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U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                      USDL-19-0614
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 12, 2019

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                               U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - MARCH 2019                                

U.S. import prices increased 0.6 percent in March, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, 
following a 1.0-percent rise in February. Both the March and February advances were driven by higher fuel 
prices. Prices for U.S. exports rose 0.7 percent for the second consecutive month in March. Both agricultural 
and nonagricultural prices contributed to the increase.

Imports

Prices for U.S. imports advanced 0.6 percent in March and 1.7 percent in the first 3 months of 2019. The 
increase for the 3 months ended in March was the largest 3-month rise since the index advanced 1.9 percent 
between October 2017 and January 2018. The import price index recorded no change over the past 12 
months. (See table 1.) 

Fuel Imports: Import fuel prices rose 6.4 percent in March after increasing 9.7 percent in February and 4.4 
percent in January. Petroleum prices rose 4.7 percent in March, continuing the trend of the previous 2 
months, and natural gas prices rose 42.3 percent following a 12.9-percent increase in February. Fuel prices 
rose 7.3 percent over the past 12 months. The price index for petroleum increased 3.9 percent for the year 
ended in March, and prices for natural gas rose 91.3 percent over the same period. The 12-month increase in 
natural gas prices was the largest advance since the index rose 99.9 percent in March 2014.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: The price index for nonfuel imports decreased 0.2 percent in March, after 
rising 0.2 percent in February. In March, falling prices for capital goods, consumer goods, and nonfuel 
industrial supplies and materials more than offset an increase in the prices for foods, feeds, and beverages. 
Nonfuel import prices declined 0.8 percent from March 2018 to March 2019, the largest 12-month drop 
since the index fell 0.9 percent for the year ended in August 2016. Each of the major import categories 
contributed to the decrease in nonfuel prices over the past year. 

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices edged down 0.1 
percent in March following a 0.3-percent advance the previous month. The March decrease was driven by a 
1.0-percent decline in chemical prices which more than offset rising metals prices.
	
Finished Goods: Prices for imported finished goods were mostly down in March. The price indexes for 
capital goods and consumer goods each fell 0.2 percent. Automotive vehicle prices recorded no change in 
March.  

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Foods, feeds, and beverages prices ticked up 0.1 percent in March, after a 
0.2-percent increase in February. The March advance was driven by higher prices for fish and shellfish; 
vegetables; and meat.

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2018

March

-0.2 -2.6 0.1 0.4 3.2 0.1

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

0.0 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 0.3

July

-0.1 0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -5.2 0.1

August

-0.4 -2.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.2

September

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.3 0.2

October

0.5 3.3 0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.5

November

-1.6 -12.2 -0.2 -0.8 1.7 -1.0

December

-1.4 -13.3 0.0 (r)-0.6 (r)3.8 -1.1

2019

January

0.1 (r)4.4 -0.3 (r)-0.6 -2.1 (r)-0.4

February

(r)1.0 (r)9.7 (r)0.2 (r)0.7 (r)0.2 (r)0.8

March

0.6 6.4 -0.2 0.7 0.9 0.7

Mar. 2017 to 2018

3.3 16.4 1.9 3.4 2.8 3.5

Mar. 2018 to 2019

0.0 7.3 -0.8 0.6 -2.3 1.0

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports 

The price index for U.S. exports advanced 0.7 percent in March, after increasing 0.7 percent the previous 
month. Those increases followed 0.6-percent declines in January and December. Prices for nonagricultural 
and agricultural exports each contributed to the overall advance in March. U.S. export prices rose 0.6 
percent over the past 12 months. (See table 2.)

Agricultural Exports: The price index for agricultural exports increased 0.9 percent in March following a 
0.2-percent advance in February. The rise in March was led by a 34.9-percent increase in vegetable prices. 
Rising prices for dairy products and eggs also contributed to the March advance. In contrast, wheat, 
soybean, and corn prices declined in March. Despite the recent increases, agricultural export prices fell 2.3 
percent over the past year. The decrease was driven by a 15.5-percent drop in soybean prices from March 
2018 to March 2019.  

