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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                 USDL-23-0147
8:30 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, January 31, 2023

Technical information: (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

				EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  DECEMBER 2022

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.0 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month 
period ending in December 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries 
increased 1.0 percent and benefit costs increased 0.8 percent from September 2022. (See tables A, 1, 
2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 5.1 percent for the 12-month period ending in 
December 2022 and increased 4.0 percent in December 2021. Wages and salaries increased 5.1 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in December 2022 and increased 4.5 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in December 2021. Benefit costs increased 4.9 percent over the year and increased 2.8 percent 
for the 12-month period ending in December 2021. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 5.1 percent over the year. In December 2021, 
the increase was 4.4 percent. Wages and salaries increased 5.1 percent for the 12-month period ending 
in December 2022 and increased 5.0 percent in December 2021. The cost of benefits increased 4.8 
percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2022 and increased 2.9 percent in December 2021. 
Inflation-adjusted (constant dollar) private wages and salaries declined 1.2 percent for the 12 months 
ending December 2022. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector declined 1.5 percent over 
that same period. (See tables A, 5, 9, and 12.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period ending 
in December 2022 ranged from 4.2 percent for natural resources, construction, and maintenance 
occupations to 6.9 percent for service occupations. Within industry supersectors, compensation 
cost increases ranged from 4.3 percent for construction to 6.4 percent for leisure and 
hospitality. (See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 4.8 percent for the 12-month period 
ending in December 2022, compared with an increase of 2.6 percent in December 2021. Wages and salaries 
increased 4.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2022 and 2.7 percent a year ago. 
Benefit costs increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2022. The prior year 
increase was 2.5 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   Updated Employment Weights

Beginning with the December 2022 news release, the Employment Cost Index is introducing new 
employment weights based on the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-soc-update.htm.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted, current dollar 12-month, not seasonally adjusted, constant dollar
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.2 1.0 4.0 5.0 5.1 -2.9 -2.9 -1.3

Wages and salaries

1.3 1.0 4.5 5.1 5.1 -2.3 -3.0 -1.2

Benefits

1.0 0.8 2.8 4.9 4.9 -3.9 -3.0 -1.4

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.1 1.0 4.4 5.2 5.1 -2.5 -2.8 -1.2

Wages and salaries

1.2 1.0 5.0 5.2 5.1 -1.9 -2.7 -1.2

Benefits

0.8 0.7 2.9 5.0 4.8 -3.8 -3.0 -1.5

Health benefits

- - 0.4 4.9 4.7 - - -

State and local government

Compensation(2)

1.9 1.0 2.6 4.6 4.8 -4.2 -3.3 -1.5

Wages and salaries

2.1 1.0 2.7 4.4 4.7 -4.1 -3.5 -1.5

Benefits

1.6 1.0 2.5 5.0 5.0 -4.3 -3.0 -1.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.

Note: All estimates in the table can be found in the public database at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Dashes indicate data not available.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence 
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts, 
coverage, methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation see National Compensation Measures 
Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 28,100 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 7,000 private industry establishments and 
approximately 7,600 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an 
additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of 
decreasing response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current 
quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/eci-standard-errors.htm and the database query tool at 
www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate 
to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Historical listings
Historical ECI data are available in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. The continuous 
occupational and industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual 
and Occupational Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American 
Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to
the present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification 
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article 
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs 
for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at 
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in xlsx format at 
www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather 
than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm. Beginning with the December 2022 release, the ECI is introducing new
employment weights, see www.bls.gov/eci/notices/2022/eci-2021-fixed-weights-and-2018-socupdate.htm.

Additional information
Historical tables are available in xlsx format for constant dollar, current dollar, and continuous
series, see www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. ECI release dates are available
on the release calendar at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS 
Economic News Release email at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. If you are 
deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

154.0 155.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

149.4 150.7 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.9

Manufacturing

149.2 150.4 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8

Service-providing industries(4)

155.0 156.6 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.0

Education and health services

152.3 154.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.2

Educational services

151.3 152.9 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.8 1.7 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

151.8 153.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 1.9 1.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

149.9 151.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.1 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.8 1.0

Health care and social assistance

153.3 155.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.3

Hospitals

153.8 155.6 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

154.0 155.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.9 1.2

Public administration

157.4 158.8 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.0 1.8 0.9

Private industry workers

All workers

153.9 155.4 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

149.5 151.0 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.3 1.3 0.7 1.0

Management, business, and financial

150.7 152.0 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.4 0.6 1.3 1.5 0.4 0.9

Professional and related

148.6 150.2 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1

Sales and office

157.3 159.1 1.1 1.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 1.7 2.1 1.0 1.1

Sales and related

155.1 157.0 1.4 3.3 -0.4 1.4 1.0 2.0 2.5 0.9 1.2

Office and administrative support

158.0 159.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.2 1.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

151.7 152.9 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

151.3 152.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.0 153.3 0.6 1.1 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.9 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

