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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, December 30, 2021 			  USDL-21-2205

Technical information: 
 Employment:     (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment:   (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact:   (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- NOVEMBER 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in November than a year earlier in all 389 metropolitan
areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 139 areas had
jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent.
Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 100 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in 289 areas. The national unemployment rate in November was
3.9 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 6.4 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures
nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on
payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about
the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical
Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, Lincoln, NE, and Logan, UT-ID, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.1 percent
each. El Centro, CA, had the highest rate, 15.5 percent. A total of 245 areas had November
jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.9 percent, 131 areas had rates above it, and 13
areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in November occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (-9.4 percentage points). Rates fell over the year by at least 4.0 percentage
points in an additional 12 areas.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Salt Lake
City, UT, had the lowest jobless rate in November, 1.4 percent, followed by Oklahoma City,
OK, 1.7 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV,
had the highest unemployment rates, 6.4 percent and 6.3 percent, respectively. All 51 large
areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases. The largest jobless rate decline was
in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (-5.7 percentage points). The smallest over-the-year rate
decrease occurred in Jacksonville, FL (-0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, 
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In November, Nashua, NH-MA,
had the lowest division unemployment rate, 2.1 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA,
had the highest rate among the divisions, 7.1 percent. (See table 2.)

In November, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases.
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-7.1 percentage points). The
smallest rate decrease occurred in West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach, FL (-0.9 
percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, 100 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment
and 289 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred
in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+348,200), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 
(+344,800), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+210,200). The largest over-the-year
percentage gains in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+13.7 percent),
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL (+9.5 percent), and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+8.5 percent).
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 48 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 3 areas. The
largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas
occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+8.5 percent), Austin-Round Rock, TX (+7.8
percent), and Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+7.7 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 26 metropolitan divisions and was
essentially unchanged in 12 divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year increase
in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White
Plains, NY-NJ (+279,300), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+250,900), and
Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+156,300). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (+7.1 percent), Camden, NJ (+6.7 percent), and Boston-
Cambridge-Newton, MA (+6.3 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2021 is scheduled
to be released on Tuesday, January 25, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2021 is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, February 2, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on November 2021                |
|                        Establishment and Household Survey Data        		|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews	|
| could not be done.									|
|											|
| For the November 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the	|
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-	|
| shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models,	|
| based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. These level 	|
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise 	|
| would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates	|
| at other points in the time series.							|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-november-2021.htm extensively	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national	|
| estimates for November 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative	|
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically,	|
| which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for November 2021.			|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary November and	|
| revised October estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers,	|
| where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate	|
| area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in	|
| proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based	|
| control areas.									|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly	|
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department	|
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey similar in nature	|
| to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the	|
| local area data proportionally.							|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|              										|
|                Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data                 |
|											|
| Effective with the release of January 2022 estimates, the Current Employment		|
| Statistics (CES) program will implement a new generation small area model for state	|
| and metropolitan area series. The new model will replace the CES small domain model	|
| and variants of the Fay-Herriot model in estimating private sector series with	|
| insufficient sample for direct sample-based estimation. More information on the new	|
| model is detailed in the paper "Bayesian Nonparametric Joint Model for Point		|
| Estimates and Variances" by Julie Gershunskaya and Terrance Savitsky, available on	|
| the BLS website at www.bls.gov/osmr/research-papers/2019/st190020.htm. 		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) October November October November
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,262,819 2,224,857 2,260,941 2,250,369 98,147 60,465 86,643 66,751 4.3 2.7 3.8 3.0

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,515 45,217 46,426 45,893 2,336 1,571 2,029 1,639 5.0 3.5 4.4 3.6

Auburn-Opelika

78,080 75,889 77,720 77,324 2,776 1,715 2,469 1,939 3.6 2.3 3.2 2.5

Birmingham-Hoover

554,841 551,201 555,381 560,848 23,027 13,695 20,195 15,343 4.2 2.5 3.6 2.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

96,392 99,563 95,948 100,344 3,761 2,164 3,290 2,507 3.9 2.2 3.4 2.5

Decatur

74,619 73,128 74,421 74,201 2,315 1,469 2,126 1,714 3.1 2.0 2.9 2.3

Dothan

65,160 64,123 64,782 64,927 2,543 1,593 2,324 1,808 3.9 2.5 3.6 2.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,802 64,996 66,503 66,439 2,487 1,765 2,235 1,974 3.7 2.7 3.4 3.0

Gadsden

40,730 38,946 40,603 39,924 2,139 1,258 1,815 1,393 5.3 3.2 4.5 3.5

Huntsville

237,103 234,306 236,368 237,299 7,724 4,773 6,853 5,565 3.3 2.0 2.9 2.3

Mobile

194,143 185,756 192,007 189,054 11,972 7,052 10,386 7,469 6.2 3.8 5.4 4.0

Montgomery

175,548 167,828 174,830 170,555 9,861 5,774 8,542 6,119 5.6 3.4 4.9 3.6

Tuscaloosa

117,194 113,089 116,289 114,759 5,738 3,340 4,979 3,616 4.9 3.0 4.3 3.2

Alaska

352,525 351,026 351,025 351,857 20,793 18,645 21,998 19,136 5.9 5.3 6.3 5.4

Anchorage

200,792 197,104 201,608 200,640 11,711 9,692 12,175 9,857 5.8 4.9 6.0 4.9

Fairbanks

45,640 44,881 45,607 45,277 2,145 1,985 2,231 2,075 4.7 4.4 4.9 4.6

Arizona

3,549,866 3,654,989 3,575,128 3,672,504 226,423 133,663 229,103 117,445 6.4 3.7 6.4 3.2

Flagstaff

74,941 77,672 74,894 77,126 5,412 3,394 5,552 3,030 7.2 4.4 7.4 3.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,610 89,493 87,518 89,684 6,313 3,923 6,305 3,550 7.2 4.4 7.2 4.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,511,823 2,598,139 2,530,311 2,611,522 152,700 83,622 154,950 73,131 6.1 3.2 6.1 2.8

Prescott

106,874 110,449 107,075 111,367 6,003 3,265 6,106 2,903 5.6 3.0 5.7 2.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas

52,518 52,861 52,813 53,597 2,694 1,922 2,766 1,711 5.1 3.6 5.2 3.2

Tucson

489,785 497,200 494,410 499,144 31,286 18,213 31,845 15,941 6.4 3.7 6.4 3.2

Yuma

96,052 100,950 97,409 101,791 12,116 12,593 11,450 11,249 12.6 12.5 11.8 11.1

Arkansas

1,330,274 1,344,647 1,327,638 1,352,990 63,908 32,084 63,285 29,567 4.8 2.4 4.8 2.2

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

283,362 295,417 284,083 300,200 10,156 4,867 10,046 4,390 3.6 1.6 3.5 1.5

Fort Smith

117,571 118,522 118,125 119,485 5,627 2,658 5,558 2,459 4.8 2.2 4.7 2.1

Hot Springs

40,302 39,971 40,043 39,785 2,597 1,199 2,485 1,102 6.4 3.0 6.2 2.8

Jonesboro

64,566 66,382 64,421 66,562 2,688 1,254 2,608 1,131 4.2 1.9 4.0 1.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

345,028 345,012 344,453 347,727 18,534 8,750 17,900 8,008 5.4 2.5 5.2 2.3

Pine Bluff

33,947 33,502 33,954 34,026 2,268 1,277 2,245 1,207 6.7 3.8 6.6 3.5

California

18,887,681 19,106,763 18,667,576 19,178,909 1,757,771 1,166,737 1,544,099 1,040,477 9.3 6.1 8.3 5.4

Bakersfield

388,703 389,765 379,585 388,800 41,238 32,174 34,350 28,721 10.6 8.3 9.0 7.4

Chico

92,161 94,403 90,313 94,041 7,334 5,108 6,207 4,597 8.0 5.4 6.9 4.9

El Centro

67,099 68,542 64,823 67,983 13,396 12,100 10,640 10,508 20.0 17.7 16.4 15.5

Fresno

444,044 442,982 439,439 445,137 43,072 33,977 37,274 31,294 9.7 7.7 8.5 7.0

Hanford-Corcoran

55,462 56,263 54,311 55,831 5,409 4,403 4,779 4,079 9.8 7.8 8.8 7.3

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,500,469 6,618,160 6,466,937 6,677,579 718,838 469,907 689,750 426,981 11.1 7.1 10.7 6.4

Madera

61,003 61,470 60,387 61,092 5,414 4,466 4,793 4,097 8.9 7.3 7.9 6.7

Merced

115,767 117,707 112,988 114,790 11,197 9,442 10,021 8,775 9.7 8.0 8.9 7.6

Modesto

242,064 241,351 237,923 241,309 22,662 16,607 19,200 14,919 9.4 6.9 8.1 6.2

Napa

68,901 70,901 66,078 68,605 5,088 3,163 4,253 2,868 7.4 4.5 6.4 4.2

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

407,702 411,181 403,604 412,343 31,154 20,733 25,725 18,333 7.6 5.0 6.4 4.4

Redding

74,156 75,340 72,421 75,007 5,414 4,049 4,717 3,666 7.3 5.4 6.5 4.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,105,448 2,113,668 2,079,181 2,124,305 197,462 133,196 161,460 115,472 9.4 6.3 7.8 5.4