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Prices for nonagricultural exports rose 0.7 percent in March, after 
increasing 0.8 percent in February. In March, higher prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and 
materials more than offset lower prices for capital goods and automotive vehicles. The price index for 
nonagricultural exports increased 1.0 percent for the year ended in March.

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials prices 
advanced 2.1 percent in March following a 1.7-percent rise the previous month. The March increase was the 
largest monthly advance since a 2.1-percent rise in November 2017 and was led by a 5.6-percent increase in 
fuel prices.  

Finished Goods: Prices for finished goods were mostly down in March. The price indexes for export capital 
goods and automotive vehicles each edged down 0.1 percent. The declines followed a 0.2-percent advance 
in capital goods prices and a 0.4-percent rise in automotive vehicles prices in February. Consumer goods 
prices recorded no change in March, after increasing 0.5 percent the previous month.

Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: Prices for imports from China recorded no change in March following 
declines of 0.1 percent in February and 0.3 percent in January. Import prices from China decreased 0.9 
percent over the past 12 months, the largest over-the-year drop since the index fell 0.9 percent in September 
2017. The price index for imports from Japan ticked up 0.1 percent in March following a 0.1-percent rise in 
February. Prices for imports from Japan rose 0.3 percent over the past year. The price index for imports 
from Canada advanced 2.0 percent, after rising 7.5 percent the previous month. The March increase was led 
by higher fuel prices. In March, prices for imports from the European Union rose 0.3 percent for the second 
consecutive month. Import prices from Mexico recorded no change in March, after rising 0.6 percent the 
previous month. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: Prices for exports to China rose 0.5 percent in March, after increasing 
0.6 percent the previous month. Higher prices for both manufactured and nonmanufactured exports each 
contributed to the March advance. Despite the recent increases, export prices to China declined 3.6 percent 
over the past year. The price index for exports to Japan increased 0.2 percent in March following a 1.3-
percent rise in February. Prices for exports to Japan fell 1.9 percent over the past 12 months. In March, 
export prices to Canada advanced 1.5 percent and export prices to Mexico rose 1.3 percent. The price index 
for exports to the European Union advanced 0.3 percent in March, after recording a 0.8-percent increase in 
February. (See table 8.)

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on country, region, or grouping and measure 
the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The U.S. terms of trade with China 
advanced 0.5 percent in March following a 0.7-percent increase in February. The March rise in the U.S. 
terms of trade with China was driven by the increase in export prices to China. U.S. terms of trade with 
Japan ticked up 0.1 percent, after advancing 1.2 percent the previous month. The index for U.S. terms of 
trade with Mexico rose 1.3 percent in March, the largest monthly advance since the index was first 
published in December 2017. In contrast, the U.S. terms of trade with Canada declined 0.5 percent in 
March. The rise in import prices from Canada more than offset the increase in export prices to Canada. U.S. 
terms of trade with the European Union recorded no change in March. (See table 9.)

Import and Export Services

Imports: Import air passenger fares declined 5.7 percent in March following decreases of 2.0 percent in 
February and 3.8 percent in January. The March drop was led by an 8.5-percent decline in European fares, 
the largest monthly drop in European fares since a 12.2-percent decrease in August 2018. Overall import air 
passenger fares fell 0.9 percent for the year ended in March. The price index for import air freight rose 0.6 
percent in March, after declines of 6.1 percent in February, 1.4 percent in January, and 3.2 percent in 
December. Import air freight prices decreased 2.1 percent over the past 12 months. (See table 10.)

Exports: Export air passenger fares increased 1.6 percent in March following an 8.9-percent drop the 
previous month. Higher Latin American/Caribbean, Asian, and European fares all contributed to the 
advance in overall export air passenger fares in March. The index for export air passenger fares fell 5.8 
percent over the past year, the largest 12-month drop since a 5.8-percent decline for the year ended 
December 2017. Export air freight prices ticked up 0.1 percent in March and rose 1.8 percent over the past 
12 months.   
		
