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U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                      USDL-19-0402
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 14, 2019

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Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                              U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - FEBRUARY 2019                              

Prices for U.S. imports advanced 0.6 percent in February, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today, after ticking up 0.1 percent in January and falling 1.4 percent in December. The February increase 
was led by higher fuel prices. U.S. export prices rose 0.6 percent in February following decreases of 0.5 
percent and 0.7 percent the previous 2 months.

Imports

U.S. import prices increased 0.6 percent in February, the largest monthly rise since a 0.9-percent advance in 
May. Despite the February increase, import prices declined 1.3 percent from February 2018 to February 
2019. Both fuel and nonfuel prices contributed to the 12-month decrease. (See table 1.) 

Fuel Imports: Prices for import fuel rose 4.9 percent in February, after advancing 4.1 percent in January 
and falling 13.3 percent in December. The February increase was the largest monthly advance since a 6.1-
percent rise in May. Higher prices for both petroleum and natural gas contributed to the February increase. 
Petroleum prices advanced 4.7 percent in February and prices for natural gas rose 10.5 percent over the 
same period. Despite the February increase, fuel prices fell 6.5 percent over the past 12 months. Prices for 
petroleum drove the 12-month decline, falling 7.9 percent. Natural gas prices partially offset the over-the-
year decline, rising 17.5 percent.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: Nonfuel import prices recorded no change in February following a 0.3-
percent decrease in January. Rising prices for consumer goods and nonfuel industrial supplies and materials 
offset declining prices for foods, feeds, and beverages and capital goods. Prices for automotive vehicles 
recorded no change. The price index for nonfuel imports declined 0.6 percent over the past 12 months, the 
largest over-the-year drop since September 2016. 

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices increased 0.3 
percent in February. Higher prices for lumber, copper, and nickel contributed to the February advance. 
	
Finished Goods: Import prices for finished goods were mixed in February. The price index for consumer 
goods rose 0.3 percent, driven by higher prices for medicinal, dental, and pharmaceutical materials. Capital 
goods prices edged down 0.1 percent and automotive vehicle prices recorded no change. 

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Prices for foods, feeds, and beverages fell 0.8 percent in February. The 
monthly drop was led by a 7.3-percent decline in vegetable prices. A 2.1-percent rise in meat prices partially 
offset the decrease in foods, feeds, and beverages prices.

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2018

February

0.2 -1.8 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2

March

-0.2 -2.6 0.1 0.4 3.2 0.1

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

0.0 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 0.3

July

-0.1 0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -5.2 0.1

August

-0.4 -2.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.2

September

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.3 0.2

October

0.5 3.3 0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.5

November

(r)-1.6 (r)-12.2 (r)-0.2 -0.8 1.7 -1.0

December

(r)-1.4 (r)-13.3 0.0 (r)-0.7 (r)3.7 -1.1

2019

January

(r)0.1 (r)4.1 (r)-0.3 (r)-0.5 -2.1 -0.3

February

0.6 4.9 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.7

Feb. 2017 to 2018

3.3 16.0 2.0 3.1 0.7 3.4

Feb. 2018 to 2019

-1.3 -6.5 -0.6 0.3 -0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports 

U.S. export prices rose 0.6 percent in February following a 0.5-percent decline in January and a 0.7-percent 
drop in December. Higher prices for both agricultural and nonagricultural commodities contributed to the 
February increase. The price index for U.S. exports advanced 0.3 percent over the past 12 months driven by 
higher nonagricultural prices. (See table 2.)

Agricultural Exports: Export prices for agricultural commodities rose 0.3 percent in February, after falling 
2.1 percent in January. Despite the February advance, overall agricultural prices fell 0.2 percent over the 
past 12 months. Lower prices for soybeans, meat, and nuts drove the 12-month decline.

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Nonagricultural export prices increased 0.7 percent in February, the 
largest monthly rise since April 2018. Higher prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials led 
the February increase, with rising prices for each of the finished goods categories contributing to the 
advance. The price index for nonagricultural exports increased 0.3 percent for the year ended in February 
following a 0.2-percent decline for the 12-month period ended in January. The 12-month rise in February 
was driven mostly by higher prices for capital goods, offsetting lower prices for nonagricultural industrial 
supplies and materials.

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials prices 
rose 1.6 percent in February, after recording a 1.4-percent decline in January. Higher prices for fuel led the 
February increase, with rising prices for gold contributing as well.

