Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
ECT XYZ Program Links

Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                 USDL-22-0712
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, April 29, 2022

Technical information: (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ect
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

				EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  March 2022

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.4 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month 
period ending in March 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries 
increased 1.2 percent and benefit costs increased 1.8 percent from December 2021. (See tables A, 1, 
2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 
2022 and increased 2.6 percent in March 2021. Wages and salaries increased 4.7 percent for the 
12-month period ending in March 2022 and increased 2.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
March 2021. Benefit costs increased 4.1 percent over the year and increased 2.5 percent for the 
12-month period ending in March 2021. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.8 percent over the year. In March 2021, 
the increase was 2.8 percent. Wages and salaries increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month period ending 
in March 2022 and increased 3.0 percent in March 2021. The cost of benefits increased 4.1 percent for 
the 12-month period ending in March 2022 and increased 2.5 percent in March 2021. Inflation-adjusted 
(constant dollar) private wages and salaries declined 3.3 percent for the 12 months ending March 2022. 
Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector declined 4.0 percent over that same period. 
(See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period ending 
in March 2022 ranged from 4.0 percent for natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 
to 7.8 percent for service occupations. (See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 3.2 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2022, compared with an increase of 2.0 percent in March 2021. Wages and salaries 
increased 3.1 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2022 and 1.6 percent a year ago. Benefit 
costs increased 3.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2022. The prior year increase was 
2.6 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Updated Employment Weights

Beginning with the December 2022 news release, the Employment Cost Index will introduce new 
employment weights based on the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, see 
www.bls.gov/soc/2018/home.htm.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.0 1.4 2.6 4.0 4.5 0.1 -2.9 -3.7

Wages and salaries

1.0 1.2 2.7 4.5 4.7 0.1 -2.3 -3.6

Benefits

0.9 1.8 2.5 2.8 4.1 -0.1 -3.9 -4.2

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.4 2.8 4.4 4.8 0.2 -2.5 -3.5

Wages and salaries

1.1 1.3 3.0 5.0 5.0 0.4 -1.9 -3.3

Benefits

0.9 1.9 2.5 2.9 4.1 -0.2 -3.8 -4.0

Health benefits

- - 2.1 0.4 2.2 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

0.7 1.1 2.0 2.6 3.2 -0.6 -4.2 -4.9

Wages and salaries

0.7 0.9 1.6 2.7 3.1 -1.0 -4.1 -5.1

Benefits

0.9 1.5 2.6 2.5 3.5 0.1 -4.3 -4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence 
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, 
coverage, methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation see National Compensation Measures 
Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 29,800 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 7,400 private industry establishments and 
approximately 7,700 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an 
additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of 
decreasing response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current 
quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see 
www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/ectvar.htm and the database query tool at www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm. 
Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within 
an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings
Historical listings are available at www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. The continuous occupational and 
industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual and Occupational 
Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American Industry 
Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to the 
present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification 
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article 
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs 
for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in xlsx format at 
www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather 
than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm.

Additional information
Starting with the ECI March 2022 release, inflation-adjusted or constant dollar estimates are 
available in the database at www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm. ECI release dates are available on the 
release calendar at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS 
Economic News Release email at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are
deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access 
telecommunications relay services.

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

148.0 150.1 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.4

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

144.1 146.2 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.5

Manufacturing

143.6 146.2 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.8

Service-providing industries(4)

148.9 151.0 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.4 0.9 1.4

Education and health services

146.5 148.4 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.3

Educational services

145.9 147.5 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

146.5 148.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

144.6 146.1 0.7 0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.1 0.6 1.0

Health care and social assistance

147.2 149.4 0.7 -0.1 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.5

Hospitals

147.7 149.8 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

146.3 148.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.7

Public administration

150.8 153.1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.5

Private industry workers

All workers

147.9 150.0 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.1 1.4

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.6 146.5 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.3

Management, business, and financial

146.0 147.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.4 0.6 1.3

Professional and related

143.6 145.4 0.7 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.3

Sales and office

150.0 152.5 1.1 0.6 0.4 1.1 1.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 1.7

Sales and related

147.1 150.0 1.6 0.6 0.1 1.4 3.3 -0.4 1.4 1.0 2.0

Office and administrative support

151.9 154.1 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

146.7 148.5 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

146.7 148.4 1.2 -0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

146.8 148.6 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.9 153.2 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.5

Production

147.5 149.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.6

Transportation and material moving

155.1 157.4 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.5

Service occupations

156.0 159.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

144.1 146.2 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.5

Construction

145.2 146.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.8

Manufacturing

143.6 146.2 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.8

Aircraft manufacturing

134.8 137.7 -1.4 1.2 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.5 7.0 0.4 2.2

Service-providing industries(5)

149.0 151.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.5 1.1 1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

152.7 155.1 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.6

Wholesale trade

145.9 148.6 0.8 1.0 0.1 0.4 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.9