Import and Export Price Index data for April are scheduled for release on Tuesday, May 14, 2019 at 8:30 a.m. 
(EDT).


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 125.8 126.5 0.0 -1.4 0.1 1.0 0.6

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  83.864 100.0 99.8 -0.7 0.0 -0.3 0.2 -0.2

All imports excluding petroleum

  90.440 113.2 113.4 -0.3 0.2 -0.6 0.2 0.2

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  89.883 117.1 116.9 -0.8 0.0 -0.3 0.2 -0.2

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

6.019 180.0 180.1 -1.4 0.1 -0.4 0.2 0.1

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.691 197.4 196.8 -1.7 0.5 -0.6 0.2 -0.3

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.328 140.6 142.6 -0.5 -1.5 0.4 0.1 1.4

Industrial supplies & materials

1

24.199 187.2 192.2 2.0 -5.7 1.2 4.1 2.7

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  14.863 157.7 160.4 1.3 0.8 -2.7 0.9 1.7

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  14.083 177.1 177.0 -1.7 -0.1 -0.8 0.3 -0.1

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  8.804 167.0 167.7 -2.3 0.2 -0.7 0.5 0.4

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.835 146.1 151.0 6.6 1.7 -5.3 1.2 3.4

Fuels & lubricants

10

10.117 205.1 218.3 7.3 -13.3 4.4 9.7 6.4

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

9.560 219.8 230.2 3.9 -15.3 7.5 9.7 4.7

Crude

10000

6.919 227.8 238.8 3.7 -19.2 12.4 13.7 4.8

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.557 127.8 172.5 66.3 13.8 -29.9 10.7 35.0

Gas-natural

10110

0.460 114.4 162.8 91.3 18.4 -33.9 12.9 42.3

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.593 124.8 123.8 9.4 1.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.8

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.685 161.1 159.5 -1.8 -0.9 -1.0 0.1 -1.0

Selected building materials

13

1.511 145.3 145.0 -7.9 0.8 -0.6 1.2 -0.2

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.759 232.3 234.9 -1.6 0.5 -1.3 1.2 1.1

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.781 159.2 158.7 -2.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.3 -0.3

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.752 113.5 113.6 1.8 -0.3 0.0 -0.4 0.1

Capital goods

2

27.973 89.0 88.8 -1.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Electric generating equipment

20

3.378 118.0 118.3 0.5 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.3

Nonelectrical machinery

21

22.316 81.4 81.1 -1.3 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.4

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.279 135.9 135.9 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.0

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.721 110.3 110.3 -0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

26.088 107.3 107.1 -0.2 0.1 -0.4 0.3 -0.2

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.397 123.5 123.4 1.1 0.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.1

Durables, manufactured

41

12.398 91.9 91.9 -1.5 0.0 -0.5 -0.1 0.0

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.293 120.1 117.0 1.0 1.8 -0.6 2.6 -2.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 126.2 127.1 0.6 -0.6 -0.6 0.7 0.7

Agricultural commodities

  9.622 179.2 180.9 -2.3 3.8 -2.1 0.2 0.9

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.563 101.7 101.7 0.5 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.378 122.2 123.0 1.0 -1.1 -0.4 0.8 0.7

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.920 182.1 184.3 -1.5 3.8 -1.9 0.3 1.2

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.290 180.0 182.2 -1.7 4.0 -2.1 0.1 1.2

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.630 221.0 224.0 1.3 -0.6 0.3 2.2 1.4

Industrial supplies & materials

1

32.328 156.0 159.1 0.7 -3.1 -1.7 1.7 2.0

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.276 165.1 166.3 -0.7 -0.1 0.4 1.0 0.7

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  22.053 152.0 156.0 1.4 -4.6 -2.7 2.0 2.6

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.302 179.6 178.6 -6.0 1.9 -2.0 1.0 -0.6

