Employment Cost Index News Release

NEWS RELEASE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

TRANSMISSION OF MATERIAL IN THIS RELEASE IS EMBARGOED UNTIL                                      USDL-18-0637
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 27, 2018

Technical information:  (202) 691-6199  •  ncsinfo@bls.gov  • www.bls.gov/ect 
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				  EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX – March 2018

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 0.8 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month period 
ending in March 2018, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries (which make 
up about 70 percent of compensation costs) increased 0.9 percent, and benefits (which make up the remaining 
30 percent of compensation) increased 0.7 percent. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Civilian Workers 

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 2.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2018 
compared with a compensation costs increase of 2.4 percent in March 2017. Wages and salaries increased 2.7 
percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2018 and increased 2.5 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2017. Benefit costs increased 2.6 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2018. In 
March 2017, the increase was 2.2 percent. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Private Industry Workers

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 2.8 percent over the year, a larger increase than
the 2.3-percent increase in March 2017. Wages and salaries increased 2.9 percent for the current 12-month 
period and increased 2.6 percent in March 2017. The cost of benefits rose 2.5 percent for the 12-month 
period ending in March 2018 and increased 1.9 percent in March 2017. (See tables A, 5, 
9, and 12.)

Employer costs for health benefits increased 1.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2018.
(For further information, see www.bls.gov/web/eci/echealth.pdf.)

Among occupational groups, compensation cost increases for private industry workers for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2018 ranged from 2.6 percent for both management, professional, and related occupations and 
natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations to 3.3 percent for production, transportation, 
and material moving occupations. (See table 5.)

Among industry supersectors, compensation cost increases for private industry workers for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2018 ranged from 2.3 percent for education and health services to 3.3 percent for financial 
activities. (See table 5.)

State and Local Government 

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 2.2 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2018. In March 2017, the increase was 2.6 percent. Wages and salaries increased 1.8 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in March 2018, compared with 2.2 percent a year ago. Benefit costs increased 
3.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2018. The prior year’s increase was 3.1 percent. (See 
tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

Seasonal Factors and Updated Layout

The 2018 seasonal factors for directly adjusted series and revised seasonally adjusted series for the past 
five years were released today, see www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/ectsfact.htm.

With the July 31, 2018 release, the file format of tables 1-13 will be modified to improve usablity. The 
updated layout is available for review at www.bls.gov/ect/eci_table_changes_June_2018.htm.


____________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
Table A.  Major series of the Employment Cost Index
(Percent change)

Category                     3-month,                               12-month,
                       seasonally adjusted                   not seasonally adjusted
                         Dec.       Mar.           Mar.      Jun.      Sep.     Dec.     Mar.
                         2017       2018           2017      2017      2017     2017     2018
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
   CIVILIAN WORKERS[1]

Compensation[2]          0.6        0.8            2.4       2.4       2.5      2.6      2.7
Wages and salaries       0.5        0.9            2.5       2.3       2.5      2.5      2.7
Benefits                 0.5        0.7            2.2       2.5       2.4      2.5      2.6

   PRIVATE INDUSTRY

Compensation[2]          0.5        1.0            2.3       2.4       2.5      2.6      2.8
Wages and salaries       0.5        1.0            2.6       2.4       2.6      2.8      2.9
Benefits                 0.4        0.8            1.9       2.2       2.4      2.3      2.5

   STATE AND LOCAL
     GOVERNMENT

Compensation[2]          0.7        0.4            2.6       2.6       2.4      2.5      2.2
Wages and salaries       0.6        0.4            2.2       2.1       2.0      2.1      1.8
Benefits                 0.9        0.5            3.1       3.2       3.0      3.2      3.0
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

  [1] Includes private industry and state and local government.
  [2] Includes wages and salaries and benefits.
  
The Employment Cost Index for June 2018 is scheduled for release on Tuesday, July 31, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request— 
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

BLS news releases, including the Employment Cost Index, are available through an email subscription service at 
www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm.

For videos and information graphics explaining the Employment Cost Index and how it is used, 
see www.bls.gov/eci/videos.htm. 


						TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence of employment
shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, coverage, methods, nonresponse
adjustment, and imputation see National Compensation Measures Handbook of Methods at
www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size

Data for the March 2018 reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 27,300
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 6,600 private industry establishments and
approximately 8,000 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local government
establishments that provided data at the initial interview.

Standard errors

To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of Employment Cost Index (ECI) series, standard errors of all
current quarter estimates except seasonally adjusted series are also available, 
see www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/ectvar.htm. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision ofan estimate 
to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose.

Historical listings

Historical listings are available at www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. The continuous occupational and industry series
listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification Manual and Occupational Classification System series from 
1975 through 2005 and the North American Industry Classification System and Standard Occupational 
Classification from 2006 to the present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change 
in classification systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the 
article published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data

The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published in a separate news release titled "Employer
Costs for Employee Compensation" (ECEC). The ECEC release dates are available at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/2018/home.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in summary documents at 
www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather than the fixed 
weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed Employment Weights

For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-employment-cost-index.htm.



    Table 1.  Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry

    (Seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                Indexes (Dec.               Percent changes for 3-months ended–             
                                                 2005 = 100)                                                                
          Occupational group and industry                                                                                   
                                                                                                                            
                                                 Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                 2017   2018   2016   2016   2016   2016   2017   2017   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                 Civilian workers                                                                                           
                                                                                                                            
    All workers(2).............................  131.4  132.5    0.6    0.6    0.6    0.5    0.8    0.5    0.7    0.6    0.8
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
      Goods-producing industries(3)............  129.0  130.0     .5     .6     .3     .6     .6     .5     .9     .5     .8
        Manufacturing..........................  129.0  129.9     .5     .6     .6     .5     .5     .6    1.0     .5     .7
                                                                                                                            
      Service-providing industries(4)..........  131.9  133.1     .6     .6     .6     .5     .8     .5     .7     .5     .9
        Education and health services..........  131.5  132.4     .4     .6     .7     .5     .6     .5     .4     .6     .7
          Educational services.................  132.2  132.9     .5     .6     .9     .5     .6     .5     .5     .6     .5
            Elementary and secondary schools...  132.1  132.8     .5     .6     .9     .5     .6     .5     .6     .6     .5
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                                      
             universities, and professional                                                                                 
             schools...........................  132.3  132.9     .3     .6     .6     .6     .8     .4     .5     .6     .5
          Health care and social assistance....  130.9  132.0     .4     .6     .5     .5     .5     .5     .3     .6     .8
            Hospitals..........................  131.7  132.4     .5     .6     .5     .7     .5     .5     .5     .5     .5
            Nursing and residential care                                                                                    
             facilities........................  128.1  129.1     .7     .6     .6     .6     .6     .6     .6     .7     .8
        Public administration..................  135.9  136.2     .6     .5     .7     .5     .8     .6     .5     .9     .2
                                                                                                                            
             Private industry workers                                                                                       
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  130.6  131.9     .6     .6     .5     .5     .8     .5     .8     .5    1.0
                                                                                                                            
                Occupational group                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
      Management, professional, and related....  130.7  131.8     .4     .2     .6     .5     .7     .7     .5     .5     .8
        Management, business, and financial....  131.8  133.2     .5     .2     .6     .9     .7     .8     .5     .5    1.1
        Professional and related...............  129.9  130.7     .5     .3     .5     .2     .6     .6     .5     .6     .6
                                                                                                                            
      Sales and office.........................  130.4  132.0     .7    1.0     .2     .5     .8     .2    1.0     .5    1.2
        Sales and related......................  125.9  128.1     .6    1.5    -.4     .1    1.1    -.2    1.4     .4    1.7
        Office and administrative support......  133.6  134.8     .9     .6     .6     .7     .5     .6     .7     .5     .9
                                                                                                                            