Finished Goods: Prices for finished goods were up in February. Capital goods prices rose 0.2 percent, 
primarily driven by higher prices for transportation equipment. Prices for export automotive vehicles 
increased 0.4 percent, the largest monthly advance since January 2018. In February, consumer goods prices 
rose 0.3 percent.

Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: Import prices from China recorded no change in February following a 0.3-
percent drop in January and a 0.1-percent decline in December. Prices for imports from China decreased 0.7 
percent for the year ended in February, the largest over-the-year drop since the index fell 0.8 percent in 
October 2017. The price index for imports from Japan ticked up 0.1 percent in February, after recording no 
change in January. Import prices from Canada rose 2.3 percent in February, and prices for imports from 
Mexico advanced 0.5 percent over the same period. The price index for imports from the European Union 
increased 0.4 percent in February following a 0.1-percent rise in January. The February advance was the 
largest monthly rise since the index increased 0.6 percent in April 2018. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: The price index for exports to China advanced 0.7 percent in February 
following a 0.1-percent drop the previous month. Higher prices for both manufactured and nonmanufactured 
exports contributed to the increase. Export prices to Japan rose 1.2 percent in February, the largest monthly 
increase since the index advanced 1.4 percent in February 2018. Prices for exports to Canada increased 0.4 
percent in February, after declining 2.7 percent the previous month. The price index for exports to Mexico 
rose 0.5 percent in February following a 1.4-percent decline in January. Export prices to the European 
Union increased 0.6 percent in February, the largest monthly rise since the index advanced 0.7 percent in 
April 2018. (See table 8.)

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on country, region, or grouping and measure 
the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The U.S. terms of trade with China rose 
0.7 percent in February, after rising 0.2 percent in January and falling 0.5 percent in December. In February, 
the U.S. terms of trade rose because export prices to China advanced and import prices from China recorded 
no change. The U.S. terms of trade with Japan increased 1.1 percent in February, the largest monthly rise 
since the index advanced 1.2 percent in February 2018. Higher export prices to Japan more than offset rising 
import prices from Japan in February. The U.S. terms of trade index with Canada declined 1.9 percent in 
February, after a 10.2-percent decrease in January and a 6.7-percent advance in December. The index for 
U.S. terms of trade with Mexico recorded no change in February, and the U.S. terms of trade with the 
European Union rose 0.2 percent for the second consecutive month. (See table 9.)

Import and Export Services

Imports: The price index for import air passenger fares decreased 2.0 percent in February following a 3.8-
percent decline in January. A 9.0-percent drop in Asian fares and a 1.7-percent fall in European fares 
contributed to the decrease in February. Import air passenger fares declined 1.7 percent over the past year. 
Import air freight prices fell 6.3 percent in February; the drop was the largest monthly decrease since the 
index was first published on a monthly basis in December 2005. Despite the recent drop, import air freight 
prices rose 1.2 percent over the past year. (See table 10.)

Exports: The index for export air passenger fares declined 8.9 percent in February, the largest monthly 
decrease since the index fell 11.6 percent in February 2017. The decline was led by a 13.6-percent drop in 
Asian fares and an 11.6-percent decrease in Latin American/Caribbean fares. Export air passenger fares 
decreased 4.0 percent from February 2018 to February 2019. Export air freight prices increased 0.4 percent 
in February, after ticking down 0.1 percent in both January and December. Export air freight prices 
advanced 3.8 percent over the past 12 months.  
		
Import and Export Price Index data for March are scheduled for release on Friday, April 12, 2019 at 8:30 a.m. 
(EDT).


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 124.5 125.2 -1.3 -1.6 -1.4 0.1 0.6

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  84.644 99.8 100.0 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.3 0.2

All imports excluding petroleum

  91.224 113.0 113.1 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.6 0.1

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  90.716 117.0 117.0 -0.6 -0.2 0.0 -0.3 0.0

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

6.073 179.7 178.2 -3.4 -1.6 0.2 -0.4 -0.8

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.732 197.0 194.9 -4.0 -2.0 0.6 -0.7 -1.1

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.341 140.5 140.6 -1.0 0.0 -1.5 0.4 0.1

Industrial supplies & materials

1

23.464 179.7 183.6 -3.2 -5.8 -5.7 1.1 2.2

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  14.896 156.3 157.5 0.1 1.5 0.8 -2.7 0.8

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  14.181 176.5 177.1 -0.7 -0.3 -0.1 -0.8 0.3

