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U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until				    USDL-19-0811
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, May 14, 2019

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                          U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - APRIL 2019

U.S. import prices advanced 0.2 percent in April, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, after 
increasing 0.6 percent in March. The April advance was driven by higher fuel prices, which more than offset 
decreasing prices for nonfuel imports. Prices for U.S. exports rose 0.2 percent in April after a 0.6-percent 
rise in March. 


Imports

The price index for U.S. imports rose 0.2 percent in April, continuing the upward trend that began in 
January. The April rise followed a 0.6-percent advance in March and a 1.0-percent increase in February. 
Despite the recent monthly advances, import prices declined 0.2 percent for the 12-month period ended in 
April. The April year-over-year decrease was driven by lower nonfuel prices. (See table 1.) 

Fuel Imports: The price index for fuel imports rose 2.5 percent in April, after increasing 6.9 percent in 
March and 10.2 percent in February. A 6.1-percent rise in petroleum prices drove the increase in fuel prices. 
Natural gas prices declined 53.7 percent in April, the largest decrease since the index was first published on 
a monthly basis in December 1994. Fuel prices rose 6.9 percent over the past 12 months. The price index for 
petroleum increased 7.0 percent for the year ended in April, and prices for natural gas declined 10.5 percent 
over the same period. The 12-month decrease in natural gas prices was the largest decline since the index 
fell 27.3 percent in June 2018.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: The price index for nonfuel imports edged down 0.1 percent in April, after 
falling 0.2 percent in March. In April, falling prices for finished goods and nonfuel industrial supplies and 
materials more than offset an increase in prices for foods, feeds, and beverages. Nonfuel import prices 
declined 0.9 percent from April 2018 to April 2019, the largest 12-month drop since the index fell 0.9 
percent for the year ended August 2016. All of the major import categories except foods, feeds, and 
beverages contributed to the decrease in nonfuel prices over the past year. 

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices edged down 0.1 
percent in April after recording no change the previous month. The April decrease was driven by declining 
prices for building materials and chemicals which more than offset rising prices for unfinished metals.

Finished Goods: Prices for imported finished goods were down in April. The price index for capital goods 
declined 0.4 percent, and consumer goods and automotive vehicles prices decreased 0.3 percent and 0.1 
percent, respectively.  

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: The price index for foods, feeds, and beverages rose 2.8 percent in April, the 
largest monthly advance since the index increased 3.1 percent in July 2016. The April advance was driven 
by higher prices for fruit, vegetables, and meat.

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2018

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

0.0 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 0.3

July

-0.1 0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -5.2 0.1

August

-0.4 -2.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.2

September

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.3 0.2

October

0.5 3.3 0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.5

November

-1.6 -12.2 -0.2 -0.8 1.7 -1.0

December

-1.4 -13.3 0.0 -0.6 3.8 -1.1

2019

January

(r)0.2 (r)4.6 -0.3 -0.6 -2.1 -0.4

February

1.0 (r)10.2 (r)0.1 0.7 0.2 (r)0.7

March

0.6 (r)6.9 -0.2 (r)0.6 (r)1.0 0.7

April

0.2 2.5 -0.1 0.2 -1.5 0.4

Apr. 2017 to 2018

3.5 21.5 1.7 3.7 1.6 3.9

Apr. 2018 to 2019

-0.2 6.9 -0.9 0.3 -2.8 0.7

Footnotes
(r) Revised


Exports 

The price index for U.S. exports advanced 0.2 percent in April, after increasing 0.6 percent in March and 0.7 
percent in February. Rising prices for nonagricultural exports led the overall advance in April and more than 
offset a decline in prices for agricultural exports. U.S. export prices rose 0.3 percent over the 12-month 
period ended in April. (See table 2.)