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  31.027 155.2 158.5 1.0 -3.3 -1.7 1.7 2.1

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.518 182.2 192.4 3.9 -8.4 -4.5 4.4 5.6

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.508 158.5 159.1 -0.6 -0.8 -0.3 0.4 0.4

Selected building materials

13

1.001 122.7 122.1 -1.0 -0.5 1.1 0.6 -0.5

Capital goods

2

36.056 110.7 110.6 1.5 0.1 0.4 0.2 -0.1

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.756 117.5 117.6 1.8 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.670 95.1 95.0 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

8.630 180.3 180.4 3.3 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.197 114.6 114.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.4 -0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.499 110.2 110.2 0.4 0.0 -0.1 0.5 0.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

5.915 107.6 107.5 0.8 -0.3 0.6 0.7 -0.1

Durables, manufactured

41

5.135 107.0 107.1 -0.5 0.2 -0.7 0.2 0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods (Dec. 2018=100)

42

1.449 100.0 99.6 - - 0.0 0.0 -0.4

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: March 2018 to March 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  9.619 112.0 117.3 6.6 -12.0 6.4 10.5 4.7

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.974 184.9 181.9 -2.8 1.8 -1.6 1.8 -1.6

Crop production

111

1.603 199.1 193.0 -2.8 2.5 -2.4 2.1 -3.1

Mining

21

7.645 104.2 110.7 9.1 -15.7 9.0 13.0 6.2

Oil and gas extraction

211

7.410 104.0 110.6 9.1 -16.2 9.3 13.4 6.3

Manufacturing

  90.072 111.6 111.6 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 0.0

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.167 125.0 125.2 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2

Food manufacturing

311

3.375 154.9 155.9 -1.1 -0.3 -0.1 0.3 0.6

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.115 122.2 122.1 1.2 0.0 -0.2 0.2 -0.1

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.367 100.2 99.5 -0.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.7

Textile product mills

314

0.933 109.1 108.9 -0.8 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.736 112.1 112.1 0.7 0.0 0.3 -0.2 0.0

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.642 124.1 124.1 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0

Manufacturing, part 2

32

17.505 126.1 126.5 0.7 -1.3 -0.7 0.6 0.3

Paper manufacturing

322

1.074 116.4 115.7 7.5 0.6 -0.2 0.2 -0.6

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.410 94.5 98.9 5.3 -6.3 -1.9 1.0 4.7

Chemical manufacturing

325

9.659 140.5 139.9 0.3 -0.7 -0.6 0.6 -0.4

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.267 119.4 119.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.5 -0.1 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

1.033 131.0 130.8 0.5 -0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 3

33

61.400 104.3 104.2 -0.9 0.0 -0.2 0.1 -0.1

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.371 155.8 156.4 -0.9 0.5 -0.8 1.2 0.4

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.105 126.4 126.7 -1.2 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0.2

Machinery manufacturing

333

7.286 118.8 118.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

17.541 74.0 73.8 -2.4 -0.3 -0.4 -0.3 -0.3

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

5.104 116.4 116.5 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.708 109.5 109.5 -0.2 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.877 117.5 117.4 0.6 0.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.409 119.1 118.3 -0.4 0.3 -0.1 0.2 -0.7

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: March 2018 to March 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  9.281 136.2 139.7 -1.7 3.7 -5.0 1.9 2.6

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.869 153.4 155.3 -5.8 6.1 -3.7 0.8 1.2

Crop production

111

4.618 160.5 162.3 -5.1 6.6 -4.0 0.6 1.1

Mining

21

4.412 88.4 91.9 4.8 0.1 -6.2 3.0 4.0

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.352 118.6 118.9 6.1 1.1 0.9 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

  89.487 116.5 117.1 1.2 -1.0 0.0 0.6 0.5

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.757 140.3 140.6 -0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.2

Food manufacturing

311

4.575 156.8 157.5 -0.9 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.675 126.2 124.5 2.9 3.1 -0.2 0.5 -1.3