Retail trade

155.9 158.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.7 2.2 1.8

Transportation and warehousing

154.4 155.8 0.9 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.1 1.0 0.9

Utilities

159.1 160.6 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.9

Information

145.2 147.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.5 1.3 0.9 1.2

Financial activities

146.8 148.3 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.8 3.2 -1.6 2.1 -0.5 1.0

Finance and insurance

147.4 148.7 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.8 3.8 -2.0 2.3 -0.9 0.9

Credit intermediation and related activities

150.0 148.8 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.9 -0.1 2.1 5.3 -1.4 -0.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

147.7 150.1 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

143.8 146.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.3 2.0

Professional and business services

147.9 149.9 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.4 0.9 1.4

Professional, scientific, and technical services

149.3 150.9 1.5 -0.2 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.8 1.6 0.7 1.1

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

147.6 150.4 1.1 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.9

Education and health services

146.0 148.2 0.8 -0.1 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.5

Educational services

143.8 145.7 0.9 0.6 -0.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 1.3 0.5 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

144.7 146.0 0.9 0.4 -0.8 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.9

Health care and social assistance

146.5 148.7 0.7 -0.2 1.2 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.5

Hospitals

147.4 149.6 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

144.9 147.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

156.7 159.7 1.0 0.8 1.1 0.5 1.6 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.9

Accommodation and food services

160.0 163.2 1.1 0.8 1.3 0.8 1.6 2.3 2.3 1.8 2.0

Other services, except public administration

150.4 152.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4

State and local government workers

All workers

148.7 150.4 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.1

Industry

Education and health services

147.1 148.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.0

Educational services

146.5 147.9 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.0

Schools

146.4 147.9 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.0

Elementary and secondary schools

147.0 148.4 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0

Health care and social assistance

152.1 153.7 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1

Hospitals

149.1 150.7 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1

Public administration

150.8 153.1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

147.7 149.5 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.0 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

146.6 148.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.2

Manufacturing

146.5 148.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5

Service-providing industries(3)

148.0 149.8 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.6 1.0 1.2

Education and health services

142.4 144.1 0.8 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.2

Educational services

137.6 138.7 0.7 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.8

Elementary and secondary schools

136.3 137.4 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.8

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

139.1 140.1 0.6 0.4 -0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.6 0.7

Health care and social assistance

147.6 149.7 0.9 -0.4 1.2 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.4

Hospitals

147.6 149.4 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

148.3 150.8 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.7

Private industry workers

All workers

149.8 151.7 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.3

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

145.9 147.5 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.4 0.8 1.1

Professional and related

145.0 146.7 1.0 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.1

Management, business, and financial

147.3 148.7 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.7 0.4 0.9

Sales and office

152.0 154.2 1.4 0.5 0.4 1.1 2.3 0.5 1.5 1.1 1.4

Office and administrative support

153.2 155.1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.2 149.2 1.2 0.1 0.7 0.6 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

147.3 149.2 1.5 -0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

147.2 149.4 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.4 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

154.0 156.1 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4

Production

150.2 152.1 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.2

Transportation and material moving

158.5 160.6 1.2 0.8 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.3

Service occupations

159.7 162.7 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

146.7 148.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.2

Construction

146.7 147.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.7 1.2 0.7

Manufacturing

146.5 148.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5

Aircraft manufacturing

151.1 153.0 0.0 1.3 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.5 1.2

Service-providing industries(4)

150.6 152.5 1.1 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

153.8 155.9 0.9 0.9 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.4

Wholesale trade

144.0 146.3 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.4 1.0 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6

Retail trade

158.9 161.4 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.8 2.5 1.5

Transportation and warehousing

156.9 158.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.2 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.7

Utilities

154.0 155.3 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.9 0.8

Information

144.5 146.6 0.9 0.3 0.7 1.2 0.9 0.6 1.4 0.8 1.5

Financial activities

148.7 149.5 0.4 0.6 0.3 1.0 4.5 -2.1 2.9 -1.3 0.5

Finance and insurance

149.9 150.1 0.5 0.6 0.3 1.2 5.3 -2.7 3.2 -1.8 0.1

Credit intermediation and related activities

152.3 148.9 0.5 0.3 0.6 1.2 -0.2 3.2 7.6 -2.3 -2.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

146.9 148.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

143.9 147.0 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.6 2.2

Professional and business services

149.5 151.4 1.7 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.3

Professional, scientific, and technical services

150.6 152.0 2.2 -0.3 -0.1 0.8 0.3 1.1 1.5 0.7 1.0

Education and health services

146.9 149.0 0.9 -0.3 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.4 1.4

Educational services

142.8 144.5 1.1 0.6 -0.5 0.9 0.5 0.4 1.4 0.4 1.2

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

142.1 143.2 0.9 0.4 -0.9 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.8

Health care and social assistance

147.8 150.0 0.9 -0.4 1.3 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.5

Hospitals

148.2 150.3 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

148.9 151.6 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.0 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

