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Unpaid Eldercare in the United States News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, November 22, 2019					   USDL-19-2051

Technical information:	(202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			 UNPAID ELDERCARE IN THE UNITED STATES -- 2017-2018
			      DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


Sixteen percent of the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over or 40.4 million people
provide unpaid eldercare, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. About one-fourth 
(26 percent) of eldercare providers engage in unpaid eldercare on a given day, spending an 
average of 3.4 hours providing this care. These estimates are averages for the 2-year period of 
2017-18.

Eldercare providers are defined as individuals who provide unpaid care to someone age 65 or older
who needs help because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided to household or
nonhousehold members, as well as persons living in retirement homes or assisted care facilities. 
Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming, preparing meals,
and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve providing companionship or being 
available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be associated with nearly any activity.

Information about eldercare providers and the time they spend providing care are collected as part
of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous household survey that provides 
estimates on how people spend their time. For a description of ATUS data, concepts, and 
methodology, see the Technical Note.

Eldercare providers in 2017-18

   --Of the 40.4 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional population age 15
     and over, the majority (58 percent) were women. (See table 1.)

   --Individuals ages 55 to 64 were the most likely to provide eldercare (24 percent), followed
     by those ages 45 to 54 (21 percent) and those ages 65 and over (18 percent). (See table 1.)

   --Fifty percent of eldercare providers had provided this care for 2 years or less, while 15 
     percent had provided care for 10 years or more. Forty-six percent of caregivers provided 
     care daily or several times a week. (See table 2.)

   --Thirty-nine percent of eldercare providers cared for someone age 85 or older, while 13 
     percent provided care for someone age 65 to 69. (See table 2.)

   --Compared with caregivers who were younger and older, eldercare providers ages 15 to 34 were
     more likely to care for a grandparent, and those ages 35 to 64 were more likely to care for
     a parent. (See table 3.) 

   --Fifteen percent of eldercare providers cared solely for someone with whom they lived, and 83
     percent cared solely for someone with whom they did not live. (See table 2.) Those who provided
     eldercare for someone in their household were more than three times as likely to provide 
     eldercare on a given day than those who provided care for someone living in another 
     household--65 percent compared with 18 percent. (See table 4.)

Time spent providing eldercare in 2017-18

   --On a given day, about one-fourth (26 percent) of eldercare providers engaged in eldercare. 
     Compared with those in other age groups, eldercare providers who were ages 65 and older 
     were the most likely to provide care on a given day (37 percent). (See table 4.)

   --On average over all days--including days they did and did not provide care--providers who
     cared solely for someone with whom they lived (6.1 million providers) spent 3.0 hours per 
     day providing care. (See table 4.)

   --Eldercare providers who cared solely for a parent spent an average of 1.2 hours per day
     providing eldercare (includes days they did and did not provide care). (See table 4.)

   --Eldercare providers spent an average of 3.4 hours in caregiving activities on days they 
     provided care. Providers who were not employed spent more time providing eldercare (4.1 
     hours) than employed providers (2.6 hours) on days they provided care. (See table 4.)

   --On weekend days they provided care, employed eldercare providers spent an average of 3.3 
     hours doing so. This compares to an average of 2.3 hours for employed caregivers who 
     provided care on weekdays. (See table 4.)

   --Women were more likely than men to provide eldercare on a given day--27 percent of female
     eldercare providers engaged in eldercare activities on an average day, compared with 24 
     percent of male eldercare providers. On days they provided eldercare, men and women spent 
     nearly the same amount of time providing this care (3.5 hours and 3.3 hours, respectively).
     (See table 4.)

Eldercare activities in 2017-18

   --On days they provided care, 36 percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving 
     associated with household activities, spending on average 36 minutes per day in these 
     activities. This includes 27 percent of providers who engaged in eldercare associated with
     food preparation and cleanup and 10 percent who provided eldercare associated with 
     housework. (See table 5.) 

   --Thirty-seven percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving associated with leisure
     and sports on days they provided care, spending 1.2 hours per day in these activities. 
     This includes 24 percent of eldercare providers who engaged in eldercare associated with 
     socializing and communicating, spending 26 minutes per day in these activities. 
     (See table 5.)

Eldercare providers who were parents with children under age 18 living at home in 2017-18

   --There were 8.2 million eldercare providers who were parents of children living at home. 
     Of these parents, about one-third (35 percent) had a child under age 6, and the remainder 
     (65 percent) were parents whose youngest child was between the ages of 6 and 17. (See 
     table 9.) 

   --Almost one-half (48 percent) of eldercare providers who were parents of children living at
     home provided care for their own parent. These persons sometimes are described as members 
     of the "sandwich generation," because they are in between two generations that require care.
     (See table 9.)

   --Most (82 percent) eldercare providers who were parents were employed, and 69 percent were
     employed full time. Eighty-nine percent of fathers were employed full time, compared with
     55 percent of mothers. (See table 9.)  

   --Fifteen percent of eldercare providers who were parents had no spouse or unmarried 
     partner present in the household. (See table 9.) 

   --Eldercare providers who were parents were less likely to provide daily care than the 
     overall population of eldercare providers (12 percent compared with 21 percent) but just
     as likely to provide care several times a week (23 percent and 25 percent, respectively). 
     (See tables 2 and 9.)




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, 
which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a 
continuous survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. In the 2-year 
period of 2017–18, approximately 20,000 individuals were interviewed for the ATUS; of these,
approximately 3,100 individuals were identified as eldercare providers. Data for the combined
years of 2017–18 were used to facilitate a more in-depth analysis of eldercare.   

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon 
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Survey methodology   

   ATUS sample households are chosen from the households that completed their eighth (final) 
interview for the Current Population Survey (CPS), the nation’s monthly labor force survey. 
ATUS sample households are selected to ensure that estimates will be nationally representative
of the civilian noninstitutional population. One individual age 15 or over--referred to as the
designated person--is randomly chosen from each sampled household. This person is interviewed 
by telephone once about his or her activities on the day before the interview.  