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,100,332 1,101,615 1,083,698 1,102,604 87,778 58,602 72,350 51,489 8.0 5.3 6.7 4.7

Salinas

213,602 222,309 205,841 217,052 15,855 12,283 14,332 11,985 7.4 5.5 7.0 5.5

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,541,792 1,555,083 1,523,998 1,563,740 129,646 82,841 104,336 71,313 8.4 5.3 6.8 4.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,464,185 2,491,616 2,428,090 2,501,178 191,668 111,264 152,287 95,737 7.8 4.5 6.3 3.8

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,050,230 1,066,331 1,040,633 1,068,731 67,976 40,047 54,855 34,557 6.5 3.8 5.3 3.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

133,290 132,732 131,197 133,650 8,564 5,658 7,144 4,855 6.4 4.3 5.4 3.6

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

133,075 134,514 129,330 133,149 9,863 6,887 8,580 6,590 7.4 5.1 6.6 4.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,314 221,184 215,776 220,610 14,498 9,812 12,292 8,624 6.6 4.4 5.7 3.9

Santa Rosa

244,334 249,313 238,960 247,606 16,803 10,584 13,699 9,239 6.9 4.2 5.7 3.7

Stockton-Lodi

335,549 332,305 330,682 330,122 34,080 24,195 28,660 21,662 10.2 7.3 8.7 6.6

Vallejo-Fairfield

204,639 202,626 201,219 202,696 18,408 12,408 15,182 10,978 9.0 6.1 7.5 5.4

Visalia-Porterville

195,058 199,321 192,076 200,262 21,741 18,367 18,477 16,512 11.1 9.2 9.6 8.2

Yuba City

75,505 76,835 73,117 76,090 6,723 5,287 5,959 4,988 8.9 6.9 8.1 6.6

Colorado

3,161,607 3,224,313 3,173,505 3,217,459 207,486 143,874 212,590 142,483 6.6 4.5 6.7 4.4

Boulder

193,588 199,189 194,912 200,015 10,707 6,991 10,653 7,022 5.5 3.5 5.5 3.5

Colorado Springs

361,436 373,039 365,409 373,321 22,993 17,250 23,672 17,105 6.4 4.6 6.5 4.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,682,496 1,725,461 1,700,431 1,733,332 117,837 79,268 118,842 77,740 7.0 4.6 7.0 4.5

Fort Collins

208,632 209,037 208,848 206,935 11,267 7,861 11,550 7,899 5.4 3.8 5.5 3.8

Grand Junction

77,068 77,368 77,424 77,535 4,823 3,599 5,196 3,639 6.3 4.7 6.7 4.7

Greeley

170,319 173,265 170,062 170,209 11,472 7,864 11,984 7,749 6.7 4.5 7.0 4.6

Pueblo

79,040 79,213 80,292 78,917 6,487 5,387 7,119 5,202 8.2 6.8 8.9 6.6

Connecticut

1,841,877 1,829,144 1,846,074 1,850,288 141,827 96,277 138,843 88,619 7.7 5.3 7.5 4.8

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

442,358 443,884 444,699 446,692 35,851 24,074 34,554 21,917 8.1 5.4 7.8 4.9

Danbury

101,073 101,068 101,652 102,048 6,921 4,428 6,637 4,098 6.8 4.4 6.5 4.0

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

609,068 598,854 611,230 607,295 45,793 31,425 45,188 28,998 7.5 5.2 7.4 4.8

New Haven

327,288 325,296 327,158 330,661 23,460 16,031 23,290 14,819 7.2 4.9 7.1 4.5

Norwich-New London-Westerly

134,528 132,589 133,562 133,719 11,780 7,562 11,582 7,023 8.8 5.7 8.7 5.3

Waterbury

108,839 107,704 109,056 109,323 9,743 7,021 9,535 6,379 9.0 6.5 8.7 5.8

Delaware

480,007 487,940 481,657 490,498 24,606 22,167 24,756 19,496 5.1 4.5 5.1 4.0

Dover

78,434 78,981 78,349 79,457 4,423 4,099 4,399 3,598 5.6 5.2 5.6 4.5

Salisbury(1)

188,401 191,097 185,224 188,354 10,019 9,240 10,893 8,626 5.3 4.8 5.9 4.6

District of Columbia

405,870 410,486 409,289 415,101 33,338 22,685 34,273 21,478 8.2 5.5 8.4 5.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,351,733 3,368,065 3,347,853 3,371,864 215,500 130,572 215,567 122,931 6.4 3.9 6.4 3.6

Florida

10,047,839 10,656,033 9,999,225 10,645,740 565,043 424,800 499,570 385,820 5.6 4.0 5.0 3.6

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

344,738 366,344 342,425 367,276 16,633 14,093 14,344 12,743 4.8 3.8 4.2 3.5

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

128,599 134,401 127,899 133,744 4,490 4,338 4,137 3,935 3.5 3.2 3.2 2.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

294,151 310,829 292,953 310,425 15,038 13,262 13,213 12,170 5.1 4.3 4.5 3.9

Gainesville

143,858 151,523 142,444 150,812 5,578 5,327 5,009 4,666 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.1

Homosassa Springs

45,950 48,935 45,980 48,525 2,685 2,513 2,420 2,367 5.8 5.1 5.3 4.9

Jacksonville

781,464 833,467 781,907 833,082 33,573 30,608 29,829 27,539 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.3

Lakeland-Winter Haven

314,930 331,723 313,280 331,199 19,609 16,088 16,936 14,439 6.2 4.8 5.4 4.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,021,810 3,158,649 3,001,207 3,161,958 207,810 126,045 189,268 115,990 6.9 4.0 6.3 3.7

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

175,044 189,956 177,151 192,867 7,722 6,369 6,549 5,628 4.4 3.4 3.7 2.9

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

358,834 386,635 359,340 388,327 15,881 13,760 13,940 12,658 4.4 3.6 3.9 3.3

Ocala

139,687 146,033 139,449 145,600 7,066 6,714 6,402 6,108 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.2

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,266,853 1,357,597 1,252,412 1,353,415 86,345 59,275 71,874 53,229 6.8 4.4 5.7 3.9

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

280,311 298,882 279,277 299,021 12,607 11,071 11,191 10,049 4.5 3.7 4.0 3.4

Panama City

88,249 93,494 86,724 92,243 3,522 3,338 3,258 3,095 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.4

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,763 242,809 226,736 241,880 9,834 9,209 8,866 8,385 4.3 3.8 3.9 3.5

Port St. Lucie

215,934 231,774 214,314 230,763 10,489 9,463 9,173 8,598 4.9 4.1 4.3 3.7

Punta Gorda

70,727 75,444 70,796 76,068 3,431 3,066 2,978 2,878 4.9 4.1 4.2 3.8

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,341 68,072 63,511 68,362 3,191 2,954 2,809 2,694 5.0 4.3 4.4 3.9

Sebring

34,524 36,506 34,561 36,523 2,008 1,954 1,769 1,792 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.9

Tallahassee

191,733 200,960 189,770 199,113 8,487 8,206 7,646 7,158 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,540,405 1,653,865 1,539,507 1,647,802 74,034 62,863 64,468 56,736 4.8 3.8 4.2 3.4

The Villages

31,792 33,220 31,575 33,313 1,741 1,731 1,642 1,669 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.0

Georgia

5,115,883 5,176,729 5,138,700 5,191,044 278,502 127,213 273,400 112,540 5.4 2.5 5.3 2.2

Albany

66,432 64,582 66,678 64,660 4,478 2,129 4,394 1,848 6.7 3.3 6.6 2.9

Athens-Clarke County

98,675 99,024 98,952 98,602 4,438 2,154 4,282 1,891 4.5 2.2 4.3 1.9

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,076,992 3,130,954 3,085,772 3,145,423 177,695 76,016 173,769 67,894 5.8 2.4 5.6 2.2

