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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                 USDL-23-1640
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, July 28, 2023

Technical information: (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

				EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  JUNE 2023

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.0 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month 
period ending in June 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries 
increased 1.0 percent and benefit costs increased 0.9 percent from March 2023. (See tables A, 1,
2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
June 2023 and increased 5.1 percent in June 2022. Wages and salaries increased 4.6 percent for the 
12-month period ending in June 2023 and increased 5.3 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
June 2022. Benefit costs increased 4.2 percent over the year and increased 4.8 percent for the 
12-month period ending in June 2022. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.5 percent over the year. In June 2022, 
the increase was 5.5 percent. Wages and salaries increased 4.6 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in June 2023 and increased 5.7 percent in June 2022. The cost of benefits increased 3.9 
percent for the 12-month period ending in June 2023 and increased 5.3 percent in June 2022. Inflation-
adjusted (constant dollar) compensation costs for private industry increased 1.5 percent for the 
12-month period ending in June 2023. Inflation-adjusted wages and salaries increased 1.7 percent for 
the 12 months ending June 2023. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector increased 0.9 
percent over that same period. (See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period ending 
in June 2023 ranged from 4.1 percent for natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 
to 5.3 percent for service occupations. Within industry supersectors, compensation cost increases 
ranged from 3.5 percent for financial activities to 5.4 percent for leisure and hospitality.
(See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 4.9 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in June 2023, compared with an increase of 3.4 percent in June 2022. Wages and salaries 
increased 4.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in June 2023 and 3.2 percent a year ago. Benefit 
costs increased 5.2 percent for the 12-month period ending in June 2023. The prior year increase 
was 3.6 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.2 1.0 5.1 4.8 4.5 -3.6 -0.2 1.6

Wages and salaries

1.2 1.0 5.3 5.0 4.6 -3.5 0.0 1.7

Benefits

1.2 0.9 4.8 4.5 4.2 -3.9 -0.5 1.2

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.2 1.0 5.5 4.8 4.5 -3.3 -0.2 1.5

Wages and salaries

1.2 1.0 5.7 5.1 4.6 -3.1 0.1 1.7

Benefits

1.1 0.9 5.3 4.3 3.9 -3.5 -0.6 0.9

Health benefits

- - 4.6 3.1 2.1 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.0 3.4 4.9 4.9 -5.2 -0.1 1.9

Wages and salaries

0.9 0.8 3.2 4.7 4.7 -5.4 -0.2 1.7

Benefits

1.5 1.0 3.6 5.0 5.2 -5.0 0.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence 
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, 
coverage, methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation, see National Compensation Measures 
Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 28,100 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 7,000 private industry establishments and 
approximately 7,600 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an 
additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of 
decreasing response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current 
quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/eci-standard-errors.htm and the database query tool at 
www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate 
to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings
Historical ECI data are available in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. The continuous 
occupational and industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual 
and Occupational Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American 
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to
the present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification 
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article 
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs 
for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in xlsx format at 
www.bls.gov/ecec/tables.htm. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather 
than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm. Beginning with the December 2022 release, the ECI introduced new
employment weights, see www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.

Additional information
Historical tables are available in (xlsx) format for constant dollar, current dollar, and continuous
series, see www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. ECI release dates are available on the release calendar at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS Economic News Release email 
at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or 
have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services.

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

157.4 159.0 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

152.6 153.8 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.8

Manufacturing

152.2 153.6 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9

Service-providing industries(4)

158.5 160.1 0.6 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0

Education and health services

156.0 157.4 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.9

Educational services

154.8 155.9 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.2 0.7

Elementary and secondary schools

155.1 156.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 0.8

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

153.3 154.3 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.3 0.7

Health care and social assistance

157.2 159.0 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1

Hospitals

157.7 159.5 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

157.8 159.6 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.1

Public administration

160.2 162.1 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.2

Private industry workers

All workers

157.3 158.9 0.7 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

152.8 154.6 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.2

Management, business, and financial

153.7 155.6 0.8 1.5 0.6 1.2 1.4 0.5 0.9 1.1 1.2

Professional and related

152.2 153.9 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1

Sales and office

160.8 162.5 0.3 1.3 1.1 1.6 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

Sales and related

158.9 160.7 -0.4 1.5 1.0 1.8 2.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1

Office and administrative support

161.8 163.4 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

154.9 156.3 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

154.1 155.6 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

155.7 157.1 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.4 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.6 162.3 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.1

Production

157.1 158.5 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.4 0.9

Transportation and material moving

165.1 167.0 1.1 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.2

Service occupations

168.7 170.6 1.6 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

152.6 153.7 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.7

Construction

153.7 154.5 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.5

Manufacturing

152.2 153.6 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9

Aircraft manufacturing

132.9 134.1 0.6 7.1 0.4 2.1 0.7 -5.6 0.8 0.9 0.9

Service-providing industries(5)