   All ATUS interviews are conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Procedures
are in place to collect information from the small number of households that did not provide a 
telephone number during the CPS interview.   

   ATUS designated persons are preassigned a day of the week about which to report. 
Preassignment is designed to reduce variability in response rates across the week and to allow
oversampling of weekend days so that accurate weekend day measures can be developed. Interviews
occur on the day following the assigned day. For example, a person assigned to report about a
Monday would be contacted on the following Tuesday. Ten percent of designated persons are 
assigned to report about each of the five weekdays. Twenty-five percent are assigned to report
about each weekend day. Households are called for up to 8 consecutive weeks (for example, 8 
Tuesdays) in order to secure an interview.

About the questionnaire   

   In the time diary portion of the ATUS interview, survey respondents sequentially report 
activities they did between 4 a.m. on the day before the interview until 4 a.m. on the day of 
the interview. For each activity, respondents are asked how long the activity lasted. For 
activities other than personal care activities (such as sleeping and grooming), interviewers 
also ask respondents where they were and who was in the room with them (if at home) or who 
accompanied them (if away from home). If respondents report doing more than one activity at a 
time, they are asked to identify which one was their main activity. If none can be identified, 
the interviewer records the first activity mentioned. After completing the time diary, 
interviewers ask additional questions, including questions to identify eldercare providers and
activities done as eldercare. Questions on eldercare were added to the survey in 2011.  

   After completing the interview, activity descriptions are assigned a single 6-digit code 
using the ATUS Coding Lexicon. The 3-tier coding system consists of 17 major activity categories,
each with multiple second- and third-tier subcategories. These coding lexicon categories are 
then combined into composite categories for publication. Descriptions of categories shown in this
release can be found in the Activity definitions section of this Technical Note. The ATUS Coding 
Lexicons can be accessed at www.bls.gov/tus/lexicons.htm.

Concepts and definitions

   Average day. The average day measure reflects an average distribution across all persons in 
the reference  population and all days of the week.

   Average hours per day. The average number of hours spent in a 24-hour day (between 4 a.m. 
on the diary day and 4 a.m. on the interview day) doing a specified activity.

   --Average hours per day, population. The average number of hours per day is computed using 
     all responses from a given population, including those of respondents who did not do a 
     particular activity on their diary day. These estimates reflect how many population members
     engaged in an activity and the amount of time they spent doing it.

   --Average hours per day, persons who did the activity. The average number of hours per day is 
     computed using only responses from those who engaged in a particular activity on their diary
     day.

   Condition related to aging. An ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that 
typically affects older people, such as becoming more frail; having difficulty seeing, hearing, or
physically moving; becoming more forgetful; tiring more quickly; or having specific medical 
ailments that are more common among older adults. It also refers to existing conditions that 
become progressively worse as one ages.

   Diary day. The diary day is the day about which the respondent reports. For example, the diary 
day of a respondent interviewed on Tuesday is Monday.
 
   Eldercare. Eldercare is providing unpaid care or assistance to an individual who needed help 
because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided by a family member or non-family
member. Care can be provided in the recipient’s home, the provider’s home, or a care facility such 
as a nursing home.

   Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming and feeding, 
preparing meals, arranging medical care, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve
providing companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be 
associated with nearly any activity.

   Estimates of the time spent providing eldercare are derived by summing the durations of 
activities during which respondents provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help 
because of a condition related to aging. These estimates never include times the respondent 
reported sleeping, grooming, or engaging in personal care services.

   Eldercare provider. An individual who provided eldercare more than one time in the 3 to 4 
months prior to the interview day. The time frame varies slightly by respondent because the 
question asks about care provided between the first day of a given reference month and the 
interview day. Estimates are restricted to eldercare providers caring for at least one person 
age 65 or older.

Employment status

   --Employed. All persons who:

	1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as paid 
	employees, or worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or 

	2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or businesses
	from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation, 
	childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave, job training,
	or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or 
	were seeking other jobs; or

	3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.

   --Employed full time. Full-time workers are those who usually worked 35 or more hours per week 
     at all jobs combined.

   --Employed part time. Part-time workers are those who usually worked fewer than 35 hours per 
     week at all jobs combined.

   --Not employed. Persons are not employed if they do not meet the conditions for employment. 
     People who are not employed include those classified as unemployed as well as those 
     classified as not in the labor force (using CPS definitions).

   Household children. Household children are children under age 18 residing in the household of 
the ATUS respondent. The children may be related to the respondent (such as his or her own children,
grandchildren, nieces or nephews, or brothers or sisters) or not related (such as foster children 
or children of roommates or boarders).

   Primary activity. A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified 
time. 

   Weekday, weekend, and holiday estimates. Estimates for weekdays are an average of reports about
Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. Estimates for weekend days and holidays are an average 
of reports about Saturdays, Sundays, and the following holidays:  New Year’s Day, Easter, Memorial 
Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. Data were not collected 
about New Year's Day in 2017.

Activity definitions

   The following definitions describe the activities associated with eldercare appearing in this 
release.  These are diary activities that survey respondents identified as ones during which they
had provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a condition related to 
aging.  

   Eating and drinking. All time spent eating or drinking (except eating and drinking done as part
of a work or volunteer activity) is classified here.

   Household activities. Household activities are activities done by people to maintain their 
households. These include housework; cooking; lawn and garden care; pet care; vehicle maintenance
and repair; home maintenance, repair, decoration, and renovation; and household management and 
organizational activities (such as filling out paperwork or planning a party). Food preparation, 
whether or not reported as done specifically for another household member, is always classified as a
household activity unless it was done as a volunteer, work, or income-generating activity, or when 
done for a nonhousehold member. 

