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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, December 3, 2020		       USDL-20-2183

Technical information:
 Employment:	  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:    (202) 691-5902    *  PressOffice@bls.gov


      METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- OCTOBER 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in October than a year earlier in 384 of the
389 metropolitan areas and lower in 5 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. A total of 124 areas had jobless rates of less
than 5.0 percent and 16 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm
payroll employment decreased over the year in 234 metropolitan areas and
was essentially unchanged in 155 areas. The national unemployment rate in
October was 6.6 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.3 percent a
year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and
definitions as those used for the national household survey estimates. These
data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are
from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and
earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where
the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and
statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, had the highest unemployment rate in October,
22.5 percent, followed by El Centro, CA, 18.8 percent. Ames, IA, and 
Burlington-South Burlington, VT, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.9
percent and 2.1 percent, respectively. A total of 275 areas had October 
jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 6.6 percent, 103 areas had rates above
it, and 11 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in October occurred in
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+19.8 percentage points). Rates rose over the
year by at least 5.0 percentage points in an additional 14 areas. The
largest over-the-year rate decrease occurred in Yuma, AZ (-1.0 percentage
point).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or
more, Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in
October, 13.8 percent. Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest jobless rate among
the large areas, 4.1 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment
rate increases, the largest of which was in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV
(+10.0 percentage points). The smallest rate increase from a year earlier
occurred in St. Louis, MO-IL (+1.4 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
October, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest unemployment rate
among the divisions, 12.1 percent. Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate,
4.1 percent. (See table 2.)

In October, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases, the largest of which was in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+7.8
percentage points). The smallest rate increases occurred in Elgin, IL; Lake
County-Kenosha County, IL-WI; and Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (+1.6
percentage points each).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, 234 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 155 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year
employment decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,017,600),
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-520,000), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin,
IL-IN-WI (-343,300). The largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment
occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-27.3 percent), Lake Charles, LA (-17.8
percent), and Flagstaff, AZ (-16.6 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in all of the 51 metropolitan areas
with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year 
percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-10.5 percent), New York-Newark-Jersey City,
NY-NJ-PA (-10.1 percent), and Rochester, NY, and San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 
(-9.8 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan
divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among
the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ
(-774,400), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-379,100), and
Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (-275,700). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in
New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-10.6 percent), Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley,
CA (-10.5 percent), and Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-10.2 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to
be released on Friday, December 18, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be
released on Tuesday, January 5, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 ______________________________________________________________________________________
|										       |
|              Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on October 2020		       |
|                     Establishment and Household Survey Data			       |
|										       |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the     |
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes,       |
| the application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business	       |
| births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as       |
| they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a	       |
| model to account for the relatively stable net employment change generated by	       |
| business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship 	       |
| between business births and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with      |
| zero employment are not included in estimation. For the September final and	       |
| October preliminary estimates, CES included a portion of these reports in the	       |
| estimates and made modifications to the birth-death model. In addition for both      |
| months, the establishment survey included a portion of the reports that returned     |
| to reporting positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more	       |
| information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.				       |
|										       |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any   |
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed,      |
| even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or	       |
| permanently absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as	       |
| employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the	       |
| reference period does vary across the respondents in the establishment survey;       |
| one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-     |
| weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.		       |
|										       |
| For the October 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the     |
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement	       |
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state       |
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both     |
| the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the       |
| LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims    |
| covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level	       |
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise      |
| would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create	       |
| estimates at other points in the time series.					       |
|										       |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at					       |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-october-2020.htm extensively    |
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national  |
| estimates for October 2020. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative  |
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically,   |
| with BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some   |
| extent. However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey     |
| are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken    |
| to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed    |
| and unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were      |
| affected to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the     |
| official LAUS estimates for October 2020. Similar misclassifications had occurred    |
| in the household survey from March through September (see 			       |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-     |
| situation-news-release.htm#summaries).					       |
|										       |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment  |
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary October and    |
| revised September estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift	       |
| outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas.      |
| The substate area estimates for both months also were impacted by misclassification  |
| in the household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on   |
| the data for their model-based control areas.					       |
|										       |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a	       |
| monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico   |
| Department of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since   |
| May 2020 similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population	       |
| Survey, which has affected the local area data proportionally.		       |
|______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) September October September October
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,237,761 2,266,350 2,252,789 2,256,997 57,536 147,185 57,113 123,584 2.6 6.5 2.5 5.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,820 45,314 46,508 44,790 1,365 3,450 1,381 2,943 3.0 7.6 3.0 6.6

Auburn-Opelika

76,841 75,874 77,850 76,179 1,748 4,215 1,747 3,488 2.3 5.6 2.2 4.6

Birmingham-Hoover

551,568 550,963 557,216 549,137 12,963 34,546 12,785 28,985 2.4 6.3 2.3 5.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

96,754 97,719 97,213 95,660 2,244 5,516 2,246 4,740 2.3 5.6 2.3 5.0

Decatur

72,545 71,643 72,973 71,437 1,619 3,542 1,670 2,916 2.2 4.9 2.3 4.1

Dothan

64,268 63,987 64,373 63,866 1,625 3,813 1,612 3,219 2.5 6.0 2.5 5.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,258 65,727 66,575 65,345 1,964 3,857 1,886 3,124 3.0 5.9 2.8 4.8

Gadsden

42,423 41,385 42,766 41,152 1,227 3,244 1,285 2,695 2.9 7.8 3.0 6.5

Huntsville

228,368 227,769 231,034 227,553 4,867 11,661 4,989 9,684 2.1 5.1 2.2 4.3

Mobile

188,658 190,136 190,090 189,342 6,066 18,068 5,943 15,093 3.2 9.5 3.1 8.0

Montgomery

171,723 172,987 172,879 171,119 4,474 14,527 4,459 12,416 2.6 8.4 2.6 7.3

Tuscaloosa

119,855 120,464 121,013 119,005 2,827 8,612 2,800 7,235 2.4 7.1 2.3 6.1

Alaska

348,825 334,515 344,605 351,548 19,306 21,580 19,701 19,030 5.5 6.5 5.7 5.4

Anchorage

191,583 187,814 192,732 200,710 9,960 12,234 9,924 10,706 5.2 6.5 5.1 5.3

Fairbanks

44,804 43,877 44,717 46,207 2,163 2,213 2,225 1,979 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.3

Arizona

3,591,467 3,587,391 3,601,094 3,594,564 165,431 236,960 161,137 284,601 4.6 6.6 4.5 7.9

Flagstaff

79,489 69,962 79,349 70,110 3,975 5,711 3,921 6,795 5.0 8.2 4.9 9.7

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,269 87,378 88,263 87,420 4,881 6,878 4,788 7,916 5.5 7.9 5.4 9.1

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,524,737 2,539,446 2,535,869 2,547,632 98,530 156,760 97,704 191,737 3.9 6.2 3.9 7.5

Prescott

108,122 109,981 107,722 109,113 4,584 6,147 4,538 7,553 4.2 5.6 4.2 6.9

Sierra Vista-Douglas

51,109 52,305 51,646 52,183 2,808 2,897 2,732 3,427 5.5 5.5 5.3 6.6

Tucson

503,048 499,135 501,592 499,137 21,421 31,530 21,280 39,426 4.3 6.3 4.2 7.9

Yuma

102,870 97,429 102,978 97,528 19,790 16,259 17,092 15,241 19.2 16.7 16.6 15.6

Arkansas

1,364,706 1,344,851 1,367,199 1,331,562 45,467 93,700 42,231 76,007 3.3 7.0 3.1 5.7

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

282,574 279,873 284,397 279,616 6,819 14,775 6,417 11,914 2.4 5.3 2.3 4.3

Fort Smith

118,583 117,369 118,838 116,352 4,096 7,462 4,058 6,839 3.5 6.4 3.4 5.9

Hot Springs

41,040 41,883 40,921 41,001 1,452 3,990 1,375 3,093 3.5 9.5 3.4 7.5

Jonesboro

66,406 67,841 66,775 67,040 1,774 4,086 1,646 3,198 2.7 6.0 2.5 4.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

356,936 349,820 358,233 343,608 11,233 27,419 10,411 22,049 3.1 7.8 2.9 6.4

Pine Bluff

34,911 34,218 34,975 33,639 1,702 3,232 1,587 2,703 4.9 9.4 4.5 8.0

California

19,505,846 18,730,849 19,538,254 19,341,630 704,291 2,005,969 725,895 1,736,288 3.6 10.7 3.7 9.0

Bakersfield

397,235 365,929 399,408 380,684 24,610 44,177 25,064 40,327 6.2 12.1 6.3 10.6

Chico

99,693 93,147 100,659 96,263 3,998 7,845 4,180 7,142 4.0 8.4 4.2 7.4

El Centro

71,373 67,454 72,614 68,727 13,839 14,260 14,190 12,955 19.4 21.1 19.5 18.8

Fresno

452,958 440,589 448,769 450,385 25,413 44,693 27,444 41,673 5.6 10.1 6.1 9.3

Hanford-Corcoran

57,497 54,897 57,617 56,332 3,444 5,489 3,790 5,257 6.0 10.0 6.6 9.3

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,781,917 6,525,145 6,789,821 6,715,275 263,665 899,489 264,634 736,087 3.9 13.8 3.9 11.0