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                  
       maintenance.............................  131.4  131.8     .5     .6     .3     .8     .5     .9     .7     .7     .3
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                                  
         fishing, and forestry.................  131.6  132.3     .6     .9     .2     .9     .7     .6     .6     .5     .5
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..  131.1  131.3     .4     .3     .6     .5     .3    1.1     .7     .8     .2
                                                                                                                            
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                              
       moving..................................  131.2  132.4     .6     .6     .6     .7     .8     .6    1.1     .6     .9
        Production.............................  129.3  130.2     .7     .6     .6     .5     .6     .6    1.0     .6     .7
        Transportation and material moving.....  133.7  135.3     .7     .6     .7     .9     .9     .5    1.1     .7    1.2
                                                                                                                            
      Service occupations......................  131.1  132.5     .7    1.0     .8     .6     .9     .6     .6     .8    1.1
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
      Goods-producing industries(3)............  128.9  130.0     .6     .6     .4     .6     .6     .5     .9     .5     .9
        Construction...........................  128.7  129.9     .4     .7     .0     .8     .9     .5     .5     .5     .9
        Manufacturing..........................  129.0  129.9     .5     .6     .6     .5     .5     .6    1.0     .5     .7
          Aircraft manufacturing...............  126.4  128.4    1.7     .5    -.8    1.2    1.5     .7    8.4     .5    1.6
                                                                                                                            
      Service-providing industries(5)..........  131.2  132.5     .6     .6     .6     .4     .8     .6     .7     .5    1.0
        Trade, transportation, and utilities...  132.6  134.0    1.1     .7     .4     .5    1.0     .5     .8     .6    1.1
          Wholesale trade(6)...................  128.7  130.0     .7     .6    -.1    -.1    1.5     .3     .8     .4    1.0
          Retail trade.........................  133.0  134.5    1.5     .8     .6     .7    1.0     .4     .8     .6    1.1
          Transportation and warehousing.......  135.0  136.7    1.2     .6     .5    1.1     .6     .5    1.0     .8    1.3
          Utilities............................  141.8  143.4     .6     .5     .7     .8     .6     .5     .7     .6    1.1
        Information............................  128.6  129.4     .7     .0     .7     .6     .4    1.0     .7     .3     .6
        Financial activities...................  130.1  132.3     .4     .7    1.2     .6     .4     .9     .4     .2    1.7
          Finance and insurance................  130.3  132.6     .2     .7    1.4     .5     .5     .9     .4     .2    1.8
            Credit intermediation and related                                                                               
             activities........................  129.2  130.8     .6     .3    1.4     .6     .6     .6     .4    -.1    1.2
            Insurance carriers and related                                                                                  
             activities........................  133.0  134.2     .4     .6    1.3     .3     .8    1.1     .0     .5     .9
          Real estate and rental and leasing...  129.3  130.8    1.1     .6     .8     .7     .3     .9     .7     .2    1.2
        Professional and business services.....  132.1  133.1     .5     .4     .2     .2     .7     .7    1.1     .5     .8
          Professional, scientific, and                                                                                     
           technical services..................  134.6  135.6     .6     .5     .0     .4     .8     .8    1.1     .4     .7
          Administrative and support and waste                                                                              
           management and remediation services   128.6  129.3     .3     .4     .3    -.6     .6     .6    1.3     .6     .5
        Education and health services..........  130.4  131.4     .4     .6     .5     .5     .5     .5     .3     .6     .8
          Educational services.................  131.0  131.7     .4     .6     .3     .7     .6     .3     .5     .6     .5
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                                      
             universities, and professional                                                                                 
             schools...........................  132.3  133.2     .4     .5     .4     .7     .6     .5     .6     .5     .7
          Health care and social assistance....  130.2  131.4     .4     .6     .5     .5     .5     .5     .2     .6     .9
            Hospitals..........................  131.4  132.0     .4     .6     .6     .7     .6     .4     .5     .5     .5
            Nursing and residential care                                                                                    
             facilities........................  126.5  127.5     .7     .6     .7     .7     .5     .6     .6     .6     .8
        Leisure and hospitality................  130.6  132.4     .8     .9    1.0     .6    1.7     .5     .6     .7    1.4
          Accommodation and food services......  131.4  133.3    1.0    1.1    1.1     .5    1.8     .6     .5     .7    1.4
        Other services, except public                                                                                       
         administration........................  131.5  132.9     .2     .9     .8     .6     .6     .5     .6     .6    1.1
                                                                                                                            
        State and local government workers                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  134.3  134.8     .5     .5     .8     .6     .6     .5     .7     .7     .4
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
        Education and health services..........  132.9  133.6     .4     .6     .9     .5     .6     .5     .6     .6     .5
          Educational services.................  132.6  133.2     .5     .6     .9     .5     .7     .5     .5     .7     .5
            Schools............................  132.5  133.1     .4     .6     .9     .5     .6     .5     .6     .6     .5
              Elementary and secondary schools   132.5  133.2     .5     .6    1.0     .5     .6     .6     .6     .6     .5
          Health care and social assistance....  135.9  136.6     .7     .5     .5     .5     .3     .4     .9     .7     .5
            Hospitals..........................  133.4  133.8     .6     .7     .5     .5     .3     .3     .9     .7     .3
        Public administration..................  135.9  136.2     .6     .5     .7     .5     .8     .6     .5     .9     .2

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
      2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
    sector, except the federal government.
      3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
    information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management
    of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social
    assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public
    administration; and public administration.
      5 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
    information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management
    of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social
    assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
    administration.
      6 The private wholesale trade industry compensation series is seasonal as of the 2018 seasonal adjustment revision.
    Historical data for this series are published beginning with 2002.

   
   
   Table 2.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry

    (Seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                Indexes (Dec.               Percent changes for 3-months ended–             
                                                 2005 = 100)                                                                
          Occupational group and industry                                                                                   
                                                                                                                            
                                                 Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                 2017   2018   2016   2016   2016   2016   2017   2017   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                 Civilian workers                                                                                           
                                                                                                                            
    All workers(1).............................  129.9  131.1    0.6    0.7    0.5    0.5    0.8    0.5    0.7    0.5    0.9
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
      Goods-producing industries(2)............  129.4  130.4     .6     .6     .5     .6     .7     .6     .6     .6     .8
        Manufacturing..........................  129.5  130.4     .6     .7     .6     .6     .6     .6     .7     .6     .7
                                                                                                                            
      Service-providing industries(3)..........  130.1  131.3     .6     .6     .6     .5     .7     .6     .6     .6     .9
        Education and health services..........  127.9  128.8     .4     .6     .6     .5     .6     .5     .4     .6     .7
          Educational services.................  125.9  126.4     .4     .6     .6     .5     .6     .4     .5     .5     .4
            Elementary and secondary schools...  124.5  125.1     .3     .5     .7     .4     .4     .5     .4     .5     .5
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                                      
             universities, and professional                                                                                 
             schools...........................  128.1  128.4     .4     .6     .6     .6     .8     .2     .5     .6     .2
          Health care and social assistance....  130.2  131.5     .5     .6     .6     .4     .6     .7     .3     .6    1.0
            Hospitals..........................  130.9  131.5     .6     .6     .6     .7     .6     .5     .5     .6     .5
            Nursing and residential care                                                                                    
             facilities........................  127.3  128.5     .7     .6     .7     .7     .7     .7     .6     .6     .9
        Public administration..................  127.7  128.1     .5     .6     .6     .4     .6     .5     .6     .6     .3
                                                                                                                            
             Private industry workers                                                                                       
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  130.7  132.0     .6     .7     .5     .5     .9     .5     .8     .5    1.0
                                                                                                                            