   Purchasing goods and services. This category includes time spent obtaining, receiving, and 
purchasing consumer goods, professional services, household services, and government services. 
Consumer purchases include most purchases and rentals of consumer goods. Professional services refer 
to financial services and banking, legal services, medical and adult care services, real estate 
services, and veterinary services. Household services include housecleaning; cooking; lawn care and 
landscaping; pet care; tailoring, laundering, and dry cleaning; vehicle maintenance and repairs; and
home repairs, maintenance, and construction. This category also captures the time spent obtaining 
government services--such as applying for food stamps--and purchasing government-required licenses or
paying fines or fees.

   Caring for and helping household members. Time spent doing activities to care for members of the 
household, regardless of relationship to the respondent or the physical or mental health status of the
person being helped, is classified here. This category includes a range of activities done to benefit 
members of households, such as providing physical and medical care or obtaining medical services.

   Caring for and helping nonhousehold members. This category includes time spent in activities done to
care for or help individuals who do not live in the household. When done for or through an organization,
time spent helping nonhousehold members is classified as volunteering, rather than as helping 
nonhousehold members.

   Working and work-related activities. This category includes time spent working, doing activities as
part of one's job, engaging in income-generating activities not as part of one's job, and job search 
activities. "Working" includes hours spent doing the specific tasks required of one's main or other job,
regardless of location or time of day. "Work-related activities" include activities that are not 
obviously work but are done as part of one's job, such as having a business lunch and playing golf with 
clients. "Other income-generating activities" are those done "on the side" or under informal arrangement
and are not part of a regular job. Such activities might include selling homemade crafts, maintaining a 
rental property, or having a yard sale. These activities are those for which people are paid or will 
be paid.

   Organizational, civic, and religious activities. This category captures time spent volunteering for or
through an organization, performing civic obligations, and participating in religious and spiritual 
activities. 

   Leisure and sports. The leisure and sports category includes time spent in sports, exercise, and 
recreation; socializing and communicating; and other leisure activities. Sports, exercise, and recreation
activities include participating in--as well as attending or watching--sports, exercise, and recreational
activities. Recreational activities include yard games like croquet or horseshoes, as well as activities 
like billiards and dancing. Socializing and communicating includes face-to-face social communication and 
hosting or attending social functions. Leisure activities include watching television; reading; relaxing 
or thinking; playing computer, board, or card games; using a computer or the Internet for personal 
interest; playing or listening to music; and other activities, such as attending arts, cultural, and 
entertainment events.

   Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail. This category captures time spent in telephone communication and 
handling household or personal mail or e-mail. This category also includes texting and Internet voice and
video calling.

   Traveling. This category includes all travel, regardless of mode or purpose, as well as security 
procedures related to traveling.

   Other activities, not elsewhere classified. This is a residual category intended to capture activities 
not elsewhere classified in each table. These might be ambiguous activities that could not be coded,
missing activities, or activities that occurred very infrequently. Missing activities result when 
respondents do not remember what they did for a period of time, or when they consider an activity too 
private or personal to report. This category includes a small amount of time that was spent in educational
activities, as no educational activities category appears in the tables.

Processing and estimation

   After ATUS data are collected, they go through an editing and imputation procedure. Responses to CPS 
questions that are re-asked in the ATUS go through the regular CPS edit and imputation procedures. Some
item nonresponses for questions unique to the ATUS also are imputed.

   ATUS records are weighted quarterly to reduce bias in the estimates due to differences in sampling and
response rates across subpopulations and days of the week. Specifically, the data are weighted to ensure 
the following:

   --Weekdays represent about 5/7 of the weighted data, and weekend days represent about 2/7 of the 
     weighted data for the population as a whole and for selected subpopulations. The actual proportions 
     depend on the number of weekdays and weekend days in a given quarter.

   --The sum of the weights is equal to the number of person-days in the quarter for the population as a 
     whole and for selected subpopulations (the population times the number of days in the quarter).

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the ATUS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather
than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true population values they represent.
The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error,
and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.

   Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates from all 
possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this case, the sample estimate
and its standard error can be used to construct approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that
include the true population value with known probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the 
population were repeated many times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its 
standard error calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 
standard errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true 
population value. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The ATUS data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average difference between population
and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, 
including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all 
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data. Errors also could occur if nonresponse is 
correlated with time use.

   Nonsampling error and eldercare. Eldercare done for a spouse or partner may be underreported, especially
when the care provided has only recently become necessary. For example, a survey respondent who has always 
prepared the family dinner may not view cooking as an eldercare activity; if her husband is no longer 
capable of preparing his own meals, though, he depends on this assistance and it meets the definition of 
eldercare. 

   Additionally, nonsampling error affects data on the frequency of care. Survey respondents were asked how 
often they provided eldercare in recent months and whether they provided eldercare on the diary day. 
Information about care provided on the diary day was used to calculate daily participation rates. There 
are some inconsistencies between the reported frequency of care and the actual provision of eldercare on an 
average day. For example, in 2017–18, only 66 percent of eldercare providers who self-reported providing 
care "daily" actually provided eldercare on an average day. This discrepancy reflects some respondents' 
choice of "daily" rather than "several times a week" or another option to best describe their eldercare 
frequency, even while acknowledging they had not provided care on the diary day.

ATUS publication standards

   Estimates of average hours per day and participation rates are not published unless there are a minimum 
number of respondents representing the given population. Additional publication criteria are applied that 
include the number of respondents who reported doing a specified activity and the standard error or 
coefficient of variation for the estimate. Estimates that are considered "close to zero" or that round to 
0.00, are published as approximately zero. For a detailed description of the statistical reliability 
criteria necessary for publication, please contact ATUS staff at ATUSinfo@bls.gov.