158.7 160.3 0.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

162.0 164.1 1.1 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3

Wholesale trade

155.0 157.4 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.5

Retail trade

167.3 168.9 1.1 1.6 2.5 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

160.8 163.1 0.6 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.4

Utilities

166.5 169.0 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.5

Information

154.4 156.0 0.5 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.0

Financial activities

155.2 156.8 -1.9 2.3 -0.4 1.2 1.9 1.0 1.3 0.2 1.0

Finance and insurance

155.6 157.2 -2.4 2.5 -0.9 1.0 1.9 0.9 1.4 0.1 1.0

Credit intermediation and related activities

157.6 156.8 1.3 5.3 -1.3 0.0 2.0 -0.1 1.6 1.5 -0.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

157.8 159.2 0.2 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

153.6 155.3 0.6 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.1

Professional and business services

157.7 159.0 0.6 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.8

Professional, scientific, and technical services

158.8 160.2 0.6 1.6 0.8 1.1 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.5 0.9

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

158.1 159.3 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.5 0.8

Education and health services

155.9 157.6 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1

Educational services

153.1 154.0 0.3 1.4 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

152.1 153.2 0.6 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.7

Health care and social assistance

156.5 158.3 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2

Hospitals

157.5 159.4 0.8 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

156.6 158.3 1.3 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

169.3 171.2 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.1

Accommodation and food services

173.0 175.1 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.2

Other services, except public administration

159.5 161.4 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.2

State and local government workers

All workers

157.7 159.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.7 1.1 1.1 1.0

Industry

Education and health services

156.0 157.2 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.1 1.2 0.8

Educational services

155.2 156.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.8 1.1 1.2 0.8

Schools

155.1 156.3 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.2 0.8

Elementary and secondary schools

155.5 156.8 0.6 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 0.8

Health care and social assistance

162.1 163.8 1.1 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.0

Hospitals

158.5 160.2 1.1 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.1

Public administration

160.2 162.1 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

157.1 158.6 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

156.2 157.2 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.6

Manufacturing

156.0 157.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9

Service-providing industries(3)

157.3 159.0 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1

Education and health services

151.6 153.1 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.0

Educational services

145.1 146.1 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.6 1.1 1.0 0.7

Elementary and secondary schools

143.6 144.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.9 0.7

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

146.5 147.5 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7

Health care and social assistance

158.3 160.1 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.1

Hospitals

158.3 160.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

160.8 162.8 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.4 1.4 1.2

Private industry workers

All workers

159.5 161.1 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

153.9 155.8 0.8 1.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Professional and related

153.9 155.6 0.7 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.1

Management, business, and financial

154.2 156.1 1.0 1.7 0.4 1.0 1.5 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.3

Sales and office

162.8 164.6 0.3 1.4 1.1 1.5 2.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.1

Office and administrative support

162.9 164.6 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

156.3 157.7 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

155.7 157.3 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

157.0 158.3 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.7 0.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

164.5 166.3 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.1

Production

160.8 162.3 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.5 0.9

Transportation and material moving

169.0 171.1 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2

Service occupations

173.2 175.3 2.0 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.4 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

156.3 157.3 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.6

Construction

156.3 156.9 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.8 0.4

Manufacturing

156.0 157.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9

Aircraft manufacturing

157.5 159.2 0.7 0.1 0.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.4 1.1

Service-providing industries(4)

160.3 162.1 0.8 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

163.1 165.3 1.3 1.6 2.1 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3

Wholesale trade

152.4 154.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.8 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.6

Retail trade

170.2 172.0 1.3 1.8 2.8 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

163.8 166.3 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.5

Utilities

160.7 162.9 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.4

Information

153.5 155.0 0.8 1.4 0.7 1.4 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.0

Financial activities

155.7 157.8 -2.4 3.0 -1.1 0.7 1.8 0.9 1.6 -0.4 1.3

Finance and insurance

156.2 158.3 -3.1 3.4 -1.8 0.5 1.8 1.0 1.6 -0.7 1.3

Credit intermediation and related activities

157.1 156.0 2.3 7.5 -2.3 -0.9 1.7 -0.6 1.9 1.3 -0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

156.4 158.1 0.3 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

154.3 156.2 0.9 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2

Professional and business services

159.4 160.6 0.9 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.8

Professional, scientific, and technical services

159.9 161.2 0.8 1.6 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.2 0.7 1.4 0.8

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

162.4 163.6 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.1 1.5 0.8

Education and health services

157.3 159.1 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1

Educational services

152.0 152.9 0.4 1.5 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.3 0.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