Manufacturing, part 2

32

25.105 114.7 116.7 1.4 -3.8 -0.9 1.6 1.7

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.552 103.4 100.9 -2.8 -0.3 1.0 0.9 -2.4

Paper manufacturing

322

1.767 131.1 129.7 2.5 0.8 -2.9 0.8 -1.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

5.973 105.4 112.8 3.2 -12.8 -3.0 5.4 7.0

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.481 119.6 119.8 0.6 -1.1 0.2 0.4 0.2

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.271 116.5 116.5 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.836 116.5 117.5 0.9 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.9

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.625 114.9 114.9 1.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.0

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.028 146.6 147.0 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.2 0.3

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

2.951 145.9 146.7 5.9 0.0 1.9 0.1 0.5

Machinery manufacturing

333

9.535 129.6 129.6 2.9 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.0

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

13.942 82.8 82.7 -0.5 -0.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.809 118.0 118.1 1.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

17.604 128.3 128.3 1.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.0

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.391 120.8 121.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.365 120.3 120.1 0.0 0.3 -0.6 0.3 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.374 193.3 198.1 -0.5 -0.8 0.2 0.8 2.5

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.364 252.8 257.9 2.0 1.6 1.4 2.1 2.0

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.724 138.4 142.8 -1.2 -2.2 0.0 -0.1 3.2

Vegetable products

II

1.930 218.5 212.8 -3.2 2.0 -2.4 2.1 -2.6

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.490 527.3 546.4 13.1 12.2 -14.7 4.4 3.6

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.649 119.9 113.3 -11.3 -4.3 9.0 -2.0 -5.5

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.323 201.5 199.9 -7.9 -0.7 -1.4 -1.5 -0.8

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.242 91.3 90.5 -18.0 -1.8 1.4 -0.8 -0.9

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.833 165.5 165.6 0.7 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.220 95.9 96.8 -2.9 -0.4 -1.0 0.1 0.9

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.368 173.2 172.0 1.7 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 -0.7

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.070 132.4 132.4 1.3 -0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.0

Mineral products

V

10.123 205.6 219.0 7.8 -13.0 4.4 9.7 6.5

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.828 203.0 216.3 7.8 -13.3 4.5 10.0 6.6

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

8.994 158.3 157.5 0.3 -0.6 -0.9 0.9 -0.5

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.582 331.9 319.7 3.0 0.0 -6.3 2.9 -3.7

Organic chemicals

29

2.039 128.3 127.0 -2.6 -2.0 -0.9 0.7 -1.0

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.343 153.0 152.9 1.3 0.0 -0.7 1.4 -0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.297 90.2 88.4 10.4 -0.7 -0.2 -1.0 -2.0

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.596 102.7 103.1 -0.7 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.4

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.595 105.6 105.0 -2.5 -1.2 1.0 -0.6 -0.6

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.469 140.2 140.4 -0.4 -0.6 -0.1 -0.5 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.335 144.0 143.9 0.2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.5 -0.1

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.134 135.0 135.5 -1.7 -0.4 0.4 -0.4 0.4

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.622 125.3 125.3 0.6 0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.0

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.593 131.7 131.7 1.4 0.2 0.5 -0.1 0.0

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

0.875 149.8 149.2 -13.5 1.2 -1.0 1.6 -0.4

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.124 122.8 121.7 7.1 0.7 0.1 0.1 -0.9

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.738 111.8 111.5 5.9 0.4 -0.3 0.2 -0.3

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.880 114.6 114.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 -0.1 -0.3

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

1.971 104.7 104.7 0.7 0.0 0.5 -0.4 0.0

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.636 120.5 120.5 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.650 103.9 103.7 -0.5 -0.3 0.1 0.1 -0.2

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.365 123.2 123.0 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.1 -0.2

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.135 122.3 122.1 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 -0.2

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.945 131.9 131.9 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 0.4 0.0