                Occupational group                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
      Management, professional, and related....  131.2  132.4     .6     .2     .6     .5     .6     .7     .4     .6     .9
        Management, business, and financial....  132.4  133.9     .8     .0     .6     .9     .6     .7     .4     .7    1.1
        Professional and related...............  130.4  131.3     .6     .4     .6     .2     .6     .7     .4     .6     .7
                                                                                                                            
      Sales and office.........................  130.1  131.9     .6    1.2     .1     .3    1.0     .1    1.2     .5    1.4
        Sales and related......................  126.3  128.6     .3    1.6    -.7     .0    1.4    -.5    1.7     .5    1.9
        Office and administrative support......  133.1  134.3    1.0     .7     .7     .7     .6     .6     .8     .6     .9
                                                                                                                            
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                  
       maintenance.............................  130.5  131.1     .7     .7     .3     .8     .6     .9     .7     .7     .5
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                                  
         fishing, and forestry.................  130.5  131.2     .7    1.1     .0    1.2     .8     .5     .9     .5     .5
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..  130.6  131.0     .6     .5     .6     .4     .6    1.0     .6     .8     .3
                                                                                                                            
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                              
       moving..................................  131.0  132.3     .7     .8     .7     .8     .9     .6    1.0     .8    1.0
        Production.............................  129.4  130.3     .7     .8     .6     .6     .7     .8     .9     .7     .7
        Transportation and material moving.....  132.9  134.6     .8     .9     .6    1.1     .9     .5    1.2     .8    1.3
                                                                                                                            
      Service occupations......................  131.5  132.8     .8    1.0    1.0     .6     .9     .7     .7    1.0    1.0
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
      Goods-producing industries(2)............  129.4  130.5     .6     .7     .4     .6     .7     .6     .7     .5     .9
        Construction...........................  128.3  129.7     .3     .8     .0    1.0     .9     .5     .6     .5    1.1
        Manufacturing..........................  129.5  130.4     .6     .7     .6     .6     .6     .6     .7     .6     .7
          Aircraft manufacturing...............  139.4  140.4     .5     .8     .5     .8     .7     .7     .7     .6     .7
                                                                                                                            
      Service-providing industries(4)..........  131.1  132.5     .7     .6     .6     .5     .8     .6     .7     .6    1.1
        Trade, transportation, and utilities...  131.4  133.0     .9     .8     .3     .6    1.3     .4     .8     .6    1.2
          Retail trade.........................  133.4  135.0     .9     .9     .6     .8    1.3     .5     .8     .8    1.2
          Transportation and warehousing.......  133.5  135.4    1.2     .9     .6    1.3     .8     .5    1.0     .8    1.4
          Utilities............................  138.8  140.0     .5     .5     .9     .9     .7     .6     .4     .7     .9
        Information............................  127.7  128.6    1.2     .5     .8     .6     .1    1.0     .7     .3     .7
        Financial activities...................  131.0  133.4     .5     .9    1.2     .6     .2     .9     .5     .5    1.8
          Finance and insurance................  131.7  134.3     .4     .8    1.3     .5     .2    1.0     .4     .5    2.0
            Credit intermediation and related                                                                               
             activities........................  128.3  130.0     .6     .5    1.1     .6     .6     .8     .6     .3    1.3
            Insurance carriers and related                                                                                  
             activities........................  132.4  133.7     .7     .9    1.4     .3     .5    1.3    -.3     .5     .9
        Professional and business services.....  132.3  133.3     .6     .5     .1     .2     .6     .6    1.2     .5     .8
          Professional, scientific, and                                                                                     
           technical services..................  134.7  135.7     .9     .5    -.2     .5     .6     .6    1.3     .4     .8
        Education and health services..........  130.1  131.3     .5     .6     .6     .5     .6     .6     .2     .7     .9
          Educational services.................  129.8  130.3     .6     .7     .2     .8     .6     .4     .5     .5     .4
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                                      
             universities, and professional                                                                                 
             schools...........................  130.4  131.1     .4     .6     .5     .8     .6     .4     .8     .5     .5
          Health care and social assistance....  130.2  131.5     .5     .6     .6     .4     .6     .7     .2     .7    1.0
            Hospitals..........................  131.1  131.8     .5     .7     .6     .7     .6     .5     .5     .5     .6
            Nursing and residential care                                                                                    
             facilities........................  127.3  128.5     .7     .7     .7     .7     .8     .6     .6     .7     .9
        Leisure and hospitality................  132.7  134.4     .8    1.0    1.1     .6    1.7     .5     .7     .9    1.3
          Accommodation and food services......  133.3  135.1    1.1    1.2    1.3     .5    1.6     .7     .5     .8    1.4
        Other services, except public                                                                                       
         administration........................  132.0  133.3     .3    1.0     .8     .6     .5     .6     .7     .6     .9
                                                                                                                            
        State and local government workers                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  126.6  127.1     .4     .5     .6     .5     .6     .4     .5     .6     .4
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
        Education and health services..........  125.7  126.2     .4     .5     .7     .4     .6     .4     .5     .5     .4
          Educational services.................  125.1  125.6     .4     .5     .7     .4     .6     .4     .5     .4     .4
            Schools............................  125.1  125.6     .4     .5     .7     .4     .6     .4     .4     .5     .4
              Elementary and secondary schools   124.4  125.0     .3     .4     .8     .2     .5     .6     .5     .3     .5
          Health care and social assistance....  130.5  131.3     .5     .5     .4     .6     .5     .4     .9     .6     .6
            Hospitals..........................  129.5  130.2     .5     .7     .3     .6     .5     .5     .9     .5     .5
        Public administration..................  127.7  128.1     .5     .6     .6     .4     .6     .5     .6     .6     .3

      1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
    sector, except the federal government.
      2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
    information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management
    of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social
    assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public
    administration; and public administration.
      4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
    information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management
    of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social
    assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
    administration.

   
   
   Table 3.  Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry

    (Seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                Indexes (Dec.               Percent changes for 3-months ended–             
                                                 2005 = 100)                                                                
          Occupational group and industry                                                                                   
                                                                                                                            
                                                 Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                 2017   2018   2016   2016   2016   2016   2017   2017   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                 Civilian workers                                                                                           
                                                                                                                            
    All workers(1).............................  134.7  135.7    0.5    0.4    0.6    0.5    0.7    0.6    0.8    0.5    0.7
                                                                                                                            
             Private industry workers                                                                                       
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  130.5  131.6     .5     .3     .6     .4     .6     .6     .7     .4     .8
                                                                                                                            
                Occupational group                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
      Management, professional, and related....  129.5  130.4     .0     .2     .5     .5     .6     .7     .6     .5     .7
                                                                                                                            
      Sales and office.........................  131.2  132.3    1.0     .6     .5     .5     .3     .6     .5     .4     .8
                                                                                                                            
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                  
       maintenance.............................  133.1  133.4     .2     .3     .4     .5     .2     .8     .7     .5     .2
                                                                                                                            
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                              
       moving..................................  131.6  132.6     .6     .3     .6     .5     .6     .5    1.2     .5     .8
                                                                                                                            
      Service occupations......................  129.9  131.1     .6     .6     .6     .5     .6     .4     .5     .5     .9
                                                                                                                            
                     Industry                                                                                               
                                                                                                                            
      Goods-producing industries(2)............  128.0  129.0     .4     .5     .2     .3     .4     .5    1.2     .4     .8
        Manufacturing..........................  128.1  129.1     .5     .5     .3     .2     .5     .5    1.7     .3     .8
                                                                                                                            
      Service-providing industries(3)..........  131.5  132.6     .5     .3     .5     .5     .7     .6     .5     .4     .8
                                                                                                                            
        State and local government workers                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            
    All workers................................  149.6  150.3     .7     .6    1.1     .6     .8     .7     .8     .9     .5

      1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
    sector, except the federal government.
      2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
    information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management
    of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social
    assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
    administration.