162.1 165.1 1.0 0.8 1.1 0.6 1.7 2.6 2.5 1.8 1.9

Accommodation and food services

165.5 168.6 1.1 0.9 1.5 0.8 1.8 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.9

Other services, except public administration

152.2 154.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local government workers

All workers

138.8 140.1 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.9

Industry

Education and health services

137.4 138.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8

Educational services

136.5 137.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7

Schools

136.5 137.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.7

Elementary and secondary schools

136.1 137.0 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.7

Health care and social assistance

145.3 146.5 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.8

Hospitals

144.4 145.5 0.7 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.2 0.8

Public administration

140.7 142.6 0.7 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.5 1.4 0.7 1.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

148.9 151.6 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.8

Private industry workers

All workers

143.4 146.1 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.9 1.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

141.6 144.1 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.8

Sales and office

145.0 148.3 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.1 0.9 1.0 2.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

145.8 147.0 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

144.6 147.6 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.5 0.6 2.1

Service occupations

144.0 147.2 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.3 0.9 2.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

138.8 141.7 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.2 0.5 2.1

Manufacturing

138.2 141.6 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.7 0.4 2.5

Service-providing industries(3)

145.1 147.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.9 1.0 1.8

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

168.3 170.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers(2)

143.7 147.9 150.2 1.1 0.8 1.6 2.6 4.0 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

143.5 147.8 150.1 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.5 3.9 4.6

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

141.5 145.0 146.9 0.7 0.6 1.3 1.9 3.2 3.8

Management, business, and financial

142.3 146.0 148.0 0.7 0.3 1.4 1.8 3.3 4.0

Professional and related

141.1 144.5 146.3 0.7 0.8 1.2 2.0 3.1 3.7

Sales and office

146.4 150.1 152.7 1.9 0.9 1.7 3.8 4.5 4.3

Sales and related

144.3 147.2 150.0 3.3 1.0 1.9 5.4 5.4 4.0

Office and administrative support

147.3 151.6 154.2 0.9 0.9 1.7 2.6 3.8 4.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

143.0 147.0 148.8 0.9 0.9 1.2 2.4 3.7 4.1

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

142.7 146.9 148.8 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.6 3.7 4.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

143.4 147.1 148.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 3.2 3.7 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.5 151.1 153.6 0.9 1.2 1.7 3.2 4.8 5.6

Production

141.9 147.5 149.9 1.0 1.2 1.6 3.2 5.0 5.6

Transportation and material moving

149.6 155.5 158.0 0.7 1.4 1.6 3.1 4.7 5.6

Service occupations

148.5 155.6 158.7 1.2 1.6 2.0 3.5 6.1 6.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

140.0 144.0 146.2 0.7 0.8 1.5 2.4 3.6 4.4

Manufacturing

139.4 143.5 146.2 0.6 0.7 1.9 2.3 3.6 4.9

Service-providing industries(5)

144.4 148.7 150.9 1.1 1.0 1.5 2.7 4.1 4.5

Education and health services

142.4 146.5 148.2 0.5 1.0 1.2 2.1 3.4 4.1

Educational services

142.7 145.9 147.0 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.9 2.5 3.0

Elementary and secondary schools

143.3 146.3 147.4 0.2 0.4 0.8 2.2 2.3 2.9

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

141.2 144.8 145.8 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.9 2.6 3.3

Health care and social assistance

142.2 147.3 149.5 0.9 1.6 1.5 2.3 4.5 5.1

Hospitals

143.0 147.7 150.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 2.6 4.3 4.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

139.9 146.4 148.8 1.0 1.8 1.6 3.2 5.7 6.4

Public administration

147.4 150.6 152.9 0.4 0.7 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers

143.3 147.8 150.2 1.2 1.0 1.6 2.8 4.4 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.0 147.6 150.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 2.6 4.2 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

140.7 144.4 146.6 0.9 0.6 1.5 2.0 3.5 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

140.1 143.4 145.8 0.9 0.9 1.7 2.0 3.3 4.1

Management, business, and financial

142.0 145.8 147.9 0.7 0.3 1.4 1.8 3.4 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

141.1 144.0 146.8 0.9 0.8 1.9 1.9 2.9 4.0

Professional and related

139.7 143.4 145.6 0.9 0.8 1.5 2.1 3.6 4.2

Sales and office

146.1 149.9 152.6 2.0 0.9 1.8 3.9 4.7 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

146.5 151.6 154.4 1.0 1.4 1.8 3.0 4.6 5.4

Sales and related

144.3 147.1 149.9 3.4 1.0 1.9 5.5 5.4 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