Ceramic products

69

0.266 135.9 135.9 1.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

2.713 178.0 178.9 2.5 1.1 2.5 0.7 0.5

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.888 177.0 177.3 -1.9 -0.2 -1.3 0.3 0.2

Iron and steel

72

1.349 218.6 218.7 -0.5 -0.1 -2.8 -1.4 0.0

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.719 150.1 149.9 -2.0 -0.5 -0.1 -0.3 -0.1

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.457 289.0 295.0 -1.7 1.1 -2.8 4.1 2.1

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

1.014 133.3 133.5 -4.2 -0.3 -1.7 0.4 0.2

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.442 124.0 124.0 0.9 0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.521 137.4 137.2 -0.1 0.1 0.3 -0.2 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

30.165 79.9 79.8 -1.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.055 86.6 86.3 -0.9 0.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.3

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

15.110 73.8 73.8 -1.5 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.932 114.0 113.9 -0.5 0.0 -0.3 0.1 -0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.749 113.0 113.0 -0.4 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.0

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.075 114.9 114.7 -1.4 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.2

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.994 102.1 101.3 -2.1 -0.1 -0.5 0.2 -0.8

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.725 98.7 97.9 -2.1 0.0 -0.6 0.3 -0.8

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.208 142.2 141.4 -3.5 -0.4 0.4 0.1 -0.6

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.456 112.7 112.7 0.8 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.0

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.799 118.7 118.7 0.8 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.385 102.7 102.7 0.8 0.1 -0.8 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.272 129.7 129.6 0.8 0.0 -0.4 0.1 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.923 209.5 212.1 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.2

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.119 161.6 161.8 -4.2 0.4 -0.1 0.2 0.1

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.414 122.3 124.8 2.2 -0.7 0.6 1.9 2.0

Vegetable products

II

4.530 197.0 201.1 -2.5 8.3 -4.7 0.2 2.1

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

1.002 142.8 140.8 -5.6 -0.6 3.8 0.8 -1.4

Cereals

10

1.378 198.0 192.5 -4.4 1.2 - - -2.8

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.686 191.1 189.2 -12.9 3.1 - - -1.0

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.004 153.2 153.2 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.0

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.555 96.2 98.1 -3.0 -1.4 0.0 1.1 2.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.526 105.6 106.2 -2.5 -0.6 0.2 0.9 0.6

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.733 226.2 221.2 -0.1 2.5 1.3 0.0 -2.2

Mineral products

V

10.597 219.1 231.4 3.6 -8.2 -4.5 4.5 5.6

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.409 98.4 101.4 -10.0 0.6 -1.1 2.6 3.0

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.990 210.5 222.9 4.5 -8.7 -4.7 4.6 5.9

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

11.025 140.1 140.0 0.8 -0.8 0.4 0.6 -0.1

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.741 149.7 149.0 -11.2 -2.0 0.6 3.5 -0.5

Organic chemicals

29

2.712 149.8 149.9 3.5 -2.3 2.4 -0.6 0.1

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.009 105.5 105.4 -1.9 -0.4 -1.4 1.0 -0.1

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.533 101.7 99.7 -1.3 0.5 0.5 0.1 -2.0

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.866 133.5 133.4 2.1 -0.1 0.6 1.5 -0.1

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.485 122.8 123.2 3.4 0.6 0.7 -0.1 0.3

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.980 156.9 157.1 4.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.206 143.6 144.2 0.5 -0.8 0.0 -0.1 0.4

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.316 140.3 141.3 0.9 -0.7 0.0 -0.2 0.7

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.890 156.3 154.8 -1.5 -1.3 0.2 0.6 -1.0

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.652 100.2 99.4 -6.0 -0.8 0.6 0.6 -0.8

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.975 130.0 128.2 1.2 -1.9 -3.4 -0.6 -1.4

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.107 128.4 128.3 2.8 0.7 -2.2 0.2 -0.1

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.761 123.5 123.3 -1.6 0.1 -1.6 0.5 -0.2

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.505 126.3 126.3 -10.5 0.4 -5.4 1.8 0.0

