Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                    USDL-17-0392
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 7, 2017

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2017


The unemployment rate declined to 4.5 percent in March, and total nonfarm payroll employment edged up by 98,000,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment increased in professional and business services 
and in mining, while retail trade lost jobs.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate decreased by 0.2 percentage point to 4.5 percent in March, and the number of unemployed 
persons declined by 326,000 to 7.2 million. Both measures were down over the year. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (4.0 percent), Whites (3.9 percent), and 
Hispanics (5.1 percent) declined in March. The jobless rates for adult men (4.3 percent), teenagers (13.7 
percent), Blacks (8.0 percent), and Asians (3.3 percent) showed little or no change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and 
A-3.)

In March, the number of persons unemployed less than 5 weeks declined by 232,000 to 2.3 million. The number of 
long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed over the month at 1.7 million and 
accounted for 23.3 percent of the unemployed. Over the past 12 months, the number of long-term unemployed was 
down by 526,000. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate remained at 63.0 percent in March, and the employment-population ratio, at 
60.1 percent, changed little. The employment-population ratio has edged up over the year, while the labor force 
participation rate has shown no clear trend. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time 
workers), at 5.6 million, was little changed in March but was down by 567,000 over the year. These individuals, 
who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or 
because they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In March, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little changed from a year earlier. 
(The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available 
for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because 
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 460,000 discouraged workers in March, down by 125,000 from a year 
earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work 
because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the 
labor force in March had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. 
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment edged up by 98,000 in March, following gains of 219,000 in February and 216,000 
in January. Over the month, employment growth occurred in professional and business services (+56,000) and in 
mining (+11,000), while retail trade lost jobs (-30,000). (See table B-1.)

In March, employment in professional and business services rose by 56,000, about in line with the average monthly  
gain over the prior 12 months. Over the month, job gains occurred in services to buildings and dwellings 
(+17,000) and in architectural and engineering services (+7,000).

Mining added 11,000 jobs in March, with most of the gain occurring in support activities for mining (+9,000). 
Mining employment has risen by 35,000 since reaching a recent low in October 2016.

In March, employment continued to trend up in health care (+14,000), with job gains in hospitals (+9,000) and 
outpatient care centers (+6,000). In the first 3 months of this year, health care added an average of 20,000 jobs 
per month, compared with an average monthly gain of 32,000 in 2016. 

Employment in financial activities continued to trend up in March (+9,000) and has increased by 178,000 over the 
past 12 months.

Construction employment changed little in March (+6,000), following a gain of 59,000 in February. Employment in 
construction has been trending up since late last summer, largely among specialty trade contractors and in 
residential building. 

Retail trade lost 30,000 jobs in March. Employment in general merchandise stores declined by 35,000 in March and 
has declined by 89,000 since a recent high in October 2016.

Employment in other major industries, including manufacturing, wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, 
information, leisure and hospitality, and government, showed little or no change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.3 hours in March. In 
manufacturing, the workweek edged down by 0.2 hour to 40.6 hours, and overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.2 
hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 
0.1 hour to 33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 5 cents to $26.14, 
following a 7-cent increase in February. Over the year, average hourly earnings have risen by 68 cents, or 2.7 
percent. In March, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 
4 cents to $21.90. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised down from +238,000 to +216,000, and the 
change for February was revised down from +235,000 to +219,000. With these revisions, employment gains in January 
and February combined were 38,000 less than previously reported. Monthly revisions result from additional reports 
received from businesses since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors. Over 
the past 3 months, job gains have averaged 178,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday, May 5, 2017, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Change from:
Feb.
2017-
Mar.
2017

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

252,768 254,082 254,246 254,414 168

Civilian labor force

159,278 159,716 160,056 160,201 145

Participation rate

63.0 62.9 63.0 63.0 0.0

Employed

151,301 152,081 152,528 153,000 472

Employment-population ratio

59.9 59.9 60.0 60.1 0.1

Unemployed

7,977 7,635 7,528 7,202 -326

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 -0.2

Not in labor force

93,490 94,366 94,190 94,213 23

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.6 4.4 4.3 4.3 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.6 4.4 4.3 4.0 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

15.9 15.0 15.0 13.7 -1.3

White

4.3 4.3 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Black or African American

8.9 7.7 8.1 8.0 -0.1

Asian

4.0 3.7 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.6 5.9 5.6 5.1 -0.5

Total, 25 years and over

4.2 3.9 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

7.4 7.7 7.9 6.8 -1.1

High school graduates, no college

5.4 5.3 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

4.1 3.8 4.0 3.7 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,851 3,713 3,709 3,519 -190

Job leavers

839 862 802 798 -4

Reentrants

2,483 2,170 2,197 2,066 -131

New entrants

783 813 773 790 17

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,420 2,468 2,566 2,334 -232

5 to 14 weeks

2,210 2,089 2,138 2,109 -29

15 to 26 weeks

1,167 1,192 1,057 1,115 58

27 weeks and over

2,213 1,850 1,801 1,687 -114

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,120 5,840 5,704 5,553 -151

Slack work or business conditions

3,650 3,583 3,574 3,402 -172

Could only find part-time work

2,118 1,944 1,864 1,852 -12

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,430 20,487 20,773 20,723 -50

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,720 1,752 1,723 1,595 -

Discouraged workers

585 532 522 460 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

225 216 219 98

Total private

189 204 221 89

Goods-producing

5 51 96 28

Mining and logging

-18 5 11 11

Construction

43 34 59 6

Manufacturing

-20 12 26 11

Durable goods(1)

-17 10 8 11

Motor vehicles and parts

0.3 4.3 -5.3 3.0

Nondurable goods

-3 2 18 0

Private service-providing

184 153 125 61

Wholesale trade

1.9 6.4 7.9 -0.4

Retail trade

30.7 35.3 -30.9 -29.7

Transportation and warehousing

12.4 -12.9 8.1 3.5

Utilities

-1.3 -0.8 -0.8 -0.7

Information

6 -8 -4 -3

Financial activities

18 30 6 9

Professional and business services(1)

26 59 36 56

Temporary help services

5.7 15.1 8.9 10.5

Education and health services(1)

35 17 66 16

Health care and social assistance

24.5 25.3 36.9 16.7

Leisure and hospitality

49 15 27 9

Other services

6 12 10 1

Government

36 12 -2 9

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

196 178 197 178

Total private

173 177 192 171

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.5 49.6 49.5

Total private women employees

48.0 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$25.46 $26.02 $26.09 $26.14

Average weekly earnings

$875.82 $895.09 $894.89 $896.60

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

104.9 106.4 106.3 106.4

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 0.2 -0.1 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

127.7 132.3 132.6 132.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (261 industries)

58.4 59.2 66.9 58.0

Manufacturing (78 industries)

37.8 50.6 67.9 52.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 147,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 634,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

252,768 254,246 254,414 252,768 254,540 254,742 254,082 254,246 254,414

Civilian labor force

158,854 159,482 159,912 159,278 159,456 159,640 159,716 160,056 160,201

Participation rate

62.8 62.7 62.9 63.0 62.6 62.7 62.9 63.0 63.0

Employed

150,738 151,594 152,628 151,301 152,048 152,111 152,081 152,528 153,000

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.6 60.0 59.9 59.7 59.7 59.9 60.0 60.1

Unemployed

8,116 7,887 7,284 7,977 7,409 7,529 7,635 7,528 7,202

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.9 4.6 5.0 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5

Not in labor force

93,914 94,764 94,502 93,490 95,084 95,102 94,366 94,190 94,213

Persons who currently want a job

5,446 5,641 5,507 5,726 5,837 5,662 5,739 5,597 5,781

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,112 122,862 122,945 122,112 122,998 123,099 122,781 122,862 122,945

Civilian labor force

84,384 84,589 84,718 84,750 84,860 84,979 85,096 85,194 85,076

Participation rate

69.1 68.8 68.9 69.4 69.0 69.0 69.3 69.3 69.2

Employed

79,884 80,126 80,546 80,517 80,826 80,861 81,013 81,141 81,136

Employment-population ratio

65.4 65.2 65.5 65.9 65.7 65.7 66.0 66.0 66.0

Unemployed

4,499 4,463 4,172 4,234 4,034 4,118 4,083 4,053 3,940

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.3 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6

Not in labor force

37,729 38,273 38,227 37,362 38,139 38,120 37,685 37,668 37,870

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,653 114,375 114,455 113,653 114,506 114,603 114,297 114,375 114,455

Civilian labor force

81,659 81,782 81,924 81,800 81,817 81,983 82,113 82,138 82,046

Participation rate

71.8 71.5 71.6 72.0 71.5 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.7

Employed

77,639 77,781 78,172 78,066 78,330 78,379 78,503 78,573 78,556

Employment-population ratio

68.3 68.0 68.3 68.7 68.4 68.4 68.7 68.7 68.6

Unemployed

4,020 4,002 3,752 3,734 3,486 3,605 3,609 3,564 3,491

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.9 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3

Not in labor force

31,995 32,592 32,531 31,854 32,690 32,620 32,184 32,237 32,409

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,656 131,384 131,469 130,656 131,542 131,643 131,301 131,384 131,469