156.9 158.2 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.8

Production

153.6 155.0 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.9

Transportation and material moving

162.0 163.3 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.8

Service occupations

164.8 166.6 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

149.3 150.6 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.9

Construction

150.0 151.5 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.5 0.9 1.0

Manufacturing

149.2 150.4 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.8

Aircraft manufacturing

130.7 131.6 0.4 0.8 0.5 7.0 0.4 2.2 0.6 -5.6 0.7

Service-providing industries(5)

155.2 156.7 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

158.8 160.1 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.9 0.8

Wholesale trade

151.9 153.5 0.4 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.5 1.9 1.8 0.4 1.1

Retail trade

163.6 164.6 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.7 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.3 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

158.2 159.5 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

Utilities

163.3 164.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 1.1 0.9

Information

150.7 152.7 0.9 0.8 0.5 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Financial activities

152.9 154.7 0.8 3.2 -1.6 2.1 -0.5 1.0 2.4 0.7 1.2

Finance and insurance

153.4 155.3 0.8 3.8 -2.0 2.3 -0.9 0.9 2.5 0.7 1.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

153.0 155.4 0.9 -0.1 2.1 5.3 -1.4 -0.8 3.1 -0.3 1.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

154.3 155.7 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.6 1.8 1.0 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

150.9 151.8 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.3 2.0 2.1 0.7 0.6

Professional and business services

154.0 155.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.7 1.0 0.8

Professional, scientific, and technical services

155.3 156.3 1.0 0.5 0.8 1.6 0.7 1.1 1.9 1.0 0.6

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

154.2 155.5 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.9 1.5 1.0 0.8

Education and health services

152.0 154.0 0.5 0.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3

Educational services

149.3 151.2 0.8 0.4 0.4 1.3 0.5 1.3 1.5 0.9 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

149.4 150.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.8

Health care and social assistance

152.6 154.6 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3

Hospitals

153.5 155.4 0.4 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

152.7 154.5 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.2

Leisure and hospitality

165.3 166.8 0.5 1.6 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 0.9

Accommodation and food services

168.9 170.3 0.8 1.6 2.3 2.3 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 0.8

Other services, except public administration

155.7 156.6 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.1 0.6

State and local government workers

All workers

154.5 156.0 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.9 1.0

Industry

Education and health services

152.6 154.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 2.0 1.0

Educational services

151.8 153.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.7 1.9 1.1

Schools

151.7 153.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.6 1.9 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

152.3 153.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.6 2.0 1.0

Health care and social assistance

158.5 160.4 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 2.0 1.2

Hospitals

155.0 156.8 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.8 1.2

Public administration

157.4 158.8 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.0 1.8 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

153.6 155.2 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

152.3 153.8 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.0

Manufacturing

152.5 154.0 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.0

Service-providing industries(3)

153.9 155.6 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1

Education and health services

148.0 149.9 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.7 1.3

Educational services

142.3 143.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.7 1.9 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

140.9 142.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.5 2.0 1.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

143.8 145.1 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.8 0.9

Health care and social assistance

154.0 156.1 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.4

Hospitals

153.8 155.8 0.4 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

156.5 158.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7 2.1 1.4

Private industry workers

All workers

155.9 157.5 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

150.7 152.2 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.4 0.8 1.1 1.4 0.8 1.0

Professional and related

150.0 151.6 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1

Management, business, and financial

151.6 153.0 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.7 0.4 0.9 1.6 0.4 0.9

Sales and office

159.3 161.3 1.1 2.3 0.5 1.5 1.1 1.4 2.2 1.1 1.3

Office and administrative support

158.7 160.8 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

152.5 153.9 0.6 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

152.4 153.8 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.3 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

152.8 154.2 0.6 1.4 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

160.5 162.1 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.0

Production

156.7 158.5 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.1

Transportation and material moving

165.8 167.2 1.2 0.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.2 0.9

Service occupations

168.9 170.9 1.1 1.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.2

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

152.4 153.9 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.0

Construction

151.8 153.7 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.7 1.0 1.2

Manufacturing

152.5 154.0 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.0

Aircraft manufacturing

155.4 156.8 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.9 0.9

Service-providing industries(4)

156.8 158.4 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

159.8 161.3 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.4 1.7 0.8 0.9

Wholesale trade

149.5 151.2 0.4 1.0 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6 2.1 0.1 1.2

Retail trade

166.4 167.7 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.8 2.5 1.5 1.8 1.3 0.8

Transportation and warehousing

160.8 162.4 1.2 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.0

Utilities

157.8 159.2 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9

Information

149.3 151.7 1.2 0.9 0.6 1.4 0.8 1.5 0.6 1.2 1.6

Financial activities

154.1 156.2 1.0 4.5 -2.1 2.9 -1.3 0.5 2.4 0.7 1.4

Finance and insurance

154.9 157.2 1.2 5.3 -2.7 3.2 -1.8 0.1 2.5 0.6 1.5

Credit intermediation and related activities

152.6 155.5 1.2 -0.2 3.2 7.6 -2.3 -2.3 3.3 -0.7 1.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

152.9 154.3 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.7 1.0 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

