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U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                      USDL-19-0076
8:30 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, January 16, 2019

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Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                              U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - DECEMBER 2018                              

Prices for U.S. imports decreased 1.0 percent in December, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today, after a 1.9-percent fall the previous month. Lower fuel prices drove the decline in December, and 
nonfuel prices recorded no change. U.S. export prices fell 0.6 percent in December following a 0.8-percent 
drop in November.

Imports

U.S. import prices declined 1.0 percent in December, after decreasing 1.9 percent in November and rising 
0.5 percent in October. The November drop was the largest monthly decline since the index fell 3.2 percent 
in January 2015. Prices for imports decreased 0.6 percent in 2018 following a 3.2-percent increase the 
previous year. The decline in 2018 was the first calendar-year drop since import prices fell 8.3 percent in 
2015. (See table 1.)

Fuel Imports: Prices for import fuel declined 9.2 percent in December, after a 13.3-percent drop the 
previous month. The December decrease was driven by an 11.6-percent decline in petroleum prices which 
more than offset a 30.3-percent advance in natural gas prices. Import fuel prices fell 10.4 percent in 2018 
following a 21.8-percent increase the previous year. The 2018 decline is the first calendar-year decrease 
since 2015, when import fuel prices fell 41.0 percent. In 2018, a 14.0-percent drop in petroleum prices more 
than offset a 67.6-percent increase in prices for natural gas.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: Prices for nonfuel imports recorded no change in December, after declining 
0.3 percent in November. Higher prices for consumer goods; automotive vehicles; and foods, feeds, and 
beverages offset price declines for capital goods and nonfuel industrial supplies and materials. Nonfuel 
import prices advanced 0.5 percent in 2018 following a 1.3-percent rise in 2017. The price index for nonfuel 
imports has not recorded a calendar-year decline since a 3.4-percent drop in 2015. In 2018, higher prices for 
nonfuel industrial supplies and materials; consumer goods; and automotive vehicles drove the increase in 
nonfuel import prices.

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Prices for nonfuel industrial supplies and materials edged down 
0.1 percent in December, after falling 0.2 percent the previous month. A 0.9-percent decline in prices for 
chemicals drove the December decrease.
	
Finished Goods: Finished goods prices were mostly up in December. Prices for consumer goods and 
automotive vehicles each ticked up 0.1 percent. In contrast, capital goods prices edged down 0.1 percent.

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Foods, feeds, and beverages prices rose 0.1 percent in December, after 
declining 2.2 percent the previous month. The December increase was led by a 10.9-percent advance in 
vegetable prices.

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2017

December

0.2 3.3 -0.2 0.1 -0.3 0.0

2018

January

0.8 3.3 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.8

February

0.2 -1.8 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2

March

-0.2 -2.6 0.1 0.4 3.2 0.1

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

0.0 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 0.3

July

-0.1 0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -5.2 0.1

August

-0.4 -2.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.2

September

(r)0.1 (r)0.0 0.0 0.0 (r)-1.3 0.2

October

0.5 3.2 0.1 0.5 (r)-0.1 0.5

November

(r)-1.9 (r)-13.3 -0.3 (r)-0.8 (r)1.7 -1.0

December

-1.0 -9.2 0.0 -0.6 3.9 -1.1

Dec. 2016 to 2017

3.2 21.8 1.3 2.8 1.9 2.8

Dec. 2017 to 2018

-0.6 -10.4 0.5 1.1 2.5 1.0

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports 

U.S. export prices fell 0.6 percent in December following a 0.8-percent decrease in November. 
Nonagricultural prices declined in December, more than offsetting higher prices for agricultural goods. 
Despite the December downturn, U.S. export prices increased 1.1 percent in 2018. The price index for U.S. 
exports has not recorded a calendar-year decrease since falling 6.6 percent in 2015. (See table 2.)

Agricultural Exports: Prices for agricultural exports advanced 3.9 percent in December, the largest 
increase for the index since a 4.8-percent rise in August 2012. The December advance follows a 1.7-percent 
rise in November and a 0.1-percent drop in October. Price increases for soybeans and nuts contributed to the 
December advance, more than offsetting lower fruit prices. Agricultural export prices rose 2.5 percent in 
2018, after increasing 1.9 percent in 2017. The 2018 increase was the largest calendar-year advance since 
the price index for agricultural exports rose 13.4 percent in 2012.