Madera

62,493 61,378 61,525 61,811 3,301 5,647 3,458 5,235 5.3 9.2 5.6 8.5

Merced

117,807 113,891 118,481 116,513 6,806 11,692 7,121 10,852 5.8 10.3 6.0 9.3

Modesto

246,178 235,018 244,850 240,848 11,873 23,675 12,367 21,885 4.8 10.1 5.1 9.1

Napa

75,913 71,465 75,561 73,547 1,715 5,368 1,814 4,884 2.3 7.5 2.4 6.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

421,441 405,955 425,299 420,029 14,079 33,630 14,466 29,958 3.3 8.3 3.4 7.1

Redding

74,740 72,041 75,417 75,387 2,760 5,542 2,957 5,205 3.7 7.7 3.9 6.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,074,832 2,030,368 2,084,065 2,110,265 78,065 207,877 80,663 190,613 3.8 10.2 3.9 9.0

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,104,416 1,074,557 1,104,810 1,112,426 34,581 93,638 36,192 84,388 3.1 8.7 3.3 7.6

Salinas

228,665 193,289 224,987 195,464 8,104 16,686 8,764 15,307 3.5 8.6 3.9 7.8

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,593,792 1,555,130 1,598,643 1,610,859 45,781 138,465 47,861 124,452 2.9 8.9 3.0 7.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,603,490 2,472,848 2,608,916 2,557,035 60,461 208,888 63,687 183,778 2.3 8.4 2.4 7.2

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,088,233 1,053,021 1,090,633 1,096,177 25,135 73,483 26,355 65,277 2.3 7.0 2.4 6.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

139,872 129,170 142,355 135,999 3,538 9,238 3,649 8,120 2.5 7.2 2.6 6.0

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

142,734 127,830 143,704 131,656 4,707 10,352 4,999 9,352 3.3 8.1 3.5 7.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,504 211,126 220,335 218,203 6,458 15,377 6,870 13,835 3.0 7.3 3.1 6.3

Santa Rosa

264,030 250,710 263,296 258,062 6,014 17,981 6,282 16,055 2.3 7.2 2.4 6.2

Stockton-Lodi

328,532 320,692 327,968 330,224 16,021 35,897 16,984 32,945 4.9 11.2 5.2 10.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,933 201,404 210,932 208,259 6,708 19,363 7,092 17,717 3.2 9.6 3.4 8.5

Visalia-Porterville

204,349 191,117 202,214 193,798 16,238 22,761 16,960 21,182 7.9 11.9 8.4 10.9

Yuba City

76,464 68,923 76,877 70,589 3,798 6,989 4,026 6,493 5.0 10.1 5.2 9.2

Colorado

3,178,923 3,135,918 3,183,835 3,151,175 75,467 192,920 75,314 194,309 2.4 6.2 2.4 6.2

Boulder

199,949 192,840 198,261 192,634 4,205 10,189 4,128 10,040 2.1 5.3 2.1 5.2

Colorado Springs

358,718 359,865 358,748 358,267 10,188 21,254 10,079 21,527 2.8 5.9 2.8 6.0

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,694,499 1,696,302 1,695,627 1,692,991 39,294 110,270 39,124 110,344 2.3 6.5 2.3 6.5

Fort Collins

209,577 202,474 211,959 205,087 4,243 10,509 4,219 10,520 2.0 5.2 2.0 5.1

Grand Junction

77,499 78,699 77,377 79,013 2,140 4,482 2,151 4,521 2.8 5.7 2.8 5.7

Greeley

172,833 167,930 175,276 171,439 3,779 10,528 3,834 10,712 2.2 6.3 2.2 6.2

Pueblo

76,923 76,749 77,084 77,785 2,731 5,727 2,654 6,097 3.6 7.5 3.4 7.8

Connecticut

1,913,111 1,892,440 1,925,483 1,856,084 66,569 142,318 66,634 108,532 3.5 7.5 3.5 5.8

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

465,419 453,494 467,659 443,813 16,362 35,811 16,492 27,365 3.5 7.9 3.5 6.2

Danbury

106,590 105,065 107,380 102,656 3,024 6,988 3,047 5,277 2.8 6.7 2.8 5.1

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

630,118 632,779 634,415 619,842 22,209 45,873 22,142 35,037 3.5 7.2 3.5 5.7

New Haven

331,059 329,328 333,480 325,287 11,249 23,445 11,282 17,999 3.4 7.1 3.4 5.5

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,200 139,728 142,565 136,662 4,766 12,747 4,719 9,270 3.4 9.1 3.3 6.8

Waterbury

111,524 109,738 112,374 107,270 4,812 9,790 4,806 7,485 4.3 8.9 4.3 7.0

Delaware

484,356 484,737 487,774 478,936 18,909 40,387 18,749 26,334 3.9 8.3 3.8 5.5

Dover

78,818 81,803 80,257 80,526 3,425 7,216 3,396 4,755 4.3 8.8 4.2 5.9

Salisbury(1)

195,698 187,251 192,626 187,171 7,492 13,536 7,742 11,413 3.8 7.2 4.0 6.1

District of Columbia

407,988 396,021 409,726 395,863 21,886 36,262 21,517 32,473 5.4 9.2 5.3 8.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,475,733 3,347,063 3,495,773 3,379,584 101,288 231,404 100,524 223,964 2.9 6.9 2.9 6.6

Florida

10,438,897 10,166,280 10,458,221 10,153,913 304,238 735,744 295,902 652,787 2.9 7.2 2.8 6.4

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

348,608 340,268 351,228 347,235 10,326 20,158 10,132 19,180 3.0 5.9 2.9 5.5

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

129,964 124,788 129,537 125,039 3,154 4,753 3,086 4,903 2.4 3.8 2.4 3.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

304,305 295,598 302,993 297,984 9,844 17,454 9,804 17,462 3.2 5.9 3.2 5.9

Gainesville

150,175 143,111 149,740 145,739 4,109 5,753 4,087 6,317 2.7 4.0 2.7 4.3

Homosassa Springs

47,643 45,600 47,560 45,592 2,101 2,874 2,030 2,978 4.4 6.3 4.3 6.5

Jacksonville

797,492 774,080 800,967 779,625 22,918 37,181 22,647 38,802 2.9 4.8 2.8 5.0

Lakeland-Winter Haven

310,844 308,450 309,933 308,576 10,922 24,461 10,618 22,511 3.5 7.9 3.4 7.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,176,775 3,110,394 3,190,930 3,067,830 85,195 301,907 80,710 236,428 2.7 9.7 2.5 7.7

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

177,330 174,136 180,325 176,526 5,719 9,866 5,401 9,006 3.2 5.7 3.0 5.1

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

370,068 355,792 370,079 360,245 10,784 18,563 10,540 18,080 2.9 5.2 2.8 5.0

Ocala

139,064 141,685 139,117 142,137 4,904 7,482 4,797 7,922 3.5 5.3 3.4 5.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,381,556 1,326,177 1,380,096 1,315,541 38,820 121,869 38,327 105,727 2.8 9.2 2.8 8.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

288,086 285,065 288,618 286,898 8,449 14,808 8,434 14,533 2.9 5.2 2.9 5.1

Panama City

91,453 87,620 89,638 87,352 2,864 3,754 2,774 4,011 3.1 4.3 3.1 4.6

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

231,779 224,111 231,193 224,156 6,572 10,150 6,570 11,062 2.8 4.5 2.8 4.9

Port St. Lucie

220,807 218,275 220,854 218,428 7,696 12,419 7,470 11,990 3.5 5.7 3.4 5.5

Punta Gorda

71,697 72,222 71,956 72,725 2,514 3,997 2,390 3,814 3.5 5.5 3.3 5.2

Sebastian-Vero Beach

64,959 63,484 65,470 64,399 2,465 3,725 2,323 3,650 3.8 5.9 3.5 5.7

Sebring

35,809 35,941 36,060 36,728 1,542 2,114 1,488 2,219 4.3 5.9 4.1 6.0

Tallahassee

198,380 186,610 199,012 188,083 5,888 8,679 5,831 9,643 3.0 4.7 2.9 5.1

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,577,352 1,534,415 1,577,390 1,540,302 46,345 87,869 45,757 85,729 2.9 5.7 2.9 5.6

The Villages

32,911 32,414 32,901 32,621 1,340 1,844 1,295 1,906 4.1 5.7 3.9 5.8

Georgia

5,119,873 4,938,515 5,140,986 5,093,669 156,100 306,054 159,171 228,654 3.0 6.2 3.1 4.5

Albany

67,059 63,441 66,804 65,377 2,638 4,738 2,564 3,691 3.9 7.5 3.8 5.6

Athens-Clarke County

98,855 93,777 99,897 97,778 2,867 4,632 2,936 3,633 2.9 4.9 2.9 3.7

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,102,466 3,004,790 3,116,953 3,090,863 89,661 199,316 91,054 145,719 2.9 6.6 2.9 4.7

