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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	             USDL-22-2097
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, November 4, 2022

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			      THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2022       			


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 261,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
rose to 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Notable job gains
occurred in health care, professional and technical services, and manufacturing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information
about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical
Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|				      Hurricane Ian     				|
|											|
| Hurricane Ian had no discernible effect on the national employment and unemployment	|
| data for October. BLS will release the regional and state estimates on November 	|
| 18th. For information on how unusually severe weather can affect the employment and	|
| hours estimates, see the Frequently Asked Questions section of this news release.	|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate increased by 0.2 percentage point to 3.7 percent in October, and the number
of unemployed persons rose by 306,000 to 6.1 million. The unemployment rate has been in a narrow
range of 3.5 percent to 3.7 percent since March. (See table A-1.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.4 percent) and Whites 
(3.2 percent) rose in October. The jobless rates for adult men (3.3 percent), teenagers (11.0
percent), Blacks (5.9 percent), Asians (2.9 percent), and Hispanics (4.2 percent) showed little
or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers changed little at 1.2 million in October,
and the number of persons on temporary layoff also changed little at 847,000. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at
1.2 million in October. The long-term unemployed accounted for 19.5 percent of all unemployed
persons. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.2 percent, and the employment-population ratio, at
60.0 percent, were about unchanged in October and have shown little net change since early
this year. These measures are 1.2 percentage points below their values in February 2020, prior
to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons was little changed at 3.7 million
in October. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table
A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was little changed at 5.7
million in October and remains above its February 2020 level of 5.0 million. These individuals
were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks
preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally attached
to the labor force was little changed in October at 1.5 million. These individuals wanted and
were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not 
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset
of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, decreased by
114,000 to 371,000 in October. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 261,000 in October. Monthly job growth has averaged
407,000 thus far in 2022, compared with 562,000 per month in 2021. In October, notable job gains
occurred in health care, professional and technical services, and manufacturing. (See table B-1.)

In October, employment in health care rose by 53,000, with gains in ambulatory health care services
(+31,000), nursing and residential care facilities (+11,000), and hospitals (+11,000). So far in
2022, health care employment has increased by an average of 47,000 per month, compared with 9,000
per month in 2021.

Professional and technical services added 43,000 jobs in October. Employment continued to trend
up in management and technical consulting services (+7,000), architectural and engineering services
(+7,000), and scientific research and development services (+5,000). Monthly job growth in 
professional and technical services has averaged 41,000 thus far in 2022, compared with 53,000
per month in 2021.

Manufacturing added 32,000 jobs in October, mostly in durable goods industries (+23,000). 
Manufacturing employment has increased by an average of 37,000 per month thus far this year,
compared with 30,000 per month in 2021. 

Employment in social assistance increased by 19,000 in October and is slightly below (-9,000)
its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. Within social assistance, employment in individual and
family services continued to trend up in October (+10,000).

Wholesale trade added 15,000 jobs in October. Employment in wholesale trade has increased by an
average of 17,000 per month thus far in 2022, compared with 13,000 per month in 2021. 

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in October (+35,000), with 
accommodation adding 20,000 jobs. Employment in food services and drinking places changed little
over the month (+6,000). Leisure and hospitality has added an average of 78,000 jobs per month thus far
this year, less than half of the average gain of 196,000 jobs per month in 2021. Employment in
leisure and hospitality is down by 1.1 million, or 6.5 percent, from its February 2020 level.

Employment in transportation and warehousing changed little in October (+8,000). Within the
industry, job growth occurred in truck transportation (+13,000), couriers and messengers 
(+7,000), and air transportation (+4,000). These gains were partially offset by a job loss in 
warehousing and storage (-20,000). Monthly job growth in transportation and warehousing has
averaged 25,000 thus far this year, compared with 36,000 per month in 2021.

In October, financial activities employment was little changed (+3,000). Within the industry,
job gains in insurance carriers and related activities (+9,000) and in securities, commodity
contracts, and investments (+5,000) were partially offset by a job loss in rental and leasing
services (-8,000). Employment in financial activities has changed little over the past 6 months.

Employment changed little over the month in other major industries, including mining,
construction, retail trade, information, other services, and government.