151.2 152.3 0.2 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.6 2.2 2.2 0.7 0.7

Professional and business services

155.7 157.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.1 0.8

Professional, scientific, and technical services

156.7 157.6 0.8 0.3 1.1 1.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 1.1 0.6

Education and health services

153.1 155.2 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4

Educational services

148.2 150.0 0.9 0.5 0.4 1.4 0.4 1.2 1.7 0.9 1.2

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

146.7 147.7 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.3 0.7

Health care and social assistance

154.2 156.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.4

Hospitals

154.5 156.6 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

157.4 159.6 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 2.1 1.4

Leisure and hospitality

171.1 172.7 0.6 1.7 2.6 2.5 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.9

Accommodation and food services

174.7 176.2 0.8 1.8 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 0.9

Other services, except public administration

157.7 158.7 0.6 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.2 0.7

State and local government workers

All workers

144.0 145.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.7 2.1 1.0

Industry

Education and health services

142.2 143.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 2.1 1.1

Educational services

141.1 142.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 2.1 1.0

Schools

141.0 142.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 2.0 1.1

Elementary and secondary schools

140.5 142.0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 2.0 1.1

Health care and social assistance

151.7 153.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.8 1.4 2.2 1.3

Hospitals

150.4 152.1 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.2 0.8 1.3 2.0 1.2

Public administration

147.2 148.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 1.4 0.7 1.3 1.1 2.1 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Mar.
2022
Jun.
2022
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

154.9 156.2 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.8

Private industry workers

All workers

149.2 150.3 0.6 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.9 1.9 1.3 0.8 0.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.9 148.2 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.2 0.7 0.9

Sales and office

152.2 153.5 0.7 0.7 0.1 0.9 1.0 2.3 1.6 1.0 0.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

149.9 150.8 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.4 0.6 0.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.8 150.6 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.5 0.6 2.1 0.9 0.5 0.5

Service occupations

151.4 152.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.3 0.9 2.2 1.6 1.2 0.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

143.2 144.0 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.2 0.5 2.1 0.8 0.3 0.6

Manufacturing

142.8 143.6 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.7 0.4 2.5 0.8 0.1 0.6

Service-providing industries(3)

151.3 152.5 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.9 1.0 1.8 1.4 1.0 0.8

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

175.0 176.7 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.5 0.9 1.6 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers(2)

147.9 154.1 155.4 0.8 1.3 0.8 4.0 5.0 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

147.8 153.9 155.2 1.0 1.4 0.8 3.9 5.2 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

145.0 150.3 151.5 0.6 1.3 0.8 3.2 4.2 4.5

Management, business, and financial

146.0 151.1 152.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 3.3 3.8 4.2

Professional and related

144.5 149.8 151.2 0.8 1.6 0.9 3.1 4.5 4.6

Sales and office

150.1 157.5 159.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 4.5 5.9 6.0

Sales and related

147.2 155.2 157.0 1.0 0.9 1.2 5.4 6.4 6.7

Office and administrative support

151.6 158.5 160.0 0.9 1.3 0.9 3.8 5.5 5.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.0 152.2 153.3 0.9 1.1 0.7 3.7 4.5 4.3

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

146.9 151.8 152.9 0.8 1.0 0.7 3.7 4.2 4.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair

147.1 152.6 153.7 0.9 1.1 0.7 3.7 4.7 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

151.1 157.3 158.5 1.2 1.2 0.8 4.8 5.4 4.9

Production

147.5 153.6 154.9 1.2 1.2 0.8 5.0 5.3 5.0

Transportation and material moving

156.2 162.6 163.8 1.4 1.3 0.7 4.8 5.5 4.9

Service occupations

155.6 164.0 165.8 1.6 1.9 1.1 6.1 7.0 6.6

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

144.0 149.4 150.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 3.6 4.5 4.6

Manufacturing

143.5 149.1 150.3 0.7 0.7 0.8 3.6 4.6 4.7

Service-providing industries(5)

148.7 154.9 156.3 1.0 1.4 0.9 4.1 5.2 5.1

Education and health services

146.5 152.4 154.1 1.0 2.0 1.1 3.4 5.0 5.2

Educational services

145.9 151.4 152.8 0.5 2.5 0.9 2.5 4.3 4.7

Elementary and secondary schools

146.3 151.9 153.2 0.4 2.8 0.9 2.3 4.3 4.7

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

144.8 150.1 151.5 0.6 2.3 0.9 2.6 4.3 4.6

Health care and social assistance

147.3 153.4 155.4 1.6 1.5 1.3 4.5 5.8 5.5

Hospitals

147.7 153.7 155.7 1.6 1.4 1.3 4.3 5.7 5.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

146.4 154.0 155.8 1.8 2.0 1.2 5.7 7.1 6.4

Public administration

150.6 157.4 158.6 0.7 2.2 0.8 2.6 5.2 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers

147.8 154.0 155.3 1.0 1.0 0.8 4.4 5.2 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.6 153.7 155.0 1.2 1.1 0.8 4.2 5.3 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.4 149.6 150.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 3.5 4.3 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.4 148.7 149.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 3.3 4.6 4.5