Augusta-Richmond County

271,279 266,829 267,936 265,384 12,803 7,126 13,118 6,658 4.7 2.7 4.9 2.5

Brunswick

51,534 52,581 51,672 52,327 2,555 1,212 2,562 1,112 5.0 2.3 5.0 2.1

Columbus

123,094 121,194 122,382 122,125 6,905 3,534 6,654 3,325 5.6 2.9 5.4 2.7

Dalton

58,675 58,508 58,920 58,399 2,955 1,428 2,970 1,265 5.0 2.4 5.0 2.2

Gainesville

103,540 105,704 104,150 106,469 3,589 1,808 3,517 1,629 3.5 1.7 3.4 1.5

Hinesville

34,141 34,400 34,453 34,707 1,669 830 1,677 746 4.9 2.4 4.9 2.1

Macon-Bibb County

102,518 103,504 103,632 103,782 6,212 2,843 6,074 2,499 6.1 2.7 5.9 2.4

Rome

43,640 43,726 43,657 43,748 2,006 1,061 1,980 871 4.6 2.4 4.5 2.0

Savannah

192,829 199,786 194,877 200,946 10,848 4,722 10,626 4,293 5.6 2.4 5.5 2.1

Valdosta

65,584 66,028 66,395 65,955 3,238 1,544 3,241 1,370 4.9 2.3 4.9 2.1

Warner Robins

87,465 89,622 87,994 89,925 4,095 2,374 3,858 1,810 4.7 2.6 4.4 2.0

Hawaii

638,773 645,241 658,233 650,007 89,652 37,875 68,363 35,011 14.0 5.9 10.4 5.4

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

80,986 79,551 81,498 80,150 17,980 6,053 13,399 5,586 22.2 7.6 16.4 7.0

Urban Honolulu

434,818 444,501 451,660 447,594 53,255 24,181 40,892 22,343 12.2 5.4 9.1 5.0

Idaho

903,354 912,926 902,015 909,395 38,223 17,877 37,371 17,693 4.2 2.0 4.1 1.9

Boise City

380,762 382,484 383,464 384,414 17,269 7,700 16,398 7,483 4.5 2.0 4.3 1.9

Coeur d'Alene

81,773 83,056 82,030 83,037 4,268 1,870 4,303 1,952 5.2 2.3 5.2 2.4

Idaho Falls

75,329 76,778 75,652 77,096 2,443 1,244 2,355 1,142 3.2 1.6 3.1 1.5

Lewiston

31,568 31,744 31,074 31,945 1,166 676 1,159 605 3.7 2.1 3.7 1.9

Pocatello

43,454 45,245 43,847 45,659 1,740 850 1,662 812 4.0 1.9 3.8 1.8

Twin Falls

54,163 53,990 53,937 53,756 2,116 1,052 2,082 1,050 3.9 1.9 3.9 2.0

Illinois

6,324,429 6,263,088 6,169,598 6,333,207 474,466 310,895 465,928 286,666 7.5 5.0 7.6 4.5

Bloomington

97,624 90,631 91,599 91,966 4,745 3,309 4,416 3,114 4.9 3.7 4.8 3.4

Carbondale-Marion

61,901 59,658 58,891 61,104 3,455 2,527 3,194 2,432 5.6 4.2 5.4 4.0

Champaign-Urbana

134,552 127,959 125,636 129,424 6,458 4,583 5,888 4,310 4.8 3.6 4.7 3.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,690,619 4,751,984 4,667,374 4,802,282 384,774 241,756 384,515 217,606 8.2 5.1 8.2 4.5

Danville

34,420 32,219 32,061 32,667 2,305 1,632 2,067 1,617 6.7 5.1 6.4 4.9

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

189,809 186,938 181,909 186,738 10,358 7,385 9,640 6,860 5.5 4.0 5.3 3.7

Decatur

49,171 46,387 46,115 46,973 3,909 2,829 3,729 2,849 7.9 6.1 8.1 6.1

Kankakee

55,710 52,791 52,305 53,910 3,603 2,657 3,457 2,678 6.5 5.0 6.6 5.0

Peoria

179,359 166,841 167,859 169,157 11,369 7,817 10,494 7,700 6.3 4.7 6.3 4.6

Rockford

165,504 155,517 155,324 160,149 12,435 11,021 11,433 10,464 7.5 7.1 7.4 6.5

Springfield

107,936 101,222 102,174 102,361 6,560 4,353 6,257 4,263 6.1 4.3 6.1 4.2

Indiana

3,342,611 3,314,786 3,342,762 3,311,883 171,600 83,858 161,074 69,476 5.1 2.5 4.8 2.1

Bloomington

78,166 78,419 78,160 78,226 3,446 1,763 3,013 1,393 4.4 2.2 3.9 1.8

Columbus

43,850 44,280 44,095 44,623 1,804 869 1,717 713 4.1 2.0 3.9 1.6

Elkhart-Goshen

112,905 116,743 112,975 116,589 4,911 2,106 4,729 1,682 4.3 1.8 4.2 1.4

Evansville

156,584 152,103 156,702 151,735 7,341 4,034 6,998 3,218 4.7 2.7 4.5 2.1

Fort Wayne

217,862 214,003 218,070 214,128 10,905 5,181 10,287 4,196 5.0 2.4 4.7 2.0

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,081,894 1,071,030 1,081,992 1,072,772 57,448 26,399 53,198 21,629 5.3 2.5 4.9 2.0

Kokomo

35,725 35,448 35,161 35,747 2,229 1,519 2,047 1,682 6.2 4.3 5.8 4.7

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,612 112,690 110,903 113,172 5,183 2,548 4,888 2,067 4.7 2.3 4.4 1.8

Michigan City-La Porte

47,271 46,422 47,435 46,500 3,242 1,575 3,243 1,323 6.9 3.4 6.8 2.8

Muncie

53,372 52,057 53,341 52,193 2,847 1,497 2,574 1,229 5.3 2.9 4.8 2.4

South Bend-Mishawaka

156,902 157,146 157,233 157,445 9,886 4,704 9,291 3,939 6.3 3.0 5.9 2.5

Terre Haute

71,904 70,224 71,898 70,074 3,945 2,106 3,771 1,728 5.5 3.0 5.2 2.5

Iowa

1,635,569 1,668,559 1,633,755 1,664,824 55,681 48,675 59,741 43,623 3.4 2.9 3.7 2.6

Ames

56,810 58,387 56,002 58,116 1,279 1,251 1,368 1,062 2.3 2.1 2.4 1.8

Cedar Rapids

138,685 139,507 137,893 139,138 5,878 4,790 6,249 4,301 4.2 3.4 4.5 3.1

Des Moines-West Des Moines

350,294 363,257 347,825 361,628 12,700 10,375 13,011 9,295 3.6 2.9 3.7 2.6

Dubuque

53,332 54,939 53,274 54,471 1,982 1,753 2,113 1,450 3.7 3.2 4.0 2.7

Iowa City

93,900 94,206 93,000 93,951 3,065 2,490 3,133 2,167 3.3 2.6 3.4 2.3

Sioux City

90,090 89,847 88,979 89,498 2,886 2,315 3,090 2,114 3.2 2.6 3.5 2.4

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

85,483 86,781 85,315 86,368 3,051 2,575 3,378 2,377 3.6 3.0 4.0 2.8

Kansas

1,506,390 1,503,378 1,515,460 1,495,838 62,077 49,544 63,285 38,481 4.1 3.3 4.2 2.6

Lawrence

65,002 65,882 65,275 65,680 2,749 2,024 2,711 1,543 4.2 3.1 4.2 2.3

Manhattan

46,569 45,684 47,165 45,398 1,557 1,307 1,608 980 3.3 2.9 3.4 2.2

Topeka

120,760 118,311 121,649 117,258 4,709 3,810 4,881 2,924 3.9 3.2 4.0 2.5

Wichita

320,043 315,024 319,682 314,201 18,765 14,069 18,967 11,145 5.9 4.5 5.9 3.5

Kentucky

1,974,175 1,999,518 1,993,966 2,014,022 96,299 74,426 100,828 61,131 4.9 3.7 5.1 3.0

Bowling Green

80,740 81,782 81,672 82,616 3,726 2,813 3,578 2,096 4.6 3.4 4.4 2.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

62,955 63,662 63,410 64,130 3,086 2,466 3,218 2,079 4.9 3.9 5.1 3.2

Lexington-Fayette

266,283 266,511 269,027 268,673 11,577 8,409 11,918 6,349 4.3 3.2 4.4 2.4

Louisville/Jefferson County

645,539 655,726 652,586 664,067 32,062 20,839 32,313 19,618 5.0 3.2 5.0 3.0

Owensboro

52,171 52,277 52,395 52,415 2,325 1,866 2,479 1,422 4.5 3.6 4.7 2.7

Louisiana

2,092,397 2,063,686 2,098,192 2,068,760 156,155 88,382 153,575 83,836 7.5 4.3 7.3 4.1

Alexandria

64,682 63,173 64,964 63,249 3,434 2,033 3,349 1,909 5.3 3.2 5.2 3.0

Baton Rouge

425,771 421,480 425,773 422,090 27,124 15,658 27,018 14,892 6.4 3.7 6.3 3.5

Hammond

57,853 56,365 57,519 56,770 4,714 2,824 4,704 2,728 8.1 5.0 8.2 4.8

Houma-Thibodaux

88,800 87,941 89,683 87,717 5,618 4,008 5,531 3,530 6.3 4.6 6.2 4.0

Lafayette

211,294 209,553 211,746 210,061 14,100 8,022 13,920 7,601 6.7 3.8 6.6 3.6

Lake Charles

96,124 98,684 98,324 98,818 9,480 4,148 8,742 3,998 9.9 4.2 8.9 4.0

Monroe

80,189 78,654 80,253 78,488 5,109 2,950 5,040 2,816 6.4 3.8 6.3 3.6

New Orleans-Metairie

594,297 580,428 598,148 584,646 53,952 29,310 53,054 27,878 9.1 5.0 8.9 4.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

