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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                   USDL-24-0792
8:30 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, April 30, 2024

Technical information: (202) 691-6199    ncsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902    pressoffice@bls.gov

                                    EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  MARCH 2024

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.2 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month period
ending in March 2024, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries increased 1.1
percent and benefit costs increased 1.1 percent from December 2023. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.2 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2024
and increased 4.8 percent in March 2023. Wages and salaries increased 4.4 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2024 and increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2023. Benefit costs
increased 3.7 percent over the year and increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2023.
(See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.1 percent over the year. In March 2023, the 
increase was 4.8 percent. Wages and salaries increased 4.3 percent for the 12-month period ending in March
2024 and increased 5.1 percent in March 2023. The cost of benefits increased 3.6 percent for the 12-month 
period ending in March 2024 and increased 4.3 percent in March 2023. Inflation-adjusted (constant dollar) 
compensation costs for private industry workers increased 0.6 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
March 2024. Inflation-adjusted wages and salaries increased 0.8 percent for the 12 months ending March 
2024. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector increased 0.1 percent over that same period. 
(See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Within private industry by bargaining status, compensation costs increased 5.3 percent for union workers 
and 3.9 percent for nonunion workers for the 12-month period ending in March 2024. Wages and salaries 
increased 6.3 percent for union workers and 4.1 percent for nonunion workers for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2024. Benefit costs increased 3.8 percent for union workers and 3.6 percent for nonunion 
workers for the period ending in March 2024.(See tables 6, 10, and 12.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 4.8 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in March 2024, and increased 4.9 percent in the period ending in March 2023. Wages and salaries 
increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2024 and increased 4.7 percent a year ago. 
Benefit costs increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in March 2024. The prior year increase
was 5.0 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

0.9 1.2 4.8 4.2 4.2 -0.2 0.9 0.8

Wages and salaries

1.1 1.1 5.0 4.3 4.4 0.0 1.0 0.9

Benefits

0.7 1.1 4.5 3.8 3.7 -0.5 0.4 0.3

Private industry

Compensation(2)

0.9 1.1 4.8 4.1 4.1 -0.2 0.7 0.6

Wages and salaries

1.0 1.1 5.1 4.3 4.3 0.1 0.9 0.8

Benefits

0.7 1.0 4.3 3.6 3.6 -0.6 0.2 0.1

Health benefits

- - 3.1 1.8 2.8 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

1.0 1.3 4.9 4.6 4.8 -0.1 1.3 1.3

Wages and salaries

1.1 1.4 4.7 4.7 5.0 -0.2 1.1 1.5

Benefits

1.0 1.2 5.0 4.6 4.5 0.2 1.3 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE
					   
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence of 
employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, coverage, 
methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation, see National Compensation Measures Handbook of Methods
at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size: Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 
23,300 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 5,500 private industry establishments 
and approximately 7,500 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview.

Standard errors: To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all 
current quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/eci-standard-errors.htm and the database query tool at 
www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to 
ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings: Historical ECI data are available in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm.
The continuous occupational and industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification 
(SIC) Manual and Occupational Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North 
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006
to the present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification 
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article 
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf. The transition from
NAICS 2017 to NAICS 2022 occurred during the March 2024 ECI and series were determined to remain 
continuous. 

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data: The costs per hour worked of compensation components are
published as part of the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release
dates are available at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in
xlsx format at www.bls.gov/ecec/tables.htm. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights
rather than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights: For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing
the ECI, see www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm. Beginning with the December 2022 release, the ECI introduced new employment 
weights, see www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.

Seasonal factors: Detailed information on seasonal factors for the 2024 reference year and the revisions
of historical seasonally adjusted data for the most recent five years can be found at www.bls.gov/eci/
factsheets/annual-seasonal-adjustment.htm. More information on seasonal adjustment can be found at 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2024/article/seasonality-in-the-employment-cost-index.htm. 

Additional information: Historical tables are available in xlsx format for constant dollar, current
dollar, and continuous series, see www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. ECI release dates are available on the
release calendar at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS Economic 
News Release email at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are deaf, hard of
hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services. 

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

162.1 164.0 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

156.7 158.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1

Manufacturing

156.1 158.0 1.6 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2

Service-providing industries(4)

163.3 165.2 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2

Education and health services

161.0 162.8 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.1

Educational services

159.5 161.3 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

160.0 161.5 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.9

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

157.8 159.8 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.3

Health care and social assistance

162.5 164.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.2

Hospitals

162.9 165.1 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

163.2 165.0 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.5 0.9 1.1

Public administration

166.8 169.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.7

Private industry workers

All workers

161.9 163.7 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

157.2 158.8 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 1.0

Management, business, and financial

157.9 159.6 1.2 1.4 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.1

Professional and related

156.8 158.4 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.0

Sales and office

165.1 167.4 1.6 2.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.9 1.4

Sales and related

163.1 165.7 1.8 2.5 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.4 1.1 1.6

Office and administrative support

166.2 168.1 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.7 1.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