Augusta-Richmond County

265,767 254,539 267,736 260,899 8,165 13,151 8,495 10,493 3.1 5.2 3.2 4.0

Brunswick

53,084 46,334 52,637 47,350 1,838 2,828 1,663 2,109 3.5 6.1 3.2 4.5

Columbus

122,381 116,765 123,200 119,351 4,423 7,810 4,389 6,037 3.6 6.7 3.6 5.1

Dalton

58,853 55,155 59,069 56,882 2,251 2,795 2,738 2,431 3.8 5.1 4.6 4.3

Gainesville

102,502 96,652 102,981 101,065 2,490 3,813 2,558 2,962 2.4 3.9 2.5 2.9

Hinesville

34,254 33,454 34,380 34,646 1,202 1,825 1,174 1,379 3.5 5.5 3.4 4.0

Macon-Bibb County

102,731 99,054 102,708 101,523 3,437 6,520 3,485 5,076 3.3 6.6 3.4 5.0

Rome

44,060 43,002 44,467 44,896 1,451 2,119 1,488 1,639 3.3 4.9 3.3 3.7

Savannah

187,284 181,300 188,554 187,347 5,480 12,157 5,576 8,940 2.9 6.7 3.0 4.8

Valdosta

63,589 62,990 64,060 66,036 1,966 3,489 2,086 2,669 3.1 5.5 3.3 4.0

Warner Robins

86,186 80,486 86,157 83,285 2,593 3,939 2,806 3,372 3.0 4.9 3.3 4.0

Hawaii

662,543 610,217 663,747 639,195 18,842 92,450 17,540 90,903 2.8 15.2 2.6 14.2

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,453 78,553 86,124 82,657 2,359 18,251 2,288 18,612 2.7 23.2 2.7 22.5

Urban Honolulu

447,922 414,306 450,270 434,076 12,283 56,168 11,110 53,556 2.7 13.6 2.5 12.3

Idaho

886,206 919,116 888,851 915,311 20,685 51,637 20,787 45,983 2.3 5.6 2.3 5.0

Boise City

377,772 392,059 375,535 385,707 8,758 23,620 8,805 20,744 2.3 6.0 2.3 5.4

Coeur d'Alene

80,050 80,392 79,673 79,057 2,124 5,758 2,204 5,114 2.7 7.2 2.8 6.5

Idaho Falls

72,613 77,233 73,189 77,274 1,496 3,246 1,432 2,924 2.1 4.2 2.0 3.8

Lewiston

31,246 30,604 31,744 30,787 804 1,537 845 1,337 2.6 5.0 2.7 4.3

Pocatello

42,462 42,199 43,005 41,687 1,001 2,414 1,011 2,098 2.4 5.7 2.4 5.0

Twin Falls

53,876 56,293 54,103 55,857 1,184 2,845 1,185 2,562 2.2 5.1 2.2 4.6

Illinois

6,426,636 6,334,468 6,443,336 6,255,869 222,928 634,628 224,741 407,255 3.5 10.0 3.5 6.5

Bloomington

96,430 93,875 97,093 96,684 3,339 5,956 3,279 3,948 3.5 6.3 3.4 4.1

Carbondale-Marion

60,580 60,490 60,810 62,070 2,210 4,468 2,261 2,872 3.6 7.4 3.7 4.6

Champaign-Urbana

125,984 126,883 128,412 132,388 4,174 7,772 4,337 5,371 3.3 6.1 3.4 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,836,999 4,770,551 4,845,658 4,646,119 158,790 515,159 160,831 336,604 3.3 10.8 3.3 7.2

Danville

33,300 33,413 33,480 34,367 1,581 2,814 1,571 1,913 4.7 8.4 4.7 5.6

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

197,006 188,448 197,733 190,225 7,696 13,449 7,610 8,767 3.9 7.1 3.8 4.6

Decatur

48,723 48,339 48,737 48,511 2,388 4,926 2,369 3,256 4.9 10.2 4.9 6.7

Kankakee

56,319 56,482 56,899 57,410 2,314 4,588 2,413 2,967 4.1 8.1 4.2 5.2

Peoria

176,398 168,011 176,229 170,530 7,426 14,464 7,338 9,462 4.2 8.6 4.2 5.5

Rockford

165,703 163,294 165,994 162,947 8,551 16,544 8,290 10,358 5.2 10.1 5.0 6.4

Springfield

107,746 107,238 107,942 108,626 3,819 8,344 3,808 5,448 3.5 7.8 3.5 5.0

Indiana

3,374,034 3,343,358 3,392,188 3,353,337 95,125 195,513 102,208 160,712 2.8 5.8 3.0 4.8

Bloomington

80,806 79,701 81,761 80,108 2,134 3,662 2,500 3,225 2.6 4.6 3.1 4.0

Columbus

44,791 44,674 44,861 44,810 911 2,125 999 1,694 2.0 4.8 2.2 3.8

Elkhart-Goshen

111,450 107,586 111,645 107,995 3,092 5,639 3,235 4,558 2.8 5.2 2.9 4.2

Evansville

163,375 165,962 163,517 165,933 4,410 8,293 4,695 7,277 2.7 5.0 2.9 4.4

Fort Wayne

217,975 219,282 222,745 219,476 5,727 12,550 7,289 10,250 2.6 5.7 3.3 4.7

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,071,170 1,090,152 1,073,393 1,092,941 27,875 64,927 29,436 53,366 2.6 6.0 2.7 4.9

Kokomo

36,857 37,667 37,042 37,306 1,186 2,719 1,215 2,035 3.2 7.2 3.3 5.5

Lafayette-West Lafayette

113,589 111,770 115,869 112,788 2,739 5,615 3,151 4,822 2.4 5.0 2.7 4.3

Michigan City-La Porte

47,777 48,025 47,828 47,944 1,695 3,642 1,679 3,042 3.5 7.6 3.5 6.3

Muncie

53,971 53,020 54,541 53,219 1,703 3,211 1,960 2,703 3.2 6.1 3.6 5.1

South Bend-Mishawaka

161,272 154,819 160,327 154,442 5,246 11,330 5,484 8,999 3.3 7.3 3.4 5.8

Terre Haute

75,570 73,948 75,830 74,075 2,675 4,463 2,778 3,682 3.5 6.0 3.7 5.0

Iowa

1,748,279 1,632,950 1,759,289 1,638,478 41,466 71,212 40,745 49,084 2.4 4.4 2.3 3.0

Ames

61,172 59,467 61,675 60,168 998 1,661 914 1,155 1.6 2.8 1.5 1.9

Cedar Rapids

149,474 139,262 150,289 139,447 3,923 7,806 3,857 5,127 2.6 5.6 2.6 3.7

Des Moines-West Des Moines

369,100 342,541 372,407 342,895 8,612 16,494 8,510 11,180 2.3 4.8 2.3 3.3

Dubuque

57,141 53,260 57,465 53,256 1,226 2,520 1,202 1,737 2.1 4.7 2.1 3.3

Iowa City

100,735 95,415 101,354 96,009 1,935 3,989 1,731 2,643 1.9 4.2 1.7 2.8

Sioux City

94,139 90,776 94,657 91,174 2,303 3,498 2,413 2,559 2.4 3.9 2.5 2.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,673 86,458 92,096 86,287 2,476 4,094 2,494 2,688 2.7 4.7 2.7 3.1

Kansas

1,484,776 1,467,274 1,493,923 1,519,494 40,121 81,479 42,395 74,643 2.7 5.6 2.8 4.9

Lawrence

65,602 64,175 66,705 66,096 1,635 3,593 1,747 3,391 2.5 5.6 2.6 5.1

Manhattan

48,157 45,502 48,965 46,913 1,130 1,972 1,192 1,910 2.3 4.3 2.4 4.1

Topeka

117,858 116,103 118,752 120,367 3,287 6,117 3,491 5,814 2.8 5.3 2.9 4.8

Wichita

313,230 314,124 314,612 322,471 9,331 25,187 9,712 22,004 3.0 8.0 3.1 6.8

Kentucky

2,073,191 1,894,665 2,075,032 1,955,722 79,648 98,849 79,834 135,622 3.8 5.2 3.8 6.9

Bowling Green

84,784 74,325 85,283 77,149 2,890 3,467 3,152 5,234 3.4 4.7 3.7 6.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,369 61,137 67,067 62,970 2,589 3,106 2,557 4,310 3.8 5.1 3.8 6.8

Lexington-Fayette

274,350 253,872 275,928 263,866 8,360 11,909 8,388 16,333 3.0 4.7 3.0 6.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

676,110 635,697 675,402 649,029 22,944 33,705 22,540 41,700 3.4 5.3 3.3 6.4

Owensboro

55,855 51,365 55,884 52,621 1,933 2,396 1,913 3,263 3.5 4.7 3.4 6.2

Louisiana

2,096,725 2,097,096 2,108,448 2,118,292 104,342 169,723 105,844 197,250 5.0 8.1 5.0 9.3