Civilian labor force

74,470 74,893 75,194 74,527 74,597 74,661 74,621 74,862 75,126

Participation rate

57.0 57.0 57.2 57.0 56.7 56.7 56.8 57.0 57.1

Employed

70,854 71,469 72,082 70,784 71,222 71,250 71,069 71,388 71,863

Employment-population ratio

54.2 54.4 54.8 54.2 54.1 54.1 54.1 54.3 54.7

Unemployed

3,617 3,424 3,112 3,743 3,375 3,411 3,552 3,475 3,262

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.6 4.1 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3

Not in labor force

56,185 56,491 56,275 56,128 56,945 56,982 56,681 56,521 56,343

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,433 123,131 123,212 122,433 123,285 123,383 123,052 123,131 123,212

Civilian labor force

71,700 72,230 72,354 71,617 71,737 71,831 71,686 72,011 72,160

Participation rate

58.6 58.7 58.7 58.5 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.6

Employed

68,451 69,157 69,559 68,303 68,712 68,760 68,550 68,932 69,271

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.2 56.5 55.8 55.7 55.7 55.7 56.0 56.2

Unemployed

3,248 3,072 2,795 3,314 3,025 3,071 3,136 3,079 2,890

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.3 3.9 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0

Not in labor force

50,733 50,901 50,858 50,815 51,548 51,552 51,366 51,119 51,052

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,682 16,740 16,747 16,682 16,749 16,756 16,734 16,740 16,747

Civilian labor force

5,496 5,470 5,634 5,861 5,903 5,826 5,917 5,907 5,995

Participation rate

32.9 32.7 33.6 35.1 35.2 34.8 35.4 35.3 35.8

Employed

4,648 4,657 4,897 4,931 5,006 4,972 5,028 5,023 5,173

Employment-population ratio

27.9 27.8 29.2 29.6 29.9 29.7 30.0 30.0 30.9

Unemployed

848 813 737 929 897 854 890 884 822

Unemployment rate

15.4 14.9 13.1 15.9 15.2 14.7 15.0 15.0 13.7

Not in labor force

11,186 11,271 11,113 10,821 10,846 10,930 10,816 10,833 10,752

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

197,809 198,525 198,604 197,809 198,745 198,845 198,453 198,525 198,604

Civilian labor force

124,663 124,419 124,804 124,985 124,578 124,616 124,675 124,856 125,046

Participation rate

63.0 62.7 62.8 63.2 62.7 62.7 62.8 62.9 63.0

Employed

119,137 118,991 119,831 119,624 119,370 119,263 119,311 119,740 120,180

Employment-population ratio

60.2 59.9 60.3 60.5 60.1 60.0 60.1 60.3 60.5

Unemployed

5,526 5,428 4,974 5,361 5,208 5,354 5,364 5,116 4,866

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

73,146 74,106 73,799 72,825 74,168 74,229 73,778 73,669 73,557

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,175 65,089 65,125 65,276 65,124 65,146 65,345 65,362 65,219

Participation rate

72.1 71.7 71.7 72.2 71.7 71.7 72.1 72.0 71.9

Employed

62,355 62,255 62,548 62,707 62,608 62,476 62,730 62,877 62,850

Employment-population ratio

69.0 68.6 68.9 69.4 68.9 68.7 69.2 69.3 69.2

Unemployed

2,820 2,833 2,576 2,568 2,516 2,669 2,615 2,485 2,369

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,192 55,179 55,297 55,125 54,808 54,872 54,798 54,988 55,153

Participation rate

58.0 57.8 57.9 58.0 57.4 57.4 57.4 57.6 57.8

Employed

53,087 53,138 53,413 52,972 52,783 52,813 52,646 52,949 53,211

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.7 55.9 55.7 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.5 55.7

Unemployed

2,105 2,040 1,883 2,153 2,026 2,059 2,152 2,039 1,942

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,296 4,151 4,383 4,584 4,645 4,599 4,531 4,505 4,674

Participation rate

34.8 33.6 35.5 37.2 37.6 37.2 36.7 36.5 37.9

Employed

3,695 3,597 3,869 3,944 3,979 3,974 3,934 3,913 4,119

Employment-population ratio

30.0 29.2 31.3 32.0 32.2 32.2 31.9 31.7 33.4

Unemployed

601 554 514 640 666 625 597 592 555

Unemployment rate

14.0 13.4 11.7 14.0 14.3 13.6 13.2 13.1 11.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,753 32,095 32,128 31,753 32,068 32,105 32,063 32,095 32,128

Civilian labor force

19,421 19,858 19,898 19,503 19,856 19,844 19,993 19,998 20,002

Participation rate

61.2 61.9 61.9 61.4 61.9 61.8 62.4 62.3 62.3

Employed

17,670 18,215 18,296 17,764 18,262 18,292 18,445 18,378 18,409

Employment-population ratio

55.6 56.8 56.9 55.9 56.9 57.0 57.5 57.3 57.3

Unemployed

1,751 1,642 1,602 1,739 1,594 1,552 1,548 1,620 1,593

Unemployment rate

9.0 8.3 8.1 8.9 8.0 7.8 7.7 8.1 8.0

Not in labor force

12,332 12,238 12,229 12,250 12,212 12,261 12,070 12,097 12,126

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,871 9,001 9,116 8,885 9,018 9,056 9,106 9,081 9,132

Participation rate

67.1 67.2 68.0 67.2 67.5 67.7 68.1 67.8 68.1

Employed

8,063 8,232 8,313 8,119 8,328 8,366 8,437 8,369 8,384

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.5 62.0 61.4 62.3 62.5 63.1 62.5 62.6

Unemployed

809 769 803 766 691 690 669 713 747

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.5 8.8 8.6 7.7 7.6 7.3 7.8 8.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,842 10,150 10,143 9,860 10,135 10,094 10,124 10,162 10,173

Participation rate

61.4 62.7 62.6 61.5 62.6 62.3 62.6 62.7 62.7

Employed

9,062 9,429 9,483 9,080 9,418 9,410 9,450 9,438 9,497

Employment-population ratio

56.5 58.2 58.5 56.6 58.2 58.1 58.4 58.3 58.6

Unemployed

781 721 661 780 716 683 673 724 676

Unemployment rate

7.9 7.1 6.5 7.9 7.1 6.8 6.7 7.1 6.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

708 706 639 758 703 694 764 754 697

Participation rate

28.3 28.1 25.4 30.3 27.9 27.6 30.4 30.0 27.7

Employed

546 554 500 565 516 515 558 571 528

Employment-population ratio

21.8 22.0 19.9 22.6 20.5 20.5 22.2 22.7 21.0

Unemployed

162 153 139 193 187 178 205 183 169

Unemployment rate

22.9 21.6 21.7 25.4 26.6 25.7 26.9 24.3 24.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,911 15,228 15,285 14,911 15,323 15,433 15,157 15,228 15,285

Civilian labor force

9,478 9,731 9,668 9,434 9,634 9,678 9,641 9,709 9,635

Participation rate

63.6 63.9 63.3 63.3 62.9 62.7 63.6 63.8 63.0

Employed

9,112 9,387 9,358 9,061 9,342 9,423 9,281 9,377 9,318

Employment-population ratio

61.1 61.6 61.2 60.8 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.6 61.0

Unemployed

366 344 310 373 292 256 360 332 317

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 3.2 4.0 3.0 2.6 3.7 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

5,433 5,497 5,616 5,477 5,690 5,755 5,517 5,519 5,650

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,386 41,003 41,081 40,386 41,102 41,190 40,922 41,003 41,081

Civilian labor force

26,709 27,153 27,354 26,772 26,990 27,079 27,044 27,251 27,387

Participation rate

66.1 66.2 66.6 66.3 65.7 65.7 66.1 66.5 66.7

Employed

25,183 25,527 25,929 25,279 25,448 25,486 25,453 25,727 25,986

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.3 63.1 62.6 61.9 61.9 62.2 62.7 63.3

Unemployed

1,526 1,626 1,425 1,493 1,541 1,594 1,590 1,523 1,402

Unemployment rate

5.7 6.0 5.2 5.6 5.7 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.1

Not in labor force

13,677 13,850 13,727 13,613 14,113 14,111 13,879 13,753 13,694

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,759 14,879 14,929 14,793 14,881 14,821 14,898 14,938 14,957

Participation rate

81.1 80.6 80.7 81.3 80.3 79.8 80.9 80.9 80.9

Employed

13,995 14,081 14,217 14,081 14,113 14,102 14,187 14,253 14,291

Employment-population ratio

76.9 76.3 76.9 77.3 76.2 75.9 77.0 77.2 77.3

Unemployed

764 798 712 712 768 720 711 685 666

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.4 4.8 4.8 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,836 11,135 11,165 10,808 10,971 11,083 11,028 11,119 11,127

Participation rate

58.8 59.5 59.5 58.7 58.5 58.9 59.0 59.4 59.3

Employed

10,226 10,501 10,631 10,210 10,411 10,424 10,336 10,494 10,600

Employment-population ratio

55.5 56.1 56.7 55.4 55.5 55.4 55.3 56.0 56.5

Unemployed

610 635 534 598 560 659 692 625 527

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.7 4.8 5.5 5.1 5.9 6.3 5.6 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,115 1,139 1,260 1,171 1,138 1,175 1,117 1,193 1,304