159.9 161.3 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

158.3 159.7 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

161.7 163.2 1.1 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.6 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

166.1 168.2 1.5 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.3

Production

161.6 163.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.2

Transportation and material moving

171.3 173.6 1.5 1.3 1.2 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.8 1.3

Service occupations

173.5 175.4 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

156.6 158.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Construction

157.9 159.4 0.7 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.1 1.0 0.9

Manufacturing

156.1 158.0 1.6 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2

Aircraft manufacturing

135.5 136.9 1.8 0.1 -5.2 1.1 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.7 1.0

Service-providing industries(5)

163.4 165.2 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

167.8 169.2 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.4 0.8

Wholesale trade

159.8 162.1 1.7 1.4 0.8 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.8 0.9 1.4

Retail trade

172.0 171.8 1.4 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.8 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

169.3 172.5 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.4 0.7 3.0 1.9

Utilities

172.6 173.3 0.9 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.3 0.9 0.4

Information

158.0 159.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 0.3 1.0 0.9

Financial activities

159.7 160.5 1.4 2.2 0.5 1.2 0.5 1.4 1.0 0.6 0.5

Finance and insurance

160.3 161.1 1.3 2.3 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.4 0.9 0.7 0.5

Credit intermediation and related activities

161.3 163.9 -0.3 3.0 -0.4 1.3 1.4 0.4 1.3 1.1 1.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

160.9 162.1 1.4 1.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

157.3 158.3 1.7 1.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.1 0.6

Professional and business services

161.4 163.9 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.4 0.9 0.9 0.6 1.5

Professional, scientific, and technical services

162.5 164.7 0.9 1.7 1.2 0.9 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

162.1 163.9 1.6 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.1

Education and health services

161.1 162.9 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1

Educational services

157.6 159.9 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

156.4 158.3 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.9 1.2

Health care and social assistance

161.8 163.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 0.9 1.1

Hospitals

162.7 164.9 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

161.7 163.5 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.5 0.8 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

173.9 174.7 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.5

Accommodation and food services

177.6 178.3 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.6 1.0 0.4

Other services, except public administration

164.9 167.9 1.3 1.0 1.2 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.8

State and local government workers

All workers

163.1 165.3 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.3

Industry

Education and health services

160.8 162.7 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.2

Educational services

160.0 161.7 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.1

Schools

159.9 161.6 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

160.4 161.9 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.9

Health care and social assistance

167.3 170.2 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.7

Hospitals

163.4 166.1 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 0.6 1.7

Public administration

166.8 169.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

162.1 163.9 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

160.3 162.3 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2

Manufacturing

160.1 162.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.3

Service-providing industries(3)

162.4 164.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.2

Education and health services

156.8 158.6 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1

Educational services

149.7 151.8 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.4

Elementary and secondary schools

148.3 150.2 1.0 0.9 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

150.9 152.8 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.3

Health care and social assistance

164.0 165.7 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0

Hospitals

164.0 165.8 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1

Public administration

156.0 158.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3 1.7

Private industry workers

All workers

164.4 166.2 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

158.5 160.1 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.0

Professional and related

158.7 160.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9

Management, business, and financial

158.6 160.4 0.9 1.4 0.4 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.1

Sales and office

167.4 169.9 1.5 2.1 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.6 1.1 1.5

Office and administrative support

167.7 169.7 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

161.7 163.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.3 0.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

160.2 161.6 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

163.5 165.0 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

170.5 173.0 1.3 1.3 1.5 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.7 1.5

Production

165.5 167.9 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.1 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.4

Transportation and material moving

175.9 178.7 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.9 1.6

Service occupations

178.5 180.6 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

160.4 162.4 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2

Construction

160.6 162.5 0.6 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.5 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.2

Manufacturing

160.1 162.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.3

Aircraft manufacturing

160.9 162.8 1.3 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.9 0.6 0.6 1.2

Service-providing industries(4)

165.4 167.2 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

169.3 171.0 1.2 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.0

Wholesale trade

157.2 159.7 1.6 1.6 0.5 1.2 0.7 1.3 0.8 0.9 1.6

Retail trade

175.4 175.3 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

173.6 177.5 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.8 3.5 2.3

Utilities

167.2 167.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.4 0.4

Information

156.9 157.8 1.2 0.6 1.4 1.6 1.1 0.8 0.3 1.1 0.6

Financial activities

161.2 161.3 1.1 2.2 0.3 1.4 0.1 1.7 1.1 0.6 0.1

Finance and insurance

161.9 161.9 0.9 2.3 0.1 1.4 -0.1 1.9 1.1 0.6 0.0

Credit intermediation and related activities

161.3 163.5 -1.4 3.1 -1.0 1.4 1.0 0.5 1.5 1.3 1.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

160.0 160.7 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.1 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

158.6 159.5 1.9 1.8 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4 0.2 0.5