  
  
  Table 4.  Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and
    industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
          Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                 Civilian workers                                                                                
                                                                                                                 
    All workers(2).............................  129.0   131.2   132.5     0.9    0.4    1.0    2.4    2.6    2.7
        Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)  129.3   131.5   132.7      .9     .5     .9    2.5    2.6    2.6
                                                                                                                 
                Occupational group                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Management, professional, and related....  129.1   131.2   132.2      .8     .4     .8    2.1    2.4    2.4
        Management, business, and financial....  129.7   131.9   133.4      .8     .2    1.1    2.4    2.5    2.9
        Professional and related...............  128.7   130.8   131.6      .7     .5     .6    2.0    2.3    2.3
                                                                                                                 
      Sales and office.........................  128.6   130.6   132.4      .9     .2    1.4    2.4    2.5    3.0
        Sales and related......................  123.7   125.7   127.8     1.1    -.1    1.7    2.3    2.8    3.3
        Office and administrative support......  131.6   133.7   135.2      .8     .5    1.1    2.5    2.5    2.7
                                                                                                                 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                       
       maintenance.............................  128.9   131.6   132.2      .6     .5     .5    2.2    2.7    2.6
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                       
         fishing, and forestry.................  129.4   131.8   132.4      .6     .4     .5    2.6    2.5    2.3
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..  128.3   131.4   132.0      .5     .5     .5    1.7    2.9    2.9
                                                                                                                 
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                   
       moving..................................  128.6   131.4   132.9      .9     .4    1.1    2.8    3.1    3.3
        Production.............................  126.7   129.4   130.5      .8     .5     .9    2.6    2.9    3.0
        Transportation and material moving.....  131.1   133.9   135.8     1.2     .4    1.4    3.1    3.3    3.6
                                                                                                                 
      Service occupations......................  130.3   132.7   134.2      .9     .7    1.1    3.2    2.8    3.0
                                                                                                                 
                     Industry                                                                                    
                                                                                                                 
      Goods-producing industries(4)............  126.5   128.9   129.9      .6     .4     .8    2.2    2.5    2.7
        Manufacturing..........................  126.4   128.9   130.0      .7     .4     .9    2.2    2.7    2.8
                                                                                                                 
      Service-providing industries(5)..........  129.4   131.6   132.9      .9     .4    1.0    2.5    2.6    2.7
        Education and health services..........  129.4   131.5   132.3      .5     .5     .6    2.3    2.2    2.2
          Educational services.................  129.8   132.2   132.6      .5     .5     .3    2.6    2.3    2.2
            Elementary and secondary schools...  129.5   132.1   132.5      .4     .5     .3    2.6    2.4    2.3
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                           
             universities, and professional                                                                      
             schools...........................  130.4   132.4   132.8      .7     .5     .3    2.7    2.2    1.8
          Health care and social assistance....  129.1   130.9   132.1      .6     .6     .9    2.1    2.0    2.3
            Hospitals..........................  129.8   131.7   132.4      .5     .5     .5    2.4    2.0    2.0
            Nursing and residential care                                                                         
             facilities........................  125.7   127.9   129.1      .6     .6     .9    2.4    2.4    2.7
        Public administration..................  133.2   135.7   136.2      .9     .7     .4    2.5    2.8    2.3

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
      2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
    public sector, except the federal government.
      3 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
      4 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      5 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other
    services, except public administration; and public administration.

   
   
   Table 5.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational
    group and industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                    Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                            100)                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
           Occupational group and industry                                   3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                    Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                    2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                           Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                           2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
              Private industry workers                                                                             
                                                                                                                   
    All workers..................................  128.3   130.5   131.9     0.9    0.4    1.1    2.3    2.6    2.8
        Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)..  128.7   130.8   132.2      .9     .5    1.1    2.4    2.6    2.7
                                                                                                                   
                 Occupational group                                                                                
                                                                                                                   
      Management, professional, and related......  128.5   130.5   131.8      .9     .4    1.0    2.0    2.4    2.6
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  128.0   129.9   131.2      .9     .4    1.0    1.9    2.4    2.5
        Management, business, and financial......  129.5   131.7   133.2      .9     .3    1.1    2.4    2.6    2.9
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  129.0   130.9   132.5      .9     .3    1.2    2.5    2.4    2.7
        Professional and related.................  127.8   129.6   130.8      .9     .4     .9    1.7    2.3    2.3
                                                                                                                   
      Sales and office...........................  128.1   130.1   132.0     1.0     .2    1.5    2.4    2.6    3.0
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  130.4   132.4   134.1      .9     .4    1.3    2.8    2.5    2.8
        Sales and related........................  123.6   125.5   127.7     1.1    -.2    1.8    2.3    2.7    3.3
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  128.4   130.5   132.3     1.1     .4    1.4    3.1    2.8    3.0
        Office and administrative support........  131.4   133.3   135.0      .9     .4    1.3    2.6    2.4    2.7
                                                                                                                   
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                         
       maintenance...............................  128.5   131.2   131.8      .6     .5     .5    2.2    2.7    2.6
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                         
         fishing, and forestry...................  129.2   131.6   132.2      .6     .4     .5    2.7    2.5    2.3
        Installation, maintenance, and repair....  127.7   130.9   131.3      .5     .5     .3    1.7    3.0    2.8
                                                                                                                   
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                     
       moving....................................  128.3   131.0   132.5     1.0     .5    1.1    2.9    3.1    3.3
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  128.5   131.0   132.6     1.0     .5    1.2    2.8    3.0    3.2
        Production...............................  126.5   129.2   130.2      .8     .5     .8    2.5    2.9    2.9
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  126.7   129.5   130.5      .7     .5     .8    2.5    2.9    3.0
        Transportation and material moving.......  130.6   133.4   135.4     1.2     .3    1.5    3.2    3.3    3.7
                                                                                                                   
      Service occupations........................  128.6   130.9   132.7     1.1     .7    1.4    3.4    2.9    3.2
                                                                                                                   
           Industry and occupational group                                                                         
                                                                                                                   
      Goods-producing industries(3)..............  126.5   128.9   129.9      .6     .4     .8    2.2    2.5    2.7
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  126.9   129.3   130.3      .6     .5     .8    2.3    2.5    2.7
          Management, professional, and related..  125.1   127.1   128.7      .7     .4    1.3    1.9    2.3    2.9
          Sales and office.......................  127.2   129.4   130.4     -.1    -.2     .8    1.7    1.6    2.5
          Natural resources, construction, and                                                                     
           maintenance...........................  128.6   131.1   131.6      .7     .6     .4    2.5    2.7    2.3
          Production, transportation, and                                                                          
           material moving.......................  126.0   128.7   129.5      .7     .5     .6    2.4    2.9    2.8
                                                                                                                   
        Construction.............................  126.6   128.8   129.7      .6     .4     .7    2.5    2.4    2.4
                                                                                                                   
        Manufacturing............................  126.4   128.9   130.0      .7     .4     .9    2.2    2.7    2.8
            Management, professional, and related  126.4   128.5   130.0      .9     .3    1.2    2.1    2.6    2.8
            Sales and office.....................  129.0   131.3   132.4      .4     .3     .8    2.0    2.2    2.6
            Natural resources, construction, and                                                                   
             maintenance.........................  127.3   130.7   130.8      .1     .8     .1    1.6    2.8    2.7
            Production, transportation, and                                                                        
             material moving.....................  125.6   128.3   129.2      .6     .4     .7    2.4    2.8    2.9
                                                                                                                   
          Aircraft manufacturing.................  115.9   128.9   132.1     2.7     .0    2.5    2.3   14.2   14.0
                                                                                                                   