145.3 151.5 154.7 1.0 2.2 2.1 3.5 5.3 6.5

Office and administrative support

147.1 151.7 154.3 1.0 1.0 1.7 2.7 4.2 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.7 146.7 148.4 1.0 0.8 1.2 2.4 3.8 4.0

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

142.4 146.6 148.4 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.6 3.8 4.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

143.0 146.8 148.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 3.5 3.8 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.1 150.9 153.4 0.9 1.3 1.7 3.2 4.9 5.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

144.8 150.6 153.0 0.8 1.3 1.6 3.2 4.9 5.7

Production

141.7 147.3 149.9 1.0 1.1 1.8 3.3 5.0 5.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.1 147.9 150.4 0.9 1.2 1.7 3.3 5.0 5.8

Transportation and material moving

149.3 155.3 157.7 0.7 1.4 1.5 3.1 4.8 5.6

Service occupations

147.8 155.9 159.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 3.9 7.1 7.8

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

139.9 144.0 146.2 0.7 0.8 1.5 2.3 3.7 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

140.0 144.0 146.4 0.9 0.8 1.7 2.2 3.7 4.6

Management, professional, and related

136.6 139.3 142.1 0.7 0.6 2.0 1.6 2.7 4.0

Sales and office

143.5 148.3 148.0 0.1 1.2 -0.2 4.6 3.4 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.9 146.0 147.7 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.9 3.8 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

140.4 145.6 148.2 0.9 1.0 1.8 2.9 4.6 5.6

Construction

141.3 145.2 146.1 0.7 0.9 0.6 2.7 3.5 3.4

Manufacturing

139.4 143.5 146.2 0.6 0.7 1.9 2.3 3.6 4.9

Management, professional, and related

137.7 140.5 143.4 0.6 0.5 2.1 1.7 2.6 4.1

Sales and office occupations

141.9 145.7 148.8 0.9 0.5 2.1 1.6 3.6 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

140.3 144.2 145.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 2.9 3.4 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

140.1 145.2 147.9 0.9 1.0 1.9 3.0 4.5 5.6

Aircraft manufacturing

125.0 136.9 141.0 1.5 0.1 3.0 3.6 11.2 12.8

Service-providing industries(4)

144.3 148.9 151.3 1.3 1.0 1.6 2.9 4.6 4.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

144.0 148.7 151.2 1.1 1.2 1.7 2.7 4.4 5.0

Management, professional, and related

141.5 145.4 147.4 0.9 0.7 1.4 2.1 3.7 4.2

Sales and office

146.4 150.1 153.1 2.2 0.9 2.0 3.8 4.8 4.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

143.9 147.8 149.6 1.1 1.0 1.2 3.3 3.8 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.3 156.7 159.1 0.9 1.5 1.5 3.4 5.2 5.9

Service occupations

147.8 155.9 159.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 4.0 7.1 7.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

146.7 152.6 155.3 1.1 1.7 1.8 3.2 5.2 5.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.3 152.6 155.2 0.9 1.6 1.7 3.1 4.5 5.4

Wholesale trade

139.9 145.6 148.8 1.3 1.2 2.2 2.4 5.4 6.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.5 148.2 150.9 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.3 4.3 5.2

Retail trade

148.4 156.0 158.8 1.2 2.4 1.8 3.8 6.3 7.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.4 153.9 157.0 1.1 2.1 2.0 3.9 5.6 6.5

Transportation and warehousing

150.5 154.7 156.3 0.6 1.1 1.0 2.7 3.4 3.9

Utilities

155.7 158.5 160.8 1.1 0.4 1.5 2.6 2.9 3.3

Information

141.4 144.7 147.1 1.1 0.6 1.7 3.1 3.4 4.0

Financial activities

146.8 146.0 148.5 3.8 -1.1 1.7 5.3 3.3 1.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.8 146.0 149.3 0.9 0.8 2.3 2.3 3.2 4.6

Finance and insurance

148.4 146.5 148.8 4.5 -1.5 1.6 6.0 3.2 0.3

Credit intermediation and related activities

141.2 148.8 148.5 0.5 -2.6 -0.2 2.0 5.9 5.2

Excluding incentive paid

145.7 148.4 152.0 1.0 0.6 2.4 2.2 2.9 4.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

144.6 147.1 150.1 1.1 0.5 2.0 2.8 2.9 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.2 145.8 148.8 0.8 0.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

139.7 143.9 146.9 0.6 1.2 2.1 2.0 3.7 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.9 148.1 151.0 0.8 1.1 2.0 2.1 3.8 4.9

Professional and business services

143.7 147.9 150.2 0.9 0.8 1.6 2.1 3.9 4.5

Professional, scientific, and technical services

145.2 149.2 151.1 0.8 0.5 1.3 1.4 3.6 4.1

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

142.1 147.5 150.4 1.3 1.3 2.0 3.5 5.1 5.8

Education and health services

141.3 146.1 148.3 0.8 1.3 1.5 2.2 4.2 5.0

Educational services

140.5 144.0 145.4 0.1 0.3 1.0 1.4 2.6 3.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