185,909 182,463 186,197 183,489 13,505 7,633 13,347 7,289 7.3 4.2 7.2 4.0

Maine

669,384 679,758 663,691 671,708 28,120 27,127 30,957 29,013 4.2 4.0 4.7 4.3

Bangor

68,802 69,564 68,241 69,271 2,658 2,715 2,834 2,827 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.1

Lewiston-Auburn

54,543 54,877 54,265 54,588 2,404 2,377 2,567 2,455 4.4 4.3 4.7 4.5

Portland-South Portland

202,794 205,366 201,263 202,983 8,330 7,345 8,842 7,633 4.1 3.6 4.4 3.8

Maryland

3,115,204 3,135,150 3,120,857 3,128,361 201,351 155,711 206,589 142,904 6.5 5.0 6.6 4.6

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,453,319 1,465,766 1,461,939 1,465,419 87,797 70,658 89,313 63,230 6.0 4.8 6.1 4.3

California-Lexington Park

56,131 57,279 56,230 57,198 2,315 2,281 2,432 2,058 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.6

Cumberland

42,603 43,578 42,399 42,906 2,509 1,972 2,640 1,783 5.9 4.5 6.2 4.2

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,100 131,471 130,429 131,843 6,810 4,551 6,885 3,994 5.2 3.5 5.3 3.0

Massachusetts

3,675,919 3,721,470 3,699,806 3,752,764 296,395 190,762 283,487 178,909 8.1 5.1 7.7 4.8

Barnstable Town

120,025 122,599 118,376 120,563 9,504 6,754 9,420 6,713 7.9 5.5 8.0 5.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,734,632 2,761,208 2,750,524 2,787,455 211,339 128,562 199,036 118,968 7.7 4.7 7.2 4.3

Leominster-Gardner

77,814 78,617 78,697 79,471 6,834 4,597 6,619 4,368 8.8 5.8 8.4 5.5

New Bedford

83,044 84,755 84,027 85,553 7,390 5,571 7,241 5,559 8.9 6.6 8.6 6.5

Pittsfield

40,310 40,082 40,303 40,030 3,508 2,501 3,454 2,441 8.7 6.2 8.6 6.1

Springfield

362,564 366,731 366,902 370,940 30,510 21,607 30,085 20,354 8.4 5.9 8.2 5.5

Worcester

347,787 351,971 352,769 355,381 27,367 18,452 26,622 17,159 7.9 5.2 7.5 4.8

Michigan

4,853,635 4,755,751 4,862,903 4,769,474 350,632 222,172 359,727 198,482 7.2 4.7 7.4 4.2

Ann Arbor

193,087 188,503 194,032 190,776 9,037 7,256 9,104 6,409 4.7 3.8 4.7 3.4

Battle Creek

60,875 58,748 61,845 58,992 4,063 3,538 4,317 3,213 6.7 6.0 7.0 5.4

Bay City

48,723 46,901 49,222 47,311 2,783 2,495 3,106 2,382 5.7 5.3 6.3 5.0

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,136,631 2,093,795 2,129,060 2,097,444 203,167 93,757 201,243 79,348 9.5 4.5 9.5 3.8

Flint

178,038 171,244 179,312 173,436 12,997 12,163 13,494 11,082 7.3 7.1 7.5 6.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

570,119 559,272 575,669 563,207 27,216 22,152 29,089 20,147 4.8 4.0 5.1 3.6

Jackson

72,629 71,082 73,241 71,917 4,314 3,653 4,554 3,355 5.9 5.1 6.2 4.7

Kalamazoo-Portage

165,941 162,674 166,295 163,926 8,748 7,421 9,273 6,727 5.3 4.6 5.6 4.1

Lansing-East Lansing

240,260 238,141 241,626 239,703 12,244 10,764 12,715 9,396 5.1 4.5 5.3 3.9

Midland

39,563 38,525 39,856 38,785 1,864 1,632 2,033 1,491 4.7 4.2 5.1 3.8

Monroe

73,470 71,811 73,277 71,971 4,322 3,715 4,068 3,348 5.9 5.2 5.6 4.7

Muskegon

75,926 72,854 76,792 73,280 6,094 5,107 6,485 4,744 8.0 7.0 8.4 6.5

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,122 70,247 72,254 70,262 4,269 3,525 4,570 3,257 5.9 5.0 6.3 4.6

Saginaw

84,068 81,241 85,491 82,075 5,569 5,280 6,085 4,818 6.6 6.5 7.1 5.9

Minnesota

3,064,787 3,023,522 3,053,209 3,025,139 139,664 74,254 131,727 66,557 4.6 2.5 4.3 2.2

Duluth

139,795 138,394 140,756 139,064 6,940 3,722 6,942 3,671 5.0 2.7 4.9 2.6

Mankato-North Mankato

61,689 60,527 61,325 60,239 2,149 1,223 2,132 1,064 3.5 2.0 3.5 1.8

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,986,194 1,966,300 1,979,664 1,973,035 96,735 50,212 86,341 42,653 4.9 2.6 4.4 2.2

Rochester

126,993 124,605 126,438 125,295 5,100 2,532 4,521 2,281 4.0 2.0 3.6 1.8

St. Cloud

113,038 110,106 112,888 110,395 4,803 2,786 5,058 2,545 4.2 2.5 4.5 2.3

Mississippi

1,257,756 1,257,291 1,272,847 1,251,734 77,610 48,951 79,747 37,377 6.2 3.9 6.3 3.0

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

165,188 167,624 166,577 166,982 10,737 6,723 11,085 5,146 6.5 4.0 6.7 3.1

Hattiesburg

68,950 68,796 70,687 68,664 3,878 2,411 3,988 1,813 5.6 3.5 5.6 2.6

Jackson

263,238 264,442 265,724 261,759 14,932 9,344 15,313 7,100 5.7 3.5 5.8 2.7

Missouri

3,059,501 3,054,405 3,055,824 3,039,091 122,696 86,498 127,766 77,914 4.0 2.8 4.2 2.6

Cape Girardeau

48,209 47,662 47,967 47,680 1,662 1,275 1,743 1,119 3.4 2.7 3.6 2.3

Columbia

98,050 98,197 98,243 97,746 2,680 2,117 2,909 1,863 2.7 2.2 3.0 1.9

Jefferson City

75,613 75,417 75,250 74,791 1,985 1,666 2,201 1,448 2.6 2.2 2.9 1.9

Joplin

83,737 82,923 83,356 83,300 3,085 2,173 3,262 1,887 3.7 2.6 3.9 2.3

Kansas City

1,137,424 1,157,770 1,143,953 1,153,414 48,273 34,852 48,657 30,977 4.2 3.0 4.3 2.7

St. Joseph

62,993 62,318 62,813 62,000 2,001 1,526 2,176 1,346 3.2 2.4 3.5 2.2

St. Louis(2)

1,466,228 1,438,259 1,447,088 1,439,193 68,146 46,074 66,843 41,516 4.6 3.2 4.6 2.9

Springfield

236,252 237,541 236,921 236,939 7,472 5,592 8,130 4,861 3.2 2.4 3.4 2.1

Montana

535,846 543,180 532,562 543,375 21,997 10,543 22,824 10,265 4.1 1.9 4.3 1.9

Billings

88,089 89,241 87,813 89,786 3,506 1,649 3,480 1,515 4.0 1.8 4.0 1.7

Great Falls

37,354 36,724 37,353 36,719 1,611 727 1,670 667 4.3 2.0 4.5 1.8

Missoula

63,259 63,853 62,854 63,713 2,670 1,225 2,673 1,207 4.2 1.9 4.3 1.9

Nebraska

1,026,253 1,025,009 1,023,234 1,026,382 32,565 14,121 29,853 12,032 3.2 1.4 2.9 1.2

Grand Island

43,668 42,867 43,640 42,803 1,710 638 1,825 529 3.9 1.5 4.2 1.2

Lincoln

185,235 186,732 183,773 186,212 5,914 2,412 5,569 2,037 3.2 1.3 3.0 1.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

488,674 492,088 486,814 493,342 17,359 8,350 15,646 7,258 3.6 1.7 3.2 1.5

Nevada

1,545,346 1,547,260 1,513,547 1,541,975 179,300 87,786 126,448 83,274 11.6 5.7 8.4 5.4

Carson City

26,583 26,776 26,212 26,659 1,715 949 1,265 878 6.5 3.5 4.8 3.3

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,127,859 1,127,184 1,098,710 1,125,285 154,325 73,922 108,054 70,583 13.7 6.6 9.8 6.3

Reno

262,548 266,388 262,514 264,210 15,912 8,456 11,681 7,753 6.1 3.2 4.4 2.9

New Hampshire

757,004 736,745 759,782 740,843 31,922 16,124 30,055 14,717 4.2 2.2 4.0 2.0

Dover-Durham

84,518 82,931 84,606 83,398 3,317 1,732 3,284 1,610 3.9 2.1 3.9 1.9

Manchester

119,829 115,165 120,788 116,429 5,219 2,425 4,820 2,205 4.4 2.1 4.0 1.9

Portsmouth

76,208 75,633 75,827 75,895 3,012 1,617 3,019 1,569 4.0 2.1 4.0 2.1

New Jersey

4,370,856 4,429,491 4,492,693 4,431,748 310,742 240,785 433,421 235,348 7.1 5.4 9.6 5.3