Participation rate

29.7 29.9 33.0 31.2 29.9 30.8 29.3 31.3 34.1

Employed

962 946 1,081 988 924 960 930 980 1,095

Employment-population ratio

25.6 24.8 28.3 26.3 24.3 25.2 24.4 25.7 28.6

Unemployed

153 193 179 183 214 215 187 214 209

Unemployment rate

13.7 17.0 14.2 15.6 18.8 18.3 16.7 17.9 16.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,817 9,926 10,143 10,773 10,587 10,483 10,533 10,229 10,139

Participation rate

46.4 44.7 45.1 46.2 45.1 45.0 45.3 46.1 45.1

Employed

9,926 9,030 9,375 9,977 9,753 9,660 9,725 9,424 9,450

Employment-population ratio

42.6 40.7 41.7 42.8 41.5 41.4 41.8 42.5 42.1

Unemployed

891 896 768 797 834 823 808 806 689

Unemployment rate

8.2 9.0 7.6 7.4 7.9 7.9 7.7 7.9 6.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,654 35,768 36,227 35,655 35,833 35,661 35,443 35,853 36,092

Participation rate

57.5 57.8 58.0 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.9 57.9 57.8

Employed

33,599 33,825 34,324 33,738 34,068 33,860 33,580 34,078 34,315

Employment-population ratio

54.2 54.6 54.9 54.4 54.9 54.8 54.9 55.0 54.9

Unemployed

2,055 1,943 1,903 1,918 1,765 1,801 1,863 1,776 1,778

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.4 5.3 5.4 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.0 4.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,929 37,837 37,881 37,891 38,189 38,244 38,007 37,754 37,851

Participation rate

66.3 66.0 66.2 66.2 66.4 66.1 65.7 65.8 66.1

Employed

36,309 36,193 36,442 36,323 36,702 36,773 36,563 36,245 36,454

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.1 63.6 63.5 63.8 63.6 63.2 63.2 63.7

Unemployed

1,620 1,644 1,439 1,568 1,486 1,472 1,444 1,509 1,397

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.3 3.8 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

53,715 55,254 54,905 53,489 53,899 54,032 54,271 54,804 54,653

Participation rate

74.9 74.1 74.2 74.6 73.7 73.6 73.8 73.5 73.9

Employed

52,323 53,943 53,573 52,078 52,656 52,699 52,925 53,498 53,308

Employment-population ratio

73.0 72.3 72.4 72.6 72.0 71.7 72.0 71.8 72.0

Unemployed

1,391 1,311 1,332 1,411 1,243 1,333 1,346 1,306 1,345

Unemployment rate

2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,982 20,635 18,973 18,609 2,009 2,026

Civilian labor force

10,570 10,270 9,305 9,067 1,265 1,203

Participation rate

50.4 49.8 49.0 48.7 62.9 59.4

Employed

10,095 9,865 8,887 8,728 1,208 1,137

Employment-population ratio

48.1 47.8 46.8 46.9 60.1 56.1

Unemployed

475 405 419 339 57 66

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 4.5 3.7 4.5 5.5

Not in labor force

10,412 10,365 9,668 9,542 744 823

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,783 4,008 3,141 3,357 642 651

Civilian labor force

3,039 3,183 2,556 2,746 483 437

Participation rate

80.3 79.4 81.4 81.8 75.2 67.1

Employed

2,848 3,022 2,392 2,620 456 402

Employment-population ratio

75.3 75.4 76.2 78.1 71.1 61.8

Unemployed

191 160 165 126 26 35

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.0 6.4 4.6 5.4 7.9

Not in labor force

744 825 584 611 160 214

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,404 3,393 2,858 2,822 546 571

Civilian labor force

2,778 2,723 2,363 2,285 415 438

Participation rate

81.6 80.3 82.7 81.0 76.0 76.7

Employed

2,688 2,623 2,288 2,202 400 421

Employment-population ratio

79.0 77.3 80.0 78.0 73.3 73.7

Unemployed

90 101 75 83 15 17

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.5 4.0

Not in labor force

626 670 495 537 131 133

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,606 8,162 8,298 7,867 308 295

Civilian labor force

2,161 1,887 2,100 1,841 61 46

Participation rate

25.1 23.1 25.3 23.4 19.7 15.8

Employed

2,076 1,812 2,015 1,766 61 45

Employment-population ratio

24.1 22.2 24.3 22.5 19.7 15.4

Unemployed

85 75 85 74 0 1

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 - -

Not in labor force

6,445 6,275 6,198 6,026 247 249

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,189 5,072 4,676 4,563 513 509

Civilian labor force

2,592 2,477 2,286 2,195 306 282

Participation rate

50.0 48.8 48.9 48.1 59.7 55.3

Employed

2,483 2,408 2,192 2,140 290 268

Employment-population ratio

47.8 47.5 46.9 46.9 56.6 52.7

Unemployed

110 69 94 56 16 13

Unemployment rate

4.2 2.8 4.1 2.5 5.2 4.7

Not in labor force

2,597 2,595 2,390 2,368 207 227

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

222,857 224,847 98,685 99,825 124,172 125,021

Civilian labor force

146,417 147,565 74,219 74,648 72,198 72,918

Participation rate

65.7 65.6 75.2 74.8 58.1 58.3

Employed

139,128 141,040 70,344 71,003 68,785 70,037

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.7 71.3 71.1 55.4 56.0

Unemployed

7,289 6,525 3,875 3,644 3,414 2,881

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.4 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.0

Not in labor force

76,440 77,282 24,466 25,178 51,974 52,104

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,661 30,611 223,107 223,803

Civilian labor force

5,907 6,252 152,948 153,661

Participation rate

19.9 20.4 68.6 68.7

Employed

5,269 5,589 145,469 147,039

Employment-population ratio

17.8 18.3 65.2 65.7

Unemployed

638 663 7,479 6,621

Unemployment rate

10.8 10.6 4.9 4.3

Not in labor force

23,754 24,359 70,160 70,143

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,561 2,730 76,673 76,681

Participation rate

33.7 34.8 82.2 82.3

Employed

2,233 2,430 72,689 73,011

Employment-population ratio

29.4 30.9 77.9 78.4

Unemployed

328 300 3,984 3,670

Unemployment rate

12.8 11.0 5.2 4.8

Not in labor force

5,039 5,124 16,593 16,474

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,295 2,388 68,062 68,549

Participation rate

28.4 29.8 70.7 71.2

Employed

2,049 2,102 64,842 65,919

Employment-population ratio

25.4 26.3 67.3 68.4

Unemployed

245 286 3,220 2,630

Unemployment rate

10.7 12.0 4.7 3.8

Not in labor force

5,773 5,617 28,248 27,789

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,051 1,134 8,212 8,431

Participation rate

7.5 7.7 24.5 24.6

Employed

987 1,057 7,938 8,109

Employment-population ratio

7.0 7.2 23.7 23.6

Unemployed

65 77 275 321

Unemployment rate

6.2 6.8 3.3 3.8

Not in labor force

12,943 13,618 25,318 25,880

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,148 41,204 20,028 20,024 21,119 21,180

Civilian labor force

27,029 27,062 15,596 15,527 11,432 11,535

Participation rate

65.7 65.7 77.9 77.5 54.1 54.5

Employed

25,741 25,857 14,938 14,859 10,803 10,998

Employment-population ratio

62.6 62.8 74.6 74.2 51.2 51.9

Unemployed

1,288 1,205 658 668 630 537

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 4.2 4.3 5.5 4.7

Not in labor force

14,119 14,142 4,432 4,497 9,687 9,645

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

211,620 213,210 102,084 102,921 109,536 110,289

Civilian labor force

131,825 132,850 68,787 69,191 63,038 63,659

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.4 67.2 57.5 57.7

Employed

124,997 126,771 64,946 65,686 60,051 61,084

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.5 63.6 63.8 54.8 55.4

Unemployed

6,828 6,079 3,841 3,504 2,987 2,575

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.6 5.6 5.1 4.7 4.0

Not in labor force

79,795 80,360 33,297 33,730 46,498 46,629

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,491 2,262 2,441 2,582 2,431 2,356 2,418 2,458 2,499

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,535 1,424 1,552 1,645 1,559 1,470 1,633 1,603 1,647

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

933 820 857 935 833 857 795 841 853

Unpaid family workers

23 18 31 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

148,247 149,332 150,187 148,543 149,752 149,811 149,582 150,026 150,429

Wage and salary workers(1)

139,398 140,572 141,495 139,630 140,968 140,773 140,952 141,101 141,663

Government

20,911 21,295 21,247 20,520 20,938 20,865 20,796 20,843 20,858

Private industries

118,487 119,277 120,248 119,218 120,016 119,916 120,189 120,258 120,904

Private households

629 689 698 - - - - - -

Other industries

117,858 118,588 119,550 118,574 119,290 119,206 119,467 119,535 120,148

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,791 8,709 8,640 8,848 8,716 8,991 8,552 8,826 8,707

Unpaid family workers

58 52 53 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,138 5,773 5,552 6,120 5,659 5,598 5,840 5,704 5,553