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Prices for nonagricultural exports decreased 1.1 percent in December, 
after declining 1.0 percent in November and rising 0.5 percent in October. The December drop matched the 
decrease in December 2015; those were the largest monthly declines since the index fell 1.3 percent in 
August 2015. Lower prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials led the December decrease, 
more than offsetting rising consumer goods and automotive vehicles prices. Despite the December decline, 
nonagricultural export prices advanced 1.0 percent in 2018. 

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: The price index for nonagricultural industrial supplies 
and materials decreased 3.4 percent in December, the largest monthly decline since falling 3.7-percent in 
August 2015. An 8.4-percent drop in prices for export fuel drove the December decline.

Finished Goods: Finished goods prices mostly rose in December. The price indexes for consumer goods and 
automotive vehicles each ticked up 0.1 percent. Export capital goods prices recorded no change in 
December following a 0.1-percent drop in November. In 2018, automotive vehicles export prices rose 0.9 
percent, the largest calendar-year increase since advancing 2.6 percent in 2011.

Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: The price index for imports from China recorded no change in December. 
Prices for imports from China decreased 0.2 percent in 2018 and have not risen on a calendar-year basis 
since advancing 3.6 percent in 2011. Import prices from Japan edged down 0.1 percent for the second 
consecutive month in December. Despite the monthly decreases, prices for imports from Japan rose 1.0 
percent in 2018. Prices for imports from Canada declined 1.5 percent in December and fell 6.1 percent in 
2018, the largest calendar-year drop since a 15.1-percent decrease in 2015. The price index for imports from 
Mexico declined 0.5 percent in December and prices for imports from the European Union fell 0.1 percent 
over the same period. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: Export prices to China decreased 0.3 percent in December following a 
0.1-percent drop the previous month. The price index for exports to China declined 1.5 percent in 2018. 
Prices for exports to Japan fell 0.2 percent in December, after recording no change in November and rising 
0.2 percent in October. In 2018, export prices to Japan rose 0.5 percent. Prices for exports to Canada 
increased 2.2 percent in December, and advanced 7.3 percent in 2018. The price index for exports to 
Mexico fell 0.9 percent in December. Despite the monthly decrease, export prices to Mexico increased 1.6 
percent in 2018. Prices for exports to the European Union declined 0.7 percent in December, after rising in 
each of the previous 3 months. The December drop was the largest 1-month decrease for export prices to the 
European Union since the index was first published in December 2017. In 2018, export prices to the 
European Union advanced 3.2 percent. (See table 8.)

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on country, region, or grouping and measure 
the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The index for U.S. terms of trade with 
China decreased 0.3 percent in December, driven by decreasing export prices to China. Overall, the U.S. 
terms of trade with China declined 1.3 percent in 2018. The U.S. terms of trade with Japan edged down 0.1 
percent in December following 0.1-percent increases the previous 2 months. In 2018, the index for U.S. 
terms of trade with Japan fell 0.5 percent. The U.S. terms of trade with Canada rose 3.8 percent in 
December, and increased 14.3 percent in 2018. The index for U.S. terms of trade with the European Union 
declined 0.6 percent in December and the U.S. terms of trade with Mexico fell 0.4 percent. Despite the 
monthly decreases, the U.S. terms of trade with the European Union and Mexico each advanced 1.8 percent 
in 2018. (See table 9.)

Import and Export Services

Imports: The index for import air passenger fares rose 7.6 percent in December following increases of 0.7 
percent in November and October. Higher Asian and Latin American/Caribbean fares drove the rise in 
December. Import air passenger fares advanced 1.8 percent in 2018, after increasing 4.2 percent in 2017. 
Prices for import air freight decreased 2.7 percent in December following a 0.7-percent advance the 
previous month. The index for import air freight prices rose 4.1 percent in 2018 and has not recorded a 
calendar-year decrease since falling 3.1 percent in 2015. (See table 10.)

Exports: Export air passenger fares advanced 1.4 percent in December, after edging up 0.1 percent the 
previous month. Higher Asian and European fares contributed to the monthly increase. The index for export 
air passenger fares fell 5.0 percent in 2018 following a 5.8-percent drop in 2017. Prices for export air freight 
declined for the second consecutive month in December, edging down 0.1 percent. Despite the monthly 
decrease, export air freight prices rose 3.4 percent in 2018, the largest calendar-year increase since a 5.8-
percent advance in 2014.
		