Management, business, and financial

145.8 150.9 151.8 0.3 0.5 0.6 3.4 3.9 4.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

144.0 149.5 150.4 0.8 0.7 0.6 2.9 4.6 4.4

Professional and related

143.4 148.7 150.1 0.8 1.1 0.9 3.6 4.6 4.7

Sales and office

149.9 157.4 159.1 0.9 1.0 1.1 4.7 6.0 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

151.6 158.8 160.3 1.4 1.2 0.9 4.6 6.2 5.7

Sales and related

147.1 155.1 156.9 1.0 0.8 1.2 5.4 6.5 6.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

151.5 159.2 160.6 2.2 1.4 0.9 5.3 7.4 6.0

Office and administrative support

151.2 158.1 159.6 1.0 1.2 0.9 3.9 5.6 5.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

146.7 151.8 152.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 3.8 4.3 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

146.6 151.4 152.5 0.8 0.9 0.7 3.8 4.1 4.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

146.8 152.2 153.3 1.0 0.9 0.7 3.8 4.7 4.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.9 157.0 158.2 1.3 1.2 0.8 4.9 5.4 4.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

150.6 156.6 157.9 1.3 1.1 0.8 4.9 5.4 4.8

Production

147.3 153.5 154.9 1.1 1.1 0.9 5.0 5.4 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.9 154.0 155.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 5.0 5.4 5.0

Transportation and material moving

156.0 162.2 163.4 1.4 1.2 0.7 5.0 5.4 4.7

Service occupations

155.9 164.9 166.6 1.8 1.7 1.0 7.1 7.7 6.9

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

144.0 149.4 150.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 3.7 4.6 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

144.0 149.3 150.3 0.8 0.8 0.7 3.7 4.5 4.4

Management, professional, and related

139.3 143.4 144.3 0.6 0.1 0.6 2.7 3.5 3.6

Sales and office

148.3 155.4 158.0 1.2 1.0 1.7 3.4 6.0 6.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

146.0 150.8 151.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 3.8 4.1 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.6 152.0 153.2 1.0 1.2 0.8 4.6 5.5 5.2

Construction

145.2 150.2 151.4 0.9 0.8 0.8 3.5 4.4 4.3

Manufacturing

143.5 149.1 150.3 0.7 0.7 0.8 3.6 4.6 4.7

Management, professional, and related

140.5 144.7 145.5 0.5 0.1 0.6 2.6 3.5 3.6

Sales and office occupations

145.7 153.2 155.0 0.5 1.4 1.2 3.6 5.7 6.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

144.2 148.5 150.1 0.6 0.7 1.1 3.4 3.6 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.2 151.7 153.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 4.5 5.5 5.4

Aircraft manufacturing

136.9 130.8 131.3 0.1 -7.8 0.4 11.2 -4.4 -4.1

Service-providing industries(4)

148.9 155.3 156.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 4.6 5.4 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.7 155.0 156.4 1.2 1.1 0.9 4.4 5.5 5.2

Management, professional, and related

145.4 150.7 151.9 0.7 0.9 0.8 3.7 4.4 4.5

Sales and office

150.1 157.6 159.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 4.8 6.0 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.8 153.3 154.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 3.8 4.7 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

156.7 162.6 163.8 1.5 1.2 0.7 5.2 5.3 4.5

Service occupations

155.9 164.9 166.6 1.8 1.7 1.0 7.1 7.7 6.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

152.6 158.8 160.1 1.7 0.8 0.8 5.2 5.8 4.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

152.6 158.8 160.1 1.6 1.0 0.8 4.5 5.7 4.9

Wholesale trade

145.6 152.2 153.2 1.2 0.5 0.7 5.4 5.8 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.2 154.7 155.9 1.4 1.2 0.8 4.3 5.9 5.2

Retail trade

156.0 163.2 164.7 2.4 0.9 0.9 6.3 7.2 5.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

153.9 161.6 162.8 2.1 1.2 0.7 5.6 7.2 5.8

Transportation and warehousing

154.7 158.4 159.8 1.1 0.9 0.9 3.4 3.5 3.3

Utilities

158.5 163.1 164.2 0.4 0.7 0.7 2.9 3.4 3.6

Information

144.7 150.6 152.3 0.6 0.9 1.1 3.4 4.7 5.3

Financial activities

146.0 152.9 153.8 -1.1 0.3 0.6 3.3 3.6 5.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

146.0 153.2 154.0 0.8 0.7 0.5 3.2 5.8 5.5

Finance and insurance

146.5 153.3 154.3 -1.5 0.1 0.7 3.2 3.0 5.3

Credit intermediation and related activities

148.8 153.7 154.1 -2.6 -0.4 0.3 5.9 0.6 3.6

Excluding incentive paid

148.4 157.0 157.6 0.6 1.2 0.4 2.9 6.4 6.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

147.1 154.4 155.1 0.5 0.7 0.5 2.9 5.5 5.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

145.8 152.1 152.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 2.7 5.0 4.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