Slack work or business conditions

3,656 3,704 3,407 3,650 3,485 3,401 3,583 3,574 3,402

Could only find part-time work

2,199 1,820 1,920 2,118 1,902 1,873 1,944 1,864 1,852

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,824 21,498 21,042 20,430 21,059 21,251 20,487 20,773 20,723

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,032 5,700 5,498 6,023 5,550 5,476 5,769 5,637 5,502

Slack work or business conditions

3,588 3,659 3,383 3,607 3,424 3,310 3,535 3,540 3,386

Could only find part-time work

2,182 1,811 1,901 2,116 1,870 1,862 1,947 1,853 1,842

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,463 21,184 20,667 20,067 20,696 20,818 20,136 20,445 20,396

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

150,738 151,594 152,628 151,301 152,048 152,111 152,081 152,528 153,000

16 to 19 years

4,648 4,657 4,897 4,931 5,006 4,972 5,028 5,023 5,173

16 to 17 years

1,515 1,576 1,723 1,692 1,682 1,723 1,813 1,779 1,904

18 to 19 years

3,133 3,080 3,174 3,238 3,318 3,253 3,219 3,252 3,269

20 years and over

146,090 146,938 147,731 146,369 147,042 147,139 147,054 147,505 147,826

20 to 24 years

13,932 13,947 14,017 14,140 14,000 14,071 14,070 14,181 14,198

25 years and over

132,158 132,991 133,714 132,153 133,166 133,065 132,956 133,252 133,639

25 to 54 years

97,866 98,070 98,507 97,953 98,453 98,495 98,190 98,371 98,557

25 to 34 years

33,421 34,216 34,376 33,537 33,952 34,185 34,136 34,247 34,460

35 to 44 years

31,560 31,448 31,584 31,557 31,741 31,611 31,553 31,614 31,592

45 to 54 years

32,884 32,406 32,547 32,860 32,760 32,698 32,502 32,511 32,506

55 years and over

34,292 34,920 35,207 34,200 34,713 34,570 34,765 34,880 35,081

Men, 16 years and over

79,884 80,126 80,546 80,517 80,826 80,861 81,013 81,141 81,136

16 to 19 years

2,245 2,345 2,374 2,451 2,495 2,482 2,509 2,567 2,581

16 to 17 years

654 770 815 777 769 786 871 895 947

18 to 19 years

1,592 1,576 1,559 1,666 1,728 1,699 1,641 1,677 1,636

20 years and over

77,639 77,781 78,172 78,066 78,330 78,379 78,503 78,573 78,556

20 to 24 years

7,145 7,045 7,123 7,267 7,206 7,246 7,302 7,223 7,241

25 years and over

70,494 70,736 71,049 70,781 71,186 71,114 71,202 71,299 71,315

25 to 54 years

52,343 52,241 52,407 52,584 52,700 52,737 52,705 52,687 52,640

25 to 34 years

18,102 18,262 18,346 18,219 18,228 18,374 18,472 18,408 18,445

35 to 44 years

16,937 16,906 17,005 17,020 17,137 17,054 17,048 17,072 17,086

45 to 54 years

17,303 17,073 17,056 17,345 17,334 17,309 17,185 17,206 17,108

55 years and over

18,151 18,495 18,642 18,197 18,486 18,377 18,497 18,612 18,675

Women, 16 years and over

70,854 71,469 72,082 70,784 71,222 71,250 71,069 71,388 71,863

16 to 19 years

2,402 2,311 2,523 2,481 2,510 2,490 2,518 2,456 2,593

16 to 17 years

861 807 909 915 914 938 942 884 956

18 to 19 years

1,541 1,505 1,615 1,572 1,590 1,554 1,578 1,574 1,633

20 years and over

68,451 69,157 69,559 68,303 68,712 68,760 68,550 68,932 69,271

20 to 24 years

6,787 6,903 6,894 6,872 6,794 6,825 6,767 6,957 6,958

25 years and over

61,664 62,255 62,665 61,372 61,981 61,951 61,754 61,953 62,324

25 to 54 years

45,523 45,829 46,100 45,369 45,753 45,758 45,485 45,685 45,918

25 to 34 years

15,319 15,954 16,031 15,318 15,724 15,812 15,664 15,838 16,014

35 to 44 years

14,623 14,542 14,578 14,537 14,603 14,557 14,505 14,541 14,505

45 to 54 years

15,582 15,333 15,491 15,514 15,426 15,389 15,317 15,305 15,398

55 years and over

16,141 16,426 16,565 16,003 16,227 16,193 16,269 16,268 16,406

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,153 45,729 45,858 45,279 45,268 45,252 45,593 46,017 45,907

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,626 35,891 36,288 35,397 35,342 35,478 35,402 35,640 35,992

Women who maintain families(2)

9,744 9,685 9,618 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

122,522 123,610 124,566 123,513 124,213 124,248 124,705 125,031 125,507

Part-time workers(4)

28,216 27,985 28,062 27,760 27,854 27,895 27,405 27,554 27,603

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,592 7,980 8,137 7,457 7,812 7,554 7,562 7,822 7,960

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.3 5.3 4.9 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,567 5,681 5,740 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,724 9,529 9,497 9,784 9,549 9,848 9,347 9,667 9,560

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,977 7,528 7,202 5.0 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5

16 to 19 years

929 884 822 15.9 15.2 14.7 15.0 15.0 13.7

16 to 17 years

409 390 400 19.5 18.1 17.6 16.0 18.0 17.4

18 to 19 years

530 509 412 14.1 14.2 13.1 14.5 13.5 11.2

20 years and over

7,047 6,643 6,380 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.1

20 to 24 years

1,300 1,232 1,122 8.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.0 7.3

25 years and over

5,730 5,398 5,256 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8

25 to 54 years

4,328 4,159 4,020 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9

25 to 34 years

1,828 1,726 1,642 5.2 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.5

35 to 44 years

1,264 1,353 1,289 3.9 3.5 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.9

45 to 54 years

1,236 1,080 1,089 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2

55 years and over

1,392 1,235 1,224 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4

Men, 16 years and over

4,234 4,053 3,940 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6

16 to 19 years

500 489 449 17.0 18.0 17.1 15.9 16.0 14.8

16 to 17 years

230 192 203 22.8 23.3 21.1 17.2 17.7 17.7

18 to 19 years

282 303 240 14.5 16.1 14.8 15.1 15.3 12.8

20 years and over

3,734 3,564 3,491 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3

20 to 24 years

732 751 676 9.1 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 8.5

25 years and over

2,988 2,802 2,805 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8

25 to 54 years

2,243 2,157 2,151 4.1 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9

25 to 34 years

961 960 931 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.8

35 to 44 years

631 669 666 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8

45 to 54 years

651 528 554 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1

55 years and over

745 645 654 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.4

Women, 16 years and over

3,743 3,475 3,262 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3

16 to 19 years

429 396 372 14.7 12.2 12.0 14.2 13.9 12.6

16 to 17 years

179 198 196 16.3 13.1 14.4 14.8 18.3 17.0

18 to 19 years

248 206 172 13.6 12.1 11.1 13.8 11.6 9.6

20 years and over

3,314 3,079 2,890 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0

20 to 24 years

569 481 446 7.6 7.0 7.0 7.1 6.5 6.0

25 years and over

2,742 2,595 2,451 4.3 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8

25 to 54 years

2,085 2,002 1,869 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 3.9

25 to 34 years

867 766 711 5.4 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.6 4.2

35 to 44 years

632 684 623 4.2 3.6 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.1

45 to 54 years

585 552 536 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

55 years and over

635 588 567 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.3

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,347 1,234 1,228 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,136 1,122 1,043 3.1 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8

Women who maintain families(2)

713 671 557 6.8 6.2 5.8 6.3 6.5 5.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,597 6,035 5,760 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,388 1,471 1,414 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.8 5.1 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,149 4,184 3,812 3,851 3,542 3,639 3,713 3,709 3,519

On temporary layoff

1,106 1,307 1,125 928 896 1,033 1,062 979 953

Not on temporary layoff

3,044 2,877 2,686 2,923 2,646 2,606 2,651 2,730 2,567

Permanent job losers

2,153 2,118 1,880 2,082 1,903 1,902 1,981 2,042 1,819

Persons who completed temporary jobs

891 759 806 842 743 704 670 688 748

Job leavers

829 803 778 839 934 905 862 802 798

Reentrants

2,450 2,220 2,004 2,483 2,266 2,219 2,170 2,197 2,066

New entrants

688 681 691 783 728 783 813 773 790

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

51.1 53.0 52.3 48.4 47.4 48.2 49.1 49.6 49.1

On temporary layoff

13.6 16.6 15.5 11.7 12.0 13.7 14.0 13.1 13.3

Not on temporary layoff

37.5 36.5 36.9 36.7 35.4 34.5 35.1 36.5 35.8

Job leavers

10.2 10.2 10.7 10.5 12.5 12.0 11.4 10.7 11.1

Reentrants

30.2 28.1 27.5 31.2 30.3 29.4 28.7 29.4 28.8

New entrants

8.5 8.6 9.5 9.8 9.7 10.4 10.8 10.3 11.0

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.5 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,083 2,327 2,000 2,420 2,415 2,379 2,468 2,566 2,334