      Service-providing industries(4)............  128.9   131.0   132.6      .9     .3    1.2    2.4    2.6    2.9
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(2)......................  129.3   131.3   132.9     1.0     .4    1.2    2.5    2.6    2.8
          Management, professional, and related..  129.1   131.1   132.4      .9     .3    1.0    2.0    2.4    2.6
          Sales and office.......................  128.2   130.1   132.1     1.1     .2    1.5    2.5    2.6    3.0
          Natural resources, construction, and                                                                     
           maintenance...........................  128.3   131.4   132.0      .4     .2     .5    1.9    2.8    2.9
          Production, transportation, and                                                                          
           material moving.......................  131.0   133.8   135.9     1.2     .4    1.6    3.1    3.3    3.7
          Service occupations....................  128.6   130.9   132.6     1.1     .7    1.3    3.4    2.9    3.1
                                                                                                                   
        Trade, transportation, and utilities.....  130.1   132.3   134.0     1.2     .3    1.3    2.7    3.0    3.0
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  130.8   132.9   134.5     1.1     .5    1.2    2.8    2.7    2.8
          Wholesale trade........................  126.8   128.6   130.0     1.6     .3    1.1    1.9    3.0    2.5
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  129.2   131.6   133.0      .9     .5    1.1    2.1    2.7    2.9
          Retail trade...........................  130.4   132.8   134.3     1.0     .4    1.1    3.1    2.9    3.0
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  129.6   131.5   132.9     1.2     .4    1.1    3.3    2.7    2.5
          Transportation and warehousing.........  132.0   134.6   136.8     1.0     .3    1.6    2.9    3.0    3.6
          Utilities..............................  139.3   141.2   143.5     1.1     .2    1.6    2.6    2.5    3.0
                                                                                                                   
        Information..............................  126.1   128.4   129.4      .6     .1     .8    1.8    2.4    2.6
                                                                                                                   
        Financial activities.....................  127.8   129.9   132.0      .3     .0    1.6    2.9    2.0    3.3
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  129.0   130.5   132.5      .9    -.1    1.5    2.5    2.1    2.7
          Finance and insurance..................  128.0   130.1   132.2      .3     .0    1.6    3.0    2.0    3.3
            Credit intermediation and related                                                                      
             activities..........................  127.8   128.8   130.6      .8    -.5    1.4    3.1    1.6    2.2
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  132.0   132.8   134.8     1.4    -.4    1.5    3.0    2.0    2.1
            Insurance carriers and related                                                                         
             activities..........................  130.8   132.6   134.1     1.0     .1    1.1    3.1    2.4    2.5
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  129.8   131.5   133.0     1.1     .2    1.1    2.4    2.4    2.5
          Real estate and rental and leasing.....  127.1   129.3   130.9      .3     .1    1.2    2.5    2.1    3.0
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(2)....................  130.2   132.3   134.0      .3     .1    1.3    2.1    1.9    2.9
                                                                                                                   
        Professional and business services.......  129.4   131.9   133.3     1.1     .3    1.1    1.5    3.0    3.0
          Professional, scientific, and technical                                                                  
           services..............................  131.9   134.1   135.9     1.3     .1    1.3    1.6    3.0    3.0
          Administrative and support and waste                                                                     
           management and remediation services...  125.3   128.5   129.3      .6     .5     .6     .6    3.1    3.2
                                                                                                                   
        Education and health services............  128.5   130.4   131.4      .5     .6     .8    2.1    2.0    2.3
          Educational services...................  129.0   131.1   131.5      .3     .5     .3    2.3    1.9    1.9
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                             
             universities, and professional                                                                        
             schools.............................  130.0   132.5   133.0      .3     .4     .4    2.3    2.2    2.3
          Health care and social assistance......  128.5   130.2   131.4      .7     .5     .9    2.1    2.0    2.3
            Hospitals............................  129.6   131.3   132.1      .7     .5     .6    2.5    2.0    1.9
            Nursing and residential care                                                                           
             facilities..........................  124.3   126.5   127.6      .6     .6     .9    2.6    2.4    2.7
              Nursing care facilities(2).........  124.0   126.3   127.1      .3     .6     .6    2.1    2.2    2.5
                                                                                                                   
        Leisure and hospitality..................  128.5   130.3   132.6     2.1     .5    1.8    4.3    3.6    3.2
          Accommodation and food services........  129.3   131.2   133.5     2.1     .6    1.8    4.5    3.6    3.2
                                                                                                                   
        Other services, except public                                                                              
         administration..........................  129.2   131.3   132.9      .8     .2    1.2    2.9    2.4    2.9

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
      2 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
      3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and
    other services, except public administration.

  
  
  Table 6.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining
    status and census region and division

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
      Bargaining status and census region and                                                                    
                     division                                              3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                 Bargaining status                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Union....................................  131.9   134.5   135.4     1.0    0.6    0.7    1.8    3.0    2.7
        Goods-producing industries(2)..........  128.4   131.8   132.3      .3     .5     .4    2.0    3.0    3.0
          Manufacturing........................  122.9   127.2   127.8      .1     .3     .5    1.5    3.6    4.0
        Service-providing industries(3)........  134.8   137.1   138.2     1.3     .7     .8    1.6    3.0    2.5
                                                                                                                 
      Nonunion.................................  127.8   129.9   131.4      .9     .3    1.2    2.5    2.6    2.8
        Goods-producing industries(2)..........  125.9   128.1   129.2      .6     .4     .9    2.2    2.4    2.6
          Manufacturing........................  127.3   129.5   130.7      .8     .4     .9    2.3    2.5    2.7
        Service-providing industries(3)........  128.2   130.4   132.0      .9     .3    1.2    2.4    2.6    3.0
                                                                                                                 
           Census region and division(4)                                                                         
                                                                                                                 
      Northeast................................  130.2   132.0   133.7     1.2     .2    1.3    2.3    2.6    2.7
        New England............................  132.7   135.3   136.5     1.2     .3     .9    1.1    3.2    2.9
        Middle Atlantic........................  129.3   130.9   132.7     1.2     .2    1.4    2.7    2.4    2.6
                                                                                                                 
      South....................................  127.1   129.2   130.4      .7     .4     .9    1.6    2.4    2.6
        South Atlantic.........................  128.7   131.1   132.3      .7     .5     .9    2.1    2.6    2.8
        East South Central.....................  126.5   128.4   130.0      .8    -.3    1.2    2.8    2.3    2.8
        West South Central.....................  124.4   126.4   127.4      .5     .4     .8     .2    2.1    2.4
                                                                                                                 
      Midwest..................................  126.8   128.5   129.8      .9     .4    1.0    2.8    2.2    2.4
        East North Central.....................  125.2   127.0   128.4      .9     .4    1.1    2.7    2.3    2.6
        West North Central.....................  130.8   132.1   133.3      .8     .3     .9    3.1    1.8    1.9
                                                                                                                 
      West.....................................  129.9   132.9   134.6     1.0     .5    1.3    2.9    3.3    3.6
        Mountain...............................  127.5   130.0   131.7      .9     .5    1.3    2.7    2.8    3.3
        Pacific................................  130.9   134.2   135.9     1.0     .4    1.3    3.0    3.5    3.8

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
      2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and
    other services, except public administration.
      4 The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
    Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:
    Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and
    West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central:
    Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and
    Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota;
    Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska,
    California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
    
    NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and
    industry series.  Dashes indicate data not available.