141.0 144.9 145.8 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.4 2.9 3.4

Health care and social assistance

141.4 146.6 148.9 0.9 1.6 1.6 2.2 4.6 5.3

Hospitals

142.6 147.4 149.8 1.1 1.7 1.6 2.7 4.5 5.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

138.3 145.0 147.6 1.1 1.8 1.8 3.4 6.0 6.7

Nursing care facilities(2)

137.7 144.1 146.6 1.2 1.6 1.7 3.5 5.9 6.5

Leisure and hospitality

147.4 156.3 159.8 1.9 1.4 2.2 3.9 8.0 8.4

Accommodation and food service

150.2 159.6 163.4 2.0 1.6 2.4 4.5 8.4 8.8

Other services, except public administration

144.3 150.1 152.6 1.4 1.1 1.7 2.8 5.5 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Bargaining status

Union

147.5 151.2 152.6 0.8 0.7 0.9 3.1 3.3 3.5

Goods-producing industries(2)

141.8 146.2 147.5 0.7 0.6 0.9 3.1 3.8 4.0

Manufacturing

135.4 140.7 142.3 0.5 0.9 1.1 3.8 4.5 5.1

Service-providing industries(3)

151.6 155.0 156.5 0.9 0.8 1.0 3.0 3.2 3.2

Nonunion

142.7 147.2 149.7 1.3 1.0 1.7 2.8 4.5 4.9

Goods-producing industries(2)

139.3 143.3 145.7 0.7 0.8 1.7 2.2 3.6 4.6

Manufacturing

140.5 144.4 147.3 0.7 0.7 2.0 2.1 3.5 4.8

Service-providing industries(3)

143.6 148.2 150.7 1.4 1.0 1.7 2.9 4.7 4.9

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

146.1 149.6 152.2 1.5 0.8 1.7 3.1 3.9 4.2

New England

149.0 153.4 156.5 1.4 0.8 2.0 2.8 4.4 5.0

Middle Atlantic

145.1 148.3 150.7 1.5 0.8 1.6 3.2 3.8 3.9

South

141.0 145.6 147.5 1.2 0.7 1.3 3.1 4.5 4.6

South Atlantic

143.7 147.5 149.4 1.3 0.8 1.3 3.6 4.0 4.0

East South Central

139.4 145.6 148.2 1.5 1.5 1.8 2.3 6.0 6.3

West South Central

137.0 142.5 144.0 0.8 0.3 1.1 2.5 4.9 5.1

Midwest

140.7 145.5 147.9 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.3 4.6 5.1

East North Central

139.1 143.8 146.3 1.1 1.3 1.7 2.0 4.5 5.2

West North Central

144.6 149.6 151.9 1.2 1.6 1.5 3.2 4.7 5.0

West

146.8 151.4 154.3 1.2 0.9 1.9 2.7 4.3 5.1

Mountain

143.8 149.3 152.2 1.3 1.3 1.9 3.1 5.1 5.8

Pacific

148.1 152.4 155.3 1.2 0.7 1.9 2.6 4.1 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers

145.4 148.6 150.0 0.3 0.7 0.9 2.0 2.6 3.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

143.7 146.6 147.7 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.9 2.4 2.8

Professional and related

143.6 146.5 147.6 0.3 0.5 0.8 2.0 2.4 2.8

Sales and office

148.4 151.4 153.3 0.3 0.5 1.3 2.3 2.3 3.3

Office and administrative support

148.5 151.4 153.4 0.3 0.5 1.3 2.3 2.2 3.3

Service occupations

149.6 154.1 156.2 0.3 0.9 1.4 2.3 3.4 4.4

Industry

Education and health services

143.8 147.0 148.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.1 2.5 3.0

Educational services

143.3 146.4 147.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.1 2.4 2.9

Schools

143.2 146.3 147.3 0.2 0.5 0.7 2.1 2.4 2.9

Elementary and secondary schools

143.8 146.8 147.8 0.3 0.4 0.7 2.3 2.4 2.8

Health care and social assistance

147.6 152.1 153.7 0.6 1.3 1.1 2.1 3.7 4.1

Hospitals

144.9 149.2 150.8 0.7 1.3 1.1 2.1 3.7 4.1

Public administration

147.4 150.6 152.9 0.4 0.7 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers(1)

142.9 147.7 149.6 1.1 1.0 1.3 2.7 4.5 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.2 147.0 149.1 0.9 1.2 1.4 2.4 4.3 4.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

139.7 143.4 144.9 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.7 3.4 3.7