5 to 14 weeks

2,382 2,522 2,269 2,210 2,133 2,156 2,089 2,138 2,109

15 weeks and over

3,651 3,038 3,016 3,380 2,929 3,030 3,043 2,858 2,802

15 to 26 weeks

1,346 1,160 1,255 1,167 1,073 1,199 1,192 1,057 1,115

27 weeks and over

2,305 1,878 1,761 2,213 1,856 1,831 1,850 1,801 1,687

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

29.1 25.1 26.1 28.3 26.2 26.0 25.1 25.1 25.3

Median duration, in weeks

12.7 10.3 11.6 11.4 10.2 10.3 10.2 10.0 10.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

25.7 29.5 27.5 30.2 32.3 31.4 32.5 33.9 32.2

5 to 14 weeks

29.3 32.0 31.1 27.6 28.5 28.5 27.5 28.3 29.1

15 weeks and over

45.0 38.5 41.4 42.2 39.2 40.0 40.0 37.8 38.7

15 to 26 weeks

16.6 14.7 17.2 14.6 14.4 15.8 15.7 14.0 15.4

27 weeks and over

28.4 23.8 24.2 27.6 24.8 24.2 24.4 23.8 23.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

150,738 152,628 8,116 7,284 5.1 4.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,080 61,156 1,477 1,265 2.4 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,220 25,418 642 622 2.5 2.4

Professional and related occupations

34,860 35,738 835 644 2.3 1.8

Service occupations

25,643 26,358 1,797 1,597 6.5 5.7

Sales and office occupations

33,445 33,385 1,710 1,444 4.9 4.1

Sales and related occupations

15,963 15,858 726 640 4.4 3.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,482 17,527 983 803 5.3 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,482 13,877 1,237 1,156 8.4 7.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,043 1,186 153 131 12.8 9.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,564 7,548 807 831 9.6 9.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,875 5,142 277 194 5.4 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,088 17,852 1,169 1,099 6.1 5.8

Production occupations

8,864 8,378 558 472 5.9 5.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,224 9,474 611 627 6.2 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

8,116 7,284 5.1 4.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

6,187 5,733 5.0 4.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

87 30 9.8 4.1

Construction

768 764 8.7 8.4

Manufacturing

669 614 4.3 3.9

Durable goods

398 420 4.0 4.2

Nondurable goods

271 194 4.6 3.4

Wholesale and retail trade

1,031 985 5.1 4.8

Transportation and utilities

262 284 3.9 4.3

Information

124 108 4.4 4.0

Financial activities

294 235 3.0 2.3

Professional and business services

910 904 5.5 5.5

Education and health services

788 666 3.4 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

981 883 7.2 6.3

Other services

273 260 4.3 3.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

176 126 10.7 7.7

Government workers

656 393 3.0 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

409 341 4.0 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.3 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.1 4.9 4.6 5.0 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.5 5.3 4.8 5.4 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.0 4.8

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.1 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.9 9.5 8.9 9.8 9.3 9.2 9.4 9.2 8.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017
Mar.
2016
Mar.
2017

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

93,914 94,502 37,729 38,227 56,185 56,275

Persons who currently want a job

5,446 5,507 2,451 2,613 2,995 2,894

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,720 1,595 903 804 816 791

Discouraged workers(2)

585 460 361 246 224 214

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,135 1,135 542 558 592 578

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,592 8,137 3,730 4,093 3,862 4,044

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.6

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,254 4,566 2,337 2,467 1,917 2,099

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,051 2,144 715 800 1,336 1,344

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

281 297 187 172 93 124

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

976 1,079 473 635 503 444

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Change from:
Feb.2017 - Mar.2017(p)

Total nonfarm

142,814 143,273 144,279 144,949 143,673 145,541 145,760 145,858 98

Total private

120,262 121,104 121,665 122,258 121,507 123,230 123,451 123,540 89

Goods-producing

19,371 19,340 19,453 19,599 19,752 19,845 19,941 19,969 28

Mining and logging

681 662 672 684 692 673 684 695 11

Logging

50.4 48.7 50.3 49.0 52.3 50.4 51.6 50.8 -0.8

Mining

630.1 613.2 622.0 634.5 639.8 622.7 632.7 644.0 11.3

Oil and gas extraction

181.8 176.0 176.9 179.8 183.1 177.1 178.9 180.7 1.8

Mining, except oil and gas

178.5 177.2 177.2 179.4 183.5 183.5 183.5 184.2 0.7

Coal mining

52.1 50.2 50.0 50.2 52.1 50.0 50.2 50.3 0.1

Metal ore mining

38.8 38.9 39.0 39.1 39.1 39.0 39.1 39.3 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

87.6 88.1 88.2 90.1 92.4 94.5 94.1 94.5 0.4

Support activities for mining

269.8 260.0 267.9 275.3 273.2 262.1 270.3 279.1 8.8

Construction

6,402 6,415 6,479 6,586 6,705 6,817 6,876 6,882 6

Construction of buildings

1,440.4 1,460.2 1,467.2 1,478.9 1,488.1 1,514.9 1,524.0 1,524.9 0.9

Residential building

696.3 730.6 736.1 738.9 724.3 762.0 768.5 767.5 -1.0

Nonresidential building

744.1 729.6 731.1 740.0 763.8 752.9 755.5 757.4 1.9

Heavy and civil engineering construction

879.5 825.9 855.2 886.6 958.8 941.2 958.3 962.4 4.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,081.6 4,128.9 4,156.5 4,220.6 4,258.5 4,360.9 4,393.5 4,394.2 0.7

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,771.1 1,814.4 1,824.0 1,847.9 1,855.7 1,920.1 1,931.7 1,925.1 -6.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,310.5 2,314.5 2,332.5 2,372.7 2,402.8 2,440.8 2,461.8 2,469.1 7.3

Manufacturing

12,288 12,263 12,302 12,329 12,355 12,355 12,381 12,392 11

Durable goods

7,710 7,677 7,688 7,714 7,736 7,718 7,726 7,737 11

Wood products

385.6 393.2 391.8 393.9 391.1 397.1 398.2 399.1 0.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

397.1 398.9 401.5 408.0 407.2 414.4 417.0 418.3 1.3

Primary metals

379.8 377.7 378.3 379.3 379.8 376.8 378.1 379.0 0.9

Fabricated metal products

1,425.4 1,417.8 1,422.1 1,427.1 1,429.5 1,423.1 1,425.8 1,431.3 5.5

Machinery

1,086.8 1,075.1 1,082.0 1,080.8 1,088.1 1,076.3 1,082.6 1,080.0 -2.6

Computer and electronic products

1,050.3 1,032.7 1,032.3 1,034.5 1,052.8 1,036.1 1,035.9 1,036.6 0.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

164.3 160.5 160.2 160.5 165.0 161.9 161.5 161.2 -0.3

Communications equipment

86.1 84.1 84.0 84.5 86.3 84.4 84.5 84.6 0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.6 358.2 358.2 359.7 369.7 358.8 359.3 360.6 1.3

Electronic instruments

395.9 395.7 396.1 396.2 396.3 396.6 396.7 396.4 -0.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.4 34.2 33.8 33.6 35.5 34.3 33.9 33.8 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

383.3 383.2 383.9 385.4 384.5 384.6 385.6 386.5 0.9

Transportation equipment(1)

1,625.9 1,618.8 1,614.2 1,622.5 1,623.2 1,624.6 1,617.0 1,620.0 3.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

938.6 943.5 940.2 948.2 935.1 946.7 941.4 944.4 3.0

Furniture and related products

388.7 392.6 391.9 390.4 389.8 393.7 392.8 391.3 -1.5

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

586.8 587.1 589.8 592.2 590.3 591.7 593.3 595.3 2.0

Nondurable goods

4,578 4,586 4,614 4,615 4,619 4,637 4,655 4,655 0

Food manufacturing

1,517.6 1,549.6 1,564.7 1,559.3 1,541.9 1,572.1 1,583.1 1,581.8 -1.3

Textile mills

115.0 111.7 111.5 111.5 114.9 111.9 111.7 111.4 -0.3

Textile product mills

115.4 111.7 111.2 110.8 116.4 112.9 112.5 111.7 -0.8

Apparel

132.6 125.5 126.7 125.0 132.5 127.1 126.5 125.5 -1.0

Paper and paper products

370.6 367.9 368.7 368.4 372.7 368.6 369.8 370.1 0.3

Printing and related support activities

448.5 438.9 437.7 439.0 449.5 441.2 440.8 439.9 -0.9

Petroleum and coal products

109.0 107.0 106.2 107.3 111.8 110.3 109.9 110.4 0.5

Chemicals

809.9 808.0 811.8 815.1 810.7 811.5 814.2 815.4 1.2

Plastics and rubber products

698.4 693.2 698.9 701.1 699.5 699.1 701.1 702.1 1.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

260.9 272.9 276.1 277.7 269.5 282.0 285.2 287.0 1.8

Private service-providing

100,891 101,764 102,212 102,659 101,755 103,385 103,510 103,571 61

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,855 27,241 26,998 27,025 27,167 27,402 27,386 27,359 -27