Agricultural Exports: The price index for agricultural exports decreased 1.5 percent in April following a 
1.0-percent advance in March. The April decline was driven by a 17.2-percent decrease in vegetable prices 
and a 6.8-percent decline in fruit prices. A 2.6-percent drop in corn prices also contributed to the overall 
decline in April. Prices for agricultural exports fell 2.8 percent over the past year. The 12-month decrease 
was led by a 14.1-percent drop in soybean prices. Lower prices for fruit, cotton, nuts, meat, and corn also 
contributed to the over-the-year decline in agricultural export prices.   

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Nonagricultural export prices rose 0.4 percent in April, after 
increasing 0.7 percent the previous month. Higher prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and 
materials drove the increase in nonagricultural export prices, although rising prices for automotive vehicles 
also contributed. The price index for nonagricultural exports increased 0.7 percent over the past year.

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials prices 
advanced 0.9 percent in April following a 1.9-percent rise the previous month. The April increase was led 
by a 3.6-percent rise in export prices for petroleum. The increase in prices for petroleum more than offset 
declining prices for natural gas, which fell 12.0 percent in April.  

Finished Goods: Export prices for finished goods were mostly flat in April. The price index for export 
automotive vehicles rose 0.2 percent, driven by higher prices for nonengine parts and accessories. The price 
index for capital goods recorded no change, after increasing 0.1 percent in March. Consumer goods prices 
recorded no change for the second consecutive month. 


Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: Prices for imports from China declined 0.2 percent in April, after recording 
no change in March. Import prices from China decreased 1.1 percent over the past 12 months, the largest 
over-the-year drop since the index fell 1.1 percent in May 2017. The price index for imports from Japan 
edged down 0.1 percent in April, after advancing 0.1 percent in both March and February. Prices for imports 
from Japan recorded no change over the past year. The price index for imports from Canada advanced 1.3 
percent in April. Higher fuel prices drove the monthly rise. Import prices from the European Union 
increased 0.1 percent in April. Prices for imports from Mexico rose 1.1 percent in April, the largest monthly 
advance since the index increased 1.5 percent in September 2017. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: Prices for exports to China rose 0.6 percent in April, after increasing 
0.5 percent in March. Higher prices for nonmanufactured exports led the April advance. Despite the recent 
increases, export prices to China declined 2.7 percent over the past year. The price index for exports to 
Japan increased 1.0 percent in April, after rising 0.3 percent in March and 1.2 percent in February. Despite 
the recent monthly advances, prices for exports to Japan fell 0.6 percent over the past 12 months. In April, 
export prices to Canada declined 0.8 percent and export prices to Mexico decreased 0.4 percent. The price 
index for exports to the European Union advanced 0.7 percent in April, after recording a 0.2-percent rise in 
March and a 0.7-percent increase in February. (See table 8.)

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on country, region, or grouping and measure 
the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The U.S. terms of trade with China 
advanced 0.8 percent in April. The rise in the U.S. terms of trade with China was driven by the increase in 
export prices to China. U.S. terms of trade with Japan rose 1.0 percent in April, after advancing 0.2 percent 
and 1.1 percent the previous 2 months. The index for U.S. terms of trade with Mexico declined 1.5 percent 
in April, the largest monthly decrease since the index was first published in December 2017. U.S. terms of 
trade with Canada also declined in April, falling 2.1 percent. U.S. terms of trade with the European Union 
rose 0.7 percent in April, driven by higher export prices. (See table 9.)


Import and Export Services

Imports: Import air passenger fares declined 7.2 percent in April following decreases of 5.7 percent in 
March and 2.0 percent in February. The April decline was the largest monthly drop since the index fell 8.8 
percent in August 2018, and was led by an 11.5-percent decline in European fares. Overall import air 
passenger fares fell 10.6 percent over the past year, the largest 12-month decline since the index fell 11.6 
percent for the year ended October 2009. The price index for import air freight rose 0.7 percent in April. 
Import air freight prices decreased 7.8 percent over the past 12 months, the largest over-the-year drop since 
the index declined 9.5 percent in July 2016. (See table 10.)