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  8.847 166.1 166.9 -1.6 -0.6 0.2 -0.7 0.5

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.841 144.4 145.9 2.6 4.5 1.7 -5.2 1.0

Fuels & lubricants

10

9.284 186.3 195.5 -6.5 -12.2 -13.3 4.1 4.9

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

8.776 199.7 209.1 -7.9 -14.9 -15.3 7.1 4.7

Crude

10000

6.120 199.4 212.4 -9.5 -18.6 -19.3 11.9 6.5

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.507 115.1 125.2 11.8 45.2 13.8 -30.1 8.8

Gas-natural

10110

0.410 101.0 111.6 17.5 62.4 18.4 -34.1 10.5

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.599 124.8 124.6 10.6 0.2 1.0 -0.1 -0.2

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.734 161.1 161.3 -0.3 0.1 -0.9 -0.9 0.1

Selected building materials

13

1.510 143.6 145.1 -5.0 -1.4 0.8 -0.6 1.0

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.754 229.5 232.3 -1.8 -0.7 0.5 -1.4 1.2

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.806 159.7 158.8 -1.5 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.6

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.777 113.9 113.6 2.5 0.2 -0.3 0.0 -0.3

Capital goods

2

28.289 89.1 89.0 -0.7 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Electric generating equipment

20

3.418 118.1 118.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

22.570 81.4 81.3 -0.9 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.301 135.8 135.9 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.8 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.880 110.3 110.3 -0.5 -0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

26.294 107.1 107.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.3 0.3

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.484 123.1 123.5 1.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.3

Durables, manufactured

41

12.537 92.0 91.9 -1.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.273 117.0 120.1 1.0 0.4 1.8 -0.6 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 125.4 126.2 0.3 -0.8 -0.7 -0.5 0.6

Agricultural commodities

  9.655 178.6 179.2 -0.2 1.7 3.7 -2.1 0.3

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.819 101.3 101.6 0.6 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.3

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.345 121.3 122.1 0.3 -1.0 -1.1 -0.3 0.7

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.946 181.4 181.9 0.4 1.8 3.7 -2.0 0.3

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.325 179.6 179.9 0.2 2.0 4.0 -2.1 0.2

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.621 216.2 220.2 3.5 0.3 -0.6 0.2 1.9

Industrial supplies & materials

1

32.074 153.7 156.1 -1.2 -2.9 -3.2 -1.4 1.6

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.246 163.5 165.1 -0.8 0.4 -0.1 0.4 1.0

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  21.828 149.5 152.3 -1.3 -4.4 -4.7 -2.2 1.9

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.299 178.1 180.2 -2.4 0.1 1.9 -1.9 1.2

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  30.775 152.9 155.4 -1.1 -3.0 -3.4 -1.4 1.6

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.236 176.1 183.5 -2.7 -8.8 -8.5 -3.6 4.2

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.537 157.7 158.2 -0.4 0.2 -0.9 -0.3 0.3

Selected building materials

13

1.002 121.9 122.6 -0.1 -0.4 -0.5 1.0 0.6

Capital goods

2

36.251 110.5 110.7 1.6 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.2

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.776 117.3 117.4 2.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.842 95.1 95.1 0.7 -0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

8.633 179.2 180.2 3.4 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.6

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.218 114.1 114.6 0.6 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.511 109.5 109.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.3 0.3

Nondurables, manufactured

40

5.889 106.4 107.0 0.7 -0.1 -0.3 0.1 0.6

Durables, manufactured

41

5.163 106.8 106.9 -0.7 0.1 0.2 -0.7 0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods (Dec. 2018=100)

42

1.459 100.0 100.0 - - - 0.0 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: February 2018 to February 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  8.762 101.0 105.8 -6.5 -12.5 -12.1 6.1 4.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.960 181.6 179.7 -7.9 -3.7 1.8 -1.7 -1.0

Crop production

111

1.588 195.1 192.3 -8.7 -4.5 2.5 -2.3 -1.4

Mining

21

6.802 91.7 97.6 -6.2 -14.7 -15.7 8.4 6.4

Oil and gas extraction

211

6.565 91.2 97.2 -6.6 -15.2 -16.3 8.8 6.6

Manufacturing

  90.912 111.4 111.6 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 0.2

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.285 125.0 125.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Food manufacturing

311

3.404 154.6 154.7 -1.7 -0.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.1