Table 1. Number and percent of the U.S. population who were eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2017-2018 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Men Women
Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers
Number Percent of population Number Percent of population Number Percent of population

Age

Total, 15 years and over

260,550 40,422 15.5 126,096 16,986 13.5 134,454 23,436 17.4

15 to 24 years

42,186 4,310 10.2 21,266 1,903 8.9 20,920 2,407 11.5

25 to 34 years

44,271 3,831 8.7 22,037 1,560 7.1 22,234 2,271 10.2

35 to 44 years

40,262 4,614 11.5 19,734 2,020 10.2 20,527 2,594 12.6

45 to 54 years

41,511 8,674 20.9 20,294 3,494 17.2 21,217 5,180 24.4

55 to 64 years

41,903 10,147 24.2 20,159 4,290 21.3 21,744 5,857 26.9

65 years and over

50,417 8,846 17.5 22,605 3,718 16.4 27,812 5,127 18.4

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(1)

White

209,411 33,633 16.1 102,266 14,410 14.1 107,145 19,224 17.9

Black or African American

32,343 4,853 15.0 14,742 1,876 12.7 17,602 2,977 16.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

43,006 3,490 8.1 21,378 1,322 6.2 21,628 2,168 10.0

Employment status

Employed

163,460 25,378 15.5 86,655 11,648 13.4 76,805 13,730 17.9

Full-time workers

128,075 19,229 15.0 73,043 9,194 12.6 55,032 10,035 18.2

Part-time workers

35,385 6,149 17.4 13,612 2,454 18.0 21,774 3,694 17.0

Not employed

97,090 15,044 15.5 39,441 5,338 13.5 57,648 9,706 16.8

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

20,027 1,528 7.6 9,977 678 6.8 10,050 850 8.5

High school graduates, no college

64,027 9,970 15.6 31,974 4,531 14.2 32,054 5,439 17.0

Some college or associate degree

51,993 9,140 17.6 23,730 3,618 15.2 28,263 5,523 19.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

82,317 15,473 18.8 39,148 6,256 16.0 43,168 9,217 21.4

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

67,605 8,211 12.1 30,397 3,221 10.6 37,208 4,989 13.4

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

36,984 5,367 14.5 16,738 2,153 12.9 20,247 3,214 15.9

Parent of a household child under age 6

30,620 2,844 9.3 13,659 1,069 7.8 16,961 1,775 10.5

Not a parent of a household child

192,945 32,211 16.7 95,699 13,765 14.4 97,246 18,447 19.0

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

113,963 15,771 13.8 53,300 6,680 12.5 60,662 9,090 15.0

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

146,587 24,651 16.8 72,796 10,306 14.2 73,791 14,345 19.4

Footnotes
(1) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 2. Eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics related to care provided, averages for the combined years 2017-2018 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Total, 15 years and over

40,422 100.0 16,986 100.0 23,436 100.0

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,211 20.3 3,221 19.0 4,989 21.3

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,367 13.3 2,153 12.7 3,214 13.7

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,844 7.0 1,069 6.3 1,775 7.6

Not a parent of a household child

32,211 79.7 13,765 81.0 18,447 78.7

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

28,691 71.0 12,261 72.2 16,430 70.1

Caring for two persons

8,933 22.1 3,309 19.5 5,624 24.0

Caring for three or more persons

2,798 6.9 1,417 8.3 1,382 5.9

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

40,422 (1)- 16,986 (1)- 23,436 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

2,800 6.9 1,084 6.4 1,716 7.3

Caring for a parent

17,364 43.0 7,434 43.8 9,930 42.4

Caring for a grandparent(3)

5,888 14.6 2,240 13.2 3,648 15.6

Caring for another related person

9,952 24.6 4,564 26.9 5,389 23.0

Caring for a friend or neighbor

6,594 16.3 2,537 14.9 4,056 17.3

Caring for someone else

2,889 7.1 1,321 7.8 1,568 6.7

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,691 100.0 12,261 100.0 16,430 100.0

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

2,618 9.1 1,034 8.4 1,584 9.6

Caring for a parent

11,440 39.9 4,904 40.0 6,536 39.8

Caring for a grandparent(3)

4,464 15.6 1,771 14.4 2,693 16.4

Caring for another related person

5,920 20.6 2,742 22.4 3,178 19.3

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,043 10.6 1,250 10.2 1,793 10.9

Caring for someone else

1,206 4.2 560 4.6 645 3.9

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

40,422 (1)- 16,986 (1)- 23,436 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

5,308 13.1 2,450 14.4 2,858 12.2

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

7,329 18.1 3,335 19.6 3,994 17.0

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

8,873 22.0 4,131 24.3 4,742 20.2

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

10,202 25.2 3,703 21.8 6,499 27.7

Caring for someone age 85 or older

15,924 39.4 6,288 37.0 9,636 41.1

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,691 100.0 12,261 100.0 16,430 100.0

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,168 11.0 1,483 12.1 1,685 10.3

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

3,942 13.7 1,886 15.4 2,056 12.5

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

4,994 17.4 2,363 19.3 2,631 16.0

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

5,736 20.0 2,085 17.0 3,651 22.2

Caring for someone age 85 or older

10,850 37.8 4,444 36.2 6,407 39.0

Care of household or nonhousehold members

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,068 15.0 2,762 16.3 3,305 14.1

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

33,627 83.2 13,864 81.6 19,763 84.3

Provided eldercare to both household and nonhousehold person(s)

728 1.8 360 2.1 367 1.6

Frequency of care(4)

Provided care daily

8,428 20.8 3,464 20.4 4,963 21.2

Provided care several times a week

10,080 24.9 4,137 24.4 5,943 25.4

Provided care once a week

6,822 16.9 3,108 18.3 3,715 15.9

Provided care several times a month

8,070 20.0 3,359 19.8 4,711 20.1

Provided care once a month

4,598 11.4 1,922 11.3 2,676 11.4

Other

2,424 6.0 997 5.9 1,427 6.1

Duration of care(5)