Alexandria

63,463 63,849 63,580 64,173 3,379 3,814 3,338 4,350 5.3 6.0 5.3 6.8

Baton Rouge

416,922 422,614 419,704 426,854 19,274 29,517 19,430 34,213 4.6 7.0 4.6 8.0

Hammond

55,006 55,957 55,250 56,588 3,102 5,212 3,096 5,950 5.6 9.3 5.6 10.5

Houma-Thibodaux

89,363 89,851 89,386 90,224 4,163 6,066 4,210 7,098 4.7 6.8 4.7 7.9

Lafayette

212,471 215,538 213,448 215,386 10,381 15,723 10,553 17,820 4.9 7.3 4.9 8.3

Lake Charles

109,179 99,751 109,938 101,552 4,691 11,996 4,658 11,975 4.3 12.0 4.2 11.8

Monroe

79,013 83,500 79,295 83,546 4,329 5,578 4,469 6,466 5.5 6.7 5.6 7.7

New Orleans-Metairie

594,425 590,187 600,032 601,439 27,617 55,520 28,174 68,114 4.6 9.4 4.7 11.3

Shreveport-Bossier City

185,710 188,749 187,051 189,582 9,800 14,270 10,120 17,088 5.3 7.6 5.4 9.0

Maine

692,599 682,807 695,929 679,139 16,025 37,161 16,749 32,295 2.3 5.4 2.4 4.8

Bangor

71,314 70,385 72,575 70,563 1,623 3,440 1,743 3,048 2.3 4.9 2.4 4.3

Lewiston-Auburn

55,501 55,371 56,434 54,964 1,336 3,238 1,404 2,748 2.4 5.8 2.5 5.0

Portland-South Portland

209,929 205,094 211,155 203,679 4,133 11,229 4,374 9,540 2.0 5.5 2.1 4.7

Maryland

3,264,649 3,079,451 3,278,073 3,157,253 106,899 225,825 108,418 241,545 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.7

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,521,785 1,428,306 1,528,235 1,461,279 50,934 100,809 51,640 105,314 3.3 7.1 3.4 7.2

California-Lexington Park

57,334 51,920 57,687 53,574 1,680 2,660 1,696 2,787 2.9 5.1 2.9 5.2

Cumberland

45,494 41,543 45,581 42,115 2,352 3,020 2,319 2,768 5.2 7.3 5.1 6.6

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,613 126,039 135,769 127,291 4,501 8,182 4,542 7,260 3.4 6.5 3.3 5.7

Massachusetts

3,798,668 3,752,660 3,819,962 3,610,723 101,529 362,323 90,037 250,244 2.7 9.7 2.4 6.9

Barnstable Town

129,904 124,613 126,240 116,115 3,511 11,633 3,243 8,020 2.7 9.3 2.6 6.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,814,506 2,771,615 2,836,192 2,677,520 69,829 258,506 62,187 178,523 2.5 9.3 2.2 6.7

Leominster-Gardner

80,112 79,863 80,413 76,312 2,428 8,536 2,162 5,773 3.0 10.7 2.7 7.6

New Bedford

85,769 86,207 85,705 82,000 3,301 9,616 3,028 6,245 3.8 11.2 3.5 7.6

Pittsfield

42,408 41,986 42,316 40,081 1,336 4,213 1,180 2,969 3.2 10.0 2.8 7.4

Springfield

377,658 364,104 380,896 352,853 12,716 36,239 11,348 25,508 3.4 10.0 3.0 7.2

Worcester

360,877 362,180 363,777 349,917 10,730 32,402 9,572 22,865 3.0 8.9 2.6 6.5

Michigan

4,930,761 4,833,677 4,943,286 4,868,808 173,033 396,905 173,524 247,431 3.5 8.2 3.5 5.1

Ann Arbor

197,583 203,343 199,449 200,873 5,363 12,304 4,698 7,053 2.7 6.1 2.4 3.5

Battle Creek

61,399 61,551 61,970 60,153 2,192 5,320 2,045 3,159 3.6 8.6 3.3 5.3

Bay City

49,502 48,557 49,540 47,368 1,777 3,637 1,895 2,166 3.6 7.5 3.8 4.6

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,177,102 2,035,649 2,180,195 2,124,283 86,349 200,965 87,008 132,837 4.0 9.9 4.0 6.3

Flint

180,056 183,992 183,174 178,925 7,021 17,281 8,268 10,108 3.9 9.4 4.5 5.6

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

574,566 585,008 575,962 574,792 14,788 36,694 13,348 21,130 2.6 6.3 2.3 3.7

Jackson

72,954 74,129 73,197 72,840 2,286 5,716 2,250 3,358 3.1 7.7 3.1 4.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,510 171,231 168,752 169,228 5,198 11,623 4,872 6,793 3.1 6.8 2.9 4.0

Lansing-East Lansing

247,062 243,142 252,500 241,059 7,117 16,299 8,519 9,515 2.9 6.7 3.4 3.9

Midland

39,783 39,891 39,639 39,302 1,225 2,512 1,163 1,448 3.1 6.3 2.9 3.7

Monroe

74,172 73,088 74,841 72,047 2,270 5,037 2,068 3,351 3.1 6.9 2.8 4.7

Muskegon

76,013 77,724 76,240 75,073 2,785 7,946 2,612 4,734 3.7 10.2 3.4 6.3

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,828 74,524 72,591 72,361 2,373 5,711 2,131 3,322 3.3 7.7 2.9 4.6

Saginaw

85,602 85,597 85,380 83,200 3,187 7,422 3,833 4,331 3.7 8.7 4.5 5.2

Minnesota

3,110,208 3,055,645 3,125,946 3,017,864 80,560 163,943 81,756 117,689 2.6 5.4 2.6 3.9

Duluth

142,606 137,570 143,597 135,740 4,453 8,121 4,674 6,242 3.1 5.9 3.3 4.6

Mankato-North Mankato

62,448 61,251 63,954 61,662 1,447 2,640 1,316 1,823 2.3 4.3 2.1 3.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,033,164 1,998,037 2,036,557 1,955,606 51,843 118,383 52,771 82,225 2.5 5.9 2.6 4.2

Rochester

125,146 122,211 126,368 121,631 2,738 5,160 2,718 4,304 2.2 4.2 2.2 3.5

St. Cloud

113,417 112,540 114,567 112,598 2,907 5,104 2,769 4,040 2.6 4.5 2.4 3.6

Mississippi

1,276,039 1,297,658 1,276,407 1,289,654 68,196 90,055 65,083 90,150 5.3 6.9 5.1 7.0

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

163,446 168,761 164,063 168,960 8,951 12,349 8,503 12,423 5.5 7.3 5.2 7.4

Hattiesburg

68,327 71,654 68,979 71,670 3,225 4,449 3,032 4,427 4.7 6.2 4.4 6.2

Jackson

267,680 273,900 269,741 272,831 12,721 17,129 12,087 17,378 4.8 6.3 4.5 6.4

Missouri

3,083,575 2,994,695 3,103,578 2,980,680 82,035 127,577 86,305 114,425 2.7 4.3 2.8 3.8

Cape Girardeau

48,271 44,470 48,788 44,576 1,302 1,714 1,332 1,534 2.7 3.9 2.7 3.4

Columbia

99,063 96,065 99,703 95,846 1,841 2,791 1,884 2,496 1.9 2.9 1.9 2.6

Jefferson City

74,397 72,380 74,904 72,760 1,498 2,031 1,564 1,852 2.0 2.8 2.1 2.5

Joplin

84,438 83,018 85,225 83,050 2,121 3,205 2,253 2,871 2.5 3.9 2.6 3.5

Kansas City

1,135,510 1,107,085 1,143,396 1,117,059 30,234 54,931 32,617 50,040 2.7 5.0 2.9 4.5

St. Joseph

63,056 61,384 63,738 61,738 1,467 2,043 1,592 1,908 2.3 3.3 2.5 3.1

St. Louis(2)

1,481,679 1,435,962 1,484,448 1,431,488 40,927 78,276 43,061 61,646 2.8 5.5 2.9 4.3

Springfield

236,255 229,449 236,833 228,436 5,698 7,851 5,765 6,950 2.4 3.4 2.4 3.0

Montana

534,592 533,013 535,076 533,821 15,869 24,499 16,905 22,296 3.0 4.6 3.2 4.2

Billings

87,721 87,708 87,561 87,471 2,497 3,893 2,558 3,551 2.8 4.4 2.9 4.1

Great Falls

37,879 37,404 37,962 37,358 1,158 1,832 1,197 1,643 3.1 4.9 3.2 4.4

Missoula

64,326 64,763 64,444 64,896 1,747 3,063 1,841 2,704 2.7 4.7 2.9 4.2

Nebraska

1,029,469 1,026,784 1,038,851 1,029,141 28,495 34,586 29,226 27,876 2.8 3.4 2.8 2.7

Grand Island

43,861 43,783 44,175 43,358 1,272 1,831 1,839 1,481 2.9 4.2 4.2 3.4

Lincoln

186,301 191,121 187,420 190,851 4,811 6,180 4,775 5,070 2.6 3.2 2.5 2.7

Omaha-Council Bluffs

495,050 494,958 501,611 492,674 13,715 19,226 13,504 14,788 2.8 3.9 2.7 3.0

Nevada

1,552,411 1,550,430 1,555,164 1,548,358 57,740 192,954 55,450 182,494 3.7 12.4 3.6 11.8

Carson City

26,399 26,493 26,409 26,409 933 1,819 874 1,742 3.5 6.9 3.3 6.6

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,138,060 1,142,307 1,138,969 1,140,932 44,606 166,395 42,928 157,196 3.9 14.6 3.8 13.8