Wholesale trade

5,828.4 5,847.8 5,862.4 5,874.3 5,855.9 5,894.8 5,902.7 5,902.3 -0.4

Durable goods

2,918.4 2,916.0 2,922.5 2,930.9 2,928.4 2,934.6 2,938.5 2,940.4 1.9

Nondurable goods

2,017.3 2,033.1 2,037.2 2,045.4 2,031.8 2,056.4 2,057.8 2,061.0 3.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

892.7 898.7 902.7 898.0 895.7 903.8 906.4 900.9 -5.5

Retail trade

15,570.5 15,835.0 15,607.2 15,618.1 15,797.2 15,916.3 15,885.4 15,855.7 -29.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,962.4 1,984.4 1,989.6 1,999.5 1,973.3 2,006.6 2,010.4 2,010.1 -0.3

Automobile dealers

1,269.8 1,290.9 1,292.4 1,297.1 1,274.4 1,298.1 1,300.6 1,301.6 1.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

145.9 142.2 146.5 150.6 149.8 153.1 154.8 154.2 -0.6

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

546.7 551.3 550.7 551.8 549.2 555.3 554.9 554.3 -0.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

464.7 489.7 484.1 480.0 472.1 484.7 485.3 486.1 0.8

Electronics and appliance stores

520.7 528.9 508.8 509.2 527.5 518.0 512.6 516.5 3.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,265.8 1,218.5 1,233.8 1,288.4 1,269.2 1,285.4 1,285.9 1,291.2 5.3

Food and beverage stores

3,049.2 3,077.3 3,064.5 3,063.4 3,082.8 3,098.7 3,098.1 3,099.9 1.8

Health and personal care stores

1,038.5 1,069.3 1,059.1 1,053.3 1,045.0 1,065.5 1,063.6 1,059.5 -4.1

Gasoline stations

909.5 922.0 923.8 926.8 921.4 935.7 937.8 938.7 0.9

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,304.5 1,368.4 1,305.3 1,301.8 1,358.2 1,362.5 1,357.6 1,351.8 -5.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

610.1 622.0 591.0 581.3 625.7 611.3 602.7 600.8 -1.9

General merchandise stores

3,119.2 3,194.8 3,081.9 3,057.1 3,159.8 3,167.4 3,144.0 3,109.3 -34.7

Department stores

1,280.8 1,316.0 1,254.7 1,239.9 1,311.3 1,291.7 1,285.0 1,272.4 -12.6

Other general merchandise stores

1,838.4 1,878.8 1,827.2 1,817.2 1,848.5 1,875.7 1,859.0 1,836.9 -22.1

Miscellaneous store retailers

804.1 808.6 817.0 811.1 829.9 830.3 833.9 836.1 2.2

Nonstore retailers

521.8 551.1 548.3 546.2 532.3 550.2 553.5 555.7 2.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,901.5 5,004.1 4,976.8 4,980.4 4,958.0 5,035.1 5,043.2 5,046.7 3.5

Air transportation

469.6 477.2 476.7 481.8 471.8 481.0 481.8 483.8 2.0

Rail transportation

215.8 208.4 209.0 209.0 216.6 210.2 210.1 209.9 -0.2

Water transportation

63.9 62.7 61.9 62.4 65.5 64.8 64.3 64.3 0.0

Truck transportation

1,424.0 1,435.0 1,441.9 1,449.1 1,452.1 1,462.7 1,472.1 1,476.8 4.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

497.4 480.7 483.1 483.4 483.4 470.7 471.8 469.5 -2.3

Pipeline transportation

49.7 48.1 47.9 47.9 49.9 48.2 48.1 48.0 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

26.3 25.1 25.2 27.1 33.7 35.2 34.8 35.0 0.2

Support activities for transportation

657.1 654.8 656.9 657.8 660.5 661.0 661.4 662.0 0.6

Couriers and messengers

608.4 671.6 636.3 626.5 626.5 653.9 653.4 652.2 -1.2

Warehousing and storage

889.3 940.5 937.9 935.4 898.0 947.4 945.4 945.2 -0.2

Utilities

554.2 554.0 551.8 552.5 555.6 555.9 555.1 554.4 -0.7

Information

2,776 2,720 2,747 2,739 2,779 2,754 2,750 2,747 -3

Publishing industries, except Internet

726.3 726.7 726.8 726.8 729.5 730.0 729.4 729.6 0.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

422.3 387.1 414.3 406.1 419.3 413.7 410.7 408.7 -2.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

272.1 265.1 264.5 266.4 272.0 266.3 265.5 266.0 0.5

Telecommunications

803.3 775.7 776.0 772.1 803.8 776.3 776.3 772.9 -3.4

Data processing, hosting and related services

297.1 299.6 298.9 298.8 298.2 300.8 300.3 300.3 0.0

Other information services

255.0 265.6 266.4 268.3 256.4 266.9 268.1 269.5 1.4

Financial activities

8,181 8,339 8,339 8,360 8,231 8,394 8,400 8,409 9

Finance and insurance

6,095.8 6,202.0 6,200.1 6,209.5 6,110.7 6,212.7 6,215.3 6,223.1 7.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.4 18.8 18.9 18.8 18.6 18.8 18.8 18.9 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,592.7 2,644.6 2,639.4 2,647.5 2,599.4 2,647.4 2,647.2 2,653.3 6.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,693.2 1,713.2 1,710.9 1,713.9 1,696.1 1,714.7 1,714.4 1,716.0 1.6

Commercial banking

1,307.0 1,315.5 1,314.1 1,315.2 1,308.6 1,314.4 1,314.9 1,316.1 1.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

605.5 625.2 621.6 623.1 607.3 623.7 623.5 624.7 1.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

294.0 306.2 306.9 310.5 296.0 309.0 309.4 312.6 3.2

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

919.1 931.5 931.4 931.5 923.8 934.9 935.0 935.8 0.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,565.6 2,607.1 2,610.4 2,611.7 2,568.9 2,611.6 2,614.3 2,615.1 0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,085.0 2,137.1 2,138.7 2,150.6 2,120.5 2,180.9 2,185.1 2,186.0 0.9

Real estate

1,523.7 1,571.0 1,574.8 1,578.0 1,543.4 1,595.5 1,601.2 1,597.8 -3.4

Rental and leasing services

538.0 543.2 540.9 549.6 553.6 562.2 560.7 564.9 4.2

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 22.9 23.0 23.0 23.5 23.2 23.2 23.3 0.1

Professional and business services

19,704 20,098 20,216 20,336 19,928 20,475 20,511 20,567 56

Professional and technical services

8,815.2 9,037.9 9,118.8 9,122.7 8,766.4 9,039.8 9,060.1 9,082.3 22.2

Legal services

1,115.6 1,118.8 1,117.9 1,117.2 1,119.6 1,125.8 1,123.3 1,121.8 -1.5

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,083.2 1,071.1 1,118.9 1,105.4 968.5 994.9 993.6 994.8 1.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,383.3 1,414.8 1,417.7 1,428.8 1,402.0 1,435.2 1,440.4 1,447.7 7.3

Specialized design services

134.5 141.0 141.0 141.1 136.3 142.9 142.8 143.2 0.4

Computer systems design and related services

1,943.3 2,034.7 2,043.0 2,031.0 1,960.3 2,040.8 2,046.3 2,050.8 4.5

Management and technical consulting services

1,329.5 1,387.5 1,402.6 1,413.1 1,341.2 1,408.8 1,417.9 1,426.2 8.3

Scientific research and development services

670.3 693.7 695.0 698.2 673.2 699.2 699.5 701.5 2.0

Advertising and related services

483.0 483.7 487.0 486.4 486.0 488.7 489.3 489.8 0.5

Other professional and technical services

672.5 692.6 695.7 701.5 679.2 703.5 706.9 706.5 -0.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,221.4 2,256.7 2,258.2 2,261.4 2,229.5 2,264.1 2,268.3 2,268.9 0.6

Administrative and waste services

8,666.9 8,803.7 8,838.9 8,951.6 8,931.7 9,171.3 9,182.8 9,216.2 33.4

Administrative and support services

8,273.5 8,397.3 8,431.9 8,543.6 8,530.4 8,757.7 8,767.9 8,800.6 32.7

Office administrative services

485.7 506.6 511.6 514.4 487.8 509.5 512.6 515.7 3.1

Facilities support services

144.0 139.1 138.8 140.3 143.3 140.2 139.7 139.8 0.1

Employment services(1)

3,419.3 3,481.1 3,497.4 3,537.4 3,533.0 3,635.5 3,643.8 3,651.1 7.3

Temporary help services

2,787.5 2,843.0 2,856.5 2,896.6 2,885.9 2,976.7 2,985.6 2,996.1 10.5

Business support services

899.0 918.8 917.3 913.3 901.5 919.3 916.5 917.4 0.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

214.6 211.7 214.2 215.2 216.0 216.7 217.2 216.5 -0.7

Investigation and security services

883.7 898.8 899.2 908.1 890.8 909.6 910.7 915.0 4.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,919.4 1,926.6 1,935.8 1,993.6 2,049.3 2,107.8 2,106.3 2,123.1 16.8