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 12 cents,
or 0.4 percent, to $32.58. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 
4.7 percent. In October, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees rose by 9 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $27.86. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

In October, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 34.5 hours 
for the fifth month in a row. In manufacturing, the average workweek for all employees was little
changed at 40.4 hours, and overtime decreased by 0.1 hour to 3.1 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls held at 34.0 hours. (See 
tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised down by 23,000, from 
+315,000 to +292,000, and the change for September was revised up by 52,000, from +263,000 to 
+315,000. With these revisions, employment gains in August and September combined were 29,000 
higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation
of seasonal factors.)
 
_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on Friday, December 2, 2022,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                     Changes to Household Survey Supplemental Data                     |
| 											|
| Four new supplemental questions were added to the household survey in October 2022 	|
| to examine the effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the labor market.	|
| These new questions, which focus on telework, replace the original supplemental	|
| questions asked from May 2020 through September 2022. Because data from the new	|
| questions will take time to process and review, the Household Survey Supplemental	|
| Data section of the Employment Situation news release has been temporarily 		|
| discontinued. Information about the new questions, including future announcements	|
| about the availability of data from these questions, will be available at 		|
| www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|            Update to the 2022 North American Industry Classification System           |
|											|
| With the release of January 2023 data on February 3, 2023, the Current Employment	|
| Statistics (CES) survey will revise the basis for industry classification from the	|
| 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to NAICS 2022. The		|
| conversion to NAICS 2022 will result in minor revisions reflecting content and	|
| coding changes within the mining and logging, manufacturing, wholesale trade, 	|
| financial activities, and other services sectors, as well as major revisions 		|
| reflecting content and coding changes in the retail trade and information sectors.	|
| Many industry titles and descriptions will also be updated to better reflect 		|
| official NAICS titles. Approximately 10 percent of employment will be reclassified	|
| into different industries as a result of the revision. Details of updated titles	|
| and new, discontinued, and collapsed industries resulting from the NAICS 2022 	|
| update, as well as changes due to the annual benchmarking process, will be 		|
| available on January 6, 2023.								|
|											|
| For more information on NAICS 2022, visit www.census.gov/naics.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Change from:
Sept.
2022-
Oct.
2022

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,908 264,184 264,356 264,535 179

Civilian labor force

161,610 164,746 164,689 164,667 -22

Participation rate

61.7 62.4 62.3 62.2 -0.1

Employed

154,234 158,732 158,936 158,608 -328

Employment-population ratio

58.9 60.1 60.1 60.0 -0.1

Unemployed

7,375 6,014 5,753 6,059 306

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.7 3.5 3.7 0.2

Not in labor force

100,298 99,438 99,667 99,868 201

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.6 3.7 3.5 3.7 0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.3 3.5 3.3 3.3 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.3 3.3 3.1 3.4 0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.7 10.4 11.4 11.0 -0.4

White

3.9 3.2 3.1 3.2 0.1

Black or African American

7.8 6.4 5.8 5.9 0.1

Asian

4.2 2.8 2.5 2.9 0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.7 4.5 3.8 4.2 0.4

Total, 25 years and over

4.0 3.0 2.8 3.0 0.2

Less than a high school diploma

7.3 6.2 5.6 6.3 0.7

High school graduates, no college

5.4 4.2 3.7 3.9 0.2

Some college or associate degree

4.3 2.9 2.9 3.0 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.4 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,700 2,720 2,495 2,663 168

Job leavers

845 898 905 862 -43

Reentrants

2,206 1,836 1,840 1,886 46

New entrants

537 440 447 485 38

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,051 2,223 2,154 2,211 57

5 to 14 weeks

1,876 1,807 1,645 1,783 138

15 to 26 weeks

1,001 885 899 805 -94

27 weeks and over

2,339 1,137 1,067 1,165 98

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,398 4,149 3,843 3,660 -183

Slack work or business conditions

3,108 2,769 2,577 2,534 -43

Could only find part-time work

961 979 952 870 -82

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,539 21,044 21,233 21,274 41

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,685 1,434 1,600 1,504 -96

Discouraged workers

455 366 485 371 -114

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

677 292 315 261

Total private

694 233 319 233

Goods-producing

83 43 48 33

Mining and logging

2 -2 3 0

Construction

28 9 22 1

Manufacturing

53 36 23 32

Durable goods(1)