Exports: Export air passenger fares decreased 1.4 percent in April. A 5.0-percent decline in Asian fares and 
a 3.2-percent fall in European fares more than offset higher Latin American/Caribbean fares. The index for 
export air passenger fares fell 3.5 percent over the past year. Export air freight prices dropped 0.4 percent in 
April and rose 1.2 percent over the past 12 months.   

Import and Export Price Index data for May are scheduled for release on Thursday, June 13, 2019 at 8:30 a.m. 
(EDT).


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 126.6 126.9 -0.2 0.2 1.0 0.6 0.2

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  83.233 99.8 99.5 -1.1 -0.3 0.2 -0.2 -0.3

All imports excluding petroleum

  89.928 113.4 112.7 -1.0 -0.6 0.2 0.2 -0.6

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  89.188 116.9 116.8 -0.9 -0.3 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

5.955 179.2 184.3 1.2 -0.4 0.0 -0.2 2.8

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.617 195.6 202.7 1.7 -0.6 0.0 -0.7 3.6

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.338 142.5 142.7 -0.5 0.4 0.1 1.4 0.1

Industrial supplies & materials

1

24.802 193.2 195.1 1.4 1.4 4.2 2.9 1.0

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  15.012 160.4 155.1 -2.6 -2.6 0.8 1.8 -3.3

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  13.992 177.1 177.0 -2.3 -0.7 0.3 0.0 -0.1

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  8.790 167.8 167.7 -2.7 -0.7 0.5 0.5 -0.1

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.940 151.0 139.7 -2.2 -5.1 1.0 3.5 -7.5

Fuels & lubricants

10

10.812 220.6 226.1 6.9 4.6 10.2 6.9 2.5

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

10.072 233.1 247.3 7.0 7.8 10.2 5.3 6.1

Crude

10000

7.331 242.9 261.1 7.2 12.8 14.3 5.7 7.5

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.740 170.8 90.1 -12.3 -30.1 10.7 34.1 -47.2

Gas-natural

10110

0.645 161.3 74.7 -10.5 -33.9 12.9 41.0 -53.7

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.588 124.5 123.8 6.4 0.0 0.1 -0.4 -0.6

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.613 159.6 159.6 -2.6 -0.9 -0.2 -0.7 0.0

Selected building materials

13

1.499 145.0 143.0 -10.1 -0.6 1.2 -0.2 -1.4

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.781 235.1 236.7 -1.4 -1.3 1.2 1.2 0.7

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.769 159.1 159.0 -1.7 -0.2 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.742 113.6 113.0 0.9 0.0 -0.4 0.1 -0.5

Capital goods

2

27.785 89.0 88.6 -1.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.4

Electric generating equipment

20

3.361 118.2 118.4 0.5 0.1 -0.1 0.2 0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

22.160 81.3 80.8 -1.7 0.0 0.0 -0.2 -0.6

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.263 135.8 135.9 0.2 0.8 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.582 110.0 109.9 -0.6 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

25.876 107.1 106.8 -0.6 -0.3 0.3 -0.3 -0.3

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.303 123.4 123.2 0.8 -0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.2

Durables, manufactured

41

12.320 91.9 91.5 -1.9 -0.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.4

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.252 117.0 116.5 -0.1 -0.6 2.6 -2.6 -0.4

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

All commodities

  100.000 127.0 127.3 0.3 -0.6 0.7 0.6 0.2

Agricultural commodities

  9.645 180.8 178.0 -2.8 -2.1 0.2 1.0 -1.5

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.053 101.7 101.8 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.355 122.9 123.4 0.7 -0.4 0.7 0.7 0.4

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.963 184.1 180.7 -2.3 -1.9 0.2 1.2 -1.8

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.331 182.1 178.7 -2.2 -2.1 0.1 1.2 -1.9

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.632 223.1 218.7 -2.9 0.5 1.7 1.2 -2.0

Industrial supplies & materials

1

32.661 158.6 160.1 0.1 -1.7 1.6 1.8 0.9

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.258 165.9 166.9 -0.8 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.6

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  22.403 155.4 157.2 0.6 -2.7 2.0 2.2 1.2