Other support services

307.8 314.6 317.6 321.3 308.6 319.0 321.0 321.8 0.8

Waste management and remediation services

393.4 406.4 407.0 408.0 401.3 413.6 414.9 415.6 0.7

Education and health services

22,590 22,707 23,072 23,111 22,443 22,888 22,954 22,970 16

Educational services

3,697.1 3,468.3 3,771.0 3,787.8 3,534.1 3,595.7 3,625.2 3,623.8 -1.4

Health care and social assistance

18,892.8 19,238.6 19,300.5 19,323.3 18,908.8 19,292.2 19,329.1 19,345.8 16.7

Health care(3)

15,263.5 15,559.1 15,602.9 15,612.7 15,299.7 15,610.0 15,641.4 15,654.9 13.5

Ambulatory health care services

6,988.7 7,176.9 7,207.4 7,211.9 7,008.4 7,205.1 7,226.6 7,233.4 6.8

Offices of physicians

2,502.5 2,554.6 2,563.4 2,559.9 2,507.1 2,560.4 2,566.6 2,565.1 -1.5

Offices of dentists

912.2 935.2 939.0 937.3 917.2 938.3 940.5 942.3 1.8

Offices of other health practitioners

837.2 880.4 884.5 887.1 840.6 886.3 888.5 890.7 2.2

Outpatient care centers

840.6 883.4 889.3 897.1 842.2 886.2 891.8 897.7 5.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

263.3 259.9 259.2 258.0 263.0 260.5 259.9 258.3 -1.6

Home health care services

1,345.2 1,376.5 1,380.0 1,382.5 1,350.1 1,383.1 1,386.6 1,388.1 1.5

Other ambulatory health care services

287.7 286.9 292.0 290.0 288.2 290.5 292.6 291.1 -1.5

Hospitals

4,979.9 5,069.0 5,078.4 5,090.3 4,983.7 5,079.9 5,087.1 5,095.8 8.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,294.9 3,313.2 3,317.1 3,310.5 3,307.6 3,325.0 3,327.7 3,325.7 -2.0

Nursing care facilities

1,632.4 1,639.5 1,638.3 1,632.3 1,640.9 1,643.3 1,644.1 1,642.3 -1.8

Residential mental health facilities

613.2 614.7 616.6 618.0 614.3 617.3 618.4 618.8 0.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

886.9 896.0 898.0 897.1 888.7 899.8 900.4 900.1 -0.3

Other residential care facilities

162.4 163.0 164.2 163.1 163.6 164.5 164.8 164.4 -0.4

Social assistance

3,629.3 3,679.5 3,697.6 3,710.6 3,609.1 3,682.2 3,687.7 3,690.9 3.2

Individual and family services

2,208.0 2,267.1 2,275.6 2,279.9 2,204.6 2,272.0 2,276.6 2,276.8 0.2

Emergency and other relief services

162.4 168.2 168.2 168.7 162.7 168.2 167.8 168.5 0.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

336.5 330.1 329.5 331.8 339.4 334.2 333.4 334.8 1.4

Child day care services

922.4 914.1 924.3 930.2 902.4 907.7 909.9 910.9 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

15,143 15,018 15,167 15,390 15,537 15,759 15,786 15,795 9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,067.8 1,984.4 2,020.3 2,069.6 2,228.2 2,245.4 2,250.4 2,238.0 -12.4

Performing arts and spectator sports

438.9 396.9 412.3 425.3 456.9 450.5 449.7 444.9 -4.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

148.6 147.3 148.9 152.8 157.2 161.7 162.7 162.0 -0.7

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,480.3 1,440.2 1,459.1 1,491.5 1,614.1 1,633.2 1,638.0 1,631.1 -6.9

Accommodation and food services

13,075.4 13,033.8 13,146.9 13,320.8 13,308.3 13,513.5 13,535.2 13,557.3 22.1

Accommodation

1,878.6 1,846.7 1,862.4 1,884.0 1,944.9 1,946.6 1,949.6 1,950.0 0.4

Food services and drinking places

11,196.8 11,187.1 11,284.5 11,436.8 11,363.4 11,566.9 11,585.6 11,607.3 21.7

Other services

5,642 5,641 5,673 5,698 5,670 5,713 5,723 5,724 1

Repair and maintenance

1,291.8 1,273.9 1,286.3 1,294.0 1,292.9 1,290.2 1,293.0 1,294.3 1.3

Personal and laundry services

1,424.2 1,443.9 1,451.6 1,463.0 1,434.1 1,464.6 1,471.5 1,472.4 0.9

Membership associations and organizations

2,925.8 2,922.7 2,935.3 2,940.8 2,942.5 2,958.2 2,958.7 2,957.6 -1.1

Government

22,552 22,169 22,614 22,691 22,166 22,311 22,309 22,318 9

Federal

2,767.0 2,802.0 2,801.0 2,798.0 2,781.0 2,817.0 2,817.0 2,816.0 -1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,162.7 2,190.3 2,186.0 2,181.9 2,175.1 2,199.6 2,200.1 2,197.5 -2.6

U.S. Postal Service

604.6 611.3 614.6 615.6 605.6 617.5 617.2 618.2 1.0

State government

5,247.0 5,002.0 5,221.0 5,240.0 5,091.0 5,095.0 5,085.0 5,086.0 1.0

State government education

2,573.0 2,338.4 2,554.1 2,568.0 2,410.8 2,419.9 2,408.4 2,408.4 0.0

State government, excluding education

2,673.6 2,664.0 2,667.0 2,671.6 2,679.7 2,674.9 2,676.7 2,677.2 0.5

Local government

14,538.0 14,365.0 14,592.0 14,653.0 14,294.0 14,399.0 14,407.0 14,416.0 9.0

Local government education

8,243.6 8,053.2 8,264.7 8,308.6 7,900.6 7,953.2 7,958.0 7,967.7 9.7

Local government, excluding education

6,294.6 6,311.7 6,327.6 6,344.8 6,393.3 6,446.0 6,449.2 6,448.0 -1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

40.1 40.2 40.3 40.1

Mining and logging

42.8 43.7 44.1 44.6

Construction

38.7 38.9 39.0 38.8

Manufacturing

40.7 40.8 40.8 40.6

Durable goods

41.1 41.2 41.3 41.1

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.0 39.9 39.7

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.3 34.2 34.2

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

31.0 30.9 30.8 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.7 38.6 38.4

Utilities

41.9 42.5 42.0 42.4

Information

36.0 36.4 36.2 36.2

Financial activities

37.6 37.3 37.4 37.3

Professional and business services

36.1 36.1 36.0 36.0

Education and health services

32.8 32.9 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.0 25.9 26.0

Other services

31.9 31.7 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.2 3.3 3.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

Total private

$25.46 $26.02 $26.09 $26.14 $875.82 $895.09 $894.89 $896.60

Goods-producing

26.66 27.30 27.31 27.34 1,069.07 1,097.46 1,100.59 1,096.33

Mining and logging

31.92 32.87 32.54 32.54 1,366.18 1,436.42 1,435.01 1,451.28

Construction

27.87 28.49 28.49 28.55 1,078.57 1,108.26 1,111.11 1,107.74

Manufacturing

25.72 26.35 26.36 26.37 1,046.80 1,075.08 1,075.49 1,070.62

Durable goods

27.05 27.58 27.60 27.60 1,111.76 1,136.30 1,139.88 1,134.36

Nondurable goods

23.42 24.24 24.24 24.26 934.46 969.60 967.18 963.12

Private service-providing

25.18 25.72 25.80 25.86 838.49 853.90 856.56 858.55

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.20 22.59 22.62 22.63 761.46 774.84 773.60 773.95

Wholesale trade

29.31 29.91 30.01 29.93 1,137.23 1,163.50 1,167.39 1,164.28

Retail trade

17.82 18.01 18.01 18.01 552.42 556.51 554.71 554.71

Transportation and warehousing

23.04 23.55 23.58 23.67 896.26 911.39 910.19 908.93

Utilities

37.99 38.98 38.64 38.83 1,591.78 1,656.65 1,622.88 1,646.39

Information

36.05 37.42 37.48 37.50 1,297.80 1,362.09 1,356.78 1,357.50

Financial activities

32.13 32.62 32.79 32.82 1,208.09 1,216.73 1,226.35 1,224.19

Professional and business services

30.59 31.27 31.36 31.65 1,104.30 1,128.85 1,128.96 1,139.40

Education and health services

25.60 26.01 26.11 26.06 839.68 855.73 859.02 857.37

Leisure and hospitality

14.68 15.21 15.25 15.33 383.15 395.46 394.98 398.58

Other services

22.90 23.54 23.62 23.50 730.51 746.22 751.12 747.30

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2017 - Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2017 - Mar.
2017(p)

Total private

104.9 106.4 106.3 106.4 0.1 127.7 132.3 132.6 132.9 0.2

Goods-producing

90.2 90.9 91.6 91.2 -0.4 108.7 112.1 113.0 112.7 -0.3

Mining and logging

93.1 92.4 94.8 97.4 2.7 119.3 122.0 123.8 127.3 2.8

Construction

89.4 91.4 92.4 92.0 -0.4 108.3 113.2 114.4 114.2 -0.2

Manufacturing

90.5 90.7 90.9 90.5 -0.4 108.2 111.1 111.4 111.0 -0.4

Durable goods

89.5 89.5 89.8 89.5 -0.3 107.5 109.7 110.1 109.7 -0.4

Nondurable goods

92.0 92.6 92.7 92.2 -0.5 109.3 113.8 114.0 113.5 -0.4

Private service-providing

109.0 110.4 110.6 110.6 0.0 133.4 138.0 138.6 139.0 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.3 102.2 101.9 101.8 -0.1 121.1 124.3 124.0 123.9 -0.1