Provided care for less than 1 year

9,527 23.6 3,634 21.4 5,893 25.1

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,810 26.7 4,218 24.8 6,592 28.1

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

6,360 15.7 2,935 17.3 3,424 14.6

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

7,821 19.3 3,405 20.0 4,416 18.8

Provided care for 10 years or more

5,904 14.6 2,793 16.4 3,111 13.3

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(4) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(5) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 3. Eldercare providers by relationship to care recipient and selected characteristics of eldercare providers, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers caring for(1)
A spouse or unmarried partner(2) A parent A grandparent(3) Another related
person
A friend or neighbor Someone else

Age

Total, 15 years and over

40,422 6.9 43.0 14.6 24.6 16.3 7.1

15 to 24 years

4,310 (4)- 5.5 63.8 20.3 8.3 13.6

25 to 34 years

3,831 (4)- 22.9 48.6 15.8 12.3 11.1

35 to 44 years

4,614 (4)- 51.5 17.5 24.6 14.4 10.1

45 to 54 years

8,674 1.1 68.7 4.6 23.8 13.9 3.8

55 to 64 years

10,147 3.8 59.4 0.6 30.3 15.3 4.3

65 years and over

8,846 26.2 21.4 (4)- 24.9 26.5 7.2

Sex

Men

16,986 6.4 43.8 13.2 26.9 14.9 7.8

Women

23,436 7.3 42.4 15.6 23.0 17.3 6.7

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(5)

White

33,633 6.9 42.9 14.7 23.7 16.3 6.7

Black or African American

4,853 6.7 42.1 14.4 30.1 16.6 11.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,490 3.1 38.0 17.5 23.3 19.6 11.9

Employment status

Employed

25,378 2.5 50.2 16.1 25.6 12.9 6.9

Full-time workers

19,229 1.6 54.5 14.4 25.5 12.5 6.2

Part-time workers

6,149 5.4 36.8 21.4 25.9 14.4 8.9

Not employed

15,044 14.4 30.7 11.9 22.9 22.0 7.6

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

1,528 9.3 (6)- 5.6 (6)- 27.4 8.3

High school graduates, no college

9,970 10.9 48.2 4.7 28.1 14.4 7.1

Some college or associate degree

9,140 7.7 46.7 10.2 22.4 21.2 6.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

15,473 5.6 48.6 10.6 25.2 15.8 5.7

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,211 0.1 47.8 20.1 26.1 15.1 6.6

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,367 0.2 55.5 12.9 26.9 14.7 5.4

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,844 (4)- 33.2 33.7 24.5 15.8 9.0

Not a parent of a household child

32,211 8.7 41.7 13.1 24.2 16.6 7.3

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,771 1.4 40.2 23.3 16.1 19.7 10.7

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

24,651 10.5 44.7 9.0 30.1 14.1 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for multiple persons with whom they had different relationships.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Another related person."
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.
(5) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(6) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 4. Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day and time spent providing this care by day of week and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Age

Total, 15 years and over

40,422 25.7 24.6 28.3 0.87 0.79 1.04 3.37 3.22 3.68

15 to 24 years

4,310 11.4 (1)- (1)- 0.22 (1)- (1)- 1.89 (1)- (1)-

25 to 34 years

3,831 17.4 15.7 21.5 0.31 (1)- 0.49 1.77 (1)- 2.27

35 to 44 years

4,614 17.5 15.9 21.4 0.55 (1)- (1)- 3.13 2.47 (1)-

45 to 54 years

8,674 22.4 20.8 26.3 0.72 0.62 0.96 3.21 2.99 3.65

55 to 64 years

10,147 31.5 30.8 32.9 1.00 0.89 1.25 3.18 2.89 3.80

65 years and over

8,846 37.2 37.3 37.0 1.58 1.62 1.50 4.25 4.34 4.05

Sex

Men

16,986 23.7 22.5 26.5 0.82 0.72 1.05 3.45 3.19 3.96

Women

23,436 27.1 26.1 29.8 0.90 0.85 1.04 3.32 3.25 3.49

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

White

33,633 25.2 24.2 27.6 0.81 0.73 1.01 3.22 3.00 3.68

Black or African American

4,853 26.3 25.3 28.7 1.02 0.89 1.34 3.89 3.51 4.67

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,490 23.8 20.5 31.1 0.81 (1)- 1.19 3.40 3.09 3.84

Employment status

Employed

25,378 19.9 18.7 22.9 0.53 0.44 0.75 2.64 2.34 3.27

Full-time workers

19,229 18.9 17.7 21.8 0.49 0.36 0.78 2.58 2.06 3.58

Part-time workers

6,149 23.1 21.7 27.1 0.65 0.65 0.63 2.80 3.00 2.33

Not employed

15,044 35.5 34.9 36.9 1.44 1.41 1.51 4.06 4.04 4.08

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

1,528 (1)- (1)- (1)- 0.98 (1)- 1.29 3.11 2.72 3.74

High school graduates, no college

9,970 33.4 34.7 30.5 1.39 1.46 1.25 4.17 4.20 4.09

Some college or associate degree

9,140 27.2 26.5 28.7 0.93 0.76 1.35 3.44 2.87 4.69

Bachelor's degree and higher

15,473 23.3 21.0 29.1 0.66 0.57 0.87 2.83 2.74 2.99

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,211 16.0 15.3 17.8 0.31 0.22 0.53 1.92 1.41 2.98

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,367 16.4 14.4 21.3 0.32 0.19 0.62 1.95 1.34 2.93

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,844 15.3 17.0 10.8 0.28 0.26 (1)- 1.84 1.53 (1)-

Not a parent of a household child

32,211 28.2 27.0 30.9 1.01 0.94 1.17 3.58 3.49 3.78

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,771 25.3 23.8 29.0 0.90 0.83 1.08 3.56 3.48 3.72