Professional and business services

163.2 166.0 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.8 0.9 0.7 1.7

Professional, scientific, and technical services

163.7 166.0 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

166.7 168.8 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.3

Education and health services

162.9 164.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.1

Educational services

156.4 158.9 1.1 1.7 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

153.4 155.2 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2

Health care and social assistance

164.3 165.9 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0

Hospitals

165.0 166.7 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

180.2 181.1 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.5

Accommodation and food services

183.9 184.8 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.1 0.7 1.0 0.5

Other services, except public administration

167.6 170.7 1.3 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.8

State and local government workers

All workers

152.0 154.1 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.4

Industry

Education and health services

149.6 151.6 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.3

Educational services

148.3 150.3 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.3

Schools

148.3 150.3 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.3

Elementary and secondary schools

147.8 149.7 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3

Health care and social assistance

160.5 163.0 1.0 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.5 0.8 1.6

Hospitals

159.1 161.5 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.5 0.7 1.5

Public administration

156.0 158.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3 1.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Mar.
2023
Jun.
2023
Sep.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

162.5 164.3 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.1

Private industry workers

All workers

156.1 157.7 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

154.1 155.8 1.6 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.1

Sales and office

159.2 160.8 2.0 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

155.9 157.4 0.9 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

157.2 158.4 1.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.8

Service occupations

157.2 158.5 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.8

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

148.9 150.2 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9

Manufacturing

148.6 149.9 2.2 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9

Service-providing industries(3)

158.5 160.2 1.6 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.1

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

185.1 187.3 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers(2)

157.4 161.9 164.0 1.3 0.7 1.3 4.8 4.2 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

157.3 161.7 163.9 1.4 0.6 1.4 4.8 4.2 4.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

153.4 157.7 159.7 1.3 0.4 1.3 4.4 4.1 4.1

Management, business, and financial

154.0 158.0 160.0 1.2 0.3 1.3 4.1 3.9 3.9

Professional and related

153.2 157.6 159.6 1.3 0.6 1.3 4.7 4.2 4.2

Sales and office

161.3 165.4 168.0 1.4 0.7 1.6 5.6 4.0 4.2

Sales and related

159.1 163.0 165.8 1.3 1.1 1.7 6.1 3.8 4.2

Office and administrative support

162.3 166.6 169.0 1.4 0.5 1.4 5.3 4.1 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

155.2 160.1 161.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 4.3 4.4 4.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

154.6 158.6 160.3 1.1 0.6 1.1 3.9 3.7 3.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair

156.0 161.8 163.6 1.5 1.3 1.1 4.8 5.3 4.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.6 165.8 168.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 4.6 4.6 4.7

Production

157.1 161.4 163.7 1.4 1.0 1.4 4.8 4.2 4.2

Transportation and material moving

165.8 171.8 174.3 1.2 1.7 1.5 4.5 4.9 5.1

Service occupations

168.1 172.9 175.3 1.4 0.6 1.4 5.9 4.3 4.3

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

152.5 156.4 158.4 1.3 0.8 1.3 4.3 3.9 3.9

Manufacturing

152.3 155.8 158.1 1.3 0.8 1.5 4.2 3.7 3.8

Service-providing industries(5)

158.3 162.9 165.1 1.3 0.6 1.4 4.9 4.2 4.3

Education and health services

155.8 161.0 162.7 1.1 0.8 1.1 5.1 4.5 4.4

Educational services

154.1 159.5 160.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 4.8 4.4 4.3

Elementary and secondary schools

154.4 159.9 160.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 4.7 4.4 4.2

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

152.9 157.9 159.5 0.9 0.8 1.0 4.9 4.2 4.3

Health care and social assistance

157.4 162.5 164.6 1.3 0.9 1.3 5.3 4.6 4.6

Hospitals

158.0 162.8 165.4 1.5 0.9 1.6 5.3 4.6 4.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

157.8 163.0 164.9 1.3 0.8 1.2 6.0 4.6 4.5

Public administration

160.1 166.7 169.4 0.9 1.0 1.6 4.7 5.1 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers

157.4 161.6 163.8 1.4 0.6 1.4 4.8 4.1 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.3 161.4 163.7 1.5 0.6 1.4 4.8 4.1 4.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

152.9 156.8 158.9 1.4 0.4 1.3 4.3 4.0 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.1 155.9 158.1 1.5 0.5 1.4 4.3 4.1 3.9

Management, business, and financial

153.8 157.5 159.5 1.3 0.2 1.3 4.0 3.8 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.7 156.2 158.5 1.5 0.3 1.5 4.0 3.9 3.8

Professional and related

152.4 156.4 158.6 1.5 0.6 1.4 4.7 4.2 4.1

Sales and office

161.3 165.2 167.9 1.4 0.7 1.6 5.7 3.8 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

163.0 166.9 169.3 1.7 0.5 1.4 5.6 4.1 3.9

Sales and related

159.0 162.9 165.7 1.3 1.1 1.7 6.1 3.8 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

163.8 167.6 169.8 2.0 0.7 1.3 5.9 4.4 3.7

Office and administrative support

161.9 165.8 168.3 1.4 0.4 1.5 5.3 3.9 4.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