Import and Export Price Index data for January are scheduled for release on Friday, February 15, 2019 at 
8:30 a.m. (EST).


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 125.9 124.7 -0.6 0.1 0.5 -1.9 -1.0

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  83.398 100.1 100.1 0.6 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

All imports excluding petroleum

  90.176 113.4 113.7 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.3

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  89.454 117.2 117.2 0.5 0.0 0.1 -0.3 0.0

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

6.056 179.5 179.6 -0.8 2.0 2.1 -2.2 0.1

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.740 196.3 197.2 -1.0 2.4 2.7 -2.8 0.5

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.316 142.0 139.9 0.0 0.8 -0.1 0.0 -1.5

Industrial supplies & materials

1

24.936 187.5 180.1 -3.1 -0.3 1.5 -6.2 -3.9

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  15.351 159.1 161.5 5.1 -0.4 0.4 1.4 1.5

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  14.378 178.3 178.2 2.6 -0.4 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  9.014 167.1 167.4 1.9 -0.9 -0.4 -0.5 0.2

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  6.099 149.1 154.2 9.9 0.1 1.9 4.1 3.4

Fuels & lubricants

10

10.546 203.4 184.7 -10.4 0.0 3.2 -13.3 -9.2

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

9.824 217.3 192.2 -14.0 0.0 2.9 -16.0 -11.6

Crude

10000

6.692 216.6 186.6 -19.4 0.1 2.7 -20.1 -13.9

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.723 138.9 171.6 50.4 -1.1 12.8 41.7 23.5

Gas-natural

10110

0.568 127.6 166.3 67.6 -1.6 17.9 60.1 30.3

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.609 123.6 124.9 13.9 0.3 0.5 0.2 1.1

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.829 164.2 163.2 2.6 0.2 0.9 0.1 -0.6

Selected building materials

13

1.546 143.9 144.4 -4.6 -1.7 -4.8 -1.0 0.3

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.879 231.9 233.3 4.4 -1.4 1.3 -0.7 0.6

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.812 160.4 159.6 1.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.5

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.714 114.3 113.9 3.2 0.3 -0.5 0.2 -0.3

Capital goods

2

26.813 89.2 89.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Electric generating equipment

20

3.269 118.0 118.0 0.9 0.0 -0.2 0.1 0.0

Nonelectrical machinery

21

21.296 81.6 81.5 -0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.248 134.6 134.7 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.917 110.4 110.5 0.3 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

26.278 107.2 107.3 0.6 0.0 -0.3 0.0 0.1

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.951 123.0 123.0 1.3 0.0 -0.3 -0.2 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

12.018 92.4 92.4 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.309 115.6 117.7 2.5 0.3 -0.2 0.4 1.8

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 126.9 126.1 1.1 0.0 0.5 -0.8 -0.6

Agricultural commodities

  9.656 176.0 182.9 2.5 -1.3 -0.1 1.7 3.9

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.874 101.5 101.3 1.2 -0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.2

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.344 123.1 121.7 1.0 0.2 0.5 -1.0 -1.1

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

9.083 178.6 185.5 2.8 -1.3 0.2 1.9 3.9

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.441 176.6 183.9 2.6 -1.4 0.2 2.0 4.1

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.642 217.1 215.5 5.2 1.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.7

Industrial supplies & materials

1

31.726 161.2 156.1 1.0 0.2 1.4 -2.8 -3.2

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.226 163.0 162.8 0.4 -0.6 0.0 0.5 -0.1

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  21.500 160.6 153.2 1.3 0.6 2.1 -4.3 -4.6

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.214 178.0 181.8 1.6 0.1 -2.4 -0.1 2.1

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  30.512 160.7 155.3 1.0 0.3 1.5 -2.9 -3.4

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.043 200.1 183.3 -0.7 1.4 4.1 -8.6 -8.4

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.471 159.7 158.2 1.9 -0.3 0.3 0.2 -0.9