149.2 150.2 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.7

Health care and social assistance

158.5 160.4 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2

Hospitals

159.2 161.1 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

161.8 163.8 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.3

Leisure and hospitality

175.3 177.2 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.1

Accommodation and food services

178.9 181.2 2.5 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3

Other services, except public administration

161.7 163.9 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.9 1.4

State and local government workers

All workers

146.7 147.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8

Industry

Education and health services

144.9 146.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8

Educational services

143.7 144.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.7

Schools

143.7 144.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.7

Elementary and secondary schools

143.1 144.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.8 0.7

Health care and social assistance

155.4 156.7 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.3 1.3 0.8

Hospitals

154.0 155.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.1 1.4 0.9

Public administration

149.6 151.1 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.2 0.7 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

158.3 159.8 0.4 0.9 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9

Private industry workers

All workers

152.3 153.7 0.4 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

150.3 151.9 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.3 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.1

Sales and office

155.6 157.1 0.1 1.0 1.2 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.9 153.2 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

152.7 154.2 0.4 1.6 0.7 1.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.0

Service occupations

154.3 155.3 0.5 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.7 0.7

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

145.2 146.5 0.5 1.4 0.6 1.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9

Manufacturing

144.9 146.3 0.4 1.8 0.4 2.2 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.0

Service-providing industries(3)

154.6 156.2 0.2 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

179.4 181.2 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.5 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers(2)

152.1 157.4 159.0 1.3 1.3 1.0 5.1 4.8 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

151.8 157.3 158.9 1.1 1.4 1.0 5.0 4.8 4.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

148.4 153.4 155.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 4.3 4.4 4.4

Management, business, and financial

150.1 154.0 155.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 4.7 4.1 3.9

Professional and related

147.5 153.2 154.5 0.8 1.3 0.8 4.1 4.7 4.7

Sales and office

155.7 161.3 163.0 2.0 1.4 1.1 6.1 5.6 4.7

Sales and related

153.8 159.1 160.9 2.5 1.3 1.1 7.0 6.1 4.6

Office and administrative support

156.5 162.3 163.9 1.5 1.4 1.0 5.4 5.3 4.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.6 155.2 156.8 1.2 1.2 1.0 4.3 4.3 4.1

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

150.3 154.6 156.2 1.0 1.1 1.0 4.0 3.9 3.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

151.0 156.0 157.6 1.5 1.5 1.0 4.6 4.8 4.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.4 160.6 162.2 1.2 1.3 1.0 5.6 4.6 4.4

Production

151.8 157.1 158.7 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.5 4.8 4.5

Transportation and material moving

160.5 165.8 167.4 1.1 1.2 1.0 5.9 4.5 4.3

Service occupations

161.0 168.1 169.7 1.4 1.4 1.0 7.0 5.9 5.4

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

148.2 152.5 154.1 1.4 1.3 1.0 4.7 4.3 4.0

Manufacturing

148.0 152.3 153.7 1.2 1.3 0.9 5.1 4.2 3.9

Service-providing industries(5)

152.8 158.3 159.9 1.3 1.3 1.0 5.2 4.9 4.6

Education and health services

149.4 155.8 156.9 0.8 1.1 0.7 4.4 5.1 5.0

Educational services

147.7 154.1 154.7 0.5 0.9 0.4 3.3 4.8 4.7

Elementary and secondary schools

147.8 154.4 155.0 0.3 0.8 0.4 2.9 4.7 4.9

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

146.7 152.9 153.4 0.6 0.9 0.3 3.6 4.9 4.6

Health care and social assistance

151.2 157.4 159.0 1.1 1.3 1.0 5.6 5.3 5.2

Hospitals

151.6 158.0 159.4 1.1 1.5 0.9 5.3 5.3 5.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

151.0 157.8 159.3 1.5 1.3 1.0 6.8 6.0 5.5

Public administration

154.0 160.1 161.2 0.7 0.9 0.7 4.1 4.7 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers

152.4 157.4 159.2 1.5 1.4 1.1 5.5 4.8 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.1 157.3 159.0 1.3 1.5 1.1 5.4 4.8 4.5

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

148.5 152.9 154.7 1.3 1.4 1.2 4.8 4.3 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.4 152.1 153.8 1.1 1.5 1.1 4.7 4.3 4.3

Management, business, and financial

150.2 153.8 155.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 4.8 4.0 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.4 152.7 154.6 1.1 1.5 1.2 4.7 4.0 4.2

Professional and related

147.1 152.4 154.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 4.7 4.7 4.7

Sales and office

155.8 161.3 163.1 2.1 1.4 1.1 6.3 5.7 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

156.9 163.0 164.8 1.6 1.7 1.1 6.0 5.6 5.0

Sales and related

153.8 159.0 160.8 2.6 1.3 1.1 7.0 6.1 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.0 163.8 165.6 1.5 2.0 1.1 6.7 5.9 5.5

Office and administrative support

156.3 161.9 163.7 1.6 1.4 1.1 5.5 5.3 4.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.4 154.8 156.6 1.3 1.2 1.2 4.3 4.3 4.1