154.8 159.7 161.3 1.2 0.9 1.0 4.3 4.4 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

154.1 158.1 159.7 1.0 0.5 1.0 3.8 3.7 3.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair

155.6 161.5 163.2 1.5 1.4 1.1 4.8 5.3 4.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.3 165.5 167.9 1.3 1.4 1.5 4.5 4.6 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

160.1 165.3 167.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 4.6 4.7 4.7

Production

157.1 161.3 163.7 1.4 0.9 1.5 4.8 4.1 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

157.5 161.8 163.9 1.4 1.0 1.3 4.7 4.2 4.1

Transportation and material moving

165.5 171.5 173.9 1.3 1.8 1.4 4.4 5.0 5.1

Service occupations

169.0 173.2 175.6 1.4 0.5 1.4 6.0 4.0 3.9

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

152.5 156.3 158.3 1.3 0.8 1.3 4.3 3.8 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.3 155.9 157.9 1.3 0.7 1.3 4.0 3.7 3.7

Management, professional, and related

146.4 148.9 151.3 1.5 0.3 1.6 3.0 3.2 3.3

Sales and office

160.4 167.1 169.5 1.5 2.5 1.4 8.4 5.8 5.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

153.5 157.5 159.0 1.1 0.6 1.0 3.9 3.8 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

155.1 159.2 161.2 1.2 1.0 1.3 4.7 3.9 3.9

Construction

153.3 157.7 159.2 1.3 0.9 1.0 4.9 4.2 3.8

Manufacturing

152.3 155.8 158.1 1.3 0.8 1.5 4.2 3.7 3.8

Management, professional, and related

147.6 150.1 152.5 1.4 0.4 1.6 2.9 3.2 3.3

Sales and office occupations

156.8 160.4 163.8 1.2 0.6 2.1 5.4 3.5 4.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.9 156.0 157.9 1.2 1.0 1.2 4.3 3.9 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

154.9 159.0 161.2 1.2 1.0 1.4 4.7 3.9 4.1

Aircraft manufacturing

133.6 134.7 137.2 1.8 0.1 1.9 -5.2 2.6 2.7

Service-providing industries(4)

158.8 163.1 165.4 1.4 0.6 1.4 5.0 4.2 4.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

158.8 163.0 165.3 1.5 0.6 1.4 5.0 4.2 4.1

Management, professional, and related

154.1 158.1 160.2 1.4 0.4 1.3 4.5 4.1 4.0

Sales and office

161.4 164.9 167.7 1.4 0.5 1.7 5.4 3.6 3.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

156.8 163.0 164.8 1.5 1.5 1.1 4.8 5.5 5.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

166.1 172.1 174.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 4.4 5.1 5.2

Service occupations

169.0 173.3 175.7 1.4 0.5 1.4 6.0 4.0 4.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

162.2 167.5 169.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 4.4 4.6 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

162.7 168.1 170.0 1.6 1.3 1.1 4.8 5.0 4.5

Wholesale trade

155.2 159.1 162.1 1.3 0.4 1.9 4.3 3.9 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

158.4 162.2 164.2 1.6 0.2 1.2 5.0 4.0 3.7

Retail trade

167.4 171.5 172.0 1.6 0.5 0.3 5.4 4.1 2.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

166.0 170.1 171.4 2.0 0.5 0.8 5.7 4.5 3.3

Transportation and warehousing

161.2 169.8 172.8 0.9 3.2 1.8 3.1 6.3 7.2

Utilities

166.8 171.9 173.6 1.6 0.6 1.0 3.7 4.7 4.1

Information

154.5 157.5 159.5 1.4 0.7 1.3 5.0 3.4 3.2

Financial activities

155.1 159.0 160.4 0.8 -0.1 0.9 4.4 3.4 3.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

156.9 159.3 161.9 1.9 0.1 1.6 5.1 3.4 3.2

Finance and insurance

155.4 159.5 160.8 0.7 0.0 0.8 4.4 3.4 3.5

Credit intermediation and related activities

156.3 160.5 163.2 1.4 0.1 1.7 5.3 4.2 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

161.1 163.5 166.8 2.2 0.1 2.0 6.0 3.7 3.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

157.8 159.9 162.1 1.7 -0.4 1.4 5.1 3.1 2.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

155.8 158.2 160.9 1.9 0.2 1.7 4.7 3.5 3.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

153.9 156.9 158.4 1.3 -0.3 1.0 4.8 3.3 2.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

158.1 160.8 162.7 1.3 -0.2 1.2 4.7 3.1 2.9

Professional and business services

157.9 161.0 164.2 1.7 0.2 2.0 5.1 3.7 4.0

Professional, scientific, and technical services

158.9 161.9 165.0 1.8 0.1 1.9 5.2 3.7 3.8

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

158.2 161.6 164.1 1.7 0.4 1.5 5.2 3.9 3.7

Education and health services

156.1 161.1 163.1 1.3 0.9 1.2 5.3 4.5 4.5

Educational services

152.8 157.7 159.6 0.9 0.8 1.2 5.1 4.2 4.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