Selected building materials

13

0.998 121.2 120.8 -2.3 -0.5 -1.1 -0.4 -0.3

Capital goods

2

36.627 110.0 110.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.892 116.9 117.0 0.9 -0.3 -0.5 -0.1 0.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.545 94.9 94.8 0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

9.190 177.2 177.6 3.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.080 114.1 114.2 0.9 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.484 109.7 109.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Nondurables, manufactured

40

6.085 106.6 106.4 0.6 0.1 0.3 -0.2 -0.2

Durables, manufactured

41

4.963 107.3 107.4 -0.3 -0.1 -0.3 0.1 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: December 2017 to December 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  9.368 106.5 98.4 -11.1 1.1 3.8 -14.0 -7.6

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.985 179.8 182.9 -1.0 5.9 6.2 -5.2 1.7

Crop production

111

1.602 192.3 197.0 -0.9 7.5 7.5 -6.3 2.4

Animal production (Dec. 2014=100)

112

0.193 77.4 76.6 0.0 -0.5 3.0 -1.5 -1.0

Mining

21

7.383 98.5 88.6 -13.7 0.1 3.3 -16.2 -10.1

Oil and gas extraction

211

7.140 98.3 88.1 -14.4 0.1 3.3 -16.6 -10.4

Manufacturing

  90.349 112.0 111.7 0.6 -0.1 0.1 -0.3 -0.3

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.391 124.8 124.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.2

Food manufacturing

311

3.396 155.0 154.4 -1.1 0.3 0.0 -0.4 -0.4

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.114 122.1 122.1 2.3 -0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.385 99.9 100.2 0.0 0.2 -0.1 -0.2 0.3

Textile product mills

314

0.924 109.1 109.1 -0.1 -0.6 0.0 0.1 0.0

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.892 111.8 111.8 0.9 0.3 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.680 122.9 123.0 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.1

Manufacturing, part 2

32

18.613 128.0 126.4 1.8 -0.2 0.1 -1.0 -1.3

Wood product manufacturing

321

0.908 121.1 121.8 -9.0 -2.5 -7.6 -3.0 0.6

Paper manufacturing

322

1.095 115.7 116.4 9.6 0.0 0.3 -0.4 0.6

Printing and related support activities (Dec. 2016=100)

323

0.220 104.9 104.9 6.1 1.0 0.0 -1.4 0.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.813 101.8 95.4 0.7 -0.4 3.1 -5.6 -6.3

Chemical manufacturing

325

10.349 141.7 141.0 2.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 -0.5

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.228 120.3 120.1 1.5 -0.1 0.2 0.5 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

1.000 130.9 130.8 1.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 3

33

60.346 104.4 104.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.2 0.1

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.440 154.5 155.5 4.8 -1.0 1.2 -0.6 0.6

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.116 127.2 126.8 0.6 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -0.3

Machinery manufacturing

333

6.820 118.5 118.6 0.8 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

16.965 74.7 74.5 -1.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

4.956 116.3 116.4 1.0 -0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.889 109.5 109.6 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.794 117.4 117.4 1.4 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.365 118.6 118.9 1.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: December 2017 to December 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  8.217 135.7 140.6 1.7 -0.8 -0.2 -1.0 3.6

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.895 149.0 158.1 3.1 -2.9 -0.3 2.6 6.1

Crop production

111

4.543 155.7 166.1 4.5 -3.2 -0.1 3.1 6.7

Mining

21

3.322 91.4 91.4 -0.3 2.2 0.0 -6.1 0.0

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.172 116.0 116.2 7.2 0.7 0.4 1.6 0.2

Manufacturing

  90.255 117.1 115.8 1.3 0.1 0.5 -0.8 -1.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.906 139.8 140.6 0.9 0.4 -0.2 0.2 0.6

Food manufacturing

311

4.684 156.6 157.2 -0.6 0.1 -0.2 0.3 0.4

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.700 122.0 125.9 9.3 2.8 -0.6 -0.2 3.2

Textile mills (Dec. 2016=100)

313

0.642 104.7 104.5 2.8 -0.4 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2

Leather and allied product manufacturing (Dec. 2016=100)

316

0.257 93.1 92.9 -4.5 0.2 -0.1 0.1 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 2

32

25.673 118.6 113.9 1.3 0.3 1.8 -2.9 -4.0

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.531 101.8 101.8 1.8 -0.7 -1.4 0.5 0.0