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

150.1 154.1 155.8 1.1 1.0 1.1 4.0 3.8 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

150.8 155.6 157.3 1.5 1.5 1.1 4.6 4.8 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.2 160.3 161.9 1.2 1.3 1.0 5.7 4.5 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.9 160.1 161.7 1.2 1.4 1.0 5.7 4.6 4.4

Production

151.8 157.1 158.7 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.6 4.8 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.4 157.5 159.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.8 4.7 4.4

Transportation and material moving

160.3 165.5 167.1 1.1 1.3 1.0 5.9 4.4 4.2

Service occupations

162.1 169.0 170.7 1.7 1.4 1.0 8.0 6.0 5.3

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

148.2 152.5 154.1 1.4 1.3 1.0 4.7 4.3 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.1 152.3 153.8 1.2 1.3 1.0 4.7 4.0 3.8

Management, professional, and related

143.2 146.4 147.8 0.8 1.5 1.0 4.0 3.0 3.2

Sales and office

153.9 160.4 162.6 4.0 1.5 1.4 5.3 8.4 5.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.4 153.5 155.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 4.1 3.9 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.2 155.1 156.7 1.3 1.2 1.0 5.7 4.7 4.3

Construction

149.0 153.3 155.1 2.0 1.3 1.2 4.0 4.9 4.1

Manufacturing

148.0 152.3 153.7 1.2 1.3 0.9 5.1 4.2 3.9

Management, professional, and related

144.6 147.6 148.9 0.8 1.4 0.9 4.3 2.9 3.0

Sales and office occupations

151.1 156.8 158.5 1.5 1.2 1.1 5.3 5.4 4.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.5 151.9 153.4 1.2 1.2 1.0 4.2 4.3 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.9 154.9 156.5 1.4 1.2 1.0 5.7 4.7 4.4

Aircraft manufacturing

141.8 133.6 134.6 0.6 1.8 0.7 13.0 -5.2 -5.1

Service-providing industries(4)

153.7 158.8 160.6 1.6 1.4 1.1 5.8 5.0 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.3 158.8 160.6 1.4 1.5 1.1 5.7 5.0 4.8

Management, professional, and related

149.4 154.1 155.9 1.4 1.4 1.2 4.9 4.5 4.4

Sales and office

156.0 161.4 163.1 1.9 1.4 1.1 6.4 5.4 4.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.9 156.8 158.6 1.5 1.5 1.1 4.6 4.8 4.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.7 166.1 167.7 1.0 1.4 1.0 5.7 4.4 4.4

Service occupations

162.1 169.0 170.7 1.7 1.4 1.0 8.0 6.0 5.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

157.6 162.2 164.4 1.5 1.3 1.4 6.3 4.4 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.2 162.7 164.7 1.3 1.6 1.2 5.9 4.8 4.8

Wholesale trade

151.5 155.2 157.9 1.8 1.3 1.7 6.5 4.3 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.9 158.4 160.7 1.3 1.6 1.5 5.7 5.0 5.1

Retail trade

161.7 167.4 169.3 1.8 1.6 1.1 7.6 5.4 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

159.7 166.0 167.9 1.7 2.0 1.1 7.3 5.7 5.1

Transportation and warehousing

157.0 161.2 163.1 0.4 0.9 1.2 3.9 3.1 3.9

Utilities

161.9 166.8 169.2 0.7 1.6 1.4 3.3 3.7 4.5

Information

149.2 154.5 156.2 1.4 1.4 1.1 4.8 5.0 4.7

Financial activities

152.5 155.1 157.9 2.7 0.8 1.8 5.2 4.4 3.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.1 156.9 158.6 1.9 1.9 1.1 5.7 5.1 4.3

Finance and insurance

153.1 155.4 158.4 2.9 0.7 1.9 4.9 4.4 3.5

Credit intermediation and related activities

154.3 156.3 158.4 3.9 1.4 1.3 6.3 5.3 2.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

155.1 161.1 162.4 2.0 2.2 0.8 5.9 6.0 4.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

153.4 157.8 160.0 2.2 1.7 1.4 5.4 5.1 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

151.4 155.8 157.8 1.7 1.9 1.3 5.0 4.7 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

149.9 153.9 155.6 2.0 1.3 1.1 6.6 4.8 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

154.0 158.1 160.0 2.0 1.3 1.2 6.3 4.7 3.9

Professional and business services

152.4 157.9 159.2 1.5 1.7 0.8 5.4 5.1 4.5

Professional, scientific, and technical services

153.5 158.9 160.2 1.6 1.8 0.8 5.2 5.2 4.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

152.7 158.2 159.5 1.5 1.7 0.8 6.3 5.2 4.5

Education and health services

150.1 156.1 157.5 1.2 1.3 0.9 5.6 5.3 4.9

Educational services

147.4 152.8 153.5 1.4 0.9 0.5 4.8 5.1 4.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