151.9 156.5 158.0 0.7 0.6 1.0 4.2 3.8 4.0

Health care and social assistance

156.8 161.8 163.8 1.4 0.9 1.2 5.3 4.6 4.5

Hospitals

157.8 162.5 165.2 1.5 1.0 1.7 5.3 4.6 4.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

156.6 161.6 163.4 1.4 0.7 1.1 6.1 4.6 4.3

Nursing care facilities(2)

156.0 161.6 163.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 6.4 4.8 4.6

Leisure and hospitality

169.3 173.0 174.7 1.8 0.3 1.0 5.9 4.0 3.2

Accommodation and food service

173.0 176.7 178.3 1.9 0.3 0.9 5.9 4.1 3.1

Other services, except public administration

159.7 164.3 168.2 2.2 0.6 2.4 4.7 5.1 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Bargaining status

Union

158.1 163.7 166.5 1.0 1.7 1.7 3.6 4.5 5.3

Goods-producing industries(2)

150.6 154.9 156.8 0.4 1.1 1.2 2.1 3.3 4.1

Manufacturing

144.4 148.7 151.1 0.3 1.8 1.6 1.5 3.3 4.6

Service-providing industries(3)

163.4 169.8 173.1 1.3 2.0 1.9 4.4 5.3 5.9

Nonunion

157.2 161.2 163.4 1.4 0.5 1.4 5.0 4.0 3.9

Goods-producing industries(2)

152.7 156.5 158.5 1.5 0.8 1.3 4.8 4.0 3.8

Manufacturing

154.1 157.5 159.8 1.5 0.6 1.5 4.6 3.8 3.7

Service-providing industries(3)

158.3 162.4 164.6 1.4 0.5 1.4 5.0 4.0 4.0

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

159.0 163.0 165.0 1.3 0.5 1.2 4.5 3.8 3.8

New England

163.0 167.1 168.9 0.6 0.2 1.1 4.2 3.1 3.6

Middle Atlantic

157.5 161.5 163.6 1.5 0.6 1.3 4.5 4.1 3.9

South

155.1 159.7 161.8 1.4 0.6 1.3 5.2 4.4 4.3

South Atlantic

158.1 162.9 165.3 1.5 0.4 1.5 5.8 4.6 4.6

East South Central

154.8 159.4 160.2 1.6 0.8 0.5 4.5 4.7 3.5

West South Central

150.2 154.3 156.7 1.3 0.6 1.6 4.3 4.1 4.3

Midwest

154.6 158.5 160.7 1.2 0.6 1.4 4.5 3.7 3.9

East North Central

153.2 157.4 159.5 1.2 0.7 1.3 4.7 4.0 4.1

West North Central

157.9 161.1 163.4 1.1 0.6 1.4 3.9 3.1 3.5

West

162.1 166.1 168.7 1.6 0.8 1.6 5.1 4.1 4.1

Mountain

160.1 164.8 166.5 2.0 1.2 1.0 5.2 5.0 4.0

Pacific

163.1 166.9 169.8 1.6 0.7 1.7 5.0 3.9 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers

157.3 163.0 164.9 1.0 0.7 1.2 4.9 4.6 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

154.6 160.2 161.7 0.8 0.7 0.9 4.7 4.5 4.6

Professional and related

154.5 159.8 161.4 0.8 0.6 1.0 4.7 4.3 4.5

Sales and office

160.8 167.0 169.2 1.1 0.9 1.3 4.9 5.0 5.2

Office and administrative support

160.8 167.0 169.3 1.1 0.9 1.4 4.8 5.0 5.3

Service occupations

165.1 171.4 174.1 1.1 1.1 1.6 5.7 5.0 5.5

Industry

Education and health services

155.4 160.8 162.2 0.9 0.7 0.9 4.9 4.4 4.4

Educational services

154.5 159.9 161.1 0.8 0.6 0.8 4.8 4.4 4.3

Schools

154.5 159.9 161.1 0.8 0.7 0.8 4.9 4.4 4.3

Elementary and secondary schools

154.8 160.2 161.3 0.8 0.6 0.7 4.7 4.3 4.2

Health care and social assistance

162.1 167.4 170.1 1.1 0.7 1.6 5.5 4.4 4.9

Hospitals

158.6 163.6 166.2 1.1 0.6 1.6 5.2 4.3 4.8

Public administration

160.1 166.7 169.4 0.9 1.0 1.6 4.7 5.1 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers(1)

157.1 161.9 164.0 1.2 0.7 1.3 5.0 4.3 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

156.5 161.3 163.4 1.4 0.7 1.3 5.0 4.5 4.4

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

151.3 155.9 157.6 1.1 0.5 1.1 4.4 4.2 4.2

Management, business, and financial

153.1 157.6 159.3 0.9 0.3 1.1 3.7 3.8 4.0

Professional and related

150.4 155.1 156.8 1.3 0.6 1.1 4.8 4.4 4.3

Sales and office

162.2 166.8 169.5 1.3 1.0 1.6 5.9 4.2 4.5

Sales and related

162.1 166.4 169.4 1.2 1.3 1.8 6.4 3.9 4.5

Office and administrative support

161.9 166.7 169.1 1.4 0.7 1.4 5.5 4.4 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