Paper manufacturing

322

1.730 132.9 133.8 7.6 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.7

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

6.716 118.8 103.7 -1.9 1.1 5.8 -9.7 -12.7

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.390 120.2 118.8 2.1 0.0 0.4 -0.3 -1.2

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.234 115.7 115.8 1.6 -0.3 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.829 116.8 116.6 1.8 0.0 -0.4 0.4 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.676 114.1 114.2 1.4 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1

Primary metal manufacturing

331

3.854 142.7 143.6 2.8 -0.1 0.0 0.7 0.6

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.093 143.1 143.2 4.1 0.1 0.6 0.8 0.1

Machinery manufacturing

333

9.007 128.1 128.2 2.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

13.930 83.0 82.8 -0.6 0.1 -0.5 0.0 -0.2

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.859 117.9 117.8 1.8 -0.1 -0.3 0.0 -0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

18.173 127.2 127.4 2.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.405 120.7 120.7 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.355 120.3 120.7 0.8 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.378 193.6 192.1 0.4 -0.2 0.5 -0.3 -0.8

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.363 239.3 243.7 -0.9 -2.1 -0.4 -0.2 1.8

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.714 141.5 138.5 0.1 1.9 0.3 -0.5 -2.1

Vegetable products

II

1.962 212.2 216.5 -1.9 6.7 7.2 -6.1 2.0

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.475 503.3 572.0 13.3 5.9 43.8 -8.9 13.6

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.744 117.2 112.3 -12.6 14.7 -2.4 -11.3 -4.2

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.317 208.8 203.2 -6.4 -3.6 1.5 2.1 -2.7

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.244 92.2 89.8 -22.8 -0.2 -2.3 -3.4 -2.6

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.818 165.8 165.6 2.2 0.2 -0.3 0.1 -0.1

Sugars and sugar confectionary (Dec. 2012=100)

17

0.198 88.5 87.9 1.6 0.7 -0.2 0.7 -0.7

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.204 97.2 96.8 2.5 2.0 -1.7 0.5 -0.4

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.380 174.9 175.2 3.0 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.2

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.209 103.0 103.0 3.0 0.0 -0.3 0.0 0.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.055 132.4 132.3 2.4 0.0 0.2 0.1 -0.1

Mineral products

V

10.367 203.4 185.2 -9.7 -0.1 3.1 -13.4 -8.9

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

10.098 200.8 182.4 -10.2 -0.1 3.2 -13.7 -9.2

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

9.675 159.4 158.8 2.8 0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.4

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.687 344.3 348.9 15.8 3.6 2.4 2.9 1.3

Organic chemicals

29

2.428 131.3 128.9 -0.1 0.2 -1.0 -0.7 -1.8

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.517 151.9 151.8 2.4 -0.3 -0.7 -0.1 -0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.303 93.2 93.8 17.0 -0.5 9.8 1.6 0.6

Tanning extracts; dye, pigments, varnish, paints & putty (Dec. 2011=100)

32

0.183 106.2 106.0 -0.3 -1.2 -0.2 -0.5 -0.2

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.587 103.5 103.1 0.8 0.3 0.3 -0.2 -0.4

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.643 106.7 106.3 0.5 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.4

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.456 141.9 141.2 0.6 -0.2 0.2 0.2 -0.5

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.295 146.2 145.3 1.8 -0.1 0.3 0.6 -0.6

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.161 135.7 135.1 -1.6 -0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.639 125.0 125.1 0.7 -0.6 0.0 0.1 0.1

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.606 131.0 131.2 1.3 -0.4 0.0 0.1 0.2

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

0.940 148.0 148.7 -8.6 -2.3 -7.5 -3.0 0.5

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (Dec. 2014=100)

44

0.917 101.9 102.4 -8.8 -2.3 -7.6 -3.0 0.5

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.148 121.4 122.1 9.6 0.0 0.2 -0.2 0.6

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.750 111.5 111.8 8.4 -0.4 0.5 -0.1 0.3

Printed matter (Dec. 2015=100)

49

0.215 110.2 110.1 5.0 0.1 -0.6 -0.9 -0.1

Textile and textile articles

XI

5.046 114.3 114.3 0.8 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

2.030 104.4 104.3 0.8 0.4 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.720 120.2 120.2 1.3 0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.643 104.0 103.5 -0.6 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.5