 Table 7.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for State and local government workers, by
    occupational group and industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
          Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
        State and local government workers                                                                       
                                                                                                                 
    All workers................................  131.7   134.2   134.6     0.6    0.6    0.3    2.6    2.5    2.2
                                                                                                                 
                Occupational group                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Management, professional, and related....  130.6   133.0   133.4      .6     .5     .3    2.6    2.5    2.1
        Professional and related...............  130.4   132.8   133.2      .5     .5     .3    2.6    2.4    2.1
                                                                                                                 
      Sales and office.........................  133.2   135.7   136.3      .6     .7     .4    2.3    2.5    2.3
        Office and administrative support......  133.3   135.7   136.3      .7     .6     .4    2.4    2.5    2.3
                                                                                                                 
      Service occupations......................  134.4   137.0   137.6      .7     .7     .4    2.7    2.6    2.4
                                                                                                                 
                     Industry                                                                                    
                                                                                                                 
      Education and health services............  130.4   132.9   133.3      .5     .5     .3    2.6    2.4    2.2
        Educational services...................  130.1   132.5   132.9      .5     .5     .3    2.8    2.4    2.2
          Schools..............................  130.0   132.4   132.9      .5     .5     .4    2.7    2.3    2.2
            Elementary and secondary schools...  129.8   132.5   132.9      .4     .5     .3    2.7    2.5    2.4
        Health care and social assistance......  133.3   135.8   136.6      .4     .6     .6    1.8    2.3    2.5
          Hospitals............................  130.9   133.4   133.9      .3     .6     .4    2.0    2.2    2.3
      Public administration....................  133.2   135.7   136.2      .9     .7     .4    2.5    2.8    2.3

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

   
   
    Table 8.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and
    industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
          Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                 Civilian workers                                                                                
                                                                                                                 
    All workers(1).............................  127.6   129.8   131.1     0.8    0.4    1.0    2.5    2.5    2.7
        Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)  127.7   129.9   131.1      .8     .5     .9    2.6    2.5    2.7
                                                                                                                 
                Occupational group                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Management, professional, and related....  127.6   129.6   130.6      .6     .4     .8    2.1    2.2    2.4
        Management, business, and financial....  129.3   131.7   133.0      .5     .4    1.0    2.2    2.3    2.9
        Professional and related...............  126.6   128.5   129.3      .7     .4     .6    1.9    2.2    2.1
                                                                                                                 
      Sales and office.........................  127.4   129.5   131.4     1.1     .2    1.5    2.6    2.8    3.1
        Sales and related......................  123.7   125.8   128.2     1.3    -.2    1.9    2.3    3.0    3.6
        Office and administrative support......  130.0   132.0   133.5      .9     .5    1.1    2.8    2.5    2.7
                                                                                                                 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                       
       maintenance.............................  127.4   130.3   130.8      .6     .5     .4    2.5    2.9    2.7
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                       
         fishing, and forestry.................  127.7   130.2   130.8      .9     .5     .5    3.2    2.8    2.4
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..  127.3   130.5   130.8      .5     .5     .2    2.0    3.0    2.7
                                                                                                                 
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                   
       moving..................................  128.0   130.8   132.3     1.0     .5    1.1    3.3    3.2    3.4
        Production.............................  126.8   129.5   130.6      .9     .5     .8    3.1    3.0    3.0
        Transportation and material moving.....  129.5   132.3   134.3     1.3     .4    1.5    3.6    3.4    3.7
                                                                                                                 
      Service occupations......................  128.3   130.8   132.4     1.0     .8    1.2    3.4    3.0    3.2
                                                                                                                 
                     Industry                                                                                    
                                                                                                                 
      Goods-producing industries(3)............  127.0   129.3   130.4      .7     .5     .9    2.5    2.5    2.7
        Manufacturing..........................  127.1   129.3   130.4      .7     .5     .9    2.5    2.5    2.6
                                                                                                                 
      Service-providing industries(4)..........  127.7   129.9   131.2      .9     .4    1.0    2.5    2.6    2.7
        Education and health services..........  126.0   128.0   128.7      .5     .5     .5    2.2    2.1    2.1
          Educational services.................  124.1   126.0   126.3      .3     .3     .2    2.2    1.9    1.8
            Elementary and secondary schools...  122.7   124.6   124.9      .2     .2     .2    2.0    1.8    1.8
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                           
             universities, and professional                                                                      
             schools...........................  126.3   128.2   128.4      .6     .5     .2    2.6    2.2    1.7
          Health care and social assistance....  128.2   130.2   131.5      .6     .6    1.0    2.2    2.2    2.6
            Hospitals..........................  128.8   130.9   131.5      .6     .6     .5    2.5    2.3    2.1
            Nursing and residential care                                                                         
             facilities........................  124.8   127.3   128.5      .7     .6     .9    2.7    2.7    3.0
        Public administration..................  125.9   127.7   128.3      .8     .6     .5    2.4    2.2    1.9

      1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
    public sector, except the federal government.
      2 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
      3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other
    services, except public administration; and public administration.



    Table 9.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and
    industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                    Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                            100)                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
           Occupational group and industry                                   3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                    Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                    2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                           Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                           2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
              Private industry workers                                                                             
                                                                                                                   
    All workers..................................  128.3   130.6   132.0     0.9    0.5    1.1    2.6    2.8    2.9
        Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)..  128.5   130.7   132.1      .9     .5    1.1    2.6    2.7    2.8
                                                                                                                   
                 Occupational group                                                                                
                                                                                                                   
      Management, professional, and related......  129.0   131.1   132.3      .7     .5     .9    2.1    2.3    2.6
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  128.2   130.1   131.3      .8     .5     .9    2.1    2.3    2.4
        Management, business, and financial......  129.9   132.3   133.7      .5     .4    1.1    2.2    2.4    2.9
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  128.9   130.8   132.3      .7     .4    1.1    2.4    2.2    2.6
        Professional and related.................  128.2   130.2   131.3      .8     .5     .8    1.7    2.4    2.4
                                                                                                                   
      Sales and office...........................  127.7   129.8   131.8     1.2     .2    1.5    2.7    2.9    3.2
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  129.9   132.2   133.9     1.1     .5    1.3    3.1    2.9    3.1
        Sales and related........................  123.8   125.9   128.2     1.3    -.1    1.8    2.3    3.0    3.6
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  128.5   131.0   132.9     1.2     .4    1.5    3.5    3.1    3.4
        Office and administrative support........  130.7   132.9   134.5      .9     .5    1.2    2.8    2.6    2.9
                                                                                                                   
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                         
       maintenance...............................  127.5   130.4   130.9      .6     .5     .4    2.6    2.9    2.7
        Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                         
         fishing, and forestry...................  127.9   130.4   131.1      .8     .4     .5    3.1    2.8    2.5
        Installation, maintenance, and repair....  127.2   130.5   130.8      .5     .6     .2    1.9    3.1    2.8
                                                                                                                   
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                     
       moving....................................  128.0   130.7   132.3     1.1     .5    1.2    3.3    3.2    3.4
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  128.3   130.8   132.5     1.1     .5    1.3    3.2    3.1    3.3
        Production...............................  126.5   129.3   130.4      .9     .5     .9    2.8    3.1    3.1
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  126.8   129.5   130.7     1.0     .5     .9    2.9    3.1    3.1
        Transportation and material moving.......  129.7   132.6   134.7     1.2     .4    1.6    3.7    3.5    3.9
                                                                                                                   
      Service occupations........................  128.6   131.3   133.0     1.2     .8    1.3    3.7    3.3    3.4
                                                                                                                   
           Industry and occupational group                                                                         
                                                                                                                   
      Goods-producing industries(2)..............  127.1   129.3   130.4      .7     .4     .9    2.6    2.5    2.6
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  127.6   129.8   130.9      .8     .5     .8    2.7    2.5    2.6
          Management, professional, and related..  127.7   129.0   130.7      .8     .4    1.3    2.2    1.8    2.3
          Sales and office.......................  127.3   129.9   130.8     -.2    -.2     .7    1.8    1.9    2.7
          Natural resources, construction, and                                                                     
           maintenance...........................  127.8   130.4   131.0      .9     .7     .5    2.9    3.0    2.5
          Production, transportation, and                                                                          
           material moving.......................  126.1   128.8   129.8      .8     .5     .8    2.9    3.0    2.9
                                                                                                                   