41 36 13 23

Motor vehicles and parts

34.2 12.1 7.4 4.8

Nondurable goods

12 0 10 9

Private service-providing

611 190 271 200

Wholesale trade

12.4 15.1 11.6 14.6

Retail trade

43.4 29.3 -7.6 7.2

Transportation and warehousing

50.5 -1.7 -11.3 8.2

Utilities

-0.2 1.5 0.6 1.1

Information

12 7 7 4

Financial activities

23 9 1 3

Professional and business services(1)

236 29 52 39

Temporary help services

153.1 -0.7 12.6 11.8

Education and health services(1)

68 82 91 79

Health care and social assistance

37.9 71.7 80.7 71.1

Leisure and hospitality

141 13 107 35

Other services

25 5 20 9

Government

-17 59 -4 28

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

539 374 381 289

Total private

533 342 333 262

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.5 48.5

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.6 81.5 81.5 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.8 34.5 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$31.11 $32.36 $32.46 $32.58

Average weekly earnings

$1,082.63 $1,116.42 $1,119.87 $1,124.01

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.0 112.9 113.2 113.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

163.6 174.7 175.7 176.7

Over-the-month percent change

1.2 0.5 0.6 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (256 industries)

73.0 59.8 64.3 61.7

Manufacturing (74 industries)

67.6 53.4 57.4 56.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 131,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 670,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,908 264,356 264,535 261,908 263,835 264,012 264,184 264,356 264,535

Civilian labor force

161,863 164,463 164,753 161,610 164,023 163,960 164,746 164,689 164,667

Participation rate

61.8 62.2 62.3 61.7 62.2 62.1 62.4 62.3 62.2

Employed

154,966 159,003 159,144 154,234 158,111 158,290 158,732 158,936 158,608

Employment-population ratio

59.2 60.1 60.2 58.9 59.9 60.0 60.1 60.1 60.0

Unemployed

6,896 5,460 5,609 7,375 5,912 5,670 6,014 5,753 6,059

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.3 3.4 4.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.7

Not in labor force

100,045 99,893 99,782 100,298 99,812 100,051 99,438 99,667 99,868

Persons who currently want a job

5,567 5,650 5,341 5,935 5,656 5,910 5,549 5,834 5,717

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,719 128,807 128,897 126,719 128,547 128,636 128,722 128,807 128,897

Civilian labor force

85,725 87,529 87,685 85,735 87,213 86,936 87,335 87,711 87,789

Participation rate

67.6 68.0 68.0 67.7 67.8 67.6 67.8 68.1 68.1

Employed

82,163 84,687 84,799 81,835 84,061 83,891 84,045 84,587 84,571

Employment-population ratio

64.8 65.7 65.8 64.6 65.4 65.2 65.3 65.7 65.6

Unemployed

3,562 2,842 2,886 3,900 3,152 3,046 3,290 3,124 3,218

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.2 3.3 4.5 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.7

Not in labor force

40,994 41,278 41,212 40,983 41,334 41,700 41,387 41,097 41,108

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,406 120,140 120,225 118,406 119,899 119,977 120,058 120,140 120,225

Civilian labor force

82,786 84,594 84,623 82,703 84,040 83,857 84,158 84,660 84,626

Participation rate

69.9 70.4 70.4 69.8 70.1 69.9 70.1 70.5 70.4

Employed

79,556 82,075 82,093 79,164 81,242 81,164 81,225 81,878 81,792

Employment-population ratio

67.2 68.3 68.3 66.9 67.8 67.7 67.7 68.2 68.0

Unemployed

3,230 2,519 2,530 3,539 2,797 2,692 2,934 2,783 2,834

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.0 3.0 4.3 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

35,620 35,545 35,601 35,703 35,859 36,120 35,900 35,479 35,599

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,189 135,548 135,638 135,189 135,287 135,376 135,462 135,548 135,638

Civilian labor force

76,138 76,934 77,068 75,874 76,809 77,024 77,410 76,978 76,878

Participation rate

56.3 56.8 56.8 56.1 56.8 56.9 57.1 56.8 56.7

Employed

72,803 74,316 74,345 72,399 74,050 74,399 74,687 74,349 74,037

Employment-population ratio

53.9 54.8 54.8 53.6 54.7 55.0 55.1 54.9 54.6

Unemployed

3,335 2,618 2,723 3,475 2,760 2,625 2,724 2,629 2,841

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.4 3.5 4.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7