Atlantic City-Hammonton

115,921 118,505 120,334 118,275 12,345 9,338 17,098 9,015 10.6 7.9 14.2 7.6

Ocean City

45,487 45,303 45,537 42,997 3,330 3,066 5,481 3,516 7.3 6.8 12.0 8.2

Trenton

201,562 205,018 207,677 206,046 11,323 8,929 16,087 8,689 5.6 4.4 7.7 4.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,899 65,485 66,868 64,505 4,690 4,335 6,851 4,229 7.2 6.6 10.2 6.6

New Mexico

960,387 952,226 963,799 957,643 76,687 50,208 77,740 50,218 8.0 5.3 8.1 5.2

Albuquerque

438,584 435,849 438,332 439,731 33,797 21,975 33,866 21,759 7.7 5.0 7.7 4.9

Farmington

50,998 49,264 51,030 49,194 4,861 3,098 4,836 3,095 9.5 6.3 9.5 6.3

Las Cruces

98,307 97,489 98,690 97,472 7,117 5,069 7,568 5,204 7.2 5.2 7.7 5.3

Santa Fe

70,914 68,971 71,799 69,547 5,540 3,439 5,369 3,409 7.8 5.0 7.5 4.9

New York

9,195,073 9,254,848 9,231,677 9,187,419 761,164 548,869 763,468 507,912 8.3 5.9 8.3 5.5

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,723 443,175 449,830 437,976 22,766 16,219 23,084 14,231 5.1 3.7 5.1 3.2

Binghamton

102,378 101,418 102,838 100,370 5,898 4,377 6,118 3,917 5.8 4.3 5.9 3.9

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

533,355 529,514 534,295 526,282 33,905 24,381 34,574 22,331 6.4 4.6 6.5 4.2

Elmira

34,843 34,488 35,194 34,223 2,116 1,529 2,315 1,376 6.1 4.4 6.6 4.0

Glens Falls

58,079 57,988 58,029 56,799 2,857 2,204 3,084 2,130 4.9 3.8 5.3 3.8

Ithaca

47,380 47,144 47,555 46,422 2,099 1,613 2,165 1,349 4.4 3.4 4.6 2.9

Kingston

85,363 84,438 85,906 83,644 4,677 3,348 4,713 2,963 5.5 4.0 5.5 3.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,570,705 9,684,501 9,679,408 9,645,357 834,672 609,511 920,394 575,134 8.7 6.3 9.5 6.0

Rochester

510,925 517,156 515,263 514,349 29,616 21,256 30,915 19,071 5.8 4.1 6.0 3.7

Syracuse

300,385 294,215 303,850 291,940 17,089 12,578 17,735 11,229 5.7 4.3 5.8 3.8

Utica-Rome

126,762 125,304 127,775 124,239 7,155 5,455 7,646 5,002 5.6 4.4 6.0 4.0

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,196 43,301 43,166 43,380 2,211 1,790 2,392 1,725 5.1 4.1 5.5 4.0

North Carolina

5,053,339 5,070,465 5,038,460 5,067,228 325,068 186,207 315,198 170,606 6.4 3.7 6.3 3.4

Asheville

230,966 230,643 230,354 229,002 14,202 7,050 13,337 6,471 6.1 3.1 5.8 2.8

Burlington

82,227 83,060 82,051 82,803 5,229 3,007 5,069 2,745 6.4 3.6 6.2 3.3

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,381,117 1,380,481 1,371,490 1,380,290 88,197 49,383 85,239 45,524 6.4 3.6 6.2 3.3

Durham-Chapel Hill

308,252 315,255 306,492 315,616 16,849 9,354 16,358 8,531 5.5 3.0 5.3 2.7

Fayetteville

148,401 146,108 148,010 146,444 12,767 8,049 12,570 7,448 8.6 5.5 8.5 5.1

Goldsboro

51,761 51,317 51,720 51,719 3,117 2,006 3,148 1,841 6.0 3.9 6.1 3.6

Greensboro-High Point

365,164 362,907 362,545 361,912 26,933 15,363 25,977 14,034 7.4 4.2 7.2 3.9

Greenville

90,477 92,930 90,043 92,818 5,598 3,471 5,591 3,148 6.2 3.7 6.2 3.4

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,389 175,120 173,644 176,284 10,860 5,998 10,615 5,469 6.2 3.4 6.1 3.1

Jacksonville

66,003 65,082 66,189 65,499 4,148 2,514 4,145 2,301 6.3 3.9 6.3 3.5

New Bern

51,650 51,098 51,228 50,785 3,028 1,812 2,972 1,663 5.9 3.5 5.8 3.3

Raleigh

728,675 744,300 729,005 744,192 40,898 22,638 39,462 20,708 5.6 3.0 5.4 2.8

Rocky Mount

64,249 63,432 64,258 63,960 5,638 3,727 5,456 3,337 8.8 5.9 8.5 5.2

Wilmington

151,675 156,024 151,623 156,079 8,788 4,882 8,518 4,528 5.8 3.1 5.6 2.9

Winston-Salem

327,163 329,238 325,559 329,468 20,882 11,742 20,277 10,714 6.4 3.6 6.2 3.3

North Dakota

404,500 401,862 400,126 399,386 15,099 9,291 17,049 9,987 3.7 2.3 4.3 2.5

Bismarck

69,218 69,030 69,139 69,006 2,055 1,414 2,427 1,576 3.0 2.0 3.5 2.3

Fargo

141,024 142,426 140,688 143,331 4,114 2,526 4,508 2,598 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.8

Grand Forks

53,975 52,589 53,568 52,191 1,698 1,117 1,967 1,156 3.1 2.1 3.7 2.2

Ohio

5,707,208 5,688,836 5,719,557 5,681,834 282,046 216,864 278,828 196,218 4.9 3.8 4.9 3.5

Akron

349,376 353,137 352,228 352,634 16,470 13,872 16,232 12,383 4.7 3.9 4.6 3.5

Canton-Massillon

194,089 193,872 194,466 193,707 8,845 7,635 8,755 6,851 4.6 3.9 4.5 3.5

Cincinnati

1,107,014 1,124,355 1,105,361 1,121,087 49,117 39,115 48,179 33,459 4.4 3.5 4.4 3.0

Cleveland-Elyria

993,232 1,000,096 1,006,832 1,001,344 71,639 36,783 71,044 36,839 7.2 3.7 7.1 3.7

Columbus

1,104,560 1,104,685 1,112,798 1,107,895 47,616 38,512 46,280 33,611 4.3 3.5 4.2 3.0

Dayton

385,751 382,782 386,974 383,405 18,142 15,254 17,654 13,233 4.7 4.0 4.6 3.5

Lima

47,808 47,974 48,521 47,762 2,257 2,028 2,157 1,690 4.7 4.2 4.4 3.5

Mansfield

51,090 50,813 51,851 50,439 2,424 2,218 2,507 2,020 4.7 4.4 4.8 4.0

Springfield

61,864 62,838 62,268 62,122 2,836 3,136 2,794 2,146 4.6 5.0 4.5 3.5

Toledo

297,369 293,337 296,843 291,467 14,935 12,502 14,537 11,307 5.0 4.3 4.9 3.9

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,747 49,614 49,999 49,213 3,316 2,175 3,340 1,949 6.7 4.4 6.7 4.0

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

229,821 226,814 231,080 225,352 13,818 11,140 13,934 9,983 6.0 4.9 6.0 4.4

Oklahoma

1,863,676 1,864,489 1,872,237 1,870,713 91,394 37,589 88,211 34,923 4.9 2.0 4.7 1.9

Enid

27,007 27,186 27,261 27,184 1,230 484 1,197 454 4.6 1.8 4.4 1.7

Lawton

50,783 50,831 51,359 50,915 2,520 1,120 2,382 1,040 5.0 2.2 4.6 2.0

Oklahoma City

691,125 697,937 696,308 703,459 33,029 13,051 31,315 12,162 4.8 1.9 4.5 1.7

Tulsa

483,962 480,490 484,881 482,004 25,386 10,470 24,490 9,501 5.2 2.2 5.1 2.0

Oregon

2,128,309 2,171,576 2,133,389 2,169,316 137,983 74,604 129,959 72,834 6.5 3.4 6.1 3.4

Albany

58,996 60,832 59,500 60,846 3,880 2,344 3,693 2,279 6.6 3.9 6.2 3.7

Bend-Redmond

100,072 100,768 100,371 100,696 6,045 3,431 5,906 3,467 6.0 3.4 5.9 3.4

Corvallis

46,573 47,957 46,802 47,973 2,294 1,293 2,043 1,156 4.9 2.7 4.4 2.4

Eugene

177,930 182,794 179,310 183,142 11,946 6,819 10,968 6,563 6.7 3.7 6.1 3.6

Grants Pass

37,031 37,055 36,798 36,799 2,371 1,533 2,279 1,567 6.4 4.1 6.2 4.3

Medford

107,133 108,916 107,474 108,185 6,791 3,830 6,391 3,761 6.3 3.5 5.9 3.5

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,345,132 1,361,363 1,333,319 1,370,065 90,217 46,784 84,875 43,829 6.7 3.4 6.4 3.2