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.124 121.8 122.1 1.5 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.2

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.370 99.9 99.8 -0.5 -0.2 0.3 -0.3 -0.1

Textile product mills

314

0.944 109.2 109.1 -0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.785 112.4 112.2 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.3 -0.2

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.658 124.0 124.1 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing, part 2

32

17.590 125.4 126.1 0.2 -1.1 -1.3 -0.7 0.6

Paper manufacturing

322

1.084 116.2 116.3 8.4 -0.4 0.6 -0.2 0.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.415 93.6 94.5 -2.4 -5.6 -6.3 -1.9 1.0

Chemical manufacturing

325

9.699 139.6 140.6 0.9 -0.1 -0.7 -0.6 0.7

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.295 119.5 119.4 0.4 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

1.041 130.7 131.2 1.4 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.4

Manufacturing, part 3

33

62.037 104.3 104.3 -0.6 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.366 153.9 155.6 -0.4 -0.6 0.5 -0.8 1.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.146 126.7 126.4 -0.8 -0.2 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2

Machinery manufacturing

333

7.364 118.8 118.8 0.3 -0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

17.767 74.2 74.0 -2.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.4 -0.3

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

5.159 116.4 116.4 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.878 109.5 109.5 -0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.899 117.6 117.4 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.458 118.9 119.1 0.5 0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: February 2018 to February 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  9.285 135.3 137.7 0.4 -1.0 3.6 -3.8 1.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.874 152.4 153.6 -1.3 2.6 6.1 -3.6 0.8

Crop production

111

4.631 159.8 160.7 -0.4 3.2 6.6 -3.8 0.6

Mining

21

4.411 87.8 90.3 3.0 -6.1 -0.1 -3.8 2.8

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.359 118.3 118.5 6.7 1.5 1.1 0.9 0.2

Manufacturing

  89.467 115.7 116.4 0.7 -0.8 -1.0 -0.1 0.6

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.790 140.1 140.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.1

Food manufacturing

311

4.596 156.4 156.5 -1.1 0.3 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.676 125.6 126.6 6.6 -0.2 3.1 -0.2 0.8

Manufacturing, part 2

32

24.816 112.6 114.3 -0.9 -3.0 -3.9 -1.1 1.5

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.551 102.4 103.3 0.7 0.3 -0.3 0.9 0.9

Paper manufacturing

322

1.765 130.1 130.1 3.7 0.0 0.8 -2.9 0.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

5.698 99.8 104.9 -6.8 -10.0 -12.9 -3.1 5.1

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.458 118.6 119.2 0.8 -0.3 -1.2 -0.1 0.5

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.275 115.8 116.4 1.7 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.5

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.843 116.6 116.5 1.1 0.4 -0.2 0.0 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.861 114.6 114.9 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.3

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.006 144.8 146.5 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.2

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

2.970 145.9 146.1 5.3 0.8 0.1 1.9 0.1

Machinery manufacturing

333

9.539 128.7 129.7 2.9 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

14.052 82.8 82.8 -0.6 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.834 118.0 118.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

17.675 127.9 128.2 1.7 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.2

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.393 120.7 120.8 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.392 120.0 120.2 0.0 -0.1 0.3 -0.6 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.377 191.7 193.3 -1.9 -0.2 -0.8 0.2 0.8

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.360 247.6 252.7 0.7 0.2 1.6 1.4 2.1

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.733 138.6 138.4 -2.9 -0.4 -2.2 0.0 -0.1

Vegetable products

II

1.911 214.1 211.6 -9.0 -4.4 2.0 -2.3 -1.2

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.474 505.1 459.7 -14.8 -1.9 12.2 -14.7 -9.0

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.670 122.4 120.0 -9.6 -11.3 -4.2 9.0 -2.0

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.331 204.5 202.2 -6.6 2.1 -0.7 -1.4 -1.1

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.246 92.0 91.2 -19.2 -3.1 -1.3 0.9 -0.9

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.866 165.7 165.7 1.5 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.223 96.0 96.1 0.9 0.5 -0.4 -0.8 0.1

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.375 174.7 174.7 4.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.078 132.0 132.3 1.5 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.2

Mineral products

V

9.297 186.9 196.2 -5.8 -12.2 -13.0 4.1 5.0

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

8.998 183.9 193.4 -6.1 -12.5 -13.3 4.1 5.2

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

9.013 157.0 158.5 1.0 -0.1 -0.6 -0.8 1.0

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.572 322.6 334.4 6.6 2.9 0.0 -6.3 3.7