Reno

260,154 255,587 261,178 254,750 7,747 17,078 7,357 16,113 3.0 6.7 2.8 6.3

New Hampshire

772,689 736,395 773,369 724,578 17,831 40,491 16,995 27,260 2.3 5.5 2.2 3.8

Dover-Durham

86,386 79,486 87,013 78,118 1,885 4,219 1,762 2,989 2.2 5.3 2.0 3.8

Manchester

122,240 117,690 123,065 116,061 2,702 6,635 2,583 4,476 2.2 5.6 2.1 3.9

Portsmouth

78,182 73,085 77,788 71,405 1,596 3,844 1,589 2,767 2.0 5.3 2.0 3.9

New Jersey

4,496,207 4,291,718 4,533,349 4,404,759 152,067 276,969 154,959 345,181 3.4 6.5 3.4 7.8

Atlantic City-Hammonton

121,817 112,424 121,075 115,600 5,545 11,309 5,818 13,588 4.6 10.1 4.8 11.8

Ocean City

48,624 42,350 43,924 42,373 2,038 2,867 2,457 3,667 4.2 6.8 5.6 8.7

Trenton

202,650 195,516 205,097 201,619 6,325 9,901 6,301 12,498 3.1 5.1 3.1 6.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

65,097 62,939 66,107 65,366 3,228 4,237 3,329 5,240 5.0 6.7 5.0 8.0

New Mexico

955,891 952,541 963,427 929,046 44,186 93,936 44,673 73,809 4.6 9.9 4.6 7.9

Albuquerque

437,729 441,750 441,248 431,986 19,579 41,944 19,692 32,559 4.5 9.5 4.5 7.5

Farmington

52,136 51,382 52,844 49,923 2,865 6,111 2,879 4,654 5.5 11.9 5.4 9.3

Las Cruces

97,576 94,178 98,847 91,988 5,031 8,680 5,051 6,830 5.2 9.2 5.1 7.4

Santa Fe

75,124 72,225 75,279 69,547 2,785 6,987 2,801 5,352 3.7 9.7 3.7 7.7

New York

9,504,828 9,128,601 9,543,205 9,072,437 342,694 849,479 354,358 834,025 3.6 9.3 3.7 9.2

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

448,228 435,852 451,813 432,656 15,397 23,555 15,559 24,558 3.4 5.4 3.4 5.7

Binghamton

105,922 105,272 106,473 103,978 4,399 5,937 4,463 6,384 4.2 5.6 4.2 6.1

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

541,098 532,821 543,054 529,351 21,403 35,069 22,017 36,593 4.0 6.6 4.1 6.9

Elmira

35,206 35,737 35,222 35,196 1,381 2,088 1,402 2,279 3.9 5.8 4.0 6.5

Glens Falls

59,475 56,626 58,882 56,274 2,067 2,817 2,135 3,092 3.5 5.0 3.6 5.5

Ithaca

49,325 49,805 50,174 49,536 1,813 2,129 1,811 2,269 3.7 4.3 3.6 4.6

Kingston

88,179 88,184 88,786 87,331 3,066 4,912 3,084 5,048 3.5 5.6 3.5 5.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,920,695 9,475,324 9,985,876 9,527,699 340,900 894,679 352,358 921,345 3.4 9.4 3.5 9.7

Rochester

521,893 500,380 524,666 497,170 20,063 30,312 20,288 31,920 3.8 6.1 3.9 6.4

Syracuse

307,324 293,486 308,525 289,576 12,098 17,682 12,148 18,467 3.9 6.0 3.9 6.4

Utica-Rome

128,295 125,517 128,614 124,723 5,038 7,078 5,080 7,723 3.9 5.6 3.9 6.2

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,876 41,872 43,558 41,173 2,064 2,241 2,134 2,408 4.7 5.4 4.9 5.8

North Carolina

5,094,495 4,896,385 5,123,098 4,958,027 174,618 339,862 180,081 302,413 3.4 6.9 3.5 6.1

Asheville

239,379 223,066 241,355 224,477 6,552 15,499 6,826 13,216 2.7 6.9 2.8 5.9

Burlington

82,832 80,037 83,405 81,056 2,790 5,457 2,850 4,865 3.4 6.8 3.4 6.0

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,375,200 1,326,731 1,386,509 1,343,572 42,684 92,677 44,535 80,661 3.1 7.0 3.2 6.0

Durham-Chapel Hill

307,061 292,033 308,753 297,536 9,249 17,572 9,598 15,646 3.0 6.0 3.1 5.3

Fayetteville

148,977 142,331 149,199 143,110 6,781 13,237 6,983 11,854 4.6 9.3 4.7 8.3

Goldsboro

51,747 49,245 51,591 49,654 1,895 3,153 1,985 2,915 3.7 6.4 3.8 5.9

Greensboro-High Point

373,405 357,614 375,966 359,372 13,549 28,361 13,906 25,055 3.6 7.9 3.7 7.0

Greenville

91,113 85,933 91,338 86,642 3,462 5,974 3,510 5,206 3.8 7.0 3.8 6.0

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

175,963 164,482 176,864 166,767 5,764 11,513 5,995 10,155 3.3 7.0 3.4 6.1

Jacksonville

65,232 63,863 65,817 65,540 2,634 4,207 2,810 3,879 4.0 6.6 4.3 5.9

New Bern

51,900 49,532 51,878 50,405 1,816 3,082 1,860 2,843 3.5 6.2 3.6 5.6

Raleigh

735,976 697,124 741,613 710,105 22,203 42,628 22,830 37,937 3.0 6.1 3.1 5.3

Rocky Mount

64,421 62,589 65,290 63,656 3,037 5,862 3,095 5,239 4.7 9.4 4.7 8.2

Wilmington

154,940 146,392 155,622 147,485 4,841 9,278 5,013 8,173 3.1 6.3 3.2 5.5

Winston-Salem

333,311 318,569 335,529 323,503 10,870 21,789 11,231 19,462 3.3 6.8 3.3 6.0

North Dakota

403,896 396,704 403,653 399,873 7,434 15,129 6,535 15,922 1.8 3.8 1.6 4.0

Bismarck

66,901 67,681 67,059 68,208 1,291 2,064 1,164 2,166 1.9 3.0 1.7 3.2

Fargo

139,032 142,083 139,371 142,007 2,616 4,252 2,194 4,098 1.9 3.0 1.6 2.9

Grand Forks

53,718 53,551 54,148 54,748 1,057 1,760 974 1,650 2.0 3.3 1.8 3.0

Ohio

5,805,781 5,643,557 5,828,726 5,815,536 225,181 448,813 220,052 299,998 3.9 8.0 3.8 5.2

Akron

360,237 349,885 361,987 354,996 14,414 28,124 14,090 18,940 4.0 8.0 3.9 5.3

Canton-Massillon

198,109 194,335 199,960 198,527 8,188 14,923 8,326 10,158 4.1 7.7 4.2 5.1

Cincinnati

1,132,137 1,119,430 1,132,089 1,140,909 40,421 76,129 39,612 58,560 3.6 6.8 3.5 5.1

Cleveland-Elyria

1,045,516 925,332 1,039,084 1,012,137 38,501 92,369 34,760 58,860 3.7 10.0 3.3 5.8

Columbus

1,101,267 1,088,233 1,108,550 1,112,898 38,717 80,583 37,429 54,511 3.5 7.4 3.4 4.9

Dayton

390,071 393,044 394,304 399,044 15,323 30,618 15,638 20,802 3.9 7.8 4.0 5.2

Lima

47,614 46,687 47,673 47,866 1,843 3,489 1,831 2,595 3.9 7.5 3.8 5.4

Mansfield

51,969 52,566 51,779 53,300 2,187 4,053 2,159 2,782 4.2 7.7 4.2 5.2

Springfield

62,697 63,916 64,014 65,063 2,530 4,706 3,099 3,261 4.0 7.4 4.8 5.0

Toledo

303,225 302,414 307,515 305,574 12,189 25,354 12,171 17,042 4.0 8.4 4.0 5.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,231 50,594 51,340 50,207 2,749 4,897 2,823 3,306 5.4 9.7 5.5 6.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,646 228,578 238,741 228,764 12,584 22,383 12,586 15,609 5.3 9.8 5.3 6.8

Oklahoma

1,844,419 1,885,410 1,854,653 1,880,047 57,872 99,532 62,648 115,470 3.1 5.3 3.4 6.1

Enid

26,835 26,506 26,944 26,293 777 1,351 798 1,560 2.9 5.1 3.0 5.9

Lawton

50,687 51,507 50,868 50,982 1,815 2,736 1,885 3,179 3.6 5.3 3.7 6.2

Oklahoma City

688,813 709,732 692,149 704,186 20,024 36,379 20,734 41,594 2.9 5.1 3.0 5.9

Tulsa

483,152 487,151 485,661 484,825 15,033 27,577 17,223 32,120 3.1 5.7 3.5 6.6

Oregon

2,109,356 2,038,215 2,109,185 2,145,460 64,940 149,864 63,668 137,452 3.1 7.4 3.0 6.4