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.284 178.3 179.1 -6.4 -2.1 0.8 -0.5 0.4

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  31.378 158.0 159.5 0.4 -1.7 1.6 1.9 0.9

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.984 191.5 196.4 3.3 -4.4 4.3 5.1 2.6

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.404 158.7 158.8 -1.3 -0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1

Selected building materials

13

0.989 121.9 123.2 -0.6 1.1 0.4 -0.5 1.1

Capital goods

2

35.835 110.7 110.7 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.739 117.7 117.9 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.493 95.0 94.8 0.0 0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

8.603 180.9 182.1 3.6 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.7

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.140 114.7 114.9 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.2

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.400 110.0 110.0 0.1 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

5.854 107.1 107.2 0.2 0.3 0.6 -0.1 0.1

Durables, manufactured

41

5.112 107.2 107.1 -0.3 -0.7 0.2 0.2 -0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods (Dec. 2018=100)

42

1.435 99.6 99.6 - 0.0 0.0 -0.4 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: April 2018 to April 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  10.108 118.4 123.8 8.6 6.6 10.9 5.1 4.6

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.906 179.6 190.6 3.0 -1.6 1.4 -2.4 6.1

Crop production

111

1.520 189.9 204.4 4.2 -2.4 1.6 -4.1 7.6

Mining

21

8.202 112.4 117.2 10.0 9.3 13.6 6.9 4.3

Oil and gas extraction

211

7.952 112.3 117.2 9.9 9.7 14.1 7.0 4.4

Manufacturing

  89.575 111.6 111.4 -0.8 -0.3 0.2 0.0 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.108 125.1 125.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3

Food manufacturing

311

3.373 155.8 156.9 -0.8 -0.1 0.2 0.6 0.7

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.108 122.1 124.2 2.5 -0.2 0.2 -0.1 1.7

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.364 99.9 100.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.3 0.6

Textile product mills

314

0.925 108.8 108.7 -0.9 0.0 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.714 112.1 112.0 0.6 0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.623 123.4 123.0 0.2 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.3

Manufacturing, part 2

32

17.452 126.5 126.4 -0.2 -0.7 0.6 0.3 -0.1

Paper manufacturing

322

1.063 115.9 115.6 5.7 -0.1 0.2 -0.5 -0.3

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.509 98.9 101.2 6.3 -1.9 1.0 4.7 2.3

Chemical manufacturing

325

9.555 139.8 139.3 -0.7 -0.6 0.5 -0.4 -0.4

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.252 119.2 119.1 -0.4 -0.5 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

1.026 130.9 131.1 0.6 -0.1 0.2 -0.1 0.2

Manufacturing, part 3

33

61.014 104.2 103.9 -1.1 -0.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.3

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.384 157.2 158.5 -0.1 -0.7 1.3 0.7 0.8

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.095 126.7 126.6 -1.1 -0.2 -0.2 0.2 -0.1

Machinery manufacturing

333

7.248 118.9 118.9 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

17.415 73.9 73.1 -3.3 -0.5 -0.1 -0.1 -1.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

5.086 116.7 116.7 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.569 109.3 109.1 -0.5 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.866 117.4 117.4 0.7 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.352 118.5 118.4 -0.4 -0.1 0.2 -0.5 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: April 2018 to April 2019 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Nonmanufacturing

  9.405 138.9 138.2 -1.2 -4.9 1.6 2.2 -0.5

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.890 155.0 151.2 -6.4 -3.7 0.6 1.2 -2.5

Crop production

111

4.538 161.9 157.8 -5.6 -4.0 0.4 1.1 -2.5

Mining

21

4.514 91.0 92.5 6.3 -6.2 2.8 3.2 1.6

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.359 119.9 121.4 7.6 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.3

Manufacturing

  89.350 117.0 117.4 0.8 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.3

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.735 140.7 140.5 -0.4 0.0 0.1 0.3 -0.1

Food manufacturing

311

4.577 157.8 157.5 -0.9 0.1 0.0 0.6 -0.2

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.659 124.0 123.9 0.9 -0.4 0.2 -1.3 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 2