155.7 161.0 162.7 1.4 1.1 1.1 4.8 4.9 4.5

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

155.2 159.5 161.2 1.2 0.6 1.1 4.4 4.0 3.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

156.3 162.8 164.4 1.6 1.7 1.0 5.1 5.9 5.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

163.7 169.5 172.2 1.3 1.6 1.6 5.1 4.9 5.2

Production

160.6 165.2 167.9 1.5 1.0 1.6 5.6 4.4 4.5

Transportation and material moving

168.3 175.1 177.8 1.1 1.9 1.5 4.7 5.2 5.6

Service occupations

169.2 174.3 176.8 1.4 0.7 1.4 6.3 4.5 4.5

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

155.9 160.1 162.3 1.4 1.0 1.4 5.1 4.1 4.1

Manufacturing

156.0 159.7 162.3 1.4 0.8 1.6 4.9 3.8 4.0

Service-providing industries(4)

157.3 162.2 164.3 1.2 0.7 1.3 4.9 4.4 4.5

Education and health services

151.5 157.0 158.6 1.0 0.8 1.0 5.2 4.7 4.7

Educational services

144.8 150.2 151.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 4.5 4.3 4.6

Elementary and secondary schools

143.3 148.8 149.9 0.5 0.5 0.7 4.4 4.3 4.6

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

146.3 151.3 152.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 4.5 4.1 4.3

Health care and social assistance

158.4 164.1 165.9 1.3 1.0 1.1 5.7 5.0 4.7

Hospitals

158.4 163.9 166.0 1.6 1.1 1.3 5.9 5.1 4.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

160.9 166.9 168.7 1.4 0.9 1.1 6.6 5.2 4.8

Public administration

149.7 156.4 158.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 4.9 5.3 5.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers

159.5 164.1 166.3 1.3 0.7 1.3 5.1 4.3 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.0 163.5 165.7 1.5 0.7 1.3 5.0 4.3 4.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

154.0 158.2 160.1 1.3 0.4 1.2 4.3 4.1 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.6 156.7 158.8 1.4 0.5 1.3 4.4 4.1 4.1

Management, business, and financial

154.1 158.3 160.1 0.9 0.2 1.1 3.7 3.6 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.1 155.8 158.0 1.3 0.3 1.4 3.9 3.7 3.9

Professional and related

154.0 158.4 160.3 1.7 0.7 1.2 4.9 4.6 4.1

Sales and office

163.5 167.8 170.6 1.4 0.9 1.7 6.0 4.0 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

164.9 169.2 171.6 1.8 0.7 1.4 5.9 4.4 4.1

Sales and related

162.3 166.5 169.6 1.2 1.2 1.9 6.4 3.9 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

166.8 170.8 173.1 2.1 0.8 1.3 6.2 4.5 3.8

Office and administrative support

163.0 167.4 169.9 1.5 0.6 1.5 5.6 4.2 4.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

156.2 161.5 163.2 1.5 1.1 1.1 4.8 4.9 4.5

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

155.7 159.9 161.6 1.3 0.6 1.1 4.4 4.0 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

156.8 163.4 165.0 1.7 1.7 1.0 5.2 6.0 5.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

164.1 169.9 172.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 5.1 4.9 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

164.0 169.8 172.4 1.5 1.7 1.5 5.3 5.1 5.1

Production

160.8 165.3 168.0 1.6 1.0 1.6 5.7 4.4 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

161.2 165.7 168.1 1.6 1.0 1.4 5.6 4.4 4.3

Transportation and material moving

169.2 176.0 178.8 1.2 2.0 1.6 4.6 5.3 5.7

Service occupations

173.4 178.2 180.7 1.6 0.6 1.4 6.4 4.4 4.2

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

156.0 160.2 162.4 1.4 1.0 1.4 5.2 4.1 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.6 159.4 161.6 1.4 0.8 1.4 4.7 3.8 3.9

Management, professional, and related

150.4 152.9 155.6 1.5 0.3 1.8 3.7 3.2 3.5

Sales and office

165.8 174.5 177.1 1.6 3.5 1.5 10.2 6.9 6.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

155.4 159.7 161.3 1.3 0.6 1.0 4.5 4.1 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

159.1 163.4 165.6 1.3 1.1 1.3 5.5 4.1 4.1

Construction

155.6 160.5 162.1 1.3 1.1 1.0 5.7 4.5 4.2

Manufacturing

156.0 159.7 162.3 1.4 0.8 1.6 4.9 3.8 4.0

Management, professional, and related

151.2 153.8 156.5 1.5 0.5 1.8 3.6 3.3 3.5

Sales and office

159.9 164.0 167.9 1.2 0.7 2.4 6.1 3.8 5.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