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

24,651 26.0 25.2 27.9 0.84 0.77 1.02 3.25 3.06 3.66

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

28,691 27.5 26.3 30.5 0.98 0.86 1.25 3.56 3.28 4.12

Caring for two persons

8,933 21.0 19.7 24.1 0.63 0.66 0.56 3.00 3.33 2.34

Caring for three or more persons

2,798 21.9 22.9 (1)- (1)- (1)- (1)- 2.13 (1)- (1)-

Relationship to care recipient(3)

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,691 27.5 26.3 30.5 0.98 0.86 1.25 3.56 3.28 4.12

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(4)

2,618 68.1 (1)- 66.4 3.74 3.75 3.72 5.49 5.43 5.61

Caring for a parent

11,440 31.1 28.6 36.5 1.15 0.95 1.58 3.70 3.32 4.33

Caring for a grandparent(5)

4,464 13.0 11.9 16.2 0.24 0.20 (1)- 1.88 1.68 2.34

Caring for another related person

5,920 19.8 19.7 19.9 0.40 (1)- 0.62 2.04 1.61 3.12

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,043 15.0 15.7 13.4 (1)- (1)- 0.19 2.30 (1)- 1.41

Age of care recipient

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

28,691 27.5 26.3 30.5 0.98 0.86 1.25 3.56 3.28 4.12

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,168 30.1 (1)- 30.0 1.21 0.79 2.24 4.03 2.62 7.47

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

3,942 28.3 25.3 35.5 0.83 (1)- 1.18 2.94 (1)- 3.31

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

4,994 25.5 25.0 26.7 0.75 0.57 1.28 2.96 2.29 4.80

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

5,736 27.8 26.7 30.3 1.24 1.17 1.38 4.45 4.39 4.55

Caring for someone age 85 or older

10,850 27.3 26.0 30.3 0.93 0.94 0.92 3.41 3.60 3.04

Care of household or nonhousehold members(3)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,068 64.8 62.5 69.6 2.99 2.76 3.47 4.61 4.41 4.99

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

33,627 18.2 17.9 18.9 0.46 0.44 0.53 2.55 2.43 2.82

Frequency of care(6)

Provided care daily

8,428 66.2 65.7 67.3 2.74 2.55 3.11 4.13 3.89 4.62

Provided care several times a week

10,080 29.6 30.8 26.6 0.76 0.82 0.61 2.57 2.66 2.29

Provided care once a week

6,822 11.4 9.3 17.2 0.19 0.14 0.32 1.67 1.55 1.87

Provided care several times a month

8,070 7.6 6.1 11.3 0.23 0.15 0.41 2.97 2.44 3.66

Provided care once a month

4,598 6.8 7.5 5.2 0.20 0.21 0.17 2.88 2.78 3.20

Duration of care(7)

Provided care for less than 1 year

9,527 18.6 17.6 21.4 0.61 0.58 0.71 3.30 3.29 3.31

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,810 26.7 25.9 28.9 0.98 0.90 1.17 3.66 3.49 4.05

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

6,360 26.0 25.4 27.3 0.72 0.65 0.89 2.77 2.57 3.25

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

7,821 29.4 29.5 29.2 0.96 0.87 1.18 3.28 2.94 4.03

Provided care for 10 years or more

5,904 30.2 27.1 36.7 1.10 1.02 1.27 3.64 3.76 3.45

Footnotes
(1) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(2) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Not all categories are shown.
(4) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(5) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(6) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care. Corresponding time and percent estimates were measured using information about care provided on the diary day. Not all categories are shown.
(7) For persons who provided eldercare to more than one person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 5. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving by sex and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected eldercare activities On days they provided care
Total Men Women Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.37 3.45 3.32

Eating and drinking

6.5 6.5 6.5 20.8 18.5 22.3 0.22 0.22 0.22

Household activities

17.8 15.0 19.7 35.7 35.3 35.9 0.60 0.52 0.65

Housework

4.6 2.5 6.0 10.3 6.3 12.8 0.15 0.09 0.20

Food preparation and cleanup

9.2 6.5 11.0 27.2 24.1 29.1 0.31 0.22 0.37

Lawn and garden care

1.6 2.3 1.1 3.2 5.7 1.6 0.05 0.08 (2)-

Household management

1.0 1.1 0.9 5.9 5.0 6.4 0.03 0.04 0.03

Purchasing goods and services

3.4 3.7 3.3 11.4 13.0 10.5 0.12 0.13 0.11

Caring for and helping household members

9.6 11.5 8.3 19.5 18.7 19.9 0.32 0.40 0.27

Caring for household adults

8.5 9.9 7.7 16.2 14.0 17.5 0.29 (2)- 0.25

Physical care for household adults

6.5 8.4 5.3 11.9 11.4 12.2 0.22 (2)- 0.18

Providing medical care to household adults

0.7 1.0 0.5 5.5 3.5 6.7 0.02 0.04 0.02

Helping household adults

0.8 1.6 0.4 4.4 5.3 3.8 0.03 0.05 0.01

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

12.8 9.6 14.8 28.4 21.0 33.0 0.43 0.33 0.49

Caring for nonhousehold adults

5.6 2.5 7.7 10.2 4.3 14.0 0.19 0.09 0.25

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

3.3 2.1 4.1 5.4 2.2 7.5 0.11 (2)- 0.14

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.5 0.1 0.7 3.4 1.0 4.9 0.02 (2)- 0.02

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.8 6.7 6.8 23.2 18.1 26.3 0.23 0.23 0.23

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.6 1.4 1.8 7.3 5.5 8.5 0.06 0.05 0.06

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.4 2.8 0.5 3.1 5.1 1.8 0.05 0.10 0.02

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.6 0.5 0.7 8.6 5.9 10.2 0.02 0.02 0.02