Management, business, and financial

141.9 146.1 147.6 0.6 0.2 1.0 1.6 3.6 4.0

Professional and related

138.4 142.0 143.5 0.7 0.7 1.1 1.8 3.3 3.7

Sales and office

146.8 150.9 153.2 2.4 0.9 1.5 4.3 5.2 4.4

Sales and related

147.0 150.0 152.4 4.0 0.8 1.6 6.1 6.1 3.7

Office and administrative support

146.2 151.2 153.4 1.0 1.1 1.5 2.7 4.5 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.3 146.7 148.6 1.1 1.0 1.3 2.6 4.2 4.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

141.8 146.7 148.7 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.6 4.4 4.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

142.8 146.9 148.7 1.1 1.1 1.2 3.6 4.0 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

146.9 153.6 155.8 1.1 1.5 1.4 3.5 5.7 6.1

Production

143.7 150.1 152.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 3.5 5.8 5.8

Transportation and material moving

150.3 157.5 159.9 0.9 1.7 1.5 3.4 5.7 6.4

Service occupations

147.8 156.1 159.2 1.4 1.9 2.0 3.9 7.1 7.7

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

141.9 146.5 148.3 0.7 1.0 1.2 2.5 4.0 4.5

Manufacturing

141.8 146.4 148.7 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.5 4.1 4.9

Service-providing industries(4)

143.1 147.9 149.9 1.3 1.0 1.4 2.8 4.7 4.8

Education and health services

138.2 142.6 144.0 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.8 3.6 4.2

Educational services

134.9 137.8 138.5 0.1 0.3 0.5 1.6 2.2 2.7

Elementary and secondary schools

133.9 136.5 137.2 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.7 2.0 2.5

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

135.8 139.3 140.0 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.8 2.7 3.1

Health care and social assistance

141.9 147.8 149.9 0.9 1.7 1.4 2.2 5.0 5.6

Hospitals

142.0 147.7 149.6 1.0 1.9 1.3 2.5 5.0 5.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

140.9 148.4 150.9 1.1 2.0 1.7 3.5 6.5 7.1

Public administration

137.2 140.8 142.7 0.5 0.7 1.3 1.6 3.2 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers

144.6 149.7 151.8 1.4 1.0 1.4 3.0 5.0 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

143.9 149.0 151.4 1.1 1.3 1.6 2.7 4.6 5.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

141.6 145.8 147.6 0.9 0.6 1.2 1.8 3.8 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

140.5 144.1 146.2 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.9 3.5 4.1

Management, business, and financial

142.7 147.1 148.6 0.7 0.1 1.0 1.6 3.8 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

140.9 144.0 146.4 0.8 0.8 1.7 1.7 3.0 3.9

Professional and related

140.8 144.9 146.8 0.9 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.9 4.3

Sales and office

147.7 151.9 154.3 2.5 1.0 1.6 4.4 5.4 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.3 153.2 155.7 1.1 1.6 1.6 3.2 5.1 5.7

Sales and related

147.2 150.1 152.6 4.0 0.8 1.7 6.2 6.1 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.1 154.1 157.0 1.0 2.4 1.9 3.7 5.8 6.7

Office and administrative support

147.6 153.0 155.3 1.1 1.1 1.5 2.8 4.8 5.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.7 147.2 149.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 2.7 4.2 4.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

142.3 147.2 149.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.6 4.4 4.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

143.1 147.2 149.1 1.2 1.0 1.3 3.8 4.1 4.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

147.1 153.9 156.2 1.1 1.5 1.5 3.5 5.8 6.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.7 153.6 155.8 1.0 1.6 1.4 3.5 5.8 6.2

Production

143.7 150.0 152.1 1.3 1.4 1.4 3.6 5.8 5.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

144.1 150.6 152.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 3.7 5.8 6.0

Transportation and material moving

151.1 158.5 160.8 0.9 1.7 1.5 3.5 5.9 6.4

Service occupations

150.1 159.5 163.0 1.7 2.1 2.2 4.3 8.1 8.6

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

142.0 146.6 148.3 0.7 1.0 1.2 2.5 4.0 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.0 146.5 148.6 0.9 1.0 1.4 2.2 4.1 4.6

Management, professional, and related

139.9 142.7 145.1 0.5 0.7 1.7 1.3 2.5 3.7

Sales and office

146.7 152.4 150.5 -0.1 1.4 -1.2 5.9 3.7 2.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.4 147.0 148.7 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.9 4.3 4.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

142.4 148.6 150.8 1.1 1.3 1.5 3.1 5.5 5.9

Construction

142.1 146.6 147.2 0.6 1.0 0.4 3.0 3.8 3.6

Manufacturing

141.8 146.4 148.7 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.5 4.1 4.9

Management, professional, and related

140.6 143.4 145.9 0.3 0.6 1.7 1.4 2.3 3.8

Sales and office

143.6 147.9 150.7 1.1 0.5 1.9 2.1 4.1 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

143.3 147.6 148.6 0.8 0.8 0.7 3.2 3.9 3.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