Salem

207,387 209,849 206,869 208,710 12,078 7,054 11,501 6,822 5.8 3.4 5.6 3.3

Pennsylvania

6,316,802 6,272,447 6,303,477 6,219,017 403,395 307,464 408,218 266,786 6.4 4.9 6.5 4.3

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

431,758 437,150 437,200 435,201 27,269 21,754 28,916 19,306 6.3 5.0 6.6 4.4

Altoona

58,606 56,867 58,718 56,478 3,186 2,664 3,446 2,251 5.4 4.7 5.9 4.0

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,215 43,132 42,334 42,710 2,057 1,782 2,126 1,508 4.9 4.1 5.0 3.5

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,647 75,777 76,087 75,092 4,024 2,929 3,803 2,431 5.3 3.9 5.0 3.2

East Stroudsburg

79,711 79,957 79,621 79,425 6,198 4,892 6,255 4,404 7.8 6.1 7.9 5.5

Erie

125,063 123,497 125,069 121,772 8,603 6,730 9,053 6,060 6.9 5.4 7.2 5.0

Gettysburg

54,405 55,552 53,894 55,122 2,260 1,789 2,226 1,484 4.2 3.2 4.1 2.7

Harrisburg-Carlisle

297,546 296,197 298,280 296,099 16,067 12,348 16,307 10,475 5.4 4.2 5.5 3.5

Johnstown

55,254 53,042 55,252 52,593 3,334 2,902 3,573 2,551 6.0 5.5 6.5 4.9

Lancaster

280,900 279,047 278,771 275,660 13,681 10,706 13,607 8,967 4.9 3.8 4.9 3.3

Lebanon

71,660 70,569 71,340 70,047 3,850 2,932 3,970 2,500 5.4 4.2 5.6 3.6

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,058,858 3,066,135 3,068,315 3,055,401 207,026 155,989 223,579 139,509 6.8 5.1 7.3 4.6

Pittsburgh

1,170,782 1,160,426 1,166,634 1,147,886 74,469 56,119 75,824 48,562 6.4 4.8 6.5 4.2

Reading

208,121 204,211 208,230 201,735 13,745 10,719 13,783 9,175 6.6 5.2 6.6 4.5

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

270,937 268,074 272,521 267,067 19,395 15,624 20,069 13,941 7.2 5.8 7.4 5.2

State College

75,621 76,381 74,962 75,612 2,898 2,654 2,979 2,189 3.8 3.5 4.0 2.9

Williamsport

55,228 54,909 55,605 54,569 3,345 2,761 3,466 2,437 6.1 5.0 6.2 4.5

York-Hanover

230,809 231,252 231,445 230,027 12,363 9,529 12,423 8,074 5.4 4.1 5.4 3.5

Rhode Island

535,404 549,525 541,086 556,025 34,464 22,709 41,554 22,728 6.4 4.1 7.7 4.1

Providence-Warwick

667,408 681,813 674,410 689,901 45,008 30,349 51,606 29,987 6.7 4.5 7.7 4.3

South Carolina

2,429,463 2,397,314 2,339,424 2,385,048 121,135 73,978 126,142 72,034 5.0 3.1 5.4 3.0

Charleston-North Charleston

400,480 399,304 385,974 399,816 19,659 11,062 20,013 10,615 4.9 2.8 5.2 2.7

Columbia

414,244 408,048 399,088 405,246 19,051 11,558 20,196 11,270 4.6 2.8 5.1 2.8

Florence

100,144 97,399 96,826 96,728 5,222 3,138 5,426 3,054 5.2 3.2 5.6 3.2

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

441,806 439,051 427,524 439,610 19,569 11,913 20,493 11,645 4.4 2.7 4.8 2.6

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

91,739 92,142 88,919 91,107 3,766 2,346 3,933 2,371 4.1 2.5 4.4 2.6

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

201,790 203,189 194,229 199,356 12,958 8,107 13,318 7,987 6.4 4.0 6.9 4.0

Spartanburg

174,360 172,311 167,194 171,603 8,964 5,351 9,098 5,164 5.1 3.1 5.4 3.0

Sumter

44,827 42,762 43,250 42,976 2,571 1,549 2,716 1,494 5.7 3.6 6.3 3.5

South Dakota

474,621 472,340 454,960 470,279 14,963 10,988 15,193 10,003 3.2 2.3 3.3 2.1

Rapid City

76,305 75,314 72,661 74,444 2,619 1,901 2,672 1,725 3.4 2.5 3.7 2.3

Sioux Falls

158,870 158,892 153,291 159,252 4,532 3,201 4,528 2,920 2.9 2.0 3.0 1.8

Tennessee

3,405,856 3,296,326 3,330,759 3,325,867 253,529 110,246 171,327 102,687 7.4 3.3 5.1 3.1

Chattanooga

279,457 275,050 275,567 276,674 17,160 7,943 12,304 7,408 6.1 2.9 4.5 2.7

Clarksville

120,593 118,423 118,547 119,341 8,633 4,544 6,484 3,933 7.2 3.8 5.5 3.3

Cleveland

62,035 59,750 61,187 61,673 4,369 1,890 2,971 1,792 7.0 3.2 4.9 2.9

Jackson

66,857 64,197 65,697 64,850 5,025 2,085 3,517 1,935 7.5 3.2 5.4 3.0

Johnson City

94,287 89,711 92,213 90,711 6,430 2,923 4,607 2,753 6.8 3.3 5.0 3.0

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,495 132,950 135,121 133,492 9,229 4,240 7,017 3,974 6.7 3.2 5.2 3.0

Knoxville

441,756 430,767 432,879 434,827 27,282 12,133 19,156 11,387 6.2 2.8 4.4 2.6

Memphis

667,369 640,421 649,322 646,227 66,092 28,668 45,200 25,171 9.9 4.5 7.0 3.9

Morristown

54,214 52,632 53,277 52,989 3,603 1,768 2,493 1,649 6.6 3.4 4.7 3.1

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,099,505 1,085,266 1,079,907 1,094,791 69,627 30,165 46,596 28,311 6.3 2.8 4.3 2.6

Texas

14,186,427 14,315,600 14,050,100 14,430,417 976,056 681,119 973,462 655,155 6.9 4.8 6.9 4.5

Abilene

79,050 81,475 78,380 81,589 3,965 3,137 4,070 3,001 5.0 3.9 5.2 3.7

Amarillo

134,446 135,968 132,812 136,515 5,792 4,485 5,885 4,298 4.3 3.3 4.4 3.1

Austin-Round Rock

1,267,731 1,321,065 1,254,007 1,332,539 65,889 44,580 64,579 42,451 5.2 3.4 5.1 3.2

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,720 174,010 171,515 175,325 17,535 13,168 17,637 13,039 10.2 7.6 10.3 7.4

Brownsville-Harlingen

170,201 169,455 168,881 170,294 15,898 11,941 16,088 11,692 9.3 7.0 9.5 6.9

College Station-Bryan

136,391 135,395 135,096 136,578 6,531 5,046 6,642 4,740 4.8 3.7 4.9 3.5

Corpus Christi

203,433 204,428 200,829 205,541 17,153 12,443 17,310 12,260 8.4 6.1 8.6 6.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,064,538 4,138,885 4,033,726 4,192,726 251,614 173,777 250,161 165,463 6.2 4.2 6.2 3.9

El Paso

371,017 370,823 371,982 372,454 26,906 19,435 29,753 18,581 7.3 5.2 8.0 5.0

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,423,473 3,449,832 3,389,148 3,480,007 272,957 184,918 266,857 178,163 8.0 5.4 7.9 5.1

Killeen-Temple

180,285 182,856 179,460 183,892 11,135 9,047 11,354 8,754 6.2 4.9 6.3 4.8

Laredo

116,732 116,755 115,757 117,416 9,275 6,180 9,178 5,915 7.9 5.3 7.9 5.0

Longview

97,006 97,297 95,835 97,431 7,502 5,182 7,458 4,972 7.7 5.3 7.8 5.1

Lubbock

165,884 166,532 163,894 166,910 8,492 6,350 8,675 5,959 5.1 3.8 5.3 3.6

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

362,660 367,808 359,852 371,005 37,814 27,930 38,652 28,434 10.4 7.6 10.7 7.7

Midland

98,709 100,186 97,914 101,156 8,686 4,730 8,463 4,506 8.8 4.7 8.6 4.5

Odessa

81,869 79,587 80,578 80,385 10,066 5,300 9,826 5,064 12.3 6.7 12.2 6.3

San Angelo

55,350 54,875 54,685 54,974 3,208 2,316 3,300 2,194 5.8 4.2 6.0 4.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,224,279 1,241,226 1,209,499 1,246,621 77,731 53,446 76,856 50,779 6.3 4.3 6.4 4.1