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.389 122.1 122.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.1

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.161 120.8 120.8 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2 -0.2 0.0

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.933 131.8 131.6 0.5 0.2 0.0 -0.3 -0.2

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.332 98.4 97.9 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -1.3 -0.5

Ceramic products

69

0.260 136.1 136.1 -0.4 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.0

Glass and glassware

70

0.341 132.4 132.5 1.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

3.037 170.6 172.5 0.9 -0.7 0.8 1.1 1.1

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.611 179.1 178.8 2.9 -0.7 0.5 -0.9 -0.2

Iron and steel

72

1.369 229.3 229.5 13.0 0.0 0.1 -0.6 0.1

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.609 151.4 150.5 0.9 -0.1 -0.6 -0.1 -0.6

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.394 282.3 283.2 -3.4 -3.1 5.6 -1.3 0.3

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.929 135.5 135.1 -0.4 -0.9 0.7 -2.6 -0.3

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.425 124.0 124.1 1.9 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.518 136.8 136.7 -0.9 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.959 80.3 80.2 -0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

14.193 86.6 86.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

14.765 74.3 74.2 -0.9 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.075 114.2 114.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.873 113.3 113.3 0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.112 115.1 115.1 -0.9 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.871 102.4 102.3 0.8 0.0 0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.581 98.9 98.9 0.8 -0.1 0.4 -0.2 0.0

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.229 141.8 141.3 -2.1 0.4 0.8 -1.1 -0.4

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.361 112.9 112.9 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.744 118.6 118.6 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.330 103.4 103.5 1.9 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.287 130.0 130.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.931 208.2 208.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.136 160.7 161.5 -3.0 -1.1 0.1 -0.1 0.5

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.425 120.2 119.3 5.8 0.9 0.2 0.6 -0.7

Dairy products, eggs and honey (Dec. 2017=100)

04

0.295 107.8 107.0 7.0 3.8 1.6 -0.7 -0.7

Vegetable products

II

4.602 190.5 206.3 6.9 -2.5 0.4 3.4 8.3

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.852 137.3 136.1 -6.8 0.2 -1.5 6.3 -0.9

Cereals

10

1.422 192.4 194.7 7.7 -3.2 0.2 0.8 1.2

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.726 183.1 188.7 -7.6 -6.9 0.2 2.2 3.1

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.081 151.9 152.3 2.1 0.2 -0.1 0.5 0.3

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants (Dec. 2009=100)

20

0.343 116.7 117.0 -0.2 -0.5 0.0 0.4 0.3

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.563 96.5 96.6 -3.4 0.3 -0.2 -1.1 0.1

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.512 105.1 104.3 -1.9 -2.7 0.3 -1.3 -0.8

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.737 219.0 224.7 10.7 1.1 -1.9 3.4 2.6

Mineral products

V

10.383 239.7 220.1 -0.9 1.4 3.8 -8.2 -8.2

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.487 96.4 97.0 -8.1 -2.4 0.0 1.0 0.6

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.715 231.9 211.7 -0.6 1.6 4.1 -8.8 -8.7

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.835 139.7 138.4 1.5 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.9

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.651 146.6 144.8 -11.0 -0.7 -2.9 -0.7 -1.2

Organic chemicals

29

2.641 150.1 144.9 6.2 0.8 0.9 -0.5 -3.5

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.192 106.4 106.1 0.6 -0.1 0.2 -0.3 -0.3

Fertilizers (Dec. 2016=100)

31

0.284 132.7 132.9 23.3 3.9 2.7 1.2 0.2

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.523 100.6 101.1 -0.3 -0.2 0.1 -1.9 0.5

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.809 130.7 130.8 -1.5 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.1

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.502 122.0 122.3 0.1 -0.1 1.4 0.4 0.2

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.849 155.8 155.9 3.9 0.1 0.4 0.7 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.196 144.8 143.6 3.0 -0.1 0.4 -0.6 -0.8

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.318 141.5 140.5 3.4 -0.1 0.5 -0.5 -0.7

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.878 157.2 155.4 1.5 -0.1 0.1 -1.4 -1.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.643 99.8 99.2 -5.0 -1.4 -2.3 -0.7 -0.6