Albany

58,338 57,312 58,943 60,231 2,103 4,398 2,056 3,854 3.6 7.7 3.5 6.4

Bend-Redmond

96,932 92,302 96,369 97,543 2,823 6,330 2,818 5,948 2.9 6.9 2.9 6.1

Corvallis

47,015 44,701 48,875 48,054 1,318 2,476 1,142 2,278 2.8 5.5 2.3 4.7

Eugene

179,020 179,812 181,792 189,849 6,138 13,464 5,982 11,903 3.4 7.5 3.3 6.3

Grants Pass

35,985 34,099 35,818 35,772 1,375 2,508 1,396 2,343 3.8 7.4 3.9 6.5

Medford

104,447 101,690 104,139 106,754 3,408 7,505 3,311 6,768 3.3 7.4 3.2 6.3

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,325,943 1,284,390 1,331,691 1,352,752 40,577 101,661 40,298 90,178 3.1 7.9 3.0 6.7

Salem

203,390 192,512 202,380 202,021 6,637 13,103 6,471 12,088 3.3 6.8 3.2 6.0

Pennsylvania

6,506,111 6,419,715 6,545,629 6,357,371 271,125 502,581 289,032 436,208 4.2 7.8 4.4 6.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

443,189 436,545 448,697 434,836 18,689 32,856 19,561 29,389 4.2 7.5 4.4 6.8

Altoona

59,563 58,448 59,553 57,541 2,521 3,906 2,721 3,377 4.2 6.7 4.6 5.9

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,969 43,080 43,285 42,790 1,685 2,500 1,797 2,238 3.9 5.8 4.2 5.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,005 77,603 78,205 76,982 2,810 5,064 3,046 4,501 3.6 6.5 3.9 5.8

East Stroudsburg

82,865 79,692 83,516 77,984 4,317 7,899 4,572 6,762 5.2 9.9 5.5 8.7

Erie

129,126 124,703 129,331 122,110 5,294 10,343 5,779 9,255 4.1 8.3 4.5 7.6

Gettysburg

55,672 55,648 55,545 55,690 1,694 2,820 1,828 2,468 3.0 5.1 3.3 4.4

Harrisburg-Carlisle

302,473 304,308 304,253 300,737 11,139 19,620 11,788 17,136 3.7 6.4 3.9 5.7

Johnstown

57,805 56,640 58,402 55,583 2,737 4,147 2,911 3,639 4.7 7.3 5.0 6.5

Lancaster

287,049 292,325 286,906 289,864 9,448 17,305 10,094 14,661 3.3 5.9 3.5 5.1

Lebanon

72,909 72,476 73,001 71,715 2,800 4,815 2,898 4,170 3.8 6.6 4.0 5.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,133,899 3,076,638 3,157,453 3,071,053 127,916 248,952 133,014 224,075 4.1 8.1 4.2 7.3

Pittsburgh

1,214,109 1,189,303 1,222,465 1,175,162 48,923 93,764 52,756 80,799 4.0 7.9 4.3 6.9

Reading

216,562 225,059 217,403 222,574 9,087 17,249 9,638 14,865 4.2 7.7 4.4 6.7

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

276,306 265,460 279,529 265,061 13,704 23,977 14,641 20,928 5.0 9.0 5.2 7.9

State College

81,121 77,507 82,034 77,135 2,641 3,502 2,815 3,154 3.3 4.5 3.4 4.1

Williamsport

57,022 52,955 57,148 52,329 2,556 4,006 2,653 3,658 4.5 7.6 4.6 7.0

York-Hanover

236,323 235,110 238,249 233,064 8,761 15,159 9,351 13,247 3.7 6.4 3.9 5.7

Rhode Island

556,320 561,092 557,600 542,409 17,493 56,963 16,402 35,151 3.1 10.2 2.9 6.5

Providence-Warwick

691,449 697,763 693,593 673,249 21,777 70,368 20,250 43,901 3.1 10.1 2.9 6.5

South Carolina

2,366,932 2,372,326 2,384,080 2,386,076 47,844 116,197 56,883 97,321 2.0 4.9 2.4 4.1

Charleston-North Charleston

394,271 390,381 394,987 391,145 6,524 19,411 7,837 15,762 1.7 5.0 2.0 4.0

Columbia

403,454 404,853 406,498 408,569 7,758 17,846 9,020 15,322 1.9 4.4 2.2 3.8

Florence

97,056 97,935 97,570 97,875 2,169 5,022 2,509 4,200 2.2 5.1 2.6 4.3

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

434,212 444,246 438,404 446,048 7,903 18,482 9,516 15,755 1.8 4.2 2.2 3.5

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,753 91,160 91,025 92,646 1,601 3,451 1,971 3,007 1.8 3.8 2.2 3.2

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

202,903 193,670 202,110 193,171 5,886 12,731 6,701 10,842 2.9 6.6 3.3 5.6

Spartanburg

165,304 164,203 166,512 165,013 3,054 8,916 3,638 7,226 1.8 5.4 2.2 4.4

Sumter

43,401 43,358 43,854 43,701 1,062 2,530 1,249 2,062 2.4 5.8 2.8 4.7

South Dakota

463,200 462,748 466,961 463,636 14,012 17,379 14,240 15,362 3.0 3.8 3.0 3.3

Rapid City

75,615 74,056 75,155 72,855 2,445 3,098 2,438 2,670 3.2 4.2 3.2 3.7

Sioux Falls

154,556 154,260 156,720 153,659 4,013 5,222 4,067 4,624 2.6 3.4 2.6 3.0

Tennessee

3,351,337 3,303,274 3,369,212 3,332,952 105,792 210,097 108,485 240,834 3.2 6.4 3.2 7.2

Chattanooga

278,053 276,448 278,238 280,615 8,433 14,366 8,517 15,993 3.0 5.2 3.1 5.7

Clarksville

117,959 115,032 118,366 117,472 4,723 7,168 5,012 8,902 4.0 6.2 4.2 7.6

Cleveland

60,793 60,439 61,336 60,959 2,012 3,218 1,935 4,154 3.3 5.3 3.2 6.8

Jackson

65,310 63,839 65,341 64,361 2,269 4,103 2,227 4,751 3.5 6.4 3.4 7.4

Johnson City

92,516 89,125 92,670 90,207 3,214 4,665 3,116 6,198 3.5 5.2 3.4 6.9

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,463 131,957 138,279 134,004 4,717 7,584 4,728 8,844 3.4 5.7 3.4 6.6

Knoxville

433,316 429,213 436,014 435,091 12,737 20,584 12,940 26,276 2.9 4.8 3.0 6.0

Memphis

644,028 650,913 645,219 658,003 26,168 59,625 25,024 63,600 4.1 9.2 3.9 9.7

Morristown

53,167 52,358 53,467 53,182 1,863 2,824 1,882 3,558 3.5 5.4 3.5 6.7

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,095,969 1,071,286 1,105,919 1,073,421 26,809 65,101 28,627 65,633 2.4 6.1 2.6 6.1

Texas

14,111,297 14,198,955 14,161,315 14,094,292 482,829 1,163,781 474,329 950,292 3.4 8.2 3.3 6.7

Abilene

79,741 79,562 80,021 78,673 2,309 4,653 2,261 3,878 2.9 5.8 2.8 4.9

Amarillo

132,435 128,446 132,989 128,686 3,332 6,515 3,255 5,689 2.5 5.1 2.4 4.4

Austin-Round Rock

1,244,523 1,262,182 1,251,714 1,256,957 32,924 79,976 32,040 63,682 2.6 6.3 2.6 5.1

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,166 172,927 174,624 171,133 9,463 21,333 8,866 17,167 5.4 12.3 5.1 10.0

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,073 167,348 166,663 164,208 8,675 18,217 8,543 15,567 5.2 10.9 5.1 9.5

College Station-Bryan

136,791 137,705 139,186 138,795 3,655 7,570 3,663 6,381 2.7 5.5 2.6 4.6

Corpus Christi

206,018 203,521 207,222 200,719 8,584 20,238 8,281 16,792 4.2 9.9 4.0 8.4

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,003,204 4,044,158 4,012,036 4,029,405 126,589 298,408 126,006 244,370 3.2 7.4 3.1 6.1

El Paso

367,043 367,565 368,494 364,237 13,743 31,473 13,625 26,258 3.7 8.6 3.7 7.2

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,440,488 3,475,458 3,449,631 3,429,442 127,777 332,292 124,867 265,523 3.7 9.6 3.6 7.7

Killeen-Temple

177,814 178,429 178,647 176,705 6,545 13,008 6,443 10,807 3.7 7.3 3.6 6.1

Laredo

118,808 118,065 118,980 116,525 4,059 10,937 4,081 9,090 3.4 9.3 3.4 7.8

Longview

99,798 97,837 100,021 97,276 3,629 8,635 3,557 7,344 3.6 8.8 3.6 7.5

Lubbock

163,770 162,950 164,291 162,385 4,486 9,813 4,398 8,278 2.7 6.0 2.7 5.1

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

352,630 359,953 354,494 352,600 21,100 45,538 20,055 36,966 6.0 12.7 5.7 10.5

Midland

110,728 105,257 111,009 105,011 2,296 9,988 2,309 8,454 2.1 9.5 2.1 8.1

Odessa

88,187 88,001 88,389 86,375 2,385 11,455 2,426 9,814 2.7 13.0 2.7 11.4

San Angelo

55,419 53,858 55,455 53,411 1,619 3,783 1,613 3,146 2.9 7.0 2.9 5.9

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,211,007 1,219,298 1,219,723 1,211,001 36,846 93,493 36,236 75,701 3.0 7.7 3.0 6.3