32

25.312 116.4 117.3 0.5 -0.9 1.5 1.6 0.8

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.534 100.7 100.8 -3.3 1.0 0.7 -2.4 0.1

Paper manufacturing

322

1.744 130.2 127.5 -0.9 -2.9 0.8 -0.7 -2.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

6.359 112.8 116.5 2.0 -2.9 5.5 6.8 3.3

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.356 119.2 119.4 0.1 0.0 0.3 -0.1 0.2

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.256 116.4 116.7 1.5 0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.3

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.839 117.6 117.9 0.9 0.0 -0.1 0.9 0.3

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.303 114.9 115.1 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.2

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.013 146.9 147.9 0.3 0.9 1.2 0.2 0.7

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

2.936 146.1 146.6 4.6 1.6 0.0 0.5 0.3

Machinery manufacturing

333

9.478 129.6 129.8 2.0 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.2

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

13.839 82.6 82.3 -1.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.4

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.789 118.1 118.2 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

17.537 128.6 129.1 1.9 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.390 121.2 122.3 3.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.320 120.0 120.0 0.0 -0.6 0.2 -0.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.399 198.2 201.0 1.8 0.2 0.8 2.5 1.4

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.370 258.6 273.5 9.6 1.6 1.9 2.3 5.8

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.742 142.8 142.2 -1.4 -0.1 -0.1 3.2 -0.4

Vegetable products

II

1.843 209.9 225.0 4.2 -2.4 1.7 -3.5 7.2

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.480 520.1 586.1 35.0 -14.7 2.8 0.2 12.7

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.608 113.0 126.9 -1.6 9.0 -2.0 -5.8 12.3

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.318 199.9 199.9 -7.4 -1.4 -1.5 -0.8 0.0

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.238 90.5 88.1 -18.5 1.4 -0.8 -0.9 -2.7

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.814 165.5 166.3 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.5

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.221 96.8 97.3 -4.0 -1.0 0.1 0.9 0.5

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.363 172.2 168.8 0.2 -0.3 -0.2 -0.6 -2.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.063 132.3 134.4 2.3 -0.2 0.2 -0.1 1.6

Mineral products

V

10.829 221.4 226.0 7.0 4.6 10.1 7.0 2.1

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

10.519 218.7 223.5 6.9 4.7 10.4 7.0 2.2

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

8.890 157.5 157.4 -0.2 -0.8 0.8 -0.5 -0.1

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.561 320.9 330.3 4.7 -6.4 2.9 -3.3 2.9

Organic chemicals

29

2.017 127.2 128.2 -3.2 -0.7 0.0 -0.4 0.8

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.332 152.9 152.6 0.9 -0.6 1.3 -0.1 -0.2

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.292 88.9 81.1 1.4 -0.2 -0.4 -2.0 -8.8

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.595 102.9 102.8 -0.9 -0.2 -0.1 0.2 -0.1

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.584 103.8 103.5 -3.5 0.9 -0.6 -1.6 -0.3

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.453 140.5 140.4 -0.5 -0.1 -0.5 0.1 -0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.319 143.9 143.6 0.2 -0.4 -0.5 -0.1 -0.2

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.134 135.8 136.2 -1.7 0.4 -0.4 0.4 0.3

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.618 125.3 124.7 0.2 0.4 -0.2 0.0 -0.5

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.589 131.7 131.1 0.8 0.5 -0.2 0.0 -0.5

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

0.866 149.2 145.1 -16.8 -1.0 1.7 -0.5 -2.7

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.111 122.1 121.8 5.4 0.2 0.1 -0.7 -0.2

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.733 111.8 111.4 4.4 -0.2 0.3 -0.2 -0.4

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.839 114.4 114.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 -0.3 0.0

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

1.961 104.8 104.7 0.7 0.5 -0.3 0.0 -0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.625 120.4 120.2 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.2

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.645 103.7 103.7 -0.5 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.0

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.347 122.3 122.1 0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.5 -0.2