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

2.163 138.0 135.2 5.4 -0.9 2.8 0.6 -2.0

Woodpulp and recovered paper

47

0.713 155.2 143.9 5.7 -2.3 8.1 1.6 -7.3

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.112 130.2 131.1 6.0 -0.2 0.3 0.2 0.7

Printed material (Dec. 2014=100)

49

0.338 108.4 108.4 3.1 -0.2 0.5 0.0 0.0

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.683 124.7 124.9 3.5 -0.2 -1.0 0.0 0.2

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.440 130.5 131.6 2.7 -3.7 -4.2 0.9 0.8

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.808 124.8 124.7 1.1 0.2 0.0 0.4 -0.1

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.274 103.8 103.7 2.4 0.5 0.0 1.2 -0.1

Glass and glassware

70

0.410 99.2 99.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

3.999 234.1 236.8 0.8 -0.7 0.7 0.9 1.2

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.904 160.5 159.7 1.8 -0.2 -0.1 0.6 -0.5

Iron and steel

72

1.111 178.5 177.1 9.5 1.7 0.0 -0.1 -0.8

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.518 182.5 183.5 -6.9 -3.4 2.4 -0.8 0.5

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.893 111.0 108.4 -8.2 -1.6 -1.2 0.2 -2.3

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal (Dec. 2015=100)

82

0.316 100.0 100.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.344 152.9 152.9 3.2 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

27.556 97.6 97.5 0.7 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.845 115.3 115.2 1.4 0.0 0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.711 78.6 78.5 0.0 0.0 -0.5 0.0 -0.1

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.325 135.7 135.9 1.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.292 116.4 116.4 1.1 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.930 109.0 108.9 0.9 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.399 112.8 112.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.820 129.9 129.9 1.2 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.417 87.5 87.5 -0.7 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 121.5 120.8 -1.3 -0.7 0.2 -2.5 -0.6

Nonmanufacturing

7.173 122.7 119.2 -23.6 -6.0 1.4 -22.1 -2.9

Manufacturing

92.287 120.7 120.2 0.8 -0.2 0.1 -0.6 -0.4

Canada

100.000 125.3 123.4 -6.1 -1.9 0.5 -6.4 -1.5

Nonmanufacturing

19.653 114.9 111.5 -25.4 -6.5 1.5 -23.3 -3.0

Manufacturing

79.386 131.7 130.1 0.1 -0.4 0.2 -1.2 -1.2

European Union

100.000 136.6 136.5 1.4 -0.1 0.1 -0.4 -0.1

Manufacturing

98.939 133.1 132.9 1.3 -0.1 0.1 -0.4 -0.2

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.5 127.0 0.8 -0.2 0.2 -0.9 -0.4

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 111.8 111.9 -2.8 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.1

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 120.5 120.1 0.8 -0.2 0.7 -1.5 -0.3

Latin America(3)

100.000 151.7 148.7 -0.1 1.1 1.2 -1.7 -2.0

Nonmanufacturing

19.730 278.9 255.7 -0.2 5.8 5.7 -8.4 -8.3

Manufacturing

80.001 122.3 121.8 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.4

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 129.4 128.8 -0.2 0.9 0.7 -0.9 -0.5

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

9.921 152.4 147.3 7.8 11.2 6.6 -9.2 -3.3

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

89.827 88.1 88.0 -0.9 -0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 98.9 98.8 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 99.9 99.9 -0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.1 0.0

Japan

100.000 96.6 96.5 1.0 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 88.9 88.4 0.9 -0.2 0.2 -0.1 -0.6

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 98.0 97.6 -0.6 -0.1 -0.4 -0.3 -0.4

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 186.3 169.7 -2.8 3.1 2.3 -8.0 -8.9

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: December 2017 to December 2018 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 102.5 103.4 3.4 0.2 0.1 -0.2 0.9

Nonmanufacturing

6.690 102.4 122.0 22.0 1.7 -1.7 2.8 19.1

Manufacturing

92.104 102.6 102.2 2.2 0.1 0.2 -0.4 -0.4

Canada

100.000 105.0 107.3 7.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 2.2

European Union

100.000 103.9 103.2 3.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 -0.7

Nonmanufacturing

4.851 100.9 103.3 3.3 -0.1 -2.9 2.2 2.4

Manufacturing

94.350 104.1 103.3 3.3 0.1 0.5 0.0 -0.8

Germany

100.000 101.2 101.4 1.4 -0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2

Latin America(3)