Not in labor force

59,052 58,615 58,570 59,315 58,478 58,351 58,052 58,570 58,760

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,051 127,117 127,204 127,051 126,872 126,951 127,034 127,117 127,204

Civilian labor force

73,296 73,842 74,069 72,929 73,741 73,988 74,140 73,750 73,759

Participation rate

57.7 58.1 58.2 57.4 58.1 58.3 58.4 58.0 58.0

Employed

70,274 71,590 71,628 69,790 71,311 71,710 71,729 71,493 71,224

Employment-population ratio

55.3 56.3 56.3 54.9 56.2 56.5 56.5 56.2 56.0

Unemployed

3,022 2,251 2,441 3,139 2,430 2,278 2,411 2,258 2,534

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.0 3.3 4.3 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.4

Not in labor force

53,755 53,276 53,135 54,122 53,131 52,963 52,895 53,367 53,445

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,451 17,099 17,107 16,451 17,064 17,084 17,091 17,099 17,107

Civilian labor force

5,780 6,027 6,061 5,978 6,242 6,116 6,447 6,278 6,283

Participation rate

35.1 35.2 35.4 36.3 36.6 35.8 37.7 36.7 36.7

Employed

5,137 5,337 5,422 5,281 5,558 5,415 5,778 5,565 5,592

Employment-population ratio

31.2 31.2 31.7 32.1 32.6 31.7 33.8 32.5 32.7

Unemployed

644 689 638 697 685 700 669 713 691

Unemployment rate

11.1 11.4 10.5 11.7 11.0 11.5 10.4 11.4 11.0

Not in labor force

10,670 11,072 11,046 10,473 10,822 10,968 10,644 10,821 10,824

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

202,138 203,420 203,522 202,138 203,125 203,229 203,324 203,420 203,522

Civilian labor force

124,407 126,036 126,215 124,279 125,706 125,705 126,172 126,183 126,164

Participation rate

61.5 62.0 62.0 61.5 61.9 61.9 62.1 62.0 62.0

Employed

119,891 122,403 122,490 119,376 121,587 121,822 122,129 122,329 122,078

Employment-population ratio

59.3 60.2 60.2 59.1 59.9 59.9 60.1 60.1 60.0

Unemployed

4,517 3,633 3,725 4,903 4,119 3,884 4,043 3,855 4,087

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.9 3.0 3.9 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.2

Not in labor force

77,731 77,383 77,308 77,859 77,419 77,524 77,152 77,237 77,358

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,725 65,872 66,025 64,693 65,556 65,430 65,600 65,940 66,028

Participation rate

69.8 70.2 70.3 69.8 70.0 69.8 69.9 70.3 70.3

Employed

62,644 64,221 64,276 62,374 63,529 63,464 63,553 64,048 64,043

Employment-population ratio

67.5 68.4 68.4 67.3 67.8 67.7 67.7 68.2 68.2

Unemployed

2,081 1,651 1,749 2,320 2,027 1,966 2,048 1,892 1,985

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.5 2.6 3.6 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,170 55,435 55,592 54,901 55,318 55,565 55,661 55,351 55,334

Participation rate

56.7 57.1 57.2 56.4 57.1 57.3 57.4 57.0 57.0

Employed

53,184 53,979 54,043 52,800 53,727 54,123 54,125 53,914 53,695

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.6 55.6 54.2 55.4 55.8 55.8 55.5 55.3

Unemployed

1,986 1,456 1,550 2,101 1,591 1,442 1,535 1,437 1,638

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.6 2.8 3.8 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.6 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,512 4,730 4,597 4,684 4,832 4,711 4,911 4,892 4,803

Participation rate

37.4 37.8 36.8 38.8 38.7 37.7 39.3 39.1 38.4

Employed

4,062 4,203 4,171 4,202 4,331 4,235 4,451 4,366 4,340

Employment-population ratio

33.7 33.6 33.4 34.8 34.7 33.9 35.6 34.9 34.7

Unemployed

450 527 426 482 501 476 460 526 463

Unemployment rate

10.0 11.1 9.3 10.3 10.4 10.1 9.4 10.8 9.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,699 34,204 34,237 33,699 34,107 34,138 34,171 34,204 34,237