143.9 151.1 151.9 1.2 0.8 0.5 3.7 6.3 5.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

148.1 155.1 156.0 1.1 0.7 0.6 3.8 5.9 5.3

Professional and business services

147.9 154.1 155.2 0.8 1.1 0.7 3.9 5.0 4.9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

149.2 155.5 156.1 0.5 1.3 0.4 3.6 4.8 4.6

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

147.5 154.1 155.5 1.3 0.9 0.9 5.1 5.8 5.4

Education and health services

146.1 152.2 154.1 1.3 1.4 1.2 4.2 5.5 5.5

Educational services

144.0 149.9 151.4 0.3 1.7 1.0 2.6 4.4 5.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

144.9 149.8 150.8 0.6 1.8 0.7 2.9 4.0 4.1

Health care and social assistance

146.6 152.7 154.7 1.6 1.4 1.3 4.6 5.8 5.5

Hospitals

147.4 153.4 155.4 1.7 1.3 1.3 4.5 5.8 5.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

145.0 152.7 154.5 1.8 1.9 1.2 6.0 7.2 6.6

Nursing care facilities(2)

144.1 152.1 154.2 1.6 1.9 1.4 5.9 7.3 7.0

Leisure and hospitality

156.3 165.2 166.3 1.4 1.7 0.7 8.0 7.2 6.4

Accommodation and food service

159.6 168.8 169.8 1.6 1.6 0.6 8.4 7.4 6.4

Other services, except public administration

150.1 155.8 156.3 1.1 1.1 0.3 5.5 5.0 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Bargaining status

Union

151.2 155.0 156.6 0.7 0.6 1.0 3.3 3.3 3.6

Goods-producing industries(2)

146.2 149.0 150.0 0.6 0.1 0.7 3.8 2.5 2.6

Manufacturing

140.7 142.8 144.0 0.9 -0.5 0.8 4.5 2.4 2.3

Service-providing industries(3)

155.0 159.4 161.3 0.8 0.9 1.2 3.2 3.6 4.1

Nonunion

147.2 153.7 155.0 1.0 1.1 0.8 4.5 5.4 5.3

Goods-producing industries(2)

143.3 149.2 150.5 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.6 5.0 5.0

Manufacturing

144.4 150.7 151.8 0.7 1.0 0.7 3.5 5.1 5.1

Service-providing industries(3)

148.2 154.8 156.1 1.0 1.0 0.8 4.7 5.4 5.3

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

149.6 155.5 157.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 3.9 4.8 4.9

New England

153.4 160.3 162.1 0.8 1.1 1.1 4.4 5.3 5.7

Middle Atlantic

148.3 153.8 155.2 0.8 1.1 0.9 3.8 4.6 4.7

South

145.6 151.8 152.9 0.7 0.9 0.7 4.5 5.0 5.0

South Atlantic

147.5 154.5 155.8 0.8 1.5 0.8 4.0 5.6 5.6

East South Central

145.6 151.0 152.3 1.5 0.8 0.9 6.0 5.2 4.6

West South Central

142.5 147.6 148.2 0.3 -0.1 0.4 4.9 3.9 4.0

Midwest

145.5 151.8 152.8 1.4 1.3 0.7 4.6 5.8 5.0

East North Central

143.8 150.1 151.4 1.3 1.4 0.9 4.5 5.8 5.3

West North Central

149.6 155.9 156.2 1.6 0.9 0.2 4.7 5.8 4.4

West

151.4 157.8 159.5 0.9 0.9 1.1 4.3 5.1 5.4

Mountain

149.3 155.4 157.0 1.3 0.6 1.0 5.1 5.4 5.2

Pacific

152.4 158.9 160.6 0.7 1.0 1.1 4.1 5.0 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers

148.6 154.4 155.8 0.7 2.5 0.9 2.6 4.6 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

146.6 152.0 153.3 0.5 2.6 0.9 2.4 4.3 4.6

Professional and related

146.5 151.8 153.2 0.5 2.6 0.9 2.4 4.2 4.6

Sales and office

151.4 157.8 159.0 0.5 2.3 0.8 2.3 4.8 5.0

Office and administrative support

151.4 157.8 159.1 0.5 2.3 0.8 2.2 4.7 5.1

Service occupations

154.1 161.3 163.3 0.9 2.3 1.2 3.4 5.6 6.0

Industry

Education and health services

147.0 152.6 154.0 0.5 2.7 0.9 2.5 4.4 4.8

Educational services

146.4 151.8 153.2 0.5 2.7 0.9 2.4 4.3 4.6

Schools

146.3 151.8 153.2 0.5 2.7 0.9 2.4 4.3 4.7

Elementary and secondary schools

146.8 152.3 153.6 0.4 2.8 0.9 2.4 4.2 4.6

Health care and social assistance

152.1 158.4 160.4 1.3 2.3 1.3 3.7 5.5 5.5

Hospitals

149.2 155.0 156.9 1.3 2.0 1.2 3.7 5.2 5.2

Public administration

150.6 157.4 158.6 0.7 2.2 0.8 2.6 5.2 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers(1)