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.810 125.9 127.0 2.4 -0.1 1.0 0.0 0.9

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.193 243.6 243.7 1.5 1.1 1.6 1.3 0.0

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.742 160.2 161.9 0.0 -0.5 -0.1 0.4 1.1

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.499 184.7 192.5 -4.8 0.7 -3.3 3.9 4.2

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.715 104.9 106.4 -13.1 -2.4 -0.4 -2.8 1.4

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.335 153.0 155.1 2.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.4

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.132 98.0 98.0 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

16.365 116.4 116.4 2.0 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.0

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.767 78.3 78.3 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.673 136.3 136.4 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.308 116.2 116.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.840 109.1 108.9 -0.5 0.0 -0.3 0.4 -0.2

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.377 113.1 113.7 1.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.4 0.5

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.762 130.2 130.5 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.455 88.4 89.5 1.8 -0.2 0.2 1.0 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 126.2 127.4 3.0 -1.5 2.8 2.7 1.0

Nonmanufacturing

10.789 181.2 192.5 31.7 -15.7 42.9 24.5 6.2

Manufacturing

88.630 121.0 121.2 0.0 -0.4 0.1 0.6 0.2

Canada

100.000 139.2 142.0 8.4 -4.3 8.4 7.5 2.0

Nonmanufacturing

29.410 176.9 188.0 35.4 -17.2 49.5 26.5 6.3

Manufacturing

69.671 130.8 131.1 -1.0 -1.1 -0.7 1.2 0.2

European Union

100.000 137.0 137.4 0.7 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

98.779 133.5 133.8 0.6 -0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.5 128.2 -0.2 -0.4 0.2 0.2 0.5

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 112.4 112.7 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.3

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 120.5 121.2 0.1 -0.4 0.2 0.0 0.6

Latin America(3)

100.000 147.7 147.8 -1.4 -2.6 -1.0 1.0 0.1

Nonmanufacturing

16.302 251.2 255.4 -0.6 -11.7 -2.1 3.9 1.7

Manufacturing

83.434 121.4 121.1 -1.5 -0.5 -0.8 0.5 -0.2

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.9 127.9 -0.7 -0.8 -1.2 0.6 0.0

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

8.164 134.4 139.5 4.8 -6.8 -9.3 3.5 3.8

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

91.573 88.1 87.8 -1.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.3 -0.3

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 98.6 98.6 -0.3 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.0

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 99.5 99.5 -0.9 0.0 -0.3 -0.1 0.0

Japan

100.000 96.6 96.7 0.3 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

Taiwan (Dec. 2018=100)

100.000 99.4 99.5 - - -0.1 -0.5 0.1

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 88.0 87.9 -1.0 -0.5 -0.6 0.1 -0.1

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 97.1 97.2 -1.1 -0.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.1

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 171.7 175.1 -2.3 -6.1 -3.2 0.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: March 2018 to March 2019 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 103.0 104.1 2.6 0.8 -1.2 0.9 1.1

Nonmanufacturing

8.709 112.2 123.2 28.2 18.4 -11.8 5.0 9.8

Manufacturing

90.233 102.6 102.7 0.8 -0.5 -0.1 0.6 0.1

Canada

100.000 104.4 106.0 3.7 2.1 -2.9 0.4 1.5

European Union

100.000 104.4 104.7 2.1 -0.6 0.3 0.8 0.3

Nonmanufacturing

7.495 108.4 111.0 9.3 3.7 0.6 2.7 2.4

Manufacturing

91.445 104.2 104.4 1.8 -0.9 0.3 0.6 0.2

Germany

100.000 102.0 101.9 -0.2 0.1 0.9 -0.2 -0.1

Latin America(3)