Civilian labor force

20,689 21,218 21,368 20,565 21,213 21,174 21,123 21,258 21,243

Participation rate

61.4 62.0 62.4 61.0 62.2 62.0 61.8 62.1 62.0

Employed

19,120 20,041 20,124 18,962 19,975 19,907 19,776 20,014 19,984

Employment-population ratio

56.7 58.6 58.8 56.3 58.6 58.3 57.9 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

1,568 1,177 1,244 1,603 1,238 1,268 1,347 1,243 1,259

Unemployment rate

7.6 5.5 5.8 7.8 5.8 6.0 6.4 5.8 5.9

Not in labor force

13,011 12,986 12,869 13,135 12,895 12,964 13,048 12,946 12,994

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,540 9,907 9,836 9,479 9,866 9,764 9,707 9,894 9,779

Participation rate

66.9 68.1 67.6 66.5 68.1 67.3 66.8 68.0 67.2

Employed

8,779 9,368 9,335 8,699 9,342 9,212 9,125 9,321 9,264

Employment-population ratio

61.6 64.4 64.1 61.0 64.4 63.5 62.8 64.1 63.6

Unemployed

761 540 500 780 524 552 582 573 514

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.4 5.1 8.2 5.3 5.7 6.0 5.8 5.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,447 10,638 10,770 10,383 10,628 10,688 10,643 10,636 10,699

Participation rate

61.2 61.9 62.6 60.9 62.0 62.3 62.0 61.9 62.2

Employed

9,742 10,072 10,140 9,673 10,030 10,119 10,018 10,058 10,081

Employment-population ratio

57.1 58.6 59.0 56.7 58.6 59.0 58.4 58.6 58.6

Unemployed

705 565 630 710 598 569 625 578 619

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.3 5.8 6.8 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.4 5.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

702 673 762 703 719 722 773 728 765

Participation rate

29.4 27.1 30.6 29.5 29.0 29.1 31.1 29.3 30.7

Employed

599 601 648 590 603 576 634 635 639

Employment-population ratio

25.1 24.2 26.0 24.7 24.3 23.2 25.5 25.5 25.7

Unemployed

102 72 114 113 116 146 140 92 127

Unemployment rate

14.6 10.7 15.0 16.0 16.1 20.3 18.1 12.7 16.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,485 17,132 17,129 16,485 16,910 16,920 16,989 17,132 17,129

Civilian labor force

10,756 11,151 11,100 10,767 10,894 10,980 11,096 11,122 11,124

Participation rate

65.2 65.1 64.8 65.3 64.4 64.9 65.3 64.9 64.9

Employed

10,312 10,882 10,776 10,310 10,565 10,693 10,790 10,848 10,797

Employment-population ratio

62.5 63.5 62.9 62.5 62.5 63.2 63.5 63.3 63.0

Unemployed

445 269 323 457 330 287 307 274 327

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.4 2.9 4.2 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.9

Not in labor force

5,729 5,981 6,029 5,718 6,016 5,940 5,893 6,009 6,005

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,159 46,373 46,459 45,159 46,119 46,200 46,287 46,373 46,459

Civilian labor force

29,736 30,641 30,796 29,663 30,670 30,363 30,918 30,650 30,710

Participation rate

65.8 66.1 66.3 65.7 66.5 65.7 66.8 66.1 66.1

Employed

28,154 29,515 29,595 27,962 29,364 29,170 29,539 29,470 29,434

Employment-population ratio

62.3 63.6 63.7 61.9 63.7 63.1 63.8 63.5 63.4

Unemployed

1,582 1,126 1,202 1,701 1,306 1,193 1,379 1,180 1,277

Unemployment rate

5.3 3.7 3.9 5.7 4.3 3.9 4.5 3.8 4.2

Not in labor force

15,423 15,732 15,663 15,496 15,449 15,837 15,369 15,724 15,749

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,220 16,523 16,674 16,213 16,743 16,452 16,625 16,506 16,638