Sherman-Denison

64,164 65,142 64,281 64,158 1,955 3,934 1,914 3,286 3.0 6.0 3.0 5.1

Texarkana

65,295 66,017 65,251 65,373 2,662 4,758 2,561 3,949 4.1 7.2 3.9 6.0

Tyler

107,227 108,864 107,593 108,104 3,507 7,756 3,444 6,484 3.3 7.1 3.2 6.0

Victoria

46,044 45,836 46,141 45,178 1,541 3,993 1,537 3,357 3.3 8.7 3.3 7.4

Waco

126,770 129,677 126,403 129,076 4,066 8,216 3,983 6,933 3.2 6.3 3.2 5.4

Wichita Falls

65,490 65,243 65,676 64,665 1,977 4,591 1,933 3,910 3.0 7.0 2.9 6.0

Utah

1,615,873 1,669,478 1,623,876 1,645,673 34,864 78,973 34,061 61,597 2.2 4.7 2.1 3.7

Logan

71,824 73,660 72,537 73,744 1,278 2,271 1,253 1,791 1.8 3.1 1.7 2.4

Ogden-Clearfield

333,365 348,653 335,063 343,565 7,186 14,788 6,900 11,625 2.2 4.2 2.1 3.4

Provo-Orem

316,482 326,872 318,960 322,482 6,292 12,512 6,174 9,936 2.0 3.8 1.9 3.1

St. George

77,038 80,234 77,355 79,345 1,929 4,278 1,839 3,286 2.5 5.3 2.4 4.1

Salt Lake City

671,371 692,865 674,617 682,480 14,447 36,084 14,097 27,864 2.2 5.2 2.1 4.1

Vermont

338,959 320,494 339,366 319,265 7,834 13,356 5,798 7,559 2.3 4.2 1.7 2.4

Burlington-South Burlington

125,847 116,355 125,594 116,443 2,521 4,370 1,809 2,496 2.0 3.8 1.4 2.1

Virginia

4,420,479 4,273,950 4,440,231 4,272,772 114,346 262,055 111,836 218,161 2.6 6.1 2.5 5.1

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,265 87,409 89,507 87,359 2,538 4,176 2,419 3,349 2.8 4.8 2.7 3.8

Charlottesville

125,188 119,561 123,914 120,990 2,844 6,328 2,742 5,141 2.3 5.3 2.2 4.2

Harrisonburg

68,100 64,004 68,805 65,007 1,650 2,881 1,555 2,365 2.4 4.5 2.3 3.6

Lynchburg

124,212 116,094 125,006 116,756 3,775 6,886 3,609 5,655 3.0 5.9 2.9 4.8

Richmond

688,763 670,253 693,242 665,957 19,010 45,469 18,686 37,680 2.8 6.8 2.7 5.7

Roanoke

158,666 152,380 159,012 151,949 4,152 8,555 4,079 7,187 2.6 5.6 2.6 4.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,070 60,576 61,548 61,339 1,435 2,836 1,449 2,354 2.3 4.7 2.4 3.8

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

861,205 841,671 861,868 841,480 24,754 60,727 24,317 49,642 2.9 7.2 2.8 5.9

Winchester

74,492 69,475 75,274 70,094 1,810 3,242 1,781 2,633 2.4 4.7 2.4 3.8

Washington

3,937,562 3,935,164 3,950,939 4,004,506 144,349 308,164 143,866 222,624 3.7 7.8 3.6 5.6

Bellingham

113,899 117,505 116,357 125,783 4,962 10,388 5,029 7,910 4.4 8.8 4.3 6.3

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,763 131,486 130,423 137,733 4,993 9,810 5,062 7,517 3.9 7.5 3.9 5.5

Kennewick-Richland

147,996 158,252 148,024 161,702 6,119 11,325 6,334 8,497 4.1 7.2 4.3 5.3

Longview

47,521 49,057 48,321 50,414 2,443 4,566 2,489 3,456 5.1 9.3 5.2 6.9

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,815 62,862 63,801 65,261 2,882 5,686 2,939 4,296 4.6 9.0 4.6 6.6

Olympia-Tumwater

142,510 143,737 145,859 150,270 5,938 11,320 6,130 8,543 4.2 7.9 4.2 5.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,187,696 2,172,587 2,178,160 2,159,287 68,912 163,693 66,178 113,733 3.1 7.5 3.0 5.3

Spokane-Spokane Valley

277,095 272,904 283,290 282,097 11,912 23,138 12,215 17,054 4.3 8.5 4.3 6.0

Walla Walla

32,308 32,493 33,748 34,897 1,292 2,079 1,322 1,580 4.0 6.4 3.9 4.5

Wenatchee

69,193 70,512 68,206 79,135 2,477 4,776 2,565 3,607 3.6 6.8 3.8 4.6

Yakima

139,342 142,365 137,142 147,855 6,137 11,224 6,350 8,516 4.4 7.9 4.6 5.8

West Virginia

803,603 776,210 807,512 768,774 34,801 61,636 36,871 44,143 4.3 7.9 4.6 5.7

Beckley

47,222 47,251 47,430 46,611 2,050 4,115 2,200 2,929 4.3 8.7 4.6 6.3

Charleston

93,556 91,878 93,593 90,666 4,062 8,491 4,190 5,985 4.3 9.2 4.5 6.6

Huntington-Ashland

147,734 145,144 147,696 145,851 6,645 10,705 6,675 8,548 4.5 7.4 4.5 5.9

Morgantown

71,670 70,649 72,148 70,603 2,426 4,130 2,509 2,939 3.4 5.8 3.5 4.2

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,383 39,359 39,691 39,085 1,752 3,188 1,940 2,306 4.4 8.1 4.9 5.9

Wheeling

65,672 61,082 66,698 60,603 3,163 5,459 3,521 3,642 4.8 8.9 5.3 6.0

Wisconsin

3,096,038 3,130,746 3,104,233 3,122,618 88,493 144,668 86,937 153,490 2.9 4.6 2.8 4.9

Appleton

129,909 130,128 129,840 129,619 3,250 4,801 3,149 5,150 2.5 3.7 2.4 4.0

Eau Claire

91,589 91,830 92,288 92,511 2,416 3,535 2,397 3,760 2.6 3.8 2.6 4.1

Fond du Lac

57,372 58,752 57,161 58,770 1,491 1,999 1,419 2,195 2.6 3.4 2.5 3.7

Green Bay

172,924 176,099 173,327 174,310 4,746 7,203 4,568 7,873 2.7 4.1 2.6 4.5

Janesville-Beloit

85,040 85,793 84,938 85,262 2,878 4,408 2,760 4,545 3.4 5.1 3.2 5.3

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,395 77,125 77,108 76,971 1,845 2,706 1,807 2,818 2.4 3.5 2.3 3.7

Madison

386,750 395,509 391,475 397,569 8,521 14,828 8,482 15,679 2.2 3.7 2.2 3.9

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

816,430 836,681 818,355 831,811 26,691 49,436 25,904 52,022 3.3 5.9 3.2 6.3

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,009 93,135 91,238 92,735 2,453 3,258 2,411 3,714 2.7 3.5 2.6 4.0

Racine

98,011 102,158 97,840 102,001 3,588 5,643 3,547 6,135 3.7 5.5 3.6 6.0

Sheboygan

62,228 62,769 61,425 62,384 1,483 2,300 1,513 2,464 2.4 3.7 2.5 3.9

Wausau

73,060 73,953 73,343 73,607 1,779 2,526 1,788 2,695 2.4 3.4 2.4 3.7

Wyoming

293,770 295,023 293,310 295,987 9,663 16,375 9,855 14,930 3.3 5.6 3.4 5.0

Casper

39,108 38,452 39,482 38,782 1,445 3,418 1,488 3,039 3.7 8.9 3.8 7.8

Cheyenne

47,863 47,486 48,535 47,985 1,617 2,397 1,632 2,183 3.4 5.0 3.4 4.5

Puerto Rico

1,066,859 1,048,264 1,067,044 1,030,440 87,618 97,905 95,954 86,924 8.2 9.3 9.0 8.4

Aguadilla-Isabela

84,205 81,662 84,873 80,117 8,474 8,118 9,478 7,148 10.1 9.9 11.2 8.9

Arecibo

51,774 52,166 52,340 51,518 4,864 4,508 5,591 4,034 9.4 8.6 10.7 7.8

Guayama

19,336 18,314 19,398 17,948 2,398 1,609 2,631 1,509 12.4 8.8 13.6 8.4

Mayaguez

26,505 25,572 26,472 25,037 2,627 2,291 2,852 2,069 9.9 9.0 10.8 8.3

Ponce

91,098 88,857 90,807 87,580 10,538 8,483 11,156 7,608 11.6 9.5 12.3 8.7

San German

34,068 32,820 34,321 32,591 3,557 3,121 3,885 2,807 10.4 9.5 11.3 8.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