147.1 151.9 152.6 0.9 0.7 0.5 3.9 4.2 3.7

Health care and social assistance

150.6 156.8 158.4 1.1 1.4 1.0 5.7 5.3 5.2

Hospitals

151.5 157.8 159.4 1.1 1.5 1.0 5.5 5.3 5.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

149.9 156.6 158.1 1.6 1.4 1.0 7.1 6.1 5.5

Nursing care facilities(2)

149.2 156.0 157.9 1.8 1.2 1.2 7.1 6.4 5.8

Leisure and hospitality

162.4 169.3 171.1 1.6 1.8 1.1 7.8 5.9 5.4

Accommodation and food service

166.1 173.0 175.2 1.7 1.9 1.3 8.1 5.9 5.5

Other services, except public administration

154.1 159.7 161.6 1.0 2.2 1.2 5.3 4.7 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

154.0 158.1 159.6 0.9 1.0 0.9 3.8 3.6 3.6

Goods-producing industries(2)

148.9 150.6 152.1 0.9 0.4 1.0 4.1 2.1 2.1

Manufacturing

143.5 144.4 145.6 0.8 0.3 0.8 5.4 1.5 1.5

Service-providing industries(3)

157.9 163.4 164.9 0.9 1.3 0.9 3.6 4.4 4.4

Nonunion

152.1 157.2 159.0 1.6 1.4 1.1 5.8 5.0 4.5

Goods-producing industries(2)

147.9 152.7 154.4 1.5 1.5 1.1 4.9 4.8 4.4

Manufacturing

149.2 154.1 155.7 1.3 1.5 1.0 5.1 4.6 4.4

Service-providing industries(3)

153.2 158.3 160.1 1.7 1.4 1.1 5.9 5.0 4.5

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

153.9 159.0 160.7 1.1 1.3 1.1 5.1 4.5 4.4

New England

158.6 163.0 165.1 1.3 0.6 1.3 5.5 4.2 4.1

Middle Atlantic

152.2 157.5 159.2 1.0 1.5 1.1 4.9 4.5 4.6

South

150.5 155.1 157.1 2.0 1.4 1.3 5.8 5.2 4.4

South Atlantic

152.2 158.1 160.2 1.9 1.5 1.3 5.3 5.8 5.3

East South Central

149.8 154.8 156.6 1.1 1.6 1.2 6.4 4.5 4.5

West South Central

147.8 150.2 152.2 2.6 1.3 1.3 6.4 4.3 3.0

Midwest

149.9 154.6 156.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 5.7 4.5 4.3

East North Central

148.1 153.2 155.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 5.7 4.7 4.7

West North Central

154.5 157.9 159.8 1.7 1.1 1.2 6.0 3.9 3.4

West

156.4 162.1 163.5 1.4 1.6 0.9 5.5 5.1 4.5

Mountain

154.4 160.1 161.2 1.4 2.0 0.7 5.8 5.2 4.4

Pacific

157.4 163.1 164.6 1.4 1.6 0.9 5.3 5.0 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers

150.7 157.3 158.1 0.5 1.0 0.5 3.4 4.9 4.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

148.2 154.6 155.2 0.3 0.8 0.4 3.0 4.7 4.7

Professional and related

148.0 154.5 155.2 0.3 0.8 0.5 2.8 4.7 4.9

Sales and office

154.3 160.8 161.9 0.7 1.1 0.7 3.6 4.9 4.9

Office and administrative support

154.3 160.8 162.0 0.6 1.1 0.7 3.5 4.8 5.0

Service occupations

157.6 165.1 166.3 0.9 1.1 0.7 4.7 5.7 5.5

Industry

Education and health services

148.6 155.4 156.0 0.3 0.9 0.4 3.1 4.9 5.0

Educational services

147.8 154.5 155.0 0.3 0.8 0.3 2.9 4.8 4.9

Schools

147.8 154.5 155.0 0.3 0.8 0.3 3.0 4.9 4.9

Elementary and secondary schools

148.2 154.8 155.4 0.3 0.8 0.4 2.8 4.7 4.9

Health care and social assistance

154.9 162.1 163.0 0.8 1.1 0.6 4.3 5.5 5.2

Hospitals

151.9 158.6 159.6 0.7 1.1 0.6 4.2 5.2 5.1

Public administration

154.0 160.1 161.2 0.7 0.9 0.7 4.1 4.7 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers(1)

151.7 157.1 158.7 1.4 1.2 1.0 5.3 5.0 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

150.8 156.5 158.1 1.1 1.4 1.0 5.1 5.0 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.5 151.3 152.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 4.2 4.4 4.4