156.6 161.1 162.9 1.6 1.1 1.1 5.4 4.5 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

159.1 163.4 165.8 1.3 1.1 1.5 5.6 4.1 4.2

Aircraft manufacturing

158.2 159.9 163.3 1.5 0.0 2.1 3.1 2.6 3.2

Service-providing industries(3)

160.4 165.2 167.4 1.3 0.7 1.3 5.0 4.4 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.9 164.6 166.8 1.5 0.7 1.3 5.1 4.5 4.3

Management, professional, and related

154.5 159.0 160.8 1.2 0.4 1.1 4.4 4.2 4.1

Sales and office

163.2 167.1 169.9 1.3 0.7 1.7 5.5 3.7 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

157.2 164.2 166.0 1.7 1.9 1.1 5.1 6.3 5.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

169.1 176.0 179.0 1.3 2.0 1.7 4.7 5.5 5.9

Service occupations

173.4 178.3 180.8 1.6 0.6 1.4 6.4 4.5 4.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

163.2 169.0 171.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 4.6 4.8 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

163.4 169.4 171.4 1.6 1.5 1.2 5.1 5.3 4.9

Wholesale trade

152.6 156.5 159.7 1.2 0.4 2.0 4.2 3.8 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

155.2 159.1 160.9 1.6 0.4 1.1 5.1 4.1 3.7

Retail trade

170.2 175.0 175.4 1.4 0.6 0.2 5.5 4.3 3.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

168.3 173.1 174.6 1.9 0.6 0.9 5.8 4.8 3.7

Transportation and warehousing

164.0 174.0 177.6 0.9 3.8 2.1 3.6 7.1 8.3

Utilities

161.1 166.7 168.3 1.6 1.2 1.0 3.5 5.1 4.5

Information

153.7 156.5 158.1 1.5 0.9 1.0 4.8 3.4 2.9

Financial activities

155.7 160.7 161.1 0.3 -0.1 0.2 3.9 3.5 3.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

156.4 159.2 161.5 1.9 0.1 1.4 4.8 3.7 3.3

Finance and insurance

156.0 161.3 161.6 0.1 0.0 0.2 3.7 3.5 3.6

Credit intermediation and related activities

155.2 160.6 162.5 0.8 0.2 1.2 4.4 4.4 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.4 162.0 164.7 2.0 0.1 1.7 5.6 3.7 3.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

156.5 159.0 160.8 1.8 -0.6 1.1 5.1 3.4 2.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

152.8 155.7 158.2 2.1 0.2 1.6 4.5 4.0 3.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

154.5 158.0 159.6 1.5 -0.3 1.0 5.0 3.8 3.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

159.3 162.4 164.5 1.4 -0.2 1.3 4.9 3.4 3.3

Professional and business services

159.5 162.8 166.2 1.6 0.2 2.1 5.2 3.7 4.2

Professional, scientific, and technical services

159.9 163.2 166.1 1.5 0.2 1.8 5.0 3.6 3.9

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

162.5 166.2 169.0 1.7 0.4 1.7 5.5 4.0 4.0

Education and health services

157.4 163.0 164.8 1.3 1.0 1.1 5.6 4.9 4.7

Educational services

151.6 156.6 158.5 0.9 0.7 1.2 5.2 4.2 4.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

148.9 153.6 154.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 4.1 3.8 4.0

Health care and social assistance

158.7 164.4 166.1 1.4 1.0 1.0 5.7 5.0 4.7

Hospitals

159.3 164.9 167.0 1.7 1.3 1.3 5.9 5.2 4.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

161.8 167.8 169.7 1.4 0.8 1.1 6.7 5.1 4.9

Nursing care facilities(1)

160.9 167.4 168.7 1.3 0.9 0.8 7.1 5.3 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

175.3 179.4 181.3 1.7 0.3 1.1 6.0 4.1 3.4

Accommodation and food service

179.0 183.1 184.9 1.8 0.4 1.0 6.0 4.2 3.3

Other services, except public administration

161.8 167.0 170.9 2.1 0.7 2.3 4.7 5.4 5.6

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Bargaining status

Union

156.1 162.7 165.9 1.1 2.1 2.0 4.2 5.4 6.3

Goods-producing industries(1)

148.6 153.0 155.2 0.9 1.4 1.4 3.6 3.9 4.4

Manufacturing

147.3 152.0 155.0 0.8 2.0 2.0 3.5 4.0 5.2

Service-providing industries(2)

160.8 168.7 172.5 1.2 2.6 2.3 4.6 6.2 7.3

Nonunion

159.8 164.3 166.4 1.3 0.6 1.3 5.1 4.2 4.1

Goods-producing industries(1)

157.6 161.7 163.9 1.5 0.9 1.4 5.5 4.1 4.0

Manufacturing

157.8 161.4 163.9 1.5 0.7 1.5 5.2 3.9 3.9

Service-providing industries(2)