Participation rate

79.5 78.7 79.2 79.4 80.1 78.6 79.3 78.6 79.1

Employed

15,495 16,031 16,068 15,410 16,170 15,870 15,976 15,971 16,004

Employment-population ratio

75.9 76.3 76.3 75.5 77.4 75.8 76.2 76.0 76.0

Unemployed

724 493 606 803 573 581 649 535 634

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.0 3.6 5.0 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,127 12,792 12,717 12,054 12,486 12,515 12,812 12,778 12,655

Participation rate

58.6 60.7 60.2 58.3 59.6 59.6 60.9 60.6 59.9

Employed

11,485 12,339 12,294 11,374 11,926 12,113 12,264 12,321 12,186

Employment-population ratio

55.5 58.6 58.2 55.0 56.9 57.7 58.3 58.5 57.7

Unemployed

642 452 424 680 560 402 547 457 469

Unemployment rate

5.3 3.5 3.3 5.6 4.5 3.2 4.3 3.6 3.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,389 1,326 1,405 1,396 1,441 1,397 1,482 1,365 1,417

Participation rate

34.1 30.9 32.7 34.3 33.8 32.7 34.6 31.8 33.0

Employed

1,173 1,145 1,233 1,178 1,268 1,187 1,299 1,178 1,243

Employment-population ratio

28.8 26.7 28.7 29.0 29.7 27.8 30.3 27.5 28.9

Unemployed

216 181 172 218 173 210 183 187 174

Unemployment rate

15.5 13.6 12.2 15.6 12.0 15.0 12.3 13.7 12.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,921 9,094 9,016 9,025 9,210 8,924 8,646 8,992 9,155

Participation rate

45.9 46.2 46.0 46.4 44.7 46.2 45.4 45.7 46.7

Employed

8,365 8,674 8,534 8,368 8,680 8,398 8,110 8,491 8,577

Employment-population ratio

43.1 44.1 43.5 43.1 42.2 43.5 42.5 43.1 43.7

Unemployed

555 420 481 657 530 526 536 501 578

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.6 5.3 7.3 5.8 5.9 6.2 5.6 6.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,575 35,488 35,243 35,282 35,985 35,386 35,798 35,278 35,038

Participation rate

55.5 56.5 56.2 55.0 56.8 56.1 56.4 56.1 55.9

Employed

33,774 34,244 33,915 33,395 34,679 34,113 34,284 33,973 33,656

Employment-population ratio

52.7 54.5 54.1 52.1 54.8 54.1 54.0 54.1 53.7

Unemployed

1,801 1,244 1,328 1,888 1,305 1,273 1,514 1,306 1,382

Unemployment rate

5.1 3.5 3.8 5.4 3.6 3.6 4.2 3.7 3.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,710 35,597 36,169 35,394 35,707 35,575 35,586 35,544 35,805

Participation rate

63.4 62.8 63.3 62.8 62.6 62.6 63.0 62.7 62.7

Employed

34,236 34,609 35,132 33,863 34,585 34,563 34,538 34,530 34,731

Employment-population ratio

60.8 61.0 61.5 60.1 60.6 60.8 61.2 60.9 60.8

Unemployed

1,474 989 1,037 1,531 1,122 1,012 1,048 1,014 1,074

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.8 2.9 4.3 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

61,068 63,574 63,458 60,951 62,098 63,380 63,701 63,610 63,376

Participation rate

72.0 73.0 72.9 71.9 73.1 73.0 73.1 73.0 72.8

Employed

59,654 62,473 62,292 59,477 60,800 62,094 62,519 62,478 62,156

Employment-population ratio

70.3 71.7 71.6 70.1 71.6 71.5 71.7 71.7 71.4

Unemployed

1,414 1,100 1,166 1,473 1,297 1,286 1,182 1,132 1,220

Unemployment rate

2.3 1.7 1.8 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,981 18,291 16,059 16,259 1,922 2,032

Civilian labor force

8,417 8,833 7,267 7,613 1,150 1,221

Participation rate

46.8 48.3 45.3 46.8 59.8 60.1

Employed

8,090 8,610 6,999 7,417 1,091 1,192

Employment-population ratio

45.0 47.1 43.6 45.6 56.8 58.7

Unemployed

327 224 268 195 59 28

Unemployment rate

3.9 2.5 3.7 2.6 5.1 2.3

Not in labor force

9,564 9,458 8,792 8,646 772 811

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,607 4,949 3,834 4,076 773 873