Management, business, and financial

149.9 153.1 155.1 1.6 0.9 1.3 4.6 3.7 3.5

Professional and related

144.6 150.4 151.7 0.8 1.3 0.9 4.0 4.8 4.9

Sales and office

156.4 162.2 163.9 2.1 1.3 1.0 6.2 5.9 4.8

Sales and related

156.8 162.1 163.9 2.9 1.2 1.1 7.1 6.4 4.5

Office and administrative support

155.7 161.9 163.5 1.5 1.4 1.0 5.5 5.5 5.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.4 155.7 157.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 4.6 4.8 4.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

150.2 155.2 157.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 4.4 4.4 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair

150.7 156.3 157.8 1.3 1.6 1.0 4.8 5.1 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

157.7 163.7 165.4 1.2 1.3 1.0 5.8 5.1 4.9

Production

154.2 160.6 162.3 1.4 1.5 1.1 5.4 5.6 5.3

Transportation and material moving

162.6 168.3 170.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 6.3 4.7 4.6

Service occupations

161.8 169.2 170.9 1.6 1.4 1.0 7.9 6.3 5.6

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

150.7 155.9 157.6 1.6 1.4 1.1 4.7 5.1 4.6

Manufacturing

150.7 156.0 157.5 1.3 1.4 1.0 4.9 4.9 4.5

Service-providing industries(4)

151.8 157.3 158.9 1.3 1.2 1.0 5.3 4.9 4.7

Education and health services

145.2 151.5 152.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 4.5 5.2 5.2

Educational services

139.2 144.8 145.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 3.0 4.5 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

137.5 143.3 143.9 0.2 0.5 0.4 2.4 4.4 4.7

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

140.8 146.3 146.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 3.4 4.5 4.2

Health care and social assistance

151.6 158.4 160.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 5.9 5.7 5.6

Hospitals

151.3 158.4 160.0 1.1 1.6 1.0 5.6 5.9 5.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

153.2 160.9 162.6 1.5 1.4 1.1 7.4 6.6 6.1

Public administration

143.8 149.7 150.5 0.8 0.8 0.5 4.6 4.9 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers

154.2 159.5 161.3 1.6 1.3 1.1 5.7 5.1 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

153.4 159.0 160.8 1.3 1.5 1.1 5.6 5.0 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

149.5 154.0 155.8 1.3 1.3 1.2 4.7 4.3 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.8 152.6 154.4 1.1 1.4 1.2 4.6 4.4 4.5

Management, business, and financial

151.1 154.1 156.3 1.7 0.9 1.4 4.7 3.7 3.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.0 152.1 154.0 1.1 1.3 1.2 4.4 3.9 4.1

Professional and related

148.3 154.0 155.6 1.0 1.7 1.0 4.7 4.9 4.9

Sales and office

157.7 163.5 165.3 2.2 1.4 1.1 6.4 6.0 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

158.2 164.9 166.7 1.6 1.8 1.1 6.2 5.9 5.4

Sales and related

156.9 162.3 164.1 2.8 1.2 1.1 7.1 6.4 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.3 166.8 168.5 1.5 2.1 1.0 6.7 6.2 5.8

Office and administrative support

156.8 163.0 164.7 1.6 1.5 1.0 5.5 5.6 5.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.0 156.2 157.9 1.3 1.5 1.1 4.6 4.8 4.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

150.7 155.7 157.5 1.1 1.3 1.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair

151.3 156.8 158.5 1.5 1.7 1.1 4.9 5.2 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

158.2 164.1 165.8 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.9 5.1 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

157.8 164.0 165.6 1.3 1.5 1.0 5.9 5.3 4.9

Production

154.3 160.8 162.4 1.4 1.6 1.0 5.5 5.7 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

154.9 161.2 162.8 1.4 1.6 1.0 5.6 5.6 5.1

Transportation and material moving

163.6 169.2 170.9 1.2 1.2 1.0 6.4 4.6 4.5

Service occupations

165.9 173.4 175.3 1.8 1.6 1.1 8.5 6.4 5.7

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

150.8 156.0 157.7 1.7 1.4 1.1 4.7 5.2 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

150.5 155.6 157.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 4.6 4.7 4.5

Management, professional, and related

146.5 150.4 151.9 1.0 1.5 1.0 3.7 3.7 3.7

Sales and office

158.4 165.8 168.2 5.2 1.6 1.4 5.5 10.2 6.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.5 155.4 157.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 4.4 4.5 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.1 159.1 160.7 1.5 1.3 1.0 5.7 5.5 5.0

Construction

150.7 155.6 157.6 2.4 1.3 1.3 4.4 5.7 4.6

Manufacturing

150.7 156.0 157.5 1.3 1.4 1.0 4.9 4.9 4.5

Management, professional, and related

147.2 151.2 152.5 0.9 1.5 0.9 3.7 3.6 3.6

Sales and office

153.5 159.9 161.8 1.9 1.2 1.2 5.5 6.1 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

150.7 156.6 157.9 1.4 1.6 0.8 4.0 5.4 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.0 159.1 160.7 1.6 1.3 1.0 5.8 5.6 5.0