160.4 164.9 167.0 1.3 0.5 1.3 5.1 4.2 4.1

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

159.8 164.3 166.1 1.1 0.6 1.1 4.4 3.9 3.9

New England

165.6 170.6 172.3 0.1 0.3 1.0 3.9 3.1 4.0

Middle Atlantic

157.6 162.0 163.8 1.4 0.8 1.1 4.5 4.2 3.9

South

158.0 163.1 165.2 1.3 0.6 1.3 5.4 4.6 4.6

South Atlantic

161.4 166.9 169.3 1.4 0.5 1.4 6.3 4.9 4.9

East South Central

156.7 161.4 162.2 1.6 0.8 0.5 5.0 4.7 3.5

West South Central

153.0 157.6 159.8 1.1 0.7 1.4 4.2 4.1 4.4

Midwest

155.8 160.1 162.3 1.2 0.8 1.4 4.6 4.0 4.2

East North Central

154.3 158.8 160.8 1.2 0.8 1.3 4.8 4.2 4.2

West North Central

159.5 163.1 165.7 1.1 0.7 1.6 4.2 3.4 3.9

West

165.1 169.5 172.2 1.7 1.0 1.6 5.6 4.4 4.3

Mountain

163.2 168.4 170.3 1.9 1.3 1.1 5.6 5.2 4.4

Pacific

166.0 170.2 173.2 1.6 0.8 1.8 5.6 4.2 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

All workers

146.6 152.4 153.9 0.7 0.8 1.0 4.7 4.7 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.1 149.8 151.1 0.5 0.7 0.9 4.4 4.5 4.9

Professional and related

144.0 149.3 150.6 0.6 0.6 0.9 4.5 4.3 4.6

Sales and office

147.5 154.2 156.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 4.9 5.5 5.8

Office and administrative support

148.0 154.8 156.5 1.0 1.0 1.1 5.0 5.6 5.7

Service occupations

155.2 161.4 163.9 0.8 0.9 1.5 5.8 4.9 5.6

Industry

Education and health services

144.7 150.1 151.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 4.6 4.3 4.6

Educational services

143.4 148.9 150.0 0.4 0.7 0.7 4.4 4.3 4.6

Schools

143.4 148.8 150.0 0.4 0.6 0.8 4.4 4.2 4.6

Elementary and secondary schools

142.8 148.3 149.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 4.4 4.3 4.6

Health care and social assistance

155.4 160.9 163.0 1.0 0.8 1.3 5.9 4.5 4.9

Hospitals

154.0 159.5 161.5 1.0 0.7 1.3 5.7 4.7 4.9

Public administration

149.7 156.4 158.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 4.9 5.3 5.9

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

158.3 161.9 164.2 1.5 0.5 1.4 4.5 3.8 3.7

Private industry workers

All workers

152.4 155.5 157.9 1.5 0.3 1.5 4.3 3.6 3.6

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

150.5 153.5 156.1 1.8 0.3 1.7 4.4 3.8 3.7

Sales and office

155.5 158.3 160.7 1.5 0.2 1.5 4.9 3.3 3.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.8 155.7 157.3 0.8 0.5 1.0 3.2 3.4 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

152.6 156.6 158.3 1.3 1.1 1.1 3.4 4.0 3.7

Service occupations

154.5 156.9 158.7 1.2 0.3 1.1 4.9 2.8 2.7

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

145.4 148.6 150.3 1.0 0.5 1.1 2.5 3.3 3.4

Manufacturing

145.1 148.3 150.1 1.1 0.6 1.2 2.4 3.3 3.4

Aircraft manufacturing

107.2 107.7 109.4 2.1 0.0 1.6 -15.8 2.6 2.1

Service-providing industries(3)

154.8 157.9 160.4 1.6 0.3 1.6 4.7 3.7 3.6

Bargaining status

Union

161.6 165.6 167.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 2.8 3.4 3.8

Nonunion

150.4 153.4 155.8 1.6 0.3 1.6 4.5 3.6 3.6

State and local government workers

All workers

179.5 185.1 187.6 1.5 0.8 1.4 5.0 4.6 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) Percent changes for 12-months ended-
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Dec.
2023
Mar.
2024

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

3.9 3.1 3.2 4.0 3.4 3.5

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

4.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.2

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

5.7 4.4 2.8 6.5 4.7 3.0

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

5.1 3.8 4.4 5.6 4.4 5.1

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

5.2 3.5 3.5 5.1 3.7 3.8

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

3.5 5.2 5.7 3.4 4.9 5.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

6.1 5.5 6.7 6.0 5.1 7.1

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

5.5 4.4 4.5 5.7 4.9 5.1

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

3.8 4.1 4.3 3.5 4.1 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

4.1 3.8 3.4 3.8 4.3 3.6

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

4.0 3.6 3.8 4.3 3.7 4.2

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

4.7 4.5 4.4 4.9 5.0 4.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

4.6 4.1 2.7 5.2 4.4 2.8

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

4.4 2.7 4.4 4.7 2.8 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

2.6 3.8 3.5 5.9 4.3 3.9

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: April 30, 2024