Working and work-related activities

4.1 3.7 4.4 2.5 2.8 2.3 0.14 0.13 (2)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

1.5 1.5 1.6 3.3 4.2 2.7 0.05 0.05 0.05

Leisure and sports

35.3 40.1 32.1 36.6 36.9 36.4 1.19 1.38 1.06

Socializing and communicating

13.1 10.8 14.7 24.0 21.3 25.7 0.44 0.37 0.49

Watching TV

15.8 20.6 12.7 13.2 15.2 12.0 0.53 0.71 0.42

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.3 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.6 1.3 (2)- (2)- (2)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

1.1 1.0 1.2 7.4 5.1 8.9 0.04 0.03 0.04

Traveling

6.3 5.8 6.6 26.5 24.3 27.8 0.21 0.20 0.22

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.6 1.7 1.6 3.9 3.4 4.3 0.06 (2)- 0.05

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 6. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving by day of week and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected
eldercare activities
On days they provided care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.37 3.22 3.68

Eating and drinking

6.5 5.7 8.0 20.8 18.9 24.8 0.22 0.18 0.30

Household activities

17.8 16.6 20.1 35.7 32.9 41.6 0.60 0.53 0.74

Housework

4.6 4.0 5.7 10.3 9.8 11.3 0.15 0.13 0.21

Food preparation and cleanup

9.2 9.3 9.0 27.2 24.3 33.2 0.31 0.30 0.33

Lawn and garden care

1.6 1.2 2.4 3.2 2.8 3.9 0.05 (2)- 0.09

Household management

1.0 0.9 1.1 5.9 6.3 5.0 0.03 0.03 0.04

Purchasing goods and services

3.4 3.3 3.7 11.4 11.3 11.7 0.12 0.11 0.14

Caring for and helping household members

9.6 10.9 7.2 19.5 19.2 19.9 0.32 0.35 0.26

Caring for household adults

8.5 9.5 6.7 16.2 15.2 18.1 0.29 0.31 0.25

Physical care for household adults

6.5 7.5 4.8 11.9 11.5 12.7 0.22 0.24 0.18

Providing medical care to household adults

0.7 0.9 0.4 5.5 6.0 4.4 0.02 0.03 0.01

Helping household adults

0.8 1.1 0.4 4.4 4.3 4.6 0.03 0.03 0.02

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

12.8 14.9 8.9 28.4 31.1 22.7 0.43 0.48 0.33

Caring for nonhousehold adults

5.6 7.5 2.2 10.2 11.9 6.6 0.19 0.24 0.08

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

3.3 4.3 1.6 5.4 6.2 3.7 0.11 0.14 0.06

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.5 0.7 0.2 3.4 4.1 1.9 0.02 0.02 0.01

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.8 7.0 6.3 23.2 25.8 17.6 0.23 0.23 0.23

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.6 1.6 1.7 7.3 8.5 5.0 0.06 0.05 0.06

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.4 1.7 0.9 3.1 3.2 2.8 0.05 0.06 0.03

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.6 0.7 0.4 8.6 10.6 4.2 0.02 0.02 0.01

Working and work-related activities

4.1 5.2 2.2 2.5 2.8 1.9 0.14 (2)- (2)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

1.5 1.1 2.3 3.3 2.4 5.1 0.05 (2)- 0.09

Leisure and sports

35.3 33.8 38.0 36.6 36.3 37.2 1.19 1.09 1.40

Socializing and communicating

13.1 13.0 13.3 24.0 24.0 24.0 0.44 0.42 0.49

Watching TV

15.8 14.2 18.7 13.2 11.4 17.1 0.53 0.46 0.69

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.3 0.3 0.2 1.0 1.1 0.8 (2)- (2)- (2)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

1.1 1.5 0.4 7.4 9.1 3.8 0.04 0.05 0.01

Traveling

6.3 6.0 6.8 26.5 27.3 24.7 0.21 0.19 0.25

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.6 1.2 2.4 3.9 3.5 4.8 0.06 0.04 0.09

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 7. Percent of eldercare providers and time spent in caregiving on days they provided care by frequency of care and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who engaged in caregiving activities, on days they provided care(1) Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total Frequency of care(2) Total Frequency of care(2)
Daily Several times per week Once a week or less Daily Several times per week Once a week or less

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)- 3.37 4.13 2.57 2.36

Eating and drinking

20.8 28.5 9.0 17.1 0.22 0.32 0.07 0.15

Household activities

35.7 48.1 24.3 16.5 0.60 0.90 0.25 0.22

Housework

10.3 16.1 4.0 3.2 0.15 0.26 (3)- (3)-

Food preparation and cleanup

27.2 41.6 12.3 7.4 0.31 0.50 0.10 0.07

Lawn and garden care

3.2 2.5 4.9 2.1 0.05 (3)- (3)- (3)-

Household management

5.9 7.5 3.0 6.0 0.03 0.05 (3)- 0.01

Purchasing goods and services

11.4 11.5 12.2 10.3 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.09

Caring for and helping household members

19.5 30.8 8.8 2.3 0.32 0.47 (3)- (3)-

Caring for household adults

16.2 27.5 4.7 0.3 0.29 0.44 (3)- (3)-

Physical care for household adults

11.9 20.5 3.1 (4)- 0.22 0.34 (3)- (3)-

Providing medical care to household adults

5.5 9.4 1.4 (4)- 0.02 0.04 (3)- (3)-

Helping household adults

4.4 5.9 3.7 0.9 0.03 0.03 (3)- (3)-

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

28.4 16.5 41.5 (3)- 0.43 0.27 0.74 0.41

Caring for nonhousehold adults

10.2 7.7 16.3 8.3 0.19 0.13 (3)- 0.08

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

5.4 4.8 7.6 3.9 0.11 0.09 (3)- (3)-

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

3.4 3.2 4.9 1.2 0.02 0.02 (3)- (3)-

Helping nonhousehold adults

23.2 12.2 33.8 (3)- 0.23 0.13 0.33 0.33

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

7.3 5.0 9.8 10.8 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.11

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

3.1 1.4 4.4 4.8 0.05 (3)- (3)- 0.05

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

8.6 4.3 15.4 10.7 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.02

Working and work-related activities

2.5 1.7 2.4 5.5 0.14 (3)- (3)- (3)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