Sherman-Denison

65,392 66,869 65,063 66,989 3,375 2,639 3,440 2,536 5.2 3.9 5.3 3.8

Texarkana

63,725 63,096 63,045 63,625 3,762 2,682 3,824 2,675 5.9 4.3 6.1 4.2

Tyler

110,525 115,862 109,384 116,148 6,648 4,806 6,655 4,580 6.0 4.1 6.1 3.9

Victoria

44,684 44,064 44,268 44,418 3,424 2,444 3,457 2,364 7.7 5.5 7.8 5.3

Waco

130,104 131,934 129,010 132,474 7,091 5,431 7,274 5,138 5.5 4.1 5.6 3.9

Wichita Falls

64,695 64,963 64,087 64,798 4,005 2,799 4,080 2,705 6.2 4.3 6.4 4.2

Utah

1,637,265 1,690,509 1,643,253 1,698,860 55,454 23,707 51,990 23,033 3.4 1.4 3.2 1.4

Logan

73,640 76,837 73,829 77,356 1,587 859 1,570 832 2.2 1.1 2.1 1.1

Ogden-Clearfield

338,137 346,369 340,023 346,726 10,449 4,672 9,911 4,552 3.1 1.3 2.9 1.3

Provo-Orem

325,174 338,830 328,013 341,280 8,983 4,198 8,587 4,025 2.8 1.2 2.6 1.2

St. George

81,257 84,765 81,297 85,151 2,994 1,231 2,767 1,227 3.7 1.5 3.4 1.4

Salt Lake City

675,472 695,404 677,620 700,077 25,018 10,096 22,915 9,719 3.7 1.5 3.4 1.4

Vermont

317,381 318,192 316,915 317,352 9,080 5,227 10,268 5,770 2.9 1.6 3.2 1.8

Burlington-South Burlington

117,712 118,411 117,910 118,761 2,971 1,697 3,313 1,792 2.5 1.4 2.8 1.5

Virginia

4,279,784 4,269,118 4,258,549 4,262,203 243,607 127,514 233,440 115,517 5.7 3.0 5.5 2.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

87,895 91,914 88,113 92,041 3,733 2,415 3,744 2,044 4.2 2.6 4.2 2.2

Charlottesville

116,233 115,481 115,782 115,000 5,738 3,121 5,527 2,773 4.9 2.7 4.8 2.4

Harrisonburg

65,452 67,163 65,080 66,481 2,625 1,804 2,617 1,477 4.0 2.7 4.0 2.2

Lynchburg

119,513 118,338 118,437 117,857 6,309 3,864 6,262 3,366 5.3 3.3 5.3 2.9

Richmond

664,740 647,642 661,886 645,110 41,990 22,037 39,506 19,907 6.3 3.4 6.0 3.1

Roanoke

152,957 152,081 153,074 151,626 7,997 4,946 7,776 3,986 5.2 3.3 5.1 2.6

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,690 60,230 59,375 59,895 2,635 1,520 2,620 1,337 4.4 2.5 4.4 2.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

839,222 819,218 830,051 816,128 55,220 29,883 51,703 26,691 6.6 3.6 6.2 3.3

Winchester

74,052 75,785 73,620 75,834 2,955 1,787 2,896 1,508 4.0 2.4 3.9 2.0

Washington

3,978,552 3,941,774 3,857,075 3,934,786 250,226 173,498 249,679 134,307 6.3 4.4 6.5 3.4

Bellingham

118,551 115,534 111,275 116,692 7,814 4,934 7,839 4,180 6.6 4.3 7.0 3.6

Bremerton-Silverdale

134,351 127,212 125,744 128,960 7,421 4,844 7,508 3,905 5.5 3.8 6.0 3.0

Kennewick-Richland

148,953 148,118 140,499 146,883 8,388 6,234 9,273 5,627 5.6 4.2 6.6 3.8

Longview

50,350 48,232 46,972 48,880 3,422 2,274 3,411 1,994 6.8 4.7 7.3 4.1

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,935 62,446 60,255 63,009 4,223 2,852 4,431 2,542 6.6 4.6 7.4 4.0

Olympia-Tumwater

150,459 145,657 141,391 147,748 8,448 5,572 8,631 4,692 5.6 3.8 6.1 3.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,189,034 2,185,991 2,172,706 2,175,457 142,766 100,568 136,941 70,373 6.5 4.6 6.3 3.2

Spokane-Spokane Valley

290,329 286,834 272,343 290,095 16,823 11,117 17,500 9,411 5.8 3.9 6.4 3.2

Walla Walla

32,998 33,995 31,057 33,676 1,539 1,120 1,710 943 4.7 3.3 5.5 2.8

Wenatchee

65,790 65,265 61,577 62,845 3,553 2,451 3,946 2,310 5.4 3.8 6.4 3.7

Yakima

127,942 134,931 122,353 127,760 8,370 6,109 9,585 6,301 6.5 4.5 7.8 4.9

West Virginia

793,957 791,333 792,065 784,672 50,108 23,193 51,605 20,477 6.3 2.9 6.5 2.6

Beckley

47,206 46,778 46,657 45,783 3,326 1,471 3,423 1,324 7.0 3.1 7.3 2.9

Charleston

92,484 91,525 92,789 90,573 6,768 2,840 6,791 2,467 7.3 3.1 7.3 2.7

Huntington-Ashland

145,532 145,243 145,107 143,916 8,288 5,013 8,566 4,286 5.7 3.5 5.9 3.0

Morgantown

70,981 72,901 71,065 72,406 3,339 1,848 3,451 1,616 4.7 2.5 4.9 2.2

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,769 37,752 38,697 37,534 2,602 1,187 2,700 1,081 6.7 3.1 7.0 2.9

Wheeling

62,570 62,453 62,516 62,133 3,705 2,312 3,895 2,080 5.9 3.7 6.2 3.3

Wisconsin

3,055,281 3,104,408 3,059,093 3,102,498 130,864 70,726 125,598 57,445 4.3 2.3 4.1 1.9

Appleton

129,190 132,308 129,729 132,082 4,392 2,425 4,145 1,958 3.4 1.8 3.2 1.5

Eau Claire

91,803 94,578 92,685 94,698 3,187 1,800 3,380 1,498 3.5 1.9 3.6 1.6

Fond du Lac

55,991 58,290 56,690 58,327 1,866 1,083 1,970 867 3.3 1.9 3.5 1.5

Green Bay

170,601 174,893 171,109 174,452 6,721 3,580 6,361 2,890 3.9 2.0 3.7 1.7

Janesville-Beloit

84,125 86,874 84,235 86,654 3,879 2,494 3,652 1,899 4.6 2.9 4.3 2.2

La Crosse-Onalaska

75,644 76,975 76,083 77,266 2,463 1,383 2,429 1,169 3.3 1.8 3.2 1.5

Madison

386,891 396,018 386,888 395,908 13,377 7,016 12,577 5,671 3.5 1.8 3.3 1.4

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

806,608 814,281 803,240 811,526 44,393 22,754 40,309 18,014 5.5 2.8 5.0 2.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

90,930 93,983 91,341 93,985 3,171 1,837 3,066 1,476 3.5 2.0 3.4 1.6

Racine

96,568 97,320 96,863 97,496 5,232 2,819 4,816 2,274 5.4 2.9 5.0 2.3

Sheboygan

61,138 63,157 61,498 63,025 2,102 1,180 2,096 952 3.4 1.9 3.4 1.5

Wausau

71,538 73,689 72,179 73,787 2,284 1,313 2,295 1,085 3.2 1.8 3.2 1.5

Wyoming

294,677 292,291 294,827 291,205 12,954 7,282 14,238 6,948 4.4 2.5 4.8 2.4

Casper

40,237 38,745 41,188 39,269 2,639 1,291 2,753 1,207 6.6 3.3 6.7 3.1

Cheyenne

50,521 49,069 51,064 49,930 1,906 1,122 2,023 1,034 3.8 2.3 4.0 2.1

Puerto Rico

1,051,356 1,086,652 1,042,731 1,110,243 88,801 77,572 98,189 80,302 8.4 7.1 9.4 7.2

Aguadilla-Isabela

82,653 86,144 82,167 88,128 7,315 7,319 8,323 7,711 8.9 8.5 10.1 8.7

Arecibo

50,885 53,340 50,577 54,595 4,171 3,840 4,695 4,029 8.2 7.2 9.3 7.4

Guayama

18,981 19,782 18,962 20,281 1,515 1,520 1,771 1,575 8.0 7.7 9.3 7.8

Mayaguez

25,915 27,028 25,794 27,690 2,124 2,229 2,405 2,357 8.2 8.2 9.3 8.5

Ponce

87,235 91,479 87,335 93,747 7,680 8,307 8,802 8,616 8.8 9.1 10.1 9.2

San German

33,311 35,895 33,153 36,578 2,852 3,108 3,215 3,277 8.6 8.7 9.7 9.0

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

711,681 729,766 704,488 745,127 59,500 47,102 64,826 48,443 8.4 6.5 9.2 6.5

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) October November October November
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