100.000 103.6 101.7 1.7 0.2 1.3 -1.5 -1.8

Nonmanufacturing

6.637 108.3 115.5 15.5 -0.9 2.1 1.2 6.6

Manufacturing

93.075 103.2 100.7 0.7 0.4 1.1 -1.7 -2.4

Mexico

100.000 102.5 101.6 1.6 0.0 1.1 -1.3 -0.9

Nonmanufacturing

6.385 106.3 115.5 15.5 -0.9 1.6 1.5 8.7

Manufacturing

93.251 102.3 100.6 0.6 0.1 1.0 -1.4 -1.7

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 100.1 100.1 0.1 -0.7 0.2 0.2 0.0

Nonmanufacturing

11.386 91.8 95.6 -4.4 -4.7 -2.1 1.7 4.1

Manufacturing

86.192 101.2 101.0 1.0 0.0 0.4 -0.1 -0.2

China

100.000 98.8 98.5 -1.5 -1.7 0.8 -0.1 -0.3

Nonmanufacturing

18.086 91.8 94.5 -5.5 -6.4 0.6 2.3 2.9

Manufacturing

77.233 100.2 99.8 -0.2 -0.2 0.4 -0.8 -0.4

Japan

100.000 100.7 100.5 0.5 -0.3 0.2 0.0 -0.2

Nonmanufacturing

15.039 100.2 101.3 1.3 -1.6 0.4 1.2 1.1

Manufacturing

83.978 100.7 100.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 -0.3 -0.4

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: December 2017 to December 2018(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

103.3 104.8 4.8 1.0 -0.1 2.4 1.5

Canada

110.1 114.3 14.3 2.3 -0.1 7.2 3.8

European Union

102.4 101.8 1.8 0.3 0.2 0.6 -0.6

Germany

104.2 104.3 4.3 -0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1

Latin America(3)

101.7 101.8 1.8 -0.9 0.1 0.2 0.1

Mexico

102.2 101.8 1.8 -0.9 0.4 -0.3 -0.4

Pacific Rim(4)

99.6 99.7 -0.3 -0.6 0.3 0.3 0.1

China

99.0 98.7 -1.3 -1.7 1.0 0.0 -0.3

Japan

99.6 99.5 -0.5 -0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: December 2017 to December 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2017
to
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2018
to
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 194.7 189.4 4.1 0.8 2.4 0.7 -2.7

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

23.252 149.2 147.9 2.7 -1.1 3.2 -0.8 -0.9

Asia

65.140 191.9 184.0 4.8 1.8 2.6 1.5 -4.1

Export Air Freight

100.000 164.9 164.7 3.4 0.4 0.6 -0.2 -0.1

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

32.607 148.1 149.0 0.9 0.8 0.1 -0.9 0.6

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 177.1 174.7 4.2 1.1 1.7 0.9 -1.4

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

25.074 137.0 135.6 3.0 -0.1 1.4 -0.4 -1.0

Asia

60.318 171.1 167.5 2.5 1.9 2.2 1.8 -2.1

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 146.4 145.8 3.5 -2.8 -0.6 1.5 -0.4

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

32.736 149.4 148.9 2.9 0.6 0.5 -0.2 -0.3

Asia

44.146 144.9 145.1 6.3 -6.7 -1.8 3.3 0.1

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 183.5 197.5 1.8 10.7 0.7 0.7 7.6

Europe

44.943 222.2 219.7 1.3 20.3 2.8 2.2 -1.1

Asia

22.077 132.1 157.3 3.5 -0.6 0.7 -0.8 19.1

Latin America/Caribbean

9.337 161.0 177.8 -1.2 -5.5 1.7 6.3 10.4

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 148.7 150.8 -5.0 -2.8 -1.8 0.1 1.4

Europe

31.251 200.8 204.7 0.6 4.8 -0.2 1.3 1.9

Asia

26.392 128.1 133.3 -0.7 -7.1 -6.0 1.0 4.1

Latin America/Caribbean

23.568 152.7 147.9 -12.7 -5.5 -2.0 1.7 -3.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   
Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.


Last Modified Date: January 16, 2019