        Construction.............................  126.1   128.4   129.5      .6     .4     .9    2.7    2.5    2.7
                                                                                                                   
        Manufacturing............................  127.1   129.3   130.4      .7     .5     .9    2.5    2.5    2.6
            Management, professional, and related  128.3   129.6   130.9      .8     .3    1.0    2.3    1.8    2.0
            Sales and office.....................  128.7   131.6   132.6      .5     .6     .8    2.1    2.7    3.0
            Natural resources, construction, and                                                                   
             maintenance.........................  128.0   131.0   131.3      .4     .9     .2    2.3    2.7    2.6
            Production, transportation, and                                                                        
             material moving.....................  125.8   128.5   129.5      .8     .5     .8    2.8    3.0    2.9
                                                                                                                   
          Aircraft manufacturing.................  137.4   138.4   141.1     2.0    -.1    2.0    2.8    2.7    2.7
                                                                                                                   
      Service-providing industries(3)............  128.6   131.0   132.5      .9     .5    1.1    2.5    2.8    3.0
            Excluding incentive paid                                                                               
             occupations(1)......................  128.8   131.0   132.5      .9     .5    1.1    2.6    2.7    2.9
          Management, professional, and related..  129.2   131.4   132.6      .7     .4     .9    2.0    2.4    2.6
          Sales and office.......................  127.7   129.8   131.9     1.3     .3    1.6    2.7    2.9    3.3
          Natural resources, construction, and                                                                     
           maintenance...........................  127.2   130.5   130.9      .3     .2     .3    2.1    2.9    2.9
          Production, transportation, and                                                                          
           material moving.......................  130.0   132.9   135.0     1.3     .5    1.6    3.7    3.6    3.8
          Service occupations....................  128.6   131.2   133.0     1.2     .8    1.4    3.7    3.2    3.4
                                                                                                                   
        Trade, transportation, and utilities.....  128.9   131.2   132.9     1.4     .3    1.3    3.0    3.2    3.1
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  129.3   131.4   133.0     1.3     .5    1.2    3.4    2.9    2.9
          Wholesale trade........................  124.3   126.0   127.3     2.0     .2    1.0    2.0    3.4    2.4
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  125.8   128.2   129.5     1.0     .5    1.0    2.4    2.9    2.9
          Retail trade...........................  130.5   133.2   134.7     1.2     .5    1.1    3.6    3.3    3.2
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  129.3   131.4   132.8     1.4     .5    1.1    3.9    3.1    2.7
          Transportation and warehousing.........  130.6   133.1   135.4     1.2     .2    1.7    3.6    3.1    3.7
          Utilities..............................  136.7   138.2   140.2     1.3     .2    1.4    2.9    2.4    2.6
                                                                                                                   
        Information..............................  125.0   127.5   128.4      .1     .1     .7    2.0    2.1    2.7
                                                                                                                   
        Financial activities.....................  128.2   130.9   133.0      .0     .3    1.6    2.9    2.1    3.7
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  129.1   130.9   133.0      .7     .2    1.6    2.3    2.1    3.0
          Finance and insurance..................  128.8   131.6   133.8      .0     .4    1.7    2.9    2.2    3.9
            Credit intermediation and related                                                                      
             activities..........................  126.1   128.0   129.9      .7     .1    1.5    2.8    2.2    3.0
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  130.4   132.0   134.1     1.3     .2    1.6    2.7    2.6    2.8
            Insurance carriers and related                                                                         
             activities..........................  130.2   132.1   133.5      .6     .2    1.1    3.2    2.1    2.5
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  128.4   129.8   131.3      .8     .2    1.2    2.4    1.9    2.3
          Real estate and rental and leasing.....  125.6   128.2   129.8      .2     .2    1.2    2.7    2.2    3.3
              Excluding incentive paid                                                                             
               occupations(1)....................  128.9   131.3   133.0      .2     .2    1.3    2.2    2.1    3.2
                                                                                                                   
        Professional and business services.......  129.5   132.0   133.5      .9     .3    1.1    1.4    2.9    3.1
          Professional, scientific, and technical                                                                  
           services..............................  132.1   134.2   136.1     1.3     .1    1.4    1.5    2.9    3.0
          Administrative and support and waste                                                                     
           management and remediation services...  126.0   129.6   130.3      .6     .7     .5     .7    3.4    3.4
                                                                                                                   
        Education and health services............  128.1   130.1   131.2      .6     .6     .8    2.3    2.2    2.4
          Educational services...................  127.7   130.0   130.1      .2     .5     .1    2.4    2.0    1.9
            Junior colleges, colleges,                                                                             
             universities, and professional                                                                        
             schools.............................  128.0   130.7   130.9      .2     .5     .2    2.5    2.3    2.3
          Health care and social assistance......  128.1   130.2   131.5      .6     .7    1.0    2.2    2.3    2.7
            Hospitals............................  129.1   131.1   131.8      .6     .6     .5    2.6    2.2    2.1
            Nursing and residential care                                                                           
             facilities..........................  124.8   127.3   128.5      .8     .7     .9    3.0    2.8    3.0
              Nursing care facilities(1).........  124.5   127.0   127.9      .5     .6     .7    2.6    2.5    2.7
                                                                                                                   
        Leisure and hospitality..................  130.1   132.3   134.7     2.1     .7    1.8    4.6    3.8    3.5
          Accommodation and food services........  130.9   133.0   135.4     2.1     .7    1.8    4.8    3.7    3.4
                                                                                                                   
        Other services, except public                                                                              
         administration..........................  129.5   131.8   133.2      .6     .2    1.1    2.9    2.4    2.9

      1 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
      2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and
    other services, except public administration.



    Table 10.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status
    and census region and division

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
      Bargaining status and census region and                                                                    
                     division                                              3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                 Bargaining status                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Union....................................  128.6   130.9   131.6     1.0    0.8    0.5    1.7    2.8    2.3
        Goods-producing industries(1)..........  125.2   127.6   127.9      .4     .6     .2    2.4    2.3    2.2
          Manufacturing........................  122.7   125.2   125.7      .3     .6     .4    2.1    2.4    2.4
        Service-providing industries(2)........  131.0   133.3   134.2     1.2     .8     .7    1.5    3.0    2.4
                                                                                                                 
      Nonunion.................................  128.2   130.6   132.1      .9     .5    1.1    2.6    2.8    3.0
        Goods-producing industries(1)..........  127.5   129.8   131.0      .7     .4     .9    2.6    2.5    2.7
          Manufacturing........................  128.1   130.3   131.4      .8     .5     .8    2.6    2.5    2.6
        Service-providing industries(2)........  128.4   130.8   132.4      .9     .4    1.2    2.6    2.7    3.1
                                                                                                                 
           Census region and division(3)                                                                         
                                                                                                                 
      Northeast................................  129.7   131.7   133.4     1.1     .2    1.3    2.2    2.7    2.9
        New England............................  134.1   136.8   138.0     1.5     .3     .9     .9    3.6    2.9
        Middle Atlantic........................  128.0   129.8   131.7      .9     .2    1.5    2.7    2.3    2.9
                                                                                                                 
      South....................................  127.7   130.1   131.3      .8     .5     .9    1.8    2.7    2.8
        South Atlantic.........................  129.2   132.0   133.3      .7     .7    1.0    2.2    2.9    3.2
        East South Central.....................  126.7   128.6   130.3     1.0    -.4    1.3    3.0    2.5    2.8
        West South Central.....................  125.4   127.5   128.5      .7     .3     .8     .5    2.4    2.5
                                                                                                                 
      Midwest..................................  126.4   128.1   129.4      .9     .5    1.0    3.2    2.2    2.4
        East North Central.....................  124.5   126.5   127.9      .9     .5    1.1    3.1    2.5    2.7
        West North Central.....................  131.0   132.1   133.2      .9     .4     .8    3.6    1.8    1.7
                                                                                                                 
      West.....................................  129.8   132.9   134.6      .9     .5    1.3    3.2    3.3    3.7
        Mountain...............................  128.0   130.8   132.5      .8     .6    1.3    2.9    3.0    3.5
        Pacific................................  130.7   133.8   135.5      .9     .5    1.3    3.3    3.3    3.7

      1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      2 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and
    other services, except public administration.
      3 The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
    Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:
    Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and
    West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central:
    Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and
    Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota;
    Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska,
    California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
    
    NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and
    industry series.  Dashes indicate data not available.