Civilian labor force

3,637 4,044 3,081 3,369 557 675

Participation rate

79.0 81.7 80.4 82.7 72.0 77.3

Employed

3,500 3,931 2,974 3,278 526 654

Employment-population ratio

76.0 79.4 77.6 80.4 68.1 74.9

Unemployed

137 113 107 92 30 21

Unemployment rate

3.8 2.8 3.5 2.7 5.5 3.1

Not in labor force

969 905 753 706 216 198

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,131 3,234 2,599 2,728 532 506

Civilian labor force

2,236 2,276 1,879 1,955 357 321

Participation rate

71.4 70.4 72.3 71.7 67.2 63.5

Employed

2,144 2,222 1,804 1,904 340 318

Employment-population ratio

68.5 68.7 69.4 69.8 63.9 62.9

Unemployed

92 54 74 51 18 3

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.4 4.0 2.6 4.9 0.9

Not in labor force

895 958 720 773 175 184

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,328 6,154 6,105 5,909 223 245

Civilian labor force

1,002 886 952 837 50 49

Participation rate

15.8 14.4 15.6 14.2 22.2 20.2

Employed

961 867 917 817 45 49

Employment-population ratio

15.2 14.1 15.0 13.8 20.0 20.2

Unemployed

40 19 35 19 5 0

Unemployment rate

4.0 2.2 3.7 2.3 - -

Not in labor force

5,326 5,268 5,153 5,072 173 196

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,915 3,954 3,521 3,546 394 408

Civilian labor force

1,542 1,627 1,355 1,452 186 175

Participation rate

39.4 41.1 38.5 40.9 47.3 42.9

Employed

1,485 1,589 1,304 1,418 180 171

Employment-population ratio

37.9 40.2 37.0 40.0 45.8 41.9

Unemployed

57 38 51 34 6 4

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.3 3.8 2.3 3.2 2.4

Not in labor force

2,373 2,327 2,166 2,094 208 233

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

235,095 236,800 106,291 107,887 128,804 128,913

Civilian labor force

151,257 153,525 77,395 78,943 73,862 74,582

Participation rate

64.3 64.8 72.8 73.2 57.3 57.9

Employed

144,876 148,341 74,192 76,371 70,684 71,970

Employment-population ratio

61.6 62.6 69.8 70.8 54.9 55.8

Unemployed

6,381 5,184 3,203 2,572 3,178 2,611

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.4 4.1 3.3 4.3 3.5

Not in labor force

83,837 83,275 28,896 28,943 54,941 54,332

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,195 32,819 230,713 231,716

Civilian labor force

6,987 7,797 154,876 156,956

Participation rate

22.4 23.8 67.1 67.7

Employed

6,352 7,224 148,615 151,920

Employment-population ratio

20.4 22.0 64.4 65.6

Unemployed

635 573 6,261 5,036

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.4 4.0 3.2

Not in labor force

24,208 25,022 75,837 74,760

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,900 3,318 76,743 78,017

Participation rate

37.5 39.7 82.1 82.6

Employed

2,636 3,035 73,652 75,544

Employment-population ratio

34.1 36.3 78.8 80.0

Unemployed

264 283 3,091 2,473

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.5 4.0 3.2

Not in labor force

4,828 5,037 16,695 16,397

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,855 3,092 68,510 68,970

Participation rate

36.1 37.6 71.3 71.7

Employed

2,550 2,848 65,667 66,604

Employment-population ratio

32.3 34.7 68.3 69.2

Unemployed

305 244 2,844 2,366

Unemployment rate

10.7 7.9 4.2 3.4

Not in labor force

5,050 5,122 27,572 27,276

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,232 1,387 9,622 9,968

Participation rate

7.9 8.5 23.4 24.3

Employed

1,166 1,341 9,296 9,772

Employment-population ratio

7.5 8.3 22.6 23.8

Unemployed

66 46 326 196

Unemployment rate

5.3 3.3 3.4 2.0

Not in labor force

14,330 14,864 31,571 31,087

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,449 45,908 21,226 22,506 22,223 23,402