147.7 153.7 155.2 1.0 1.3 1.0 4.5 5.1 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

147.0 153.1 154.4 1.2 1.5 0.8 4.3 5.4 5.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

143.4 148.4 149.6 0.5 1.3 0.8 3.4 4.0 4.3

Management, business, and financial

146.1 150.9 151.8 0.2 0.7 0.6 3.6 3.5 3.9

Professional and related

142.0 147.0 148.5 0.7 1.7 1.0 3.3 4.3 4.6

Sales and office

150.9 158.2 160.1 0.9 1.2 1.2 5.2 5.8 6.1

Sales and related

150.0 158.1 160.2 0.8 0.8 1.3 6.1 6.2 6.8

Office and administrative support

151.2 157.9 159.6 1.1 1.4 1.1 4.5 5.5 5.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

146.7 152.2 153.5 1.0 1.2 0.9 4.2 4.7 4.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

146.7 151.9 153.3 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.4 4.5 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair

146.9 152.6 153.8 1.1 1.3 0.8 4.0 5.0 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.6 160.1 161.6 1.5 1.5 0.9 5.7 5.8 5.2

Production

150.1 156.6 158.2 1.4 1.6 1.0 5.8 5.8 5.4

Transportation and material moving

158.3 165.0 166.4 1.6 1.5 0.8 5.9 5.9 5.1

Service occupations

156.1 165.0 166.8 1.9 2.0 1.1 7.1 7.7 6.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

146.5 152.3 153.8 1.0 1.1 1.0 4.0 5.0 5.0

Manufacturing

146.4 152.5 153.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 4.1 5.2 5.1

Service-providing industries(4)

147.9 154.0 155.4 1.0 1.4 0.9 4.7 5.1 5.1

Education and health services

142.6 148.2 150.0 1.0 2.1 1.2 3.6 5.0 5.2

Educational services

137.8 142.8 144.0 0.3 2.6 0.8 2.2 3.9 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

136.5 141.5 142.6 0.1 2.9 0.8 2.0 3.8 4.5

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

139.3 144.1 145.4 0.5 2.3 0.9 2.7 4.0 4.4

Health care and social assistance

147.8 154.0 156.3 1.7 1.6 1.5 5.0 6.0 5.8

Hospitals

147.7 153.6 155.9 1.9 1.5 1.5 5.0 5.9 5.6

Nursing and residential care facilities

148.4 156.6 158.7 2.0 2.2 1.3 6.5 7.6 6.9

Public administration

140.8 147.3 148.5 0.7 2.4 0.8 3.2 5.4 5.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers

149.7 155.9 157.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 5.0 5.2 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.0 155.3 156.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 4.6 5.6 5.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

145.8 150.8 152.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 3.8 4.1 4.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

144.1 149.3 150.5 1.0 1.0 0.8 3.5 4.6 4.4

Management, business, and financial

147.1 151.8 152.8 0.1 0.5 0.7 3.8 3.3 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

144.0 149.4 150.2 0.8 0.9 0.5 3.0 4.6 4.3

Professional and related

144.9 150.0 151.5 1.0 1.1 1.0 3.9 4.5 4.6

Sales and office

151.9 159.4 161.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 5.4 6.0 6.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

153.2 160.3 162.0 1.6 1.3 1.1 5.1 6.3 5.7

Sales and related

150.1 158.3 160.3 0.8 0.9 1.3 6.1 6.3 6.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

154.1 161.8 163.4 2.4 1.6 1.0 5.8 7.5 6.0

Office and administrative support

152.0 158.8 160.6 1.1 1.3 1.1 4.4 5.6 5.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.2 152.6 153.9 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.2 4.7 4.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

147.2 152.4 153.7 0.9 1.1 0.9 4.4 4.5 4.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

147.2 152.9 154.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.1 4.9 4.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

153.9 160.5 161.9 1.5 1.5 0.9 5.8 5.9 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

153.6 160.1 161.6 1.6 1.5 0.9 5.8 5.9 5.2

Production

150.0 156.7 158.3 1.4 1.6 1.0 5.8 5.9 5.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

150.6 157.1 158.7 1.4 1.4 1.0 5.8 5.8 5.4

Transportation and material moving

159.3 165.8 167.2 1.7 1.3 0.8 6.1 5.8 5.0

Service occupations

159.5 168.9 170.7 2.1 1.8 1.1 8.1 8.1 7.0

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

146.6 152.4 153.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 4.0 5.0 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.5 152.2 153.5 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.1 4.9 4.8

Management, professional, and related

142.7 147.2 148.2 0.7 0.5 0.7 2.5 3.9 3.9

Sales and office

152.4 159.9 163.2 1.4 0.9 2.1 3.7 6.4 7.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.0 152.1 153.4 0.9 1.1 0.9 4.3 4.4 4.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

148.6 155.5 157.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.5 6.0 5.7

Construction

146.6 151.9 153.6 1.0 0.8 1.1 3.8 4.7 4.8

Manufacturing

146.4 152.5 153.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 4.1 5.2 5.1