 
 
 Table 11.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for State and local government workers, by
    occupational group and industry

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
          Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
        State and local government workers                                                                       
                                                                                                                 
    All workers................................  124.7   126.7   127.0     0.5    0.5    0.2    2.2    2.1    1.8
                                                                                                                 
                Occupational group                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Management, professional, and related....  124.0   125.9   126.2      .5     .4     .2    2.1    2.0    1.8
        Professional and related...............  123.8   125.7   126.0      .4     .4     .2    2.1    1.9    1.8
                                                                                                                 
      Sales and office.........................  124.6   126.2   126.6      .6     .6     .3    2.1    1.9    1.6
        Office and administrative support......  125.0   126.6   127.0      .6     .6     .3    2.1    1.9    1.6
                                                                                                                 
      Service occupations......................  127.2   129.3   130.0      .6     .5     .5    2.3    2.2    2.2
                                                                                                                 
                     Industry                                                                                    
                                                                                                                 
      Education and health services............  123.9   125.8   126.1      .4     .3     .2    2.1    1.9    1.8
        Educational services...................  123.4   125.2   125.5      .4     .2     .2    2.2    1.9    1.7
          Schools..............................  123.4   125.2   125.5      .4     .3     .2    2.2    1.9    1.7
            Elementary and secondary schools...  122.6   124.6   124.9      .2     .2     .2    2.0    1.9    1.9
        Health care and social assistance......  128.1   130.6   131.3      .4     .7     .5    1.8    2.4    2.5
          Hospitals............................  127.1   129.7   130.2      .4     .7     .4    2.1    2.4    2.4
      Public administration....................  125.9   127.7   128.3      .8     .6     .5    2.4    2.2    1.9


    Table 12.  Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                  Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for–          
                                                          100)                                                   
                                                                                                                 
         Occupational group, industry, and                                                                       
                 bargaining status                                         3-months ended–     12-months ended–  
                                                  Mar.    Dec.    Mar.                                           
                                                  2017    2017    2018                                           
                                                                         Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                                         2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                 Civilian workers                                                                                
                                                                                                                 
    All workers(1).............................  132.2   134.4   135.7     0.8    0.3    1.0    2.2    2.5    2.6
                                                                                                                 
             Private industry workers                                                                            
                                                                                                                 
    All workers................................  128.4   130.2   131.6      .9     .2    1.1    1.9    2.3    2.5
                                                                                                                 
                Occupational group                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Management, professional, and related....  127.4   129.1   130.6     1.1     .2    1.2    1.8    2.5    2.5
                                                                                                                 
      Sales and office.........................  129.3   130.8   132.4      .7     .0    1.2    2.0    1.9    2.4
                                                                                                                 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                       
       maintenance.............................  130.5   132.9   133.5      .5     .4     .5    1.6    2.3    2.3
                                                                                                                 
      Production, transportation, and material                                                                   
       moving..................................  128.8   131.4   132.6      .7     .3     .9    2.0    2.7    3.0
                                                                                                                 
      Service occupations......................  128.3   129.7   131.3      .9     .4    1.2    2.3    2.0    2.3
                                                                                                                 
                     Industry                                                                                    
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
      Goods-producing industries(2)............  125.4   128.0   129.0      .4     .3     .8    1.5    2.5    2.9
        Manufacturing..........................  125.0   128.0   129.1      .6     .2     .9    1.5    3.0    3.3
          Aircraft manufacturing...............   92.9   118.3   122.2     3.7     .1    3.3    1.4   32.0   31.5
                                                                                                                 
      Service-providing industries(3)..........  129.6   131.2   132.7     1.0     .2    1.1    2.0    2.3    2.4
                                                                                                                 
                 Bargaining status                                                                               
                                                                                                                 
      Union....................................  137.4   140.6   141.7     1.0     .5     .8    1.8    3.3    3.1
      Nonunion.................................  126.6   128.2   129.6      .9     .2    1.1    1.9    2.2    2.4
                                                                                                                 
        State and local government workers                                                                       
                                                                                                                 
    All workers................................  146.0   149.7   150.4      .7     .7     .5    3.1    3.2    3.0

      1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
    public sector, except the federal government.
      2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
      3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
    utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
    services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
    health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and
    other services, except public administration.

 
 
 Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation,(1) and wages and salaries,
    for private industry workers, by area

    (Not seasonally adjusted)
                                                                                         
                                                                                         
                                                   Percent changes for 12-months ended–  
                                                                                         
                                                                                         
      Census region and metropolitan area(2)     Total compensation   Wages and salaries 
                                                                                         
                                                                                         
                                                 Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar. 
                                                 2017   2017   2018   2017   2017   2018 
                                                                                         
                                                                                         
    Northeast                                                                            
                                                                                         
      Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH CSA...    2.6    2.4    2.0    3.0    2.2    1.7
                                                                                         
      New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA                                            
       CSA.....................................    2.9    2.4    2.8    3.2    2.4    3.1
                                                                                         
      Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland, PA-NJ-DE-MD                                          
       CSA.....................................    3.0    2.7    2.7    3.0    2.4    2.7
                                                                                         
    South                                                                                
                                                                                         
      Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, GA-AL                                           
       CSA.....................................    2.8    1.4    1.1    3.0    1.5    1.7
                                                                                         
      Dallas-Fort Worth, TX CSA................    2.2    2.4    2.2    2.8    3.2    2.2
                                                                                         
      Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX CSA.......    1.6    1.7    2.1    2.2    2.0    2.3
                                                                                         
      Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL                                            
       MSA.....................................    3.2    2.2    2.4    3.1    2.3    2.7
                                                                                         
      Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia,                                            
       DC-MD-VA-WV CSA.........................    2.3    2.2    2.5    2.8    3.0    2.8
                                                                                         
    Midwest                                                                              
                                                                                         
      Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                                                  
       IL-IN-WI CSA............................    2.5    2.4    2.9    2.7    2.6    2.9
                                                                                         
      Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA.............    2.9    2.8    2.6    3.5    3.2    2.8
                                                                                         
      Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI CSA    2.9    1.4    3.5    2.9    1.1    3.9
                                                                                         
    West                                                                                 
                                                                                         
      Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA CSA     2.5    3.7    3.2    2.7    3.3    3.1
                                                                                         
      Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA..........    2.8    2.7    3.6    3.1    3.1    4.0
                                                                                         
      San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA...    3.0    3.4    4.4    3.3    3.6    4.9
                                                                                         
      Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA CSA...........    2.4    6.9    7.2    3.6    3.4    3.6

      1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
      2 Note that some of these areas are Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and
    others are Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). For more information on
    metropolitan area definitions, visit the U.S. Census Bureau's Metropolitan and
    Micropolitan Statistical Areas page, on the Internet at 
    www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.

Last Modified Date: April 27, 2018