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.119 121.3 121.0 0.2 0.2 -0.2 -0.6 -0.2

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.939 131.9 132.0 -0.1 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.1

Ceramic products

69

0.265 135.9 136.2 0.8 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

2.710 179.0 177.9 1.9 2.5 0.7 0.5 -0.6

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.882 177.9 178.9 -1.4 -1.3 0.4 0.4 0.6

Iron and steel

72

1.346 219.5 222.7 -2.3 -2.7 -1.4 0.2 1.5

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.722 151.3 151.6 -0.7 0.0 -0.1 0.5 0.2

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.463 294.7 294.7 -0.2 -2.8 4.1 2.0 0.0

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

1.009 133.5 134.5 -1.8 -1.7 0.4 0.2 0.7

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.439 124.0 124.0 0.9 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.517 137.2 136.2 -0.9 0.3 -0.2 -0.1 -0.7

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

29.936 79.8 79.4 -1.7 -0.2 0.0 -0.3 -0.5

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

14.923 86.3 85.8 -1.5 0.0 0.0 -0.3 -0.6

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

15.013 73.8 73.5 -1.9 -0.4 -0.1 0.0 -0.4

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.820 113.8 113.6 -0.8 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.2

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.646 112.8 112.6 -0.7 -0.3 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.066 114.6 114.6 -1.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.962 102.0 101.7 -1.5 -0.5 0.3 -0.2 -0.3

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.696 98.6 98.3 -1.5 -0.6 0.3 -0.1 -0.3

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.206 141.4 141.5 -2.7 0.4 0.1 -0.6 0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.427 112.7 112.3 0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.4

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.781 118.7 118.4 0.5 0.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.376 102.6 102.3 0.2 -0.8 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.270 129.6 128.8 0.2 -0.4 0.1 -0.1 -0.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Live animals; animal products

I

1.938 212.5 211.5 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.5 -0.5

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.119 162.7 163.5 -2.3 -0.1 0.2 0.7 0.5

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.417 124.1 121.1 -3.0 0.9 1.2 1.9 -2.4

Vegetable products

II

4.581 200.6 193.0 -4.5 -4.7 0.0 2.0 -3.8

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.986 138.9 134.1 -9.1 3.8 -0.1 -1.8 -3.5

Cereals

10

1.355 192.5 189.2 -4.3 - - -2.8 -1.7

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.688 189.3 188.7 -11.6 - - -1.0 -0.3

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.986 153.3 153.5 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.561 97.9 97.6 0.3 0.0 0.9 1.9 -0.3

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.525 106.2 106.5 -2.7 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.3

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.712 221.3 222.5 -1.1 1.1 -0.1 -1.9 0.5

Mineral products

V

11.069 230.4 236.6 3.3 -4.4 4.4 5.2 2.7

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.416 100.9 102.5 -7.4 -1.1 2.6 2.5 1.6

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

10.456 221.8 228.0 3.9 -4.6 4.6 5.4 2.8

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.885 139.2 139.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 -0.3 0.1

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.733 149.1 149.7 -10.8 0.6 3.9 -0.8 0.4

Organic chemicals

29

2.654 147.5 147.0 2.7 1.5 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3

Pharmaceutical products

30

2.988 105.5 105.6 -1.9 -1.1 0.8 -0.1 0.1

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.523 100.3 102.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 -1.6 1.9

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.859 133.3 132.6 0.9 0.5 1.5 -0.1 -0.5

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.484 123.3 124.4 4.0 0.7 -0.1 0.4 0.9

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.969 157.1 158.3 3.9 -0.1 0.3 0.4 0.8

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.195 144.3 144.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.321 141.4 141.5 0.6 -0.1 -0.1 0.7 0.1

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.874 154.7 154.6 -2.0 0.1 0.6 -1.0 -0.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.640 99.2 99.4 -6.4 0.6 0.5 -0.9 0.2

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.942 128.7 126.3 -3.1 -3.4 -0.6 -1.0 -1.9