100.000 101.5 103.1 1.8 -1.8 -1.1 0.9 1.6

Nonmanufacturing

7.129 107.1 107.9 4.7 6.6 -7.7 0.5 0.7

Manufacturing

92.456 101.2 102.8 1.7 -2.3 -0.6 1.0 1.6

Mexico

100.000 100.8 102.1 1.2 -1.0 -1.3 0.5 1.3

Nonmanufacturing

6.310 102.0 103.7 1.6 8.7 -11.5 -0.2 1.7

Manufacturing

93.206 100.7 102.0 1.1 -1.6 -0.6 0.6 1.3

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 100.3 100.5 -1.2 0.0 -0.3 0.5 0.2

Nonmanufacturing

14.096 97.8 99.0 -6.7 3.7 0.3 1.9 1.2

Manufacturing

83.884 101.0 101.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.4 0.1

China

100.000 98.5 99.0 -3.6 -0.5 -0.6 0.6 0.5

Nonmanufacturing

20.343 96.3 97.3 -9.2 2.9 -0.8 2.8 1.0

Manufacturing

75.942 100.0 100.2 -1.6 -0.7 -0.2 0.5 0.2

Japan

100.000 100.1 100.3 -1.9 -0.4 -1.4 1.3 0.2

Nonmanufacturing

18.718 102.3 103.8 -5.9 0.4 -1.3 3.6 1.5

Manufacturing

80.219 99.4 99.3 -1.5 -0.5 -1.5 0.7 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: March 2018 to March 2019(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

99.9 100.0 -0.4 2.3 -3.8 -1.8 0.1

Canada

98.6 98.1 -4.3 6.7 -10.4 -6.5 -0.5

European Union

102.6 102.6 1.5 -0.4 0.2 0.5 0.0

Germany

104.5 104.1 -0.8 0.0 0.5 -0.2 -0.4

Latin America(3)

102.3 103.9 3.3 0.9 -0.1 -0.1 1.6

Mexico

101.7 103.0 1.9 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 1.3

Pacific Rim(4)

100.1 100.3 -0.9 0.1 -0.1 0.6 0.2

China

99.1 99.6 -2.7 -0.5 -0.3 0.7 0.5

Japan

99.0 99.1 -2.1 -0.3 -1.4 1.2 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: March 2018 to March 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Feb.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Annual Monthly
Mar.
2018
to
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2018
to
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 174.4 175.5 -2.1 -3.2 -1.4 -6.1 0.6

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

27.932 149.4 149.7 -0.5 -0.9 2.4 -1.4 0.2

Asia

58.618 159.9 161.4 -3.9 -4.9 -3.2 -9.5 0.9

Export Air Freight

100.000 165.3 165.5 1.8 -0.1 -0.1 0.4 0.1

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

31.558 150.2 149.8 2.3 0.5 2.4 -1.4 -0.3

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 166.1 167.2 1.1 -1.9 -0.1 -4.4 0.7

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

28.761 138.1 138.1 -0.4 -1.0 4.4 -2.4 0.0

Asia

55.989 151.5 153.3 1.1 -2.9 -2.5 -6.5 1.2

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 144.5 144.8 1.8 -0.3 -1.2 0.2 0.2

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

32.843 150.7 151.0 2.2 -0.3 2.1 -0.9 0.2

Asia

44.972 140.5 140.5 2.0 0.0 -4.3 1.4 0.0

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 186.1 175.4 -0.9 7.6 -3.8 -2.0 -5.7

Europe

57.711 225.1 206.0 1.1 -1.1 4.2 -1.7 -8.5

Asia

17.709 125.5 124.6 -2.4 19.1 -12.3 -9.0 -0.7

Latin America/Caribbean

6.191 155.4 154.5 -7.8 10.4 -16.7 4.9 -0.6

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 146.9 149.2 -5.8 1.4 7.0 -8.9 1.6

Europe

29.494 194.3 195.8 -7.2 1.9 -2.7 -2.4 0.8

Asia

27.612 129.6 131.2 -0.5 4.1 12.5 -13.6 1.2

Latin America/Caribbean

24.775 149.9 154.7 -7.6 -3.1 14.6 -11.6 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   
Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.


Last Modified Date: April 12, 2019