Organic chemicals

29

2.046 127.4 128.3 -1.6 -0.8 -2.0 -0.9 0.7

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.330 150.9 153.0 1.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.7 1.4

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.305 91.6 89.9 12.1 1.9 -0.5 0.2 -1.9

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.602 102.8 102.7 -0.9 -0.2 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.607 106.6 106.4 0.2 -0.4 -1.2 1.3 -0.2

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.523 140.9 140.2 -0.4 0.2 -0.6 -0.1 -0.5

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.372 144.7 144.0 0.4 0.6 -0.6 -0.4 -0.5

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.151 135.5 135.0 -1.9 -0.4 -0.4 0.3 -0.4

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.629 125.5 125.2 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.4 -0.2

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.600 131.9 131.6 1.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 -0.2

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

0.870 147.5 149.4 -9.5 -3.7 1.2 -0.9 1.3

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.136 122.7 122.7 8.3 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.0

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.744 111.6 111.8 6.4 -0.2 0.4 -0.3 0.2

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.934 114.7 114.6 0.5 -0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

1.999 105.1 104.8 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.4 -0.3

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.653 120.4 120.5 1.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.657 103.8 103.9 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 0.1 0.1

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.379 123.1 123.3 1.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.146 122.1 122.3 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.952 131.4 132.0 0.8 -0.3 -0.1 -0.2 0.5

Ceramic products

69

0.269 135.9 135.9 1.0 0.7 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

2.723 176.8 178.0 1.7 1.1 1.1 2.5 0.7

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.932 176.4 176.9 -1.2 -0.9 -0.2 -1.3 0.3

Iron and steel

72

1.383 221.7 218.6 2.1 -0.7 -0.2 -2.8 -1.4

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.744 150.6 150.2 -0.8 -0.1 -0.5 -0.1 -0.3

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.444 277.5 285.6 -5.8 -1.3 1.1 -2.8 2.9

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

1.022 132.8 133.3 -3.4 -2.6 -0.3 -1.7 0.4

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.447 123.9 124.0 1.3 0.0 0.2 -0.1 0.1

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.528 137.8 137.6 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.4 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

30.527 80.1 79.9 -1.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.233 86.7 86.5 -0.5 -0.2 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

15.294 73.9 73.8 -1.5 -0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.075 113.9 114.0 -0.6 -0.1 0.0 -0.3 0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.880 113.0 113.0 -0.5 -0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.086 114.9 114.9 -1.3 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

4.025 101.9 102.2 -1.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.5 0.3

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.754 98.4 98.7 -1.4 -0.1 0.0 -0.6 0.3

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.210 142.0 142.3 -0.1 -1.0 -0.4 0.4 0.2

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.508 112.8 112.6 0.9 0.0 0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.831 118.8 118.6 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.402 102.8 102.6 0.8 0.0 0.1 -0.7 -0.2

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.275 129.6 129.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 -0.4 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.926 208.2 209.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.124 161.3 161.8 -3.6 -0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.3

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.409 120.0 121.7 3.7 0.5 -0.7 0.6 1.4

Vegetable products

II

4.556 196.7 197.1 1.0 3.4 8.3 -4.7 0.2

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

1.001 141.6 142.9 -2.5 6.2 -0.6 3.8 0.9

Cereals

10

1.357 - 198.0 3.1 0.8 1.2 - -

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.700 - 191.3 -6.1 2.2 3.1 - -

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.010 152.4 152.8 0.7 0.3 -0.1 0.5 0.3

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.553 95.3 96.2 -6.5 -1.1 -1.4 0.1 0.9

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.525 104.7 106.2 -0.7 -1.3 -0.6 0.2 1.4

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.727 222.7 223.2 5.6 2.7 1.7 0.6 0.2

Mineral products

V

10.312 211.7 220.7 -3.0 -8.4 -8.3 -3.5 4.3

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.401 95.9 98.3 -13.1 1.0 0.6 -1.1 2.5

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.712 203.2 212.1 -2.5 -9.0 -8.9 -3.6 4.4

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.992 138.6 139.3 0.8 -0.1 -0.9 0.0 0.5

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.711 142.4 146.8 -12.1 -0.7 -2.0 -1.0 3.1