Wholesale trade

99.1 100.1 100.2 100.2 0.0 121.3 124.9 125.5 125.1 -0.3

Retail trade

99.5 99.9 99.4 99.2 -0.2 117.2 118.9 118.3 118.1 -0.2

Transportation and warehousing

110.4 111.5 111.4 110.9 -0.4 129.1 133.3 133.3 133.2 -0.1

Utilities

100.7 102.2 100.9 101.7 0.8 126.4 131.6 128.8 130.5 1.3

Information

91.4 91.6 90.9 90.8 -0.1 117.3 122.0 121.3 121.3 0.0

Financial activities

101.4 102.5 102.9 102.7 -0.2 127.0 130.5 131.6 131.5 -0.1

Professional and business services

113.1 116.3 116.1 116.5 0.3 140.2 147.3 147.5 149.3 1.2

Education and health services

120.2 123.0 123.3 123.4 0.1 148.0 153.9 154.9 154.7 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

115.7 116.9 116.7 117.2 0.4 137.0 143.5 143.5 144.9 1.0

Other services

104.3 104.4 104.9 104.9 0.0 130.9 134.7 135.8 135.2 -0.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

Total nonfarm

71,070 72,107 72,232 72,241 49.5 49.5 49.6 49.5

Total private

58,372 59,307 59,431 59,432 48.0 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,314 4,351 4,362 4,365 21.8 21.9 21.9 21.9

Mining and logging

102 99 100 101 14.7 14.7 14.6 14.5

Construction

836 857 863 861 12.5 12.6 12.6 12.5

Manufacturing

3,376 3,395 3,399 3,403 27.3 27.5 27.5 27.5

Durable goods

1,804 1,807 1,804 1,807 23.3 23.4 23.3 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,572 1,588 1,595 1,596 34.0 34.2 34.3 34.3

Private service-providing

54,058 54,956 55,069 55,067 53.1 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,029 11,062 11,064 11,021 40.6 40.4 40.4 40.3

Wholesale trade

1,730.3 1,743.0 1,747.0 1,742.1 29.5 29.6 29.6 29.5

Retail trade

7,972.1 7,962.5 7,959.8 7,926.2 50.5 50.0 50.1 50.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,195.1 1,227.8 1,229.2 1,224.9 24.1 24.4 24.4 24.3

Utilities

131.8 128.7 127.9 127.4 23.7 23.2 23.0 23.0

Information

1,109 1,101 1,098 1,094 39.9 40.0 39.9 39.8

Financial activities

4,693 4,756 4,760 4,757 57.0 56.7 56.7 56.6

Professional and business services

8,917 9,191 9,228 9,257 44.7 44.9 45.0 45.0

Education and health services

17,290 17,639 17,691 17,706 77.0 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

8,054 8,202 8,214 8,213 51.8 52.0 52.0 52.0

Other services

2,966 3,005 3,014 3,019 52.3 52.6 52.7 52.7

Government

12,698 12,800 12,801 12,809 57.3 57.4 57.4 57.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

Total private

100,111 101,567 101,770 101,840

Goods-producing

14,266 14,297 14,372 14,392

Mining and logging

492 474 481 491

Construction

5,085 5,156 5,196 5,198

Manufacturing

8,689 8,667 8,695 8,703

Durable goods

5,329 5,309 5,317 5,324

Nondurable goods

3,360 3,358 3,378 3,379

Private service-providing

85,845 87,270 87,398 87,448

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,853 23,032 23,035 23,015

Wholesale trade

4,684.2 4,716.8 4,725.0 4,731.1

Retail trade

13,434.7 13,501.2 13,491.5 13,463.9

Transportation and warehousing

4,289.2 4,367.6 4,371.2 4,372.9

Utilities

445.0 446.3 446.9 447.2

Information

2,245 2,220 2,214 2,209

Financial activities

6,378 6,529 6,531 6,531

Professional and business services

16,312 16,759 16,807 16,864

Education and health services

19,674 20,094 20,154 20,167

Leisure and hospitality

13,683 13,902 13,915 13,919

Other services

4,700 4,734 4,742 4,743

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.6 33.6 33.5

Goods-producing

41.0 41.1 41.3 41.1

Mining and logging

44.5 45.5 45.9 45.7

Construction

39.4 39.3 39.8 39.4

Manufacturing

41.7 41.9 42.0 41.8

Durable goods

42.1 42.3 42.4 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.3 41.3 41.0

Private service-providing

32.4 32.3 32.3 32.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.5 33.6 33.5 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.8 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

29.7 29.8 29.9 29.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.6 38.2 38.0

Utilities

42.1 43.3 42.2 42.7

Information

35.4 35.9 35.7 35.7

Financial activities

37.0 36.9 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.5 35.3 35.3 35.2

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.8 24.7 24.8

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.8 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.4 4.3 4.4 4.3

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)

Total private

$21.40 $21.83 $21.86 $21.90 $719.04 $733.49 $734.50 $733.65

Goods-producing

22.38 22.85 22.87 22.93 917.58 939.14 944.53 942.42

Mining and logging

26.90 27.55 27.49 27.63 1,197.05 1,253.53 1,261.79 1,262.69

Construction

25.69 26.33 26.30 26.39 1,012.19 1,034.77 1,046.74 1,039.77

Manufacturing

20.27 20.63 20.64 20.69 845.26 864.40 866.88 864.84

Durable goods

21.35 21.64 21.62 21.65 898.84 915.37 916.69 915.80

Nondurable goods

18.52 18.99 19.06 19.14 761.17 784.29 787.18 784.74

Private service-providing

21.19 21.61 21.65 21.69 686.56 698.00 699.30 700.59

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.92 19.19 19.20 19.24 633.82 644.78 643.20 644.54

Wholesale trade

24.06 24.48 24.55 24.51 926.31 949.82 952.54 948.54

Retail trade

15.03 15.22 15.22 15.24 446.39 453.56 455.08 455.68

Transportation and warehousing

20.90 20.99 21.03 21.14 813.01 810.21 803.35 803.32

Utilities

34.77 36.06 36.03 36.32 1,463.82 1,561.40 1,520.47 1,550.86

Information

29.69 30.32 30.34 30.46 1,051.03 1,088.49 1,083.14 1,087.42

Financial activities

25.97 26.27 26.28 26.37 960.89 969.36 969.73 973.05

Professional and business services

25.20 25.78 25.83 25.93 894.60 910.03 911.80 912.74

Education and health services

22.41 22.82 22.88 22.85 721.60 734.80 739.02 735.77

Leisure and hospitality

12.73 13.16 13.18 13.25 316.98 326.37 325.55 328.60

Other services

19.27 19.72 19.82 19.70 591.59 607.38 610.46 604.79

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2017 - Mar.
2017(p)
Mar.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017(p)
Mar.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2017 - Mar.
2017(p)

Total private

112.1 113.7 113.9 113.7 -0.2 160.3 165.9 166.4 166.4 0.0

Goods-producing

89.4 89.8 90.7 90.4 -0.3 122.5 125.6 127.0 126.9 -0.1

Mining and logging

116.3 114.6 117.3 119.2 1.6 182.0 183.6 187.6 191.6 2.1

Construction

100.3 101.5 103.5 102.5 -1.0 139.2 144.2 147.0 146.1 -0.6

Manufacturing

83.2 83.4 83.8 83.5 -0.4 110.3 112.5 113.2 113.0 -0.2

Durable goods

84.3 84.4 84.7 84.6 -0.1 112.4 114.0 114.4 114.4 0.0

Nondurable goods

81.4 81.7 82.2 81.6 -0.7 106.5 109.7 110.7 110.4 -0.3

Private service-providing

118.5 120.0 120.2 120.3 0.1 172.1 177.9 178.5 178.9 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.7 107.9 107.6 107.5 -0.1 144.0 147.7 147.3 147.5 0.1

Wholesale trade

106.2 107.8 108.0 107.8 -0.2 150.5 155.4 156.1 155.7 -0.3

Retail trade

101.0 101.8 102.1 101.9 -0.2 130.1 132.8 133.2 133.1 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

125.6 126.9 125.7 125.1 -0.5 166.5 169.0 167.7 167.7 0.0

Utilities

95.8 98.8 96.4 97.7 1.3 139.1 148.8 145.0 148.0 2.1

Information

90.7 91.0 90.2 90.0 -0.2 133.3 136.5 135.5 135.7 0.1

Financial activities

111.1 113.4 113.5 113.5 0.0 177.5 183.3 183.4 184.1 0.4

Professional and business services

129.8 132.6 133.0 133.0 0.0 194.6 203.4 204.4 205.3 0.4

Education and health services

135.1 138.0 138.8 138.5 -0.2 199.8 207.8 209.6 208.8 -0.4

Leisure and hospitality

124.8 126.3 125.9 126.4 0.4 180.4 188.7 188.4 190.3 1.0

Other services

101.2 102.3 102.4 102.1 -0.3 142.1 146.9 147.9 146.6 -0.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: April 07, 2017