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.098 128.3 126.6 -0.5 -2.2 0.2 -0.1 -1.3

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.747 123.3 124.2 -1.0 -1.6 0.5 -0.2 0.7

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.511 126.3 129.2 -8.7 -5.4 1.8 0.0 2.3

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.811 127.0 127.0 2.3 1.0 0.0 0.9 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.167 243.7 244.0 1.5 1.6 1.3 0.0 0.1

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.746 161.4 162.9 -0.6 -0.3 0.4 0.9 0.9

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.509 191.2 192.9 -4.0 -3.3 3.9 3.5 0.9

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.715 106.4 108.9 -9.6 -0.4 -2.8 1.4 2.3

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.335 155.1 155.1 2.0 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

27.970 98.1 98.0 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.0 -0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

16.260 116.5 116.4 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.1 -0.1

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.710 78.4 78.4 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.602 136.6 137.1 1.6 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.267 116.4 116.8 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.794 108.9 108.9 -0.4 -0.3 0.3 -0.1 0.0

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.366 112.9 113.0 0.6 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.1

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.759 130.5 131.0 1.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.452 88.5 88.5 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.1 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 127.8 128.1 2.7 2.8 2.8 1.2 0.2

Nonmanufacturing

11.696 198.8 205.0 33.4 42.9 25.1 9.2 3.1

Manufacturing

87.684 121.2 121.0 -0.6 0.1 0.6 0.2 -0.2

Canada

100.000 143.7 145.6 9.4 8.5 7.6 3.0 1.3

Nonmanufacturing

31.395 195.0 201.6 37.8 49.5 27.2 9.7 3.4

Manufacturing

67.677 131.2 131.7 -1.0 -0.6 1.1 0.3 0.4

European Union

100.000 137.3 137.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing

98.677 133.6 133.7 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 128.0 128.3 -0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 112.7 112.3 -0.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 -0.4

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 121.3 122.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.6

Latin America(3)

100.000 147.7 149.1 -1.1 -1.1 1.2 -0.2 0.9

Nonmanufacturing

16.547 254.9 273.1 3.1 -1.8 5.7 -0.5 7.1

Manufacturing

83.173 121.0 120.7 -1.9 -0.9 0.4 -0.2 -0.2

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 127.5 128.9 0.2 -1.3 0.5 -0.1 1.1

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

8.387 137.7 159.6 19.8 -9.0 3.1 2.5 15.9

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

91.349 87.6 87.4 -1.6 -0.6 0.2 -0.3 -0.2

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 98.7 98.6 -0.6 -0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 99.5 99.3 -1.1 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.2

Japan

100.000 96.7 96.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Taiwan (Dec. 2018=100)

100.000 99.5 98.8 - -0.1 -0.5 0.1 -0.7

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 88.5 88.7 -0.6 -0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 97.1 97.0 -1.7 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 180.5 189.0 4.1 -2.7 0.5 4.2 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: April 2018 to April 2019 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 103.9 103.6 1.6 -1.2 0.9 0.9 -0.3

Nonmanufacturing

9.331 121.2 117.4 21.3 -11.8 4.4 8.6 -3.1

Manufacturing

89.606 102.7 102.7 0.3 -0.1 0.6 0.1 0.0

Canada

100.000 105.9 105.1 2.1 -2.9 0.4 1.4 -0.8

European Union

100.000 104.5 105.2 1.9 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.7

Nonmanufacturing

7.604 110.2 116.2 10.9 0.6 1.9 2.5 5.4

Manufacturing

91.317 104.2 104.5 1.3 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.3

Germany

100.000 101.9 102.5 0.2 0.9 -0.2 -0.1 0.6

Latin America(3)

100.000 102.9 102.9 0.9 -1.2 0.9 1.5 0.0

Nonmanufacturing

7.083 107.8 106.4 4.2 -7.7 0.4 0.7 -1.3

Manufacturing

92.505 102.6 102.7 0.7 -0.7 0.9 1.6 0.1

Mexico

100.000 102.2 101.8 0.4 -1.3 0.5 1.4 -0.4

Nonmanufacturing

6.331 103.7 99.8 -1.5 -11.5 -0.2 1.7 -3.8

Manufacturing

93.189 102.0 101.9 0.5 -0.6 0.6 1.3 -0.1

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 100.6 100.9 -0.7 -0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3