142.3 148.4 150.6 1.1 1.3 1.5 3.3 5.5 5.8

Aircraft manufacturing

149.9 150.2 153.5 1.1 -0.1 2.2 3.0 1.3 2.4

Service-providing industries(3)

145.3 150.5 152.8 1.5 1.0 1.5 3.1 5.2 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

144.4 149.8 152.2 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.8 4.8 5.4

Management, professional, and related

141.9 146.3 148.0 0.9 0.6 1.2 1.9 4.0 4.3

Sales and office

147.8 151.8 154.7 2.8 0.9 1.9 4.3 5.6 4.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

143.2 147.5 149.6 1.3 1.0 1.4 3.8 4.3 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

151.8 159.3 161.5 1.1 1.8 1.4 3.9 6.1 6.4

Service occupations

150.1 159.5 163.0 1.7 2.1 2.2 4.3 8.1 8.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

146.7 153.7 156.0 1.2 1.9 1.5 3.4 6.1 6.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.0 153.1 155.4 1.0 1.9 1.5 3.4 5.2 5.7

Wholesale trade

137.2 143.6 146.5 1.4 1.3 2.0 2.3 6.1 6.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

140.1 145.3 147.7 0.9 1.6 1.7 2.2 4.7 5.4

Retail trade

150.3 159.0 161.4 1.1 2.7 1.5 4.2 7.0 7.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.8 156.3 159.0 1.1 2.3 1.7 4.2 6.2 6.9

Transportation and warehousing

151.8 157.0 158.3 0.9 1.3 0.8 3.3 4.3 4.3

Utilities

150.7 153.4 155.6 1.3 0.6 1.4 2.6 3.2 3.3

Information

140.6 144.3 146.7 1.2 0.7 1.7 3.2 3.9 4.3

Financial activities

149.5 147.8 149.8 5.1 -1.9 1.4 6.3 3.9 0.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.6 146.0 149.2 1.1 0.9 2.2 2.0 3.5 4.6

Finance and insurance

152.1 148.8 150.5 6.1 -2.6 1.1 7.3 3.8 -1.1

Credit intermediation and related activities

140.1 150.7 148.6 0.5 -3.8 -1.4 1.7 8.1 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

144.1 147.5 151.0 1.2 0.8 2.4 1.8 3.6 4.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

143.9 146.3 148.9 1.3 0.4 1.8 3.1 3.0 3.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

141.1 143.6 146.2 0.9 0.7 1.8 2.3 2.7 3.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

138.9 143.9 147.2 0.8 1.5 2.3 2.1 4.4 6.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

143.5 148.6 151.9 1.1 1.4 2.2 2.3 4.6 5.9

Professional and business services

144.9 149.5 151.6 0.9 0.8 1.4 1.9 4.1 4.6

Professional, scientific, and technical services

146.1 150.5 152.3 0.6 0.5 1.2 0.8 3.7 4.2

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

144.8 151.1 154.0 1.3 1.5 1.9 3.7 5.7 6.4

Education and health services

141.5 147.1 149.1 0.6 1.4 1.4 2.1 4.6 5.4

Educational services

139.4 143.0 144.1 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.6 2.7 3.4

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

138.4 142.4 143.0 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 3.0 3.3

Health care and social assistance

142.0 148.0 150.2 0.9 1.8 1.5 2.2 5.1 5.8

Hospitals

142.6 148.3 150.4 1.1 1.9 1.4 2.7 5.1 5.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

141.3 148.9 151.7 1.1 2.0 1.9 3.7 6.6 7.4

Nursing care facilities(1)

140.4 147.5 150.2 1.2 1.7 1.8 3.8 6.3 7.0

Leisure and hospitality

151.7 161.7 165.3 2.2 1.6 2.2 4.3 8.9 9.0

Accommodation and food service

154.4 165.1 168.9 2.2 1.8 2.3 5.0 9.3 9.4

Other services, except public administration

145.4 151.9 154.5 1.5 1.2 1.7 3.1 6.1 6.3

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Bargaining status

Union

144.5 148.6 149.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 3.1 3.9 3.7

Goods-producing industries(1)

138.6 142.6 143.5 0.8 0.8 0.6 2.8 3.7 3.5

Manufacturing

136.7 141.4 142.3 0.9 1.1 0.6 3.6 4.4 4.1

Service-providing industries(2)

148.3 152.4 153.8 1.2 1.0 0.9 3.2 4.0 3.7

Nonunion

144.6 149.8 152.0 1.4 1.0 1.5 3.0 5.0 5.1

Goods-producing industries(1)

142.8 147.5 149.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.5 4.0 4.6

Manufacturing

142.9 147.5 150.0 0.8 0.9 1.7 2.3 4.0 5.0

Service-providing industries(2)