Organic chemicals

29

2.723 149.3 148.7 3.9 -0.1 -2.7 1.9 -0.4

Pharmaceutical products

30

2.994 104.2 105.2 -1.8 -0.3 -0.4 -1.7 1.0

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.537 101.6 101.7 1.1 -1.9 0.5 0.5 0.1

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.860 131.5 131.2 0.6 0.1 -0.1 0.6 -0.2

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.489 122.9 122.8 3.7 0.4 0.6 0.7 -0.1

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.983 156.0 156.9 4.0 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.6

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.245 143.7 143.7 1.4 -0.6 -0.8 0.1 0.0

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.355 140.6 140.4 1.4 -0.4 -0.7 0.0 -0.1

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.890 155.3 156.3 1.7 -1.4 -1.3 0.2 0.6

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.652 99.5 100.2 -4.4 -0.8 -0.8 0.5 0.7

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

2.002 130.8 129.3 1.8 0.6 -1.9 -3.4 -1.1

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.113 128.2 128.7 3.4 0.2 0.7 -2.2 0.4

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.764 122.8 123.3 0.7 0.2 0.0 -1.6 0.4

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.510 124.2 126.4 -4.3 1.4 0.4 -5.3 1.8

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.816 125.9 125.9 1.8 0.4 -0.1 1.0 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.168 240.4 243.6 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.6 1.3

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.754 159.5 160.2 -0.2 0.6 -0.5 -0.1 0.4

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.484 177.8 185.3 -9.6 -0.8 0.7 -3.3 4.2

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.740 107.9 104.9 -13.8 0.2 -2.4 -0.4 -2.8

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.338 153.0 153.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.292 97.9 98.0 1.2 -0.1 0.0 0.3 0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

16.439 116.1 116.4 2.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.3

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.853 78.3 78.3 0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.741 136.0 136.5 1.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.368 116.2 116.2 0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.860 108.6 109.0 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.4 0.4

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.381 112.6 112.7 0.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 0.1

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.766 129.9 130.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.454 87.5 87.5 -0.6 -0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 123.1 124.3 0.3 -2.6 -1.5 2.9 1.0

Nonmanufacturing

9.039 148.0 156.1 3.7 -23.3 -15.6 45.2 5.5

Manufacturing

90.391 120.3 121.0 -0.1 -0.6 -0.4 0.1 0.6

Canada

100.000 129.5 132.5 0.6 -6.7 -4.2 8.3 2.3

Nonmanufacturing

24.966 139.8 147.9 3.4 -24.5 -17.1 49.4 5.8

Manufacturing

74.063 129.4 130.9 -1.0 -1.2 -1.1 -0.6 1.2

European Union

100.000 136.6 137.1 0.4 -0.4 -0.1 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

98.846 133.2 133.6 0.5 -0.4 -0.1 0.2 0.3

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.3 127.5 -0.7 -0.9 -0.4 0.2 0.2

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 112.4 112.4 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 120.6 120.6 0.0 -1.3 -0.4 0.3 0.0

Latin America(3)

100.000 146.0 147.2 -2.5 -1.7 -2.7 -1.2 0.8

Nonmanufacturing

15.674 238.7 246.0 -7.7 -8.0 -11.9 -3.1 3.1

Manufacturing

84.032 120.8 121.4 -1.2 0.0 -0.4 -0.9 0.5

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.0 127.6 -1.2 -0.6 -0.8 -1.2 0.5

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

7.886 128.9 129.4 -3.9 -7.9 -7.5 -9.4 0.4

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

91.849 87.8 88.2 -1.0 0.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.5

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 98.7 98.6 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 99.5 99.5 -0.7 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 0.0

Japan

100.000 96.5 96.6 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.1

Taiwan (Dec. 2018=100)

100.000 99.8 99.4 - - - -0.2 -0.4

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 87.9 88.0 -0.5 -0.2 -0.5 -0.6 0.1

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 97.3 97.2 -1.1 -0.4 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 173.2 179.0 -0.3 -6.6 -6.1 -2.3 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: February 2018 to February 2019 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 102.2 103.1 1.8 -0.2 0.8 -1.1 0.9

Nonmanufacturing

8.534 109.1 114.5 20.9 2.8 18.4 -10.0 4.9

Manufacturing

90.408 101.9 102.5 0.7 -0.4 -0.5 -0.2 0.6

Canada

100.000 104.3 104.7 3.2 0.2 2.2 -2.7 0.4

European Union

100.000 103.6 104.2 1.9 0.1 -0.6 0.3 0.6

Nonmanufacturing

7.526 108.0 110.9 13.0 2.5 3.7 3.0 2.7

Manufacturing

91.414 103.4 103.9 1.4 0.1 -0.9 0.1 0.5

Germany

100.000 102.3 102.1 0.5 0.2 0.1 1.0 -0.2

Latin America(3)