Aircraft manufacturing

154.5 158.2 159.7 0.7 1.5 0.9 2.5 3.1 3.4

Service-providing industries(3)

155.1 160.4 162.3 1.5 1.3 1.2 5.9 5.0 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

154.2 159.9 161.7 1.3 1.5 1.1 5.8 5.1 4.9

Management, professional, and related

150.0 154.5 156.5 1.4 1.2 1.3 4.8 4.4 4.3

Sales and office

157.6 163.2 164.9 1.9 1.3 1.0 6.5 5.5 4.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.7 157.2 158.9 1.4 1.7 1.1 5.0 5.1 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

163.3 169.1 170.9 1.1 1.3 1.1 6.0 4.7 4.7

Service occupations

165.9 173.4 175.3 1.8 1.6 1.1 8.5 6.4 5.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

158.5 163.2 165.5 1.6 1.2 1.4 6.6 4.6 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

157.5 163.4 165.4 1.4 1.6 1.2 6.1 5.1 5.0

Wholesale trade

149.4 152.6 155.2 2.0 1.2 1.7 6.9 4.2 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.6 155.2 157.2 1.3 1.6 1.3 5.8 5.1 5.1

Retail trade

164.4 170.2 172.3 1.9 1.4 1.2 7.8 5.5 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

161.8 168.3 170.4 1.8 1.9 1.2 7.4 5.8 5.3

Transportation and warehousing

159.3 164.0 166.0 0.6 0.9 1.2 4.3 3.6 4.2

Utilities

156.6 161.1 163.1 0.6 1.6 1.2 3.4 3.5 4.2

Information

147.8 153.7 155.1 0.7 1.5 0.9 4.3 4.8 4.9

Financial activities

153.9 155.7 159.1 2.7 0.3 2.2 4.6 3.9 3.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

151.3 156.4 158.2 1.4 1.9 1.2 5.4 4.8 4.6

Finance and insurance

154.8 156.0 159.8 2.9 0.1 2.4 4.0 3.7 3.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

154.8 155.2 157.8 4.2 0.8 1.7 6.1 4.4 1.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

153.2 159.4 160.8 1.5 2.0 0.9 5.4 5.6 5.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

151.8 156.5 158.8 1.9 1.8 1.5 4.8 5.1 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.2 152.8 154.8 1.4 2.1 1.3 4.3 4.5 4.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

150.0 154.5 156.3 1.9 1.5 1.2 7.1 5.0 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

154.7 159.3 161.2 1.8 1.4 1.2 6.8 4.9 4.2

Professional and business services

153.9 159.5 160.6 1.5 1.6 0.7 5.4 5.2 4.4

Professional, scientific, and technical services

154.7 159.9 161.1 1.6 1.5 0.8 5.2 5.0 4.1

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

156.5 162.5 163.8 1.6 1.7 0.8 6.8 5.5 4.7

Education and health services

150.9 157.4 159.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 5.7 5.6 5.4

Educational services

146.3 151.6 152.3 1.5 0.9 0.5 4.7 5.2 4.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

144.3 148.9 149.7 0.9 0.6 0.5 3.6 4.1 3.7

Health care and social assistance

151.9 158.7 160.4 1.1 1.4 1.1 6.0 5.7 5.6

Hospitals

152.2 159.3 161.0 1.2 1.7 1.1 5.8 5.9 5.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

154.1 161.8 163.6 1.6 1.4 1.1 7.7 6.7 6.2

Nursing care facilities(1)

152.9 160.9 163.0 1.8 1.3 1.3 7.4 7.1 6.6

Leisure and hospitality

168.1 175.3 177.3 1.7 1.7 1.1 8.2 6.0 5.5

Accommodation and food service

171.8 179.0 181.3 1.7 1.8 1.3 8.5 6.0 5.5

Other services, except public administration

156.0 161.8 164.0 1.0 2.1 1.4 5.6 4.7 5.1

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Bargaining status

Union

150.8 156.1 157.8 0.7 1.1 1.1 3.4 4.2 4.6

Goods-producing industries(1)

144.7 148.6 149.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.1 3.6 3.6

Manufacturing

143.3 147.3 148.4 0.7 0.8 0.7 3.5 3.5 3.6

Service-providing industries(2)

154.7 160.8 162.7 0.6 1.2 1.2 3.5 4.6 5.2

Nonunion

154.6 159.8 161.7 1.7 1.3 1.2 6.0 5.1 4.6

Goods-producing industries(1)

152.1 157.6 159.4 1.8 1.5 1.1 5.0 5.5 4.8

Manufacturing

152.2 157.8 159.4 1.5 1.5 1.0 5.1 5.2 4.7

Service-providing industries(2)

155.1 160.4 162.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 6.1 5.1 4.6