719,338 710,167 717,263 696,564 49,874 65,805 54,833 58,138 6.9 9.3 7.6 8.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) September October September October
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,505,846 18,730,849 19,538,254 19,341,630 704,291 2,005,969 725,895 1,736,288 3.6 10.7 3.7 9.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,781,917 6,525,145 6,789,821 6,715,275 263,665 899,489 264,634 736,087 3.9 13.8 3.9 11.0

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,629,470 1,562,752 1,631,968 1,625,468 40,994 139,395 42,970 122,688 2.5 8.9 2.6 7.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,152,447 4,962,393 5,157,853 5,089,807 222,671 760,094 221,664 613,399 4.3 15.3 4.3 12.1

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,603,490 2,472,848 2,608,916 2,557,035 60,461 208,888 63,687 183,778 2.3 8.4 2.4 7.2

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,410,224 1,339,586 1,412,680 1,383,430 37,895 122,903 39,691 109,152 2.7 9.2 2.8 7.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,052,244 1,000,620 1,055,089 1,035,837 19,693 77,416 20,982 67,186 1.9 7.7 2.0 6.5

San Rafael

141,022 132,642 141,147 137,768 2,873 8,569 3,014 7,440 2.0 6.5 2.1 5.4

District of Columbia

407,988 396,021 409,726 395,863 21,886 36,262 21,517 32,473 5.4 9.2 5.3 8.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,475,733 3,347,063 3,495,773 3,379,584 101,288 231,404 100,524 223,964 2.9 6.9 2.9 6.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

704,141 673,328 707,224 689,666 19,322 45,890 19,598 50,131 2.7 6.8 2.8 7.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,771,592 2,673,735 2,788,549 2,689,918 81,966 185,514 80,926 173,833 3.0 6.9 2.9 6.5

Florida

10,438,897 10,166,280 10,458,221 10,153,913 304,238 735,744 295,902 652,787 2.9 7.2 2.8 6.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,176,775 3,110,394 3,190,930 3,067,830 85,195 301,907 80,710 236,428 2.7 9.7 2.5 7.7

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,054,173 1,015,187 1,053,729 1,018,346 29,858 79,331 29,721 74,411 2.8 7.8 2.8 7.3

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,384,761 1,396,663 1,399,889 1,342,819 31,696 176,388 28,349 118,718 2.3 12.6 2.0 8.8

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

737,841 698,544 737,312 706,665 23,641 46,188 22,640 43,299 3.2 6.6 3.1 6.1

Illinois

6,426,636 6,334,468 6,443,336 6,255,869 222,928 634,628 224,741 407,255 3.5 10.0 3.5 6.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,836,999 4,770,551 4,845,658 4,646,119 158,790 515,159 160,831 336,604 3.3 10.8 3.3 7.2

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,697,145 3,647,470 3,705,055 3,517,151 117,332 427,981 119,267 274,153 3.2 11.7 3.2 7.8

Elgin

329,522 321,112 330,392 324,402 11,998 26,932 12,118 17,298 3.6 8.4 3.7 5.3

Gary(3)

342,139 340,931 343,512 339,246 13,357 26,707 13,289 21,295 3.9 7.8 3.9 6.3

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

468,193 461,038 466,699 465,320 16,103 33,539 16,157 23,858 3.4 7.3 3.5 5.1

Massachusetts

3,798,668 3,752,660 3,819,962 3,610,723 101,529 362,323 90,037 250,244 2.7 9.7 2.4 6.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,814,506 2,771,615 2,836,192 2,677,520 69,829 258,506 62,187 178,523 2.5 9.3 2.2 6.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,681,666 1,654,264 1,697,454 1,597,956 39,455 153,365 34,681 107,311 2.3 9.3 2.0 6.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,506 111,781 112,357 106,585 3,288 12,984 2,908 8,573 2.9 11.6 2.6 8.0

Framingham

161,841 159,451 163,218 155,382 3,658 12,555 3,257 9,141 2.3 7.9 2.0 5.9

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,485 113,548 118,534 110,207 3,050 9,599 2,815 6,544 2.6 8.5 2.4 5.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

98,655 100,262 99,386 95,063 3,530 13,743 3,230 8,927 3.6 13.7 3.2 9.4

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

197,688 192,234 198,335 185,834 5,213 17,286 4,656 11,874 2.6 9.0 2.3 6.4

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,798 88,784 87,470 84,651 2,377 10,887 2,129 7,314 2.7 12.3 2.4 8.6

Nashua(2)

176,835 170,346 177,163 168,004 4,371 10,242 4,194 6,843 2.5 6.0 2.4 4.1

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,138 94,992 95,125 91,328 2,385 9,282 2,109 6,227 2.5 9.8 2.2 6.8

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,894 85,953 87,150 82,510 2,502 8,563 2,208 5,769 2.9 10.0 2.5 7.0

Michigan

4,930,761 4,833,677 4,943,286 4,868,808 173,033 396,905 173,524 247,431 3.5 8.2 3.5 5.1

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,177,102 2,035,649 2,180,195 2,124,283 86,349 200,965 87,008 132,837 4.0 9.9 4.0 6.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

813,948 771,469 815,755 797,969 38,138 97,196 38,737 65,436 4.7 12.6 4.7 8.2

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,363,153 1,264,180 1,364,441 1,326,313 48,210 103,769 48,271 67,400 3.5 8.2 3.5 5.1

New York

9,504,828 9,128,601 9,543,205 9,072,437 342,694 849,479 354,358 834,025 3.6 9.3 3.7 9.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,920,695 9,475,324 9,985,876 9,527,699 340,900 894,679 352,358 921,345 3.4 9.4 3.5 9.7

Dutchess County-Putnam County

194,934 188,400 196,572 187,604 6,919 10,659 6,999 11,019 3.5 5.7 3.6 5.9

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,484,842 1,443,339 1,494,941 1,433,253 50,604 90,890 51,575 93,034 3.4 6.3 3.4 6.5

Newark(3)

1,234,117 1,173,406 1,247,161 1,200,216 43,375 76,695 43,936 95,843 3.5 6.5 3.5 8.0

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,006,802 6,670,179 7,047,202 6,706,626 240,002 716,435 249,848 721,449 3.4 10.7 3.5 10.8

Pennsylvania

6,506,111 6,419,715 6,545,629 6,357,371 271,125 502,581 289,032 436,208 4.2 7.8 4.4 6.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,133,899 3,076,638 3,157,453 3,071,053 127,916 248,952 133,014 224,075 4.1 8.1 4.2 7.3

Camden(3)

635,673 610,427 640,430 627,224 22,405 35,750 22,893 44,581 3.5 5.9 3.6 7.1

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,091,969 1,058,185 1,096,600 1,051,398 37,800 69,679 40,158 59,968 3.5 6.6 3.7 5.7

Philadelphia

1,027,002 1,036,452 1,037,136 1,020,753 52,740 113,171 55,151 97,578 5.1 10.9 5.3 9.6

Wilmington(3)

379,255 371,574 383,287 371,678 14,971 30,352 14,812 21,948 3.9 8.2 3.9 5.9

Texas

14,111,297 14,198,955 14,161,315 14,094,292 482,829 1,163,781 474,329 950,292 3.4 8.2 3.3 6.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,003,204 4,044,158 4,012,036 4,029,405 126,589 298,408 126,006 244,370 3.2 7.4 3.1 6.1

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,698,546 2,738,434 2,704,295 2,723,256 85,415 200,120 83,987 163,293 3.2 7.3 3.1 6.0

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,304,658 1,305,724 1,307,741 1,306,149 41,174 98,288 42,019 81,077 3.2 7.5 3.2 6.2

Washington

3,937,562 3,935,164 3,950,939 4,004,506 144,349 308,164 143,866 222,624 3.7 7.8 3.6 5.6

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,187,696 2,172,587 2,178,160 2,159,287 68,912 163,693 66,178 113,733 3.1 7.5 3.0 5.3

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,746,456 1,722,748 1,729,765 1,694,860 49,683 121,198 46,219 81,823 2.8 7.0 2.7 4.8

Tacoma-Lakewood

441,240 449,839 448,395 464,427 19,229 42,495 19,959 31,910 4.4 9.4 4.5 6.9

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area September October Change from
October 2019 to October 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,073.8 2,008.7 2,085.7 2,034.2 -51.5 -2.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 44.4 47.6 44.7 -2.9 -6.1

Auburn-Opelika

67.9 65.0 68.6 66.5 -2.1 -3.1

Birmingham-Hoover

545.7 523.5 548.4 530.5 -17.9 -3.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.9 78.8 79.9 77.5 -2.4 -3.0

Decatur

57.6 55.2 57.5 55.9 -1.6 -2.8

Dothan

60.1 57.7 60.2 58.6 -1.6 -2.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.5 55.6 57.9 56.2 -1.7 -2.9

Gadsden

37.4 34.5 37.4 34.8 -2.6 -7.0

Huntsville

244.9 237.3 246.4 240.5 -5.9 -2.4

Mobile

186.4 176.0 187.2 179.2 -8.0 -4.3

Montgomery

176.4 167.3 17