145.0 150.3 152.6 1.5 1.0 1.5 3.1 5.3 5.2

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

146.7 150.7 153.1 1.8 0.8 1.6 3.4 4.6 4.4

New England

151.5 156.3 159.4 1.7 0.6 2.0 3.0 4.9 5.2

Middle Atlantic

144.9 148.7 150.8 1.8 0.9 1.4 3.5 4.5 4.1

South

143.1 148.4 149.9 1.3 0.7 1.0 3.4 5.1 4.8

South Atlantic

146.3 150.6 151.9 1.6 0.9 0.9 4.2 4.6 3.8

East South Central

140.5 146.8 149.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.5 6.1 6.3

West South Central

138.7 145.6 146.8 0.8 0.1 0.8 2.4 5.8 5.8

Midwest

141.2 146.7 149.0 1.1 1.6 1.6 2.2 5.1 5.5

East North Central

139.5 145.0 147.3 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.7 5.1 5.6

West North Central

145.5 151.0 153.1 1.3 1.7 1.4 3.3 5.1 5.2

West

148.4 153.6 156.3 1.3 1.0 1.8 2.8 4.8 5.3

Mountain

145.3 151.9 154.6 1.3 1.7 1.8 3.2 5.9 6.4

Pacific

149.8 154.5 157.2 1.4 0.8 1.7 2.7 4.5 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

All workers

135.8 139.0 140.0 0.3 0.6 0.7 1.6 2.7 3.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

134.6 137.3 138.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 1.5 2.2 2.5

Professional and related

134.5 137.1 137.8 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.6 2.2 2.5

Sales and office

136.3 139.3 140.6 0.4 0.5 0.9 2.0 2.7 3.2

Office and administrative support

136.7 139.7 141.0 0.4 0.4 0.9 1.9 2.6 3.1

Service occupations

139.8 144.9 146.7 0.4 1.2 1.2 2.0 4.1 4.9

Industry

Education and health services

134.7 137.7 138.3 0.1 0.4 0.4 1.6 2.4 2.7

Educational services

134.1 136.7 137.3 0.1 0.3 0.4 1.7 2.1 2.4

Schools

134.0 136.7 137.3 0.1 0.3 0.4 1.6 2.1 2.5

Elementary and secondary schools

133.8 136.3 136.8 0.1 0.2 0.4 1.8 2.0 2.2

Health care and social assistance

140.4 145.6 146.7 0.6 1.5 0.8 1.8 4.3 4.5

Hospitals

139.4 144.6 145.7 0.6 1.4 0.8 1.8 4.4 4.5

Public administration

137.2 140.8 142.7 0.5 0.7 1.3 1.6 3.2 4.0

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

145.6 148.6 151.5 0.8 0.7 2.0 2.5 2.8 4.1

Private industry workers

All workers

140.3 143.2 146.1 0.9 0.8 2.0 2.5 2.9 4.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

138.6 141.3 144.2 1.0 0.7 2.1 2.4 3.0 4.0

Sales and office

142.1 144.7 148.3 0.9 0.8 2.5 2.7 2.7 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.7 145.6 147.1 0.8 0.6 1.0 2.1 2.8 3.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

141.0 144.6 147.6 0.4 0.6 2.1 2.5 2.9 4.7

Service occupations

140.1 144.0 147.3 0.9 1.0 2.3 2.8 3.7 5.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

135.8 138.7 141.8 0.7 0.4 2.2 2.1 2.8 4.4

Manufacturing

135.0 138.2 141.7 0.5 0.4 2.5 2.1 2.9 5.0

Aircraft manufacturing

98.4 122.4 127.3 2.1 0.2 4.0 4.2 27.0 29.4

Service-providing industries(3)

141.9 144.8 147.8 0.9 0.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 4.2

Bargaining status

Union

152.3 155.5 157.2 0.5 0.5 1.1 2.9 2.6 3.2

Nonunion

137.9 140.8 143.9 1.0 0.8 2.2 2.4 3.1 4.4

State and local government workers

All workers

165.1 168.5 170.9 0.4 0.8 1.4 2.6 2.5 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) 12-month percent changes -
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

2.9 4.2 5.6 2.9 4.8 6.1

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

2.9 3.9 4.0 3.1 4.6 4.2

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

2.4 3.8 4.5 3.0 4.1 4.7

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

2.3 2.5 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.4

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

3.0 3.6 4.5 2.3 4.6 5.4

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

1.1 3.5 4.5 1.1 3.9 5.2

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

3.4 5.2 4.3 4.0 6.0 4.6

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

3.9 4.0 3.5 4.0 4.2 3.5

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

3.1 4.0 3.9 3.3 4.1 3.8

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

3.1 3.3 4.6 2.5 3.7 5.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

2.1 4.4 5.1 2.4 4.5 5.0

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

4.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.5 5.6

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

3.6 4.9 5.5 3.4 5.3 6.4

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

2.2 2.8 3.6 2.1 3.2 3.8

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

2.5 6.3 7.8 2.6 3.8 4.5

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: April 29, 2022