Management, professional, and related

143.4 148.0 148.9 0.6 0.5 0.6 2.3 3.9 3.8

Sales and office

147.9 155.8 158.0 0.5 1.5 1.4 4.1 5.9 6.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.6 152.3 154.2 0.8 1.1 1.2 3.9 4.0 4.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

148.4 155.4 157.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.5 6.1 5.8

Aircraft manufacturing

150.2 155.3 155.9 -0.1 0.5 0.4 1.3 3.3 3.8

Service-providing industries(3)

150.5 156.9 158.3 1.0 1.2 0.9 5.2 5.3 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

149.8 156.1 157.5 1.4 1.2 0.9 4.8 5.7 5.1

Management, professional, and related

146.3 151.4 152.6 0.6 0.9 0.8 4.0 4.1 4.3

Sales and office

151.8 159.3 161.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 5.6 5.9 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

147.5 153.3 154.5 1.0 1.1 0.8 4.3 5.0 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

159.3 165.5 166.9 1.8 1.3 0.8 6.1 5.8 4.8

Service occupations

159.5 168.9 170.7 2.1 1.8 1.1 8.1 8.1 7.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

153.7 159.7 161.2 1.9 0.8 0.9 6.1 5.9 4.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

153.1 159.4 160.8 1.9 1.2 0.9 5.2 6.1 5.0

Wholesale trade

143.6 149.8 150.8 1.3 0.3 0.7 6.1 5.6 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

145.3 151.6 152.8 1.6 1.3 0.8 4.7 6.0 5.2

Retail trade

159.0 166.1 167.8 2.7 1.0 1.0 7.0 7.3 5.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

156.3 163.9 165.2 2.3 1.3 0.8 6.2 7.3 5.7

Transportation and warehousing

157.0 160.8 162.5 1.3 0.9 1.1 4.3 3.7 3.5

Utilities

153.4 157.7 158.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 3.2 3.4 3.4

Information

144.3 149.3 151.4 0.7 1.0 1.4 3.9 4.2 4.9

Financial activities

147.8 154.1 155.2 -1.9 0.1 0.7 3.9 2.3 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

146.0 152.7 153.5 0.9 0.9 0.5 3.5 5.5 5.1

Finance and insurance

148.8 154.8 155.9 -2.6 0.0 0.7 3.8 1.3 4.8

Credit intermediation and related activities

150.7 153.4 153.9 -3.8 -0.9 0.3 8.1 -2.1 2.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.5 155.4 156.2 0.8 1.4 0.5 3.6 6.1 5.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

146.3 152.9 153.7 0.4 0.7 0.5 3.0 4.9 5.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

143.6 148.9 149.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 2.7 4.4 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

143.9 151.3 152.2 1.5 0.9 0.6 4.4 6.7 5.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

148.6 155.9 157.1 1.4 0.8 0.8 4.6 6.3 5.7

Professional and business services

149.5 155.9 157.0 0.8 1.3 0.7 4.1 5.1 5.0

Professional, scientific, and technical services

150.5 156.9 157.5 0.5 1.4 0.4 3.7 4.7 4.7

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

151.1 158.5 159.8 1.5 1.3 0.8 5.7 6.4 5.8

Education and health services

147.1 153.3 155.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 4.6 5.7 5.6

Educational services

143.0 148.9 150.3 0.1 1.8 0.9 2.7 4.3 5.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

142.4 147.1 148.0 0.4 1.9 0.6 3.0 3.7 3.9

Health care and social assistance

148.0 154.2 156.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 5.1 6.1 5.7

Hospitals

148.3 154.3 156.7 1.9 1.4 1.6 5.1 6.0 5.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

148.9 157.4 159.6 2.0 2.1 1.4 6.6 7.8 7.2

Nursing care facilities(1)

147.5 156.2 158.9 1.7 2.2 1.7 6.3 7.6 7.7

Leisure and hospitality

161.7 171.1 172.3 1.6 1.8 0.7 8.9 7.5 6.6

Accommodation and food service

165.1 174.7 175.8 1.8 1.7 0.6 9.3 7.7 6.5

Other services, except public administration

151.9 157.9 158.4 1.2 1.2 0.3 6.1 5.2 4.3

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Bargaining status

Union

148.6 152.5 154.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 3.9 3.6 3.9

Goods-producing industries(1)

142.6 146.0 147.3 0.8 0.9 0.9 3.7 3.2 3.3

Manufacturing

141.4 144.4 146.2 1.1 0.8 1.2 4.4 3.2 3.4

Service-providing industries(2)

152.4 156.6 158.9 1.0 1.2 1.5 4.0 3.8 4.3

Nonunion

149.8 156.3 157.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 5.0 5.4 5.3

Goods-producing industries(1)

147.5 153.8 155.3 1.0 1.1 1.0 4.0 5.3 5.3

Manufacturing

147.5 154.1 155.4 0.9 1.2 0.8 4.0 5.4 5.4

Service-providing industries(2)