3.3 3.0 1.5 7.0 0.05 0.06 (3)- (3)-

Leisure and sports

36.6 37.1 38.7 32.1 1.19 1.59 0.77 0.66

Socializing and communicating

24.0 18.4 33.6 25.7 0.44 0.35 0.62 0.42

Watching TV

13.2 20.5 3.6 7.2 0.53 0.91 (3)- 0.13

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

1.0 1.8 0.1 (4)- (3)- (3)- (3)- (3)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

7.4 6.8 9.8 5.9 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.05

Traveling

26.5 22.2 31.9 30.6 0.21 0.19 0.20 0.30

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

3.9 5.4 1.6 3.3 0.06 0.06 (3)- (3)-

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(3) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 8. Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only by age of eldercare recipient and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2017-2018
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only,
on days they provided care(1)
Total Age of care recipient
65 to 74 75 to 84 85 or older

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)-

Eating and drinking

22.8 21.1 24.9 21.9

Household activities

38.6 36.1 44.0 35.2

Housework

11.0 9.5 13.6 9.5

Food preparation and cleanup

30.3 23.4 37.4 28.2

Lawn and garden care

3.1 3.3 3.5 2.7

Household management

5.5 5.7 6.0 5.0

Purchasing goods and services

11.2 14.5 11.0 9.0

Caring for and helping household members

19.9 22.4 20.6 17.5

Caring for household adults

16.8 15.5 17.9 16.6

Physical care for household adults

13.2 12.4 12.9 14.1

Providing medical care to household adults

6.0 6.0 8.3 3.7

Helping household adults

4.2 8.4 2.6 2.9

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

23.9 21.7 20.3 28.8

Caring for nonhousehold adults

9.8 15.1 8.3 7.6

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

5.3 8.3 3.8 4.6

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

3.1 4.7 3.8 1.4

Helping nonhousehold adults

18.4 13.3 16.2 24.2

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

7.0 2.7 5.4 11.5

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.9 0.8 3.3 1.3

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

6.7 8.8 7.1 4.8

Working and work-related activities

2.0 1.0 2.3 2.5

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

3.9 5.9 2.9 3.5

Leisure and sports

37.0 (2)- 34.5 40.5

Socializing and communicating

22.9 20.1 23.8 24.1

Watching TV

15.2 13.4 15.8 16.0

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.7 (3)- 0.3 1.5

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

7.0 6.2 6.1 8.4

Traveling

23.7 27.2 24.3 20.8

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

4.0 3.9 5.7 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(3) Estimate is approximately zero.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 9. Number and percent of eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2017-2018 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers with children under age 18 living at home
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Parent of household children under 18 years

Total, parent of one or more household children

8,211 100.0 3,221 100.0 4,989 100.0

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,367 65.4 2,153 66.8 3,214 64.4

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,844 34.6 1,069 33.2 1,775 35.6

Employment status

Employed

6,741 82.1 2,982 92.6 3,759 75.3

Full-time workers

5,634 68.6 2,868 89.0 2,766 55.4

Part-time workers

1,107 13.5 114 3.5 993 19.9

Not employed

1,470 17.9 240 7.4 1,230 24.7

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

1,229 15.0 206 6.4 1,023 20.5

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

6,981 85.0 3,015 93.6 3,966 79.5

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

5,138 62.6 1,916 59.5 3,222 64.6

Caring for two persons

2,397 29.2 949 29.5 1,448 29.0

Caring for three or more persons

675 8.2 357 11.1 319 6.4

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,211 (1)- 3,221 (1)- 4,989 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

9 0.1 (3)- (4)- 9 0.2

Caring for a parent

3,924 47.8 1,774 55.1 2,149 43.1

Caring for a grandparent(5)

1,654 20.1 369 11.5 1,285 25.8

Caring for another related person

2,141 26.1 1,003 31.1 1,139 22.8

Caring for a friend or neighbor

1,242 15.1 518 16.1 724 14.5

Caring for someone else

545 6.6 141 4.4 404 8.1

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,211 (1)- 3,221 (1)- 4,989 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

1,310 16.0 519 16.1 791 15.9

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

2,257 27.5 1,043 32.4 1,215 24.3

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

2,273 27.7 914 28.4 1,359 27.2

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

1,970 24.0 676 21.0 1,294 25.9

Caring for someone age 85 or older

2,394 29.2 978 30.4 1,415 28.4

Care of household or nonhousehold members(6)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

460 5.6 148 4.6 312 6.3

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

7,613 92.7 3,040 94.4 4,573 91.7

Frequency of care(7)

Provided care daily

1,007 12.3 348 10.8 659 13.2

Provided care several times a week

1,850 22.5 673 20.9 1,177 23.6

Provided care once a week

1,745 21.3 671 20.8 1,074 21.5

Provided care several times a month

2,020 24.6 810 25.2 1,209 24.2

Provided care once a month

1,137 13.9 627 19.4 511 10.2

Other

453 5.5 93 2.9 359 7.2

Duration of care(8)

Provided care for less than 1 year

2,009 24.5 619 19.2 1,390 27.9

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

2,298 28.0 847 26.3 1,450 29.1

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

1,204 14.7 554 17.2 649 13.0

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

1,609 19.6 657 20.4 952 19.1

Provided care for 10 years or more

1,091 13.3 544 16.9 547 11.0

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Estimate is less than 0.05 percent of the population.
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.
(5) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(6) Not all categories are shown.
(7) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(8) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: November 22, 2019