108,654 109,113 11,657 6,838 10,181 6,551 10.8 6.3 9.4 6.0

Framingham

153,418 157,878 156,133 159,218 11,262 6,535 10,826 6,412 7.3 4.1 6.9 4.0

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

114,767 114,689 115,419 115,541 8,906 4,699 7,740 4,551 7.8 4.1 6.7 3.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,174 97,357 99,190 97,799 12,470 7,012 10,565 6,798 12.6 7.2 10.7 7.0

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

189,450 193,586 192,215 194,849 15,560 9,500 14,050 9,253 8.2 4.9 7.3 4.7

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,000 84,901 85,506 85,541 9,766 5,386 8,666 5,213 11.5 6.3 10.1 6.1

Nashua(2)

174,259 171,266 174,277 170,120 10,259 4,360 8,013 4,041 5.9 2.5 4.6 2.4

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

89,542 89,757 90,213 90,333 8,316 4,729 7,360 4,596 9.3 5.3 8.2 5.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

84,248 85,049 84,945 85,489 7,682 4,632 6,828 4,561 9.1 5.4 8.0 5.3

Michigan

4,851,512 4,749,769 4,853,635 4,757,021 378,479 262,907 350,632 222,277 7.8 5.5 7.2 4.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,133,276 2,076,191 2,136,631 2,094,260 216,078 111,185 203,167 93,869 10.1 5.4 9.5 4.5

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

813,177 782,145 814,769 789,839 104,503 53,908 100,102 45,953 12.9 6.9 12.3 5.8

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,320,099 1,294,046 1,321,864 1,304,421 111,575 57,276 103,066 47,916 8.5 4.4 7.8 3.7

New York

9,303,744 9,247,695 9,195,073 9,259,759 916,728 578,011 761,164 551,937 9.9 6.3 8.3 6.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,656,077 9,628,534 9,570,705 9,686,376 995,945 659,904 834,672 611,764 10.3 6.9 8.7 6.3

Dutchess County-Putnam County

190,078 185,593 190,450 186,077 11,149 7,584 10,178 7,316 5.9 4.1 5.3 3.9

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,451,622 1,428,355 1,446,954 1,428,519 95,114 59,480 86,005 57,035 6.6 4.2 5.9 4.0

Newark(3)

1,190,915 1,194,864 1,194,446 1,206,349 91,622 76,058 86,234 66,668 7.7 6.4 7.2 5.5

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,823,462 6,819,722 6,738,855 6,865,431 798,060 516,782 652,255 480,745 11.7 7.6 9.7 7.0

Pennsylvania

6,331,317 6,259,553 6,316,802 6,268,875 444,222 336,615 403,395 304,589 7.0 5.4 6.4 4.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,058,958 3,050,824 3,058,858 3,063,502 232,410 172,840 207,026 155,330 7.6 5.7 6.8 5.1

Camden(3)

617,379 631,384 622,769 640,932 42,993 37,746 40,550 33,049 7.0 6.0 6.5 5.2

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,060,905 1,057,074 1,059,623 1,056,590 61,460 44,336 54,975 40,119 5.8 4.2 5.2 3.8

Philadelphia

1,005,322 983,257 1,000,421 982,512 100,597 71,656 91,329 64,382 10.0 7.3 9.1 6.6

Wilmington(3)

375,352 379,109 376,045 383,468 27,360 19,102 20,172 17,780 7.3 5.0 5.4 4.6

Texas

13,993,842 14,253,139 14,186,427 14,315,455 1,116,437 704,154 976,056 681,201 8.0 4.9 6.9 4.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,995,416 4,107,945 4,064,538 4,134,941 286,877 180,215 251,614 173,726 7.2 4.4 6.2 4.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,698,751 2,776,039 2,739,702 2,795,979 192,464 120,447 168,218 116,035 7.1 4.3 6.1 4.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,296,665 1,331,906 1,324,836 1,338,962 94,413 59,768 83,396 57,691 7.3 4.5 6.3 4.3

Washington

3,869,556 3,950,407 3,978,552 3,945,053 293,324 172,432 250,226 173,356 7.6 4.4 6.3 4.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,167,028 2,201,497 2,189,034 2,187,456 165,562 101,295 142,766 100,534 7.6 4.6 6.5 4.6

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,731,367 1,758,353 1,724,314 1,744,647 127,947 81,297 111,281 80,461 7.4 4.6 6.5 4.6

Tacoma-Lakewood

435,661 443,144 464,720 442,809 37,615 19,998 31,485 20,073 8.6 4.5 6.8 4.5

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area September October Change from
October 2020 to October 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

1,979.9 2,041.8 2,007.2 2,070.5 63.3 3.2

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45.2 46.4 45.5 46.3 0.8 1.8

Auburn-Opelika

65.2 67.2 66.4 67.5 1.1 1.7

Birmingham-Hoover

516.3 539.3 523.7 547.5 23.8 4.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

76.7 83.1 75.5 83.3 7.8 10.3

Decatur

56.4 57.1 57.1 57.7 0.6 1.1

Dothan

57.8 59.7 58.6 60.1 1.5 2.6

Florence-Muscle Shoals

54.9 56.2 56.1 56.7 0.6 1.1

Gadsden

33.6 33.7 33.9 33.7 -0.2 -0.6

Huntsville

240.9 250.2 244.8 253.1 8.3 3.4

Mobile

176.4 181.7 181.3 183.8 2.5 1.4

Montgomery

168.1 169.8 169.7 171.5 1.8 1.1

Tuscaloosa

104.8 107.1 105.7 107.9 2.2 2.1


Alaska

306.2 315.0 299.3 305.9 6.6