150.3 156.9 158.3 1.0 1.2 0.9 5.3 5.4 5.3

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

150.7 156.4 158.1 0.8 1.1 1.1 4.6 4.6 4.9

New England

156.3 163.6 165.5 0.6 1.2 1.2 4.9 5.3 5.9

Middle Atlantic

148.7 153.8 155.4 0.9 1.1 1.0 4.5 4.3 4.5

South

148.4 154.7 155.9 0.7 1.0 0.8 5.1 5.0 5.1

South Atlantic

150.6 157.6 159.1 0.9 1.6 1.0 4.6 5.6 5.6

East South Central

146.8 152.6 154.2 1.6 1.2 1.0 6.1 5.6 5.0

West South Central

145.6 150.7 151.4 0.1 -0.3 0.5 5.8 3.6 4.0

Midwest

146.7 153.0 154.0 1.6 1.3 0.7 5.1 6.0 5.0

East North Central

145.0 151.1 152.4 1.6 1.5 0.9 5.1 5.9 5.1

West North Central

151.0 157.7 157.8 1.7 1.1 0.1 5.1 6.2 4.5

West

153.6 160.4 162.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 4.8 5.5 5.7

Mountain

151.9 158.2 160.1 1.7 0.8 1.2 5.9 5.9 5.4

Pacific

154.5 161.5 163.4 0.8 1.3 1.2 4.5 5.3 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

All workers

139.0 144.3 145.6 0.6 2.6 0.9 2.7 4.4 4.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

137.3 142.2 143.4 0.4 2.7 0.8 2.2 3.9 4.4

Professional and related

137.1 141.9 143.2 0.3 2.7 0.9 2.2 3.8 4.4

Sales and office

139.3 145.0 146.2 0.5 2.4 0.8 2.7 4.6 5.0

Office and administrative support

139.7 145.4 146.6 0.4 2.4 0.8 2.6 4.5 4.9

Service occupations

144.9 152.0 153.9 1.2 2.6 1.3 4.1 6.1 6.2

Industry

Education and health services

137.7 142.6 143.9 0.4 2.7 0.9 2.4 4.0 4.5

Educational services

136.7 141.6 142.8 0.3 2.8 0.8 2.1 3.9 4.5

Schools

136.7 141.6 142.8 0.3 2.8 0.8 2.1 3.9 4.5

Elementary and secondary schools

136.3 141.1 142.2 0.2 2.9 0.8 2.0 3.7 4.3

Health care and social assistance

145.6 151.6 153.9 1.5 2.4 1.5 4.3 5.6 5.7

Hospitals

144.6 150.3 152.4 1.4 2.2 1.4 4.4 5.4 5.4

Public administration

140.8 147.3 148.5 0.7 2.4 0.8 3.2 5.4 5.5

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

148.6 154.8 155.9 0.7 1.0 0.7 2.8 4.9 4.9

Private industry workers

All workers

143.2 149.2 150.1 0.8 0.7 0.6 2.9 5.0 4.8

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

141.3 146.9 147.9 0.7 0.6 0.7 3.0 4.7 4.7

Sales and office

144.7 152.2 153.2 0.8 0.8 0.7 2.7 6.1 5.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

145.6 150.0 150.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 2.8 3.6 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

144.6 149.8 150.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 2.9 4.2 4.1

Service occupations

144.0 151.3 152.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 3.7 6.1 6.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

138.7 143.3 143.9 0.4 0.2 0.4 2.8 3.7 3.7

Manufacturing

138.2 142.8 143.5 0.4 0.0 0.5 2.9 3.7 3.8

Aircraft manufacturing

122.4 104.7 105.0 0.2 -18.1 0.3 27.0 -14.3 -14.2

Service-providing industries(3)

144.8 151.3 152.3 0.8 0.9 0.7 3.0 5.4 5.2

Bargaining status

Union

155.5 159.2 160.2 0.5 -0.1 0.6 2.6 2.8 3.0

Nonunion

140.8 147.1 148.1 0.8 0.8 0.7 3.1 5.3 5.2

State and local government workers

All workers

168.5 175.4 176.9 0.8 2.2 0.9 2.5 5.0 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) 12-month percent changes -
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Sep.
2022
Dec.
2022

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

4.2 5.6 5.5 4.8 5.7 5.8

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

3.9 4.7 5.1 4.6 4.6 5.0

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

3.8 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.9 4.4

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

2.5 5.0 4.4 3.1 5.2 4.8

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

3.6 5.3 5.5 4.6 5.7 5.5

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

3.5 5.4 3.1 3.9 5.9 3.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

5.2 6.7 6.3 6.0 7.1 6.8

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

4.0 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.3

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

4.0 4.8 4.4 4.1 4.6 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

3.3 5.6 4.9 3.7 5.0 4.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

4.4 5.7 4.9 4.5 5.9 5.3

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

4.8 5.8 5.7 5.5 6.1 5.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

4.9 5.5 4.4 5.3 6.6 5.0

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

2.8 4.5 4.6 3.2 4.4 4.5

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

6.3 3.0 3.2 3.8 5.9 6.2

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: January 31, 2023