18,887,681 19,106,763 18,667,576 19,178,909 1,757,771 1,166,737 1,544,099 1,040,477 9.3 6.1 8.3 5.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,500,469 6,618,160 6,466,937 6,677,579 718,838 469,907 689,750 426,981 11.1 7.1 10.7 6.4

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,554,865 1,588,831 1,535,572 1,593,253 127,455 75,362 100,770 64,739 8.2 4.7 6.6 4.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,945,604 5,029,329 4,931,365 5,084,326 591,383 394,545 588,980 362,242 12.0 7.8 11.9 7.1

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,464,185 2,491,616 2,428,090 2,501,178 191,668 111,264 152,287 95,737 7.8 4.5 6.3 3.8

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,353,344 1,352,186 1,334,205 1,355,930 114,083 68,938 91,516 59,382 8.4 5.1 6.9 4.4

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

979,843 1,004,629 965,068 1,010,560 69,770 37,737 54,451 32,410 7.1 3.8 5.6 3.2

San Rafael

130,998 134,801 128,817 134,688 7,815 4,589 6,320 3,945 6.0 3.4 4.9 2.9

District of Columbia

405,870 410,486 409,289 415,101 33,338 22,685 34,273 21,478 8.2 5.5 8.4 5.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,351,733 3,368,065 3,347,853 3,371,864 215,500 130,572 215,567 122,931 6.4 3.9 6.4 3.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

667,585 673,761 667,429 671,757 41,669 30,144 42,620 28,015 6.2 4.5 6.4 4.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,684,148 2,694,304 2,680,424 2,700,107 173,831 100,428 172,947 94,916 6.5 3.7 6.5 3.5

Florida

10,047,839 10,656,033 9,999,225 10,645,740 565,043 424,800 499,570 385,820 5.6 4.0 5.0 3.6

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,021,810 3,158,649 3,001,207 3,161,958 207,810 126,045 189,268 115,990 6.9 4.0 6.3 3.7

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,004,367 1,061,846 995,849 1,053,694 60,774 44,766 51,503 39,980 6.1 4.2 5.2 3.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,306,434 1,341,757 1,298,144 1,352,182 110,612 51,203 106,956 49,473 8.5 3.8 8.2 3.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

711,009 755,046 707,214 756,082 36,424 30,076 30,809 26,537 5.1 4.0 4.4 3.5

Illinois

6,324,429 6,263,088 6,169,598 6,333,207 474,466 310,895 465,928 286,666 7.5 5.0 7.6 4.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,690,619 4,751,984 4,667,374 4,802,282 384,774 241,756 384,515 217,606 8.2 5.1 8.2 4.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,567,543 3,673,980 3,583,239 3,710,755 314,358 199,235 317,887 177,738 8.8 5.4 8.9 4.8

Elgin

325,306 307,564 307,223 314,310 20,818 13,697 19,386 13,479 6.4 4.5 6.3 4.3

Gary(3)

329,296 322,923 328,987 322,418 22,737 12,040 21,949 10,263 6.9 3.7 6.7 3.2

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

468,474 447,517 447,925 454,799 26,861 16,784 25,293 16,126 5.7 3.8 5.6 3.5

Massachusetts

3,675,919 3,721,470 3,699,806 3,752,764 296,395 190,762 283,487 178,909 8.1 5.1 7.7 4.8

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,734,632 2,761,208 2,750,524 2,787,455 211,339 128,562 199,036 118,968 7.7 4.7 7.2 4.3

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,628,080 1,654,319 1,635,860 1,670,072 127,110 76,585 119,217 70,313 7.8 4.6 7.3 4.2

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

108,654 109,264 109,816 110,810 10,181 6,569 9,733 6,259 9.4 6.0 8.9 5.6

Framingham

156,133 159,246 157,600 160,758 10,826 6,411 10,370 5,869 6.9 4.0 6.6 3.7

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

115,419 114,651 115,937 115,759 7,740 4,547 7,360 4,301 6.7 4.0 6.3 3.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,190 97,871 99,556 98,438 10,565 6,797 10,094 6,513 10.7 6.9 10.1 6.6

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

192,215 194,335 194,055 196,315 14,050 9,253 13,621 8,506 7.3 4.8 7.0 4.3

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,506 85,509 85,814 86,406 8,666 5,221 7,883 4,979 10.1 6.1 9.2 5.8

Nashua(2)

174,277 170,039 175,638 171,268 8,013 4,016 7,410 3,671 4.6 2.4 4.2 2.1

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

90,213 90,311 90,654 91,250 7,360 4,593 6,861 4,231 8.2 5.1 7.6 4.6

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

84,945 85,663 85,594 86,379 6,828 4,570 6,487 4,326 8.0 5.3 7.6 5.0

Michigan

4,853,635 4,755,751 4,862,903 4,769,474 350,632 222,172 359,727 198,482 7.2 4.7 7.4 4.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,136,631 2,093,795 2,129,060 2,097,444 203,167 93,757 201,243 79,348 9.5 4.5 9.5 3.8

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

814,769 790,889 812,266 789,832 100,102 45,895 97,759 38,371 12.3 5.8 12.0 4.9

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,321,864 1,302,906 1,316,795 1,307,610 103,066 47,863 103,484 40,976 7.8 3.7 7.9 3.1

New York

9,195,073 9,254,848 9,231,677 9,187,419 761,164 548,869 763,468 507,912 8.3 5.9 8.3 5.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,570,705 9,684,501 9,679,408 9,645,357 834,672 609,511 920,394 575,134 8.7 6.3 9.5 6.0

Dutchess County-Putnam County

190,450 185,963 191,685 184,593 10,178 7,212 10,192 6,318 5.3 3.9 5.3 3.4

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,446,954 1,427,576 1,458,193 1,422,004 86,005 56,219 84,869 49,768 5.9 3.9 5.8 3.5

Newark(3)

1,194,446 1,207,465 1,222,219 1,204,656 86,234 66,461 119,363 64,628 7.2 5.5 9.8 5.4

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,738,855 6,863,497 6,807,311 6,834,104 652,255 479,619 705,970 454,420 9.7 7.0 10.4 6.6

Pennsylvania

6,316,802 6,272,447 6,303,477 6,219,017 403,395 307,464 408,218 266,786 6.4 4.9 6.5 4.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,058,858 3,066,135 3,068,315 3,055,401 207,026 155,989 223,579 139,509 6.8 5.1 7.3 4.6

Camden(3)

622,769 641,189 639,447 643,777 40,550 33,009 57,296 32,281 6.5 5.1 9.0 5.0

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,059,623 1,058,644 1,052,321 1,050,562 54,975 40,645 53,699 34,203 5.2 3.8 5.1 3.3

Philadelphia

1,000,421 982,842 997,203 975,398 91,329 64,547 91,424 57,222 9.1 6.6 9.2 5.9

Wilmington(3)

376,045 383,460 379,344 385,664 20,172 17,788 21,160 15,803 5.4 4.6 5.6 4.1

Texas

14,186,427 14,315,600 14,050,100 14,430,417 976,056 681,119 973,462 655,155 6.9 4.8 6.9 4.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,064,538 4,138,885 4,033,726 4,192,726 251,614 173,777 250,161 165,463 6.2 4.2 6.2 3.9

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,739,702 2,797,438 2,717,286 2,831,518 168,218 116,061 166,885 110,765 6.1 4.1 6.1 3.9

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,324,836 1,341,447 1,316,440 1,361,208 83,396 57,716 83,276 54,698 6.3 4.3 6.3 4.0

Washington

3,978,552 3,941,774 3,857,075 3,934,786 250,226 173,498 249,679 134,307 6.3 4.4 6.5 3.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,189,034 2,185,991 2,172,706 2,175,457 142,766 100,568 136,941 70,373 6.5 4.6 6.3 3.2

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,724,314 1,743,161 1,735,724 1,727,269 111,281 80,452 105,081 53,190 6.5 4.6 6.1 3.1

Tacoma-Lakewood

464,720 442,830 436,982 448,188 31,485 20,116 31,860 17,183 6.8 4.5 7.3 3.8

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area October November Change from
November 2020 to November 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,007.2 2,069.6 2,022.8 2,071.1 48.3 2.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45.5 46.5 46.1 46.8 0.7 1.5

Auburn-Opelika

66.4 67.7 66.9 68.3 1.4 2.1

Birmingham-Hoover

523.7 547.2 529.3 550.5 21.2 4.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

75.5 83.4 75.9 83.1 7.2 9.5

Decatur

57.1 58.1 57.3 58.5 1.2 2.1

Dothan

58.6 60.0 58.5 60.5 2.0 3.4

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.1 56.6 56.0 57.5 1.5 2.7

Gadsden

33.9 34.1 34.3 34.7 0.4 1.2

Huntsville

244.8 253.0 246.0 253.1 7.1 2.9

Mobile

181.3 183.3 181.3 184.8 3.5 1.9

Montgomery

169.7 171.5 171.2 172.6 1.4 0.8

Tuscaloosa

105.7 107.4 105.7 107.7 2.0 1.9


Alaska

299.3 305.1 291.7 297.1 5.4 1.9

Anchorage

164.3 166.2 162.3 164.6 2.3 1.4<