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

154.7 159.8 161.6 1.0 1.1 1.1 5.1 4.4 4.5

New England

161.6 165.6 168.1 1.4 0.1 1.5 5.4 3.9 4.0

Middle Atlantic

152.2 157.6 159.2 0.9 1.4 1.0 5.0 4.5 4.6

South

153.2 158.0 160.2 2.2 1.3 1.4 5.9 5.4 4.6

South Atlantic

155.1 161.4 163.7 2.1 1.4 1.4 5.2 6.3 5.5

East South Central

150.8 156.7 158.6 1.0 1.6 1.2 6.1 5.0 5.2

West South Central

151.2 153.0 155.0 3.0 1.1 1.3 7.1 4.2 2.5

Midwest

151.0 155.8 157.7 1.3 1.2 1.2 6.0 4.6 4.4

East North Central

148.9 154.3 156.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 5.8 4.8 4.8

West North Central

156.0 159.5 161.6 1.9 1.1 1.3 6.2 4.2 3.6

West

158.6 165.1 166.4 1.5 1.7 0.8 5.6 5.6 4.9

Mountain

157.0 163.2 164.4 1.6 1.9 0.7 6.4 5.6 4.7

Pacific

159.4 166.0 167.5 1.4 1.6 0.9 5.2 5.6 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

All workers

140.6 146.6 147.2 0.4 0.7 0.4 3.2 4.7 4.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

138.5 144.1 144.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 2.7 4.4 4.5

Professional and related

138.2 144.0 144.5 0.3 0.6 0.3 2.6 4.5 4.6

Sales and office

141.6 147.5 148.6 0.7 0.9 0.7 3.4 4.9 4.9

Office and administrative support

142.0 148.0 149.1 0.7 1.0 0.7 3.3 5.0 5.0

Service occupations

148.1 155.2 156.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 5.4 5.8 5.5

Industry

Education and health services

138.8 144.7 145.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 2.7 4.6 4.6

Educational services

137.7 143.4 143.9 0.3 0.4 0.3 2.5 4.4 4.5

Schools

137.7 143.4 143.9 0.3 0.4 0.3 2.5 4.4 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

137.1 142.8 143.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 2.2 4.4 4.6

Health care and social assistance

148.1 155.4 156.1 1.0 1.0 0.5 4.9 5.9 5.4

Hospitals

147.1 154.0 154.8 1.0 1.0 0.5 4.8 5.7 5.2

Public administration

143.8 149.7 150.5 0.8 0.8 0.5 4.6 4.9 4.7

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

153.2 158.3 159.7 1.1 1.5 0.9 4.8 4.5 4.2

Private industry workers

All workers

148.2 152.4 154.0 1.4 1.5 1.0 5.3 4.3 3.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.0 150.5 152.2 1.2 1.8 1.1 5.0 4.4 4.2

Sales and office

151.0 155.5 157.4 1.8 1.5 1.2 6.0 4.9 4.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.1 151.8 153.5 1.4 0.8 1.1 3.7 3.2 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.1 152.6 154.0 1.0 1.3 0.9 5.3 3.4 3.3

Service occupations

149.6 154.5 155.5 1.6 1.2 0.6 6.2 4.9 3.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

143.0 145.4 146.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 4.8 2.5 2.7

Manufacturing

142.8 145.1 146.6 0.8 1.1 1.0 5.4 2.4 2.7

Aircraft manufacturing

127.8 107.2 107.8 0.4 2.1 0.6 29.5 -15.8 -15.6

Service-providing industries(3)

150.0 154.8 156.5 1.5 1.6 1.1 5.3 4.7 4.3

Bargaining status

Union

159.3 161.6 162.7 1.3 0.9 0.7 4.4 2.8 2.1

Nonunion

145.9 150.4 152.1 1.4 1.6 1.1 5.3 4.5 4.2

State and local government workers

All workers

171.6 179.5 180.5 0.4 1.5 0.6 3.6 5.0 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) Percent changes for 12-months ended-
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Jun.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

5.8 3.9 3.8 5.8 4.0 4.2

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

5.2 4.6 4.6 5.3 4.3 4.6

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

4.0 5.7 5.8 3.9 6.5 6.6

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

4.3 5.1 4.3 4.4 5.6 4.6

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

5.4 5.2 4.1 5.9 5.1 4.3

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

5.5 3.5 3.3 6.1 3.4 2.6

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

6.3 6.1 5.8 6.8 6.0 5.5

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

4.2 5.5 5.2 3.8 5.7 5.7

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

5.3 3.8 4.1 5.1 3.5 4.2

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

4.8 4.1 4.3 4.9 3.8 4.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

5.6 4.0 4.0 5.8 4.3 4.1

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

5.6 4.7 5.0 5.7 4.9 5.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

5.5 4.6 3.9 6.5 5.2 4.3

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

4.5 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.4

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

8.7 2.6 1.9 5.4 5.9 5.4

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: July 28, 2023