Nonmanufacturing

14.222 98.9 102.9 -1.1 0.3 1.8 1.2 4.0

Manufacturing

83.735 101.1 100.9 -0.4 -0.3 0.5 0.0 -0.2

China

100.000 99.1 99.7 -2.7 -0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6

Nonmanufacturing

20.342 96.9 101.2 -3.8 -0.8 2.3 1.0 4.4

Manufacturing

75.860 100.5 100.2 -1.7 -0.3 0.7 0.4 -0.3

Japan

100.000 100.3 101.3 -0.6 -1.4 1.2 0.3 1.0

Nonmanufacturing

18.876 103.4 107.6 0.7 -1.3 3.2 1.5 4.1

Manufacturing

79.998 99.3 99.5 -1.4 -1.5 0.6 0.0 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: April 2018 to April 2019(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Industrialized Countries(2)

99.5 99.0 -1.1 -3.8 -1.9 -0.3 -0.5

Canada

96.8 94.8 -6.7 -10.5 -6.7 -1.5 -2.1

European Union

102.4 103.1 1.9 0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.7

Germany

104.1 105.1 0.3 0.5 -0.2 -0.4 1.0

Latin America(3)

103.7 102.8 2.1 -0.1 -0.4 1.7 -0.9

Mexico

103.4 101.9 0.3 0.1 0.0 1.5 -1.5

Pacific Rim(4)

100.3 100.7 -0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.3 0.4

China

99.7 100.5 -1.7 -0.3 0.8 0.5 0.8

Japan

99.1 100.1 -0.6 -1.4 1.1 0.2 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: April 2018 to April 2019 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Mar.
2019(1)
Index Percent change
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Annual Monthly
Apr.
2018
to
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2018
to
Jan.
2019
Jan.
2019
to
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2019
to
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2019
to
Apr.
2019

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 175.3 176.6 -7.8 -1.0 -6.1 0.1 0.7

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

27.781 149.3 149.0 -2.2 2.4 -1.4 -0.1 -0.2

Asia

59.048 161.8 163.9 -11.4 -2.6 -9.5 0.6 1.3

Export Air Freight

100.000 165.5 164.9 1.2 -0.1 0.4 0.1 -0.4

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

31.427 149.8 149.1 0.9 2.4 -1.4 -0.3 -0.5

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 167.0 164.8 -4.8 0.2 -4.4 0.4 -1.3

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

28.569 137.9 136.2 -1.5 4.4 -2.4 -0.1 -1.2

Asia

56.404 153.5 151.6 -7.1 -2.1 -6.5 0.9 -1.2

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 144.8 143.3 0.8 -1.2 0.2 0.2 -1.0

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

32.841 151.0 150.4 1.6 2.1 -0.9 0.2 -0.4

Asia

44.899 140.5 137.5 0.3 -4.3 1.4 0.0 -2.1

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 175.4 162.7 -10.6 -3.8 -2.0 -5.7 -7.2

Europe

56.058 206.0 182.3 -14.7 4.2 -1.7 -8.5 -11.5

Asia

18.657 124.6 124.7 -5.1 -12.3 -9.0 -0.7 0.1

Latin America/Caribbean

6.530 154.5 155.5 -6.9 -16.7 4.9 -0.6 0.6

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 149.2 147.1 -3.5 7.0 -8.9 1.6 -1.4

Europe

29.262 195.8 189.6 -5.2 -2.7 -2.4 0.8 -3.2

Asia

27.521 131.2 124.7 0.0 12.5 -13.6 1.2 -5.0

Latin America/Caribbean

25.169 154.7 160.1 -3.3 14.6 -11.6 3.2 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2017 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   
Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.


Last Modified Date: May 14, 2019