100.000 100.6 101.5 0.0 -1.5 -1.8 -1.1 0.9

Nonmanufacturing

7.202 107.1 107.6 6.1 1.2 6.6 -7.3 0.5

Manufacturing

92.379 100.1 101.2 -0.3 -1.8 -2.4 -0.6 1.1

Mexico

100.000 100.2 100.7 -0.4 -1.2 -1.0 -1.4 0.5

Nonmanufacturing

6.358 102.2 102.0 0.8 1.5 8.7 -11.5 -0.2

Manufacturing

93.155 100.1 100.6 -0.5 -1.4 -1.7 -0.5 0.5

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 99.9 100.4 -0.8 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.5

Nonmanufacturing

14.037 97.0 98.8 -3.3 2.2 3.7 1.4 1.9

Manufacturing

83.841 100.6 101.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.4

China

100.000 98.3 99.0 -2.5 0.1 -0.6 -0.1 0.7

Nonmanufacturing

20.254 95.7 98.2 -3.3 2.3 2.9 1.3 2.6

Manufacturing

75.719 99.4 100.1 -1.5 -0.6 -0.7 -0.3 0.7

Japan

100.000 99.2 100.4 -2.0 -0.1 -0.4 -1.0 1.2

Nonmanufacturing

18.623 101.0 104.6 -5.0 0.6 0.4 1.0 3.6

Manufacturing

80.338 98.7 99.3 -1.7 -0.3 -0.5 -1.5 0.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: February 2018 to February 2019(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

101.6 101.5 1.4 2.4 2.3 -3.9 -0.1

Canada

105.8 103.8 2.5 7.5 6.7 -10.2 -1.9

European Union

102.1 102.3 1.4 0.5 -0.4 0.2 0.2

Germany

104.8 104.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.6 -0.2

Latin America(3)

102.6 102.7 2.6 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.1

Mexico

101.8 101.8 0.8 -0.6 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Pacific Rim(4)

99.6 100.2 -0.7 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.6

China

98.9 99.6 -1.8 0.2 -0.5 0.2 0.7

Japan

98.2 99.3 -2.4 0.0 -0.3 -1.0 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: February 2018 to February 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Jan.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Annual Monthly
Feb.
2018
to
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2018
to
Nov.
2018
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 185.8 174.1 1.2 0.7 -3.2 -1.4 -6.3

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

26.578 151.5 149.4 0.2 -0.8 -0.9 2.4 -1.4

Asia

60.801 176.7 159.4 1.2 1.5 -4.9 -3.2 -9.8

Export Air Freight

100.000 164.6 165.3 3.8 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.4

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

32.144 152.3 150.2 2.0 -0.9 0.5 2.4 -1.4

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 173.7 165.9 2.0 0.9 -1.9 -0.1 -4.5

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

28.184 141.5 138.1 0.4 -0.4 -1.0 4.4 -2.4

Asia

57.245 162.1 151.2 2.3 1.8 -2.9 -2.5 -6.7

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 144.2 144.5 5.0 1.5 -0.3 -1.2 0.2

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

33.236 152.1 150.7 4.4 -0.2 -0.3 2.1 -0.9

Asia

44.475 138.6 140.5 7.9 3.3 0.0 -4.3 1.4

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 189.9 186.1 -1.7 0.7 7.6 -3.8 -2.0

Europe

57.508 228.9 225.1 -5.6 2.2 -1.1 4.2 -1.7

Asia

19.076 137.9 125.5 -1.6 -0.8 19.1 -12.3 -9.0

Latin America/Caribbean

5.778 148.1 155.4 -5.1 6.3 10.4 -16.7 4.9

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 161.3 146.9 -4.0 0.1 1.4 7.0 -8.9

Europe

27.532 199.1 194.3 -5.9 1.3 1.9 -2.7 -2.4

Asia

29.113 150.0 129.6 0.3 1.0 4.1 12.5 -13.6

Latin America/Caribbean

25.514 169.5 149.9 -10.4 1.7 -3.1 14.6 -11.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   
Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.

Last Modified Date: March 14, 2019