Civilian labor force

28,564 30,459 16,570 17,657 11,994 12,802

Participation rate

65.7 66.3 78.1 78.5 54.0 54.7

Employed

27,341 29,451 15,932 17,110 11,409 12,340

Employment-population ratio

62.9 64.2 75.1 76.0 51.3 52.7

Unemployed

1,224 1,008 639 547 585 461

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.3 3.9 3.1 4.9 3.6

Not in labor force

14,885 15,450 4,656 4,849 10,229 10,600

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,458 218,627 105,492 106,391 112,966 112,236

Civilian labor force

133,298 134,294 69,155 70,028 64,144 64,267

Participation rate

61.0 61.4 65.6 65.8 56.8 57.3

Employed

127,626 129,693 66,232 67,688 61,394 62,005

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.3 62.8 63.6 54.3 55.2

Unemployed

5,673 4,601 2,923 2,340 2,750 2,261

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.4 4.2 3.3 4.3 3.5

Not in labor force

85,160 84,333 36,338 36,363 48,822 47,970

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,418 2,165 2,300 2,296 2,308 2,429 2,178 2,178 2,205

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,596 1,448 1,577 1,501 1,520 1,621 1,491 1,474 1,497

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

785 700 701 769 747 752 645 696 691

Unpaid family workers

37 18 22 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

152,548 156,838 156,845 152,070 156,114 156,002 156,931 156,956 156,645

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,933 147,538 147,397 142,194 146,346 146,627 147,397 147,268 147,004

Government

20,586 21,166 21,258 20,511 20,601 21,272 21,220 21,313 21,180

Private industries

122,347 126,372 126,139 122,175 125,767 125,421 126,111 126,494 126,165

Private households

766 705 743 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,581 125,667 125,397 121,460 125,210 124,799 125,441 125,902 125,559

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,548 9,235 9,394 9,465 9,255 8,971 8,985 9,161 9,283

Unpaid family workers

68 65 54 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,094 3,523 3,356 4,398 3,621 3,924 4,149 3,843 3,660

Slack work or business conditions

2,913 2,393 2,335 3,108 2,366 2,697 2,769 2,577 2,534

Could only find part-time work

928 945 817 961 914 910 979 952 870

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,128 21,389 21,901 20,539 20,602 21,103 21,044 21,233 21,274

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,998 3,479 3,301 4,273 3,694 3,888 4,075 3,763 3,577

Slack work or business conditions

2,838 2,353 2,288 3,032 2,345 2,676 2,727 2,527 2,486

Could only find part-time work

927 945 813 962 912 909 966 952 867

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,773 21,047 21,555 20,200 20,180 20,675 20,710 20,887 20,932

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,966 159,003 159,144 154,234 158,111 158,290 158,732 158,936 158,608

16 to 19 years

5,137 5,337 5,422 5,281 5,558 5,415 5,778 5,565 5,592

16 to 17 years

1,999 2,115 2,193 1,992 2,114 2,076 2,255 2,087 2,189

18 to 19 years

3,137 3,222 3,229 3,289 3,443 3,343 3,485 3,464 3,389

20 years and over

149,830 153,666 153,722 148,953 152,554 152,875 152,953 153,371 153,016

20 to 24 years

13,800 13,666 13,849 13,718 13,852 13,902 13,670 13,755 13,780

25 years and over

136,030 140,000 139,873 135,282 138,603 138,969 139,259 139,598 139,214

25 to 54 years

99,355 102,291 102,028 98,795 101,495 101,686 102,053 102,037 101,548

25 to 34 years

35,257 35,451 35,527 35,029 35,437 35,436 35,555 35,392 35,320

35 to 44 years

33,237 34,735 34,760 33,042 34,508 34,616 34,694 34,618 34,607

45 to 54 years

30,862 32,105 31,742 30,723 31,550 31,634 31,804 32,027 31,621

55 years and over

36,674 37,709 37,844 36,487 37,108 37,283 37,206 37,561 37,666

Men, 16 years and over

82,163 84,687 84,799 81,835 84,061 83,891 84,045 84,587 84,571

16 to 19 years

2,608 2,612 2,705 2,672 2,819 2,726 2,820 2,709 2,779

16 to 17 years

972 958 1,010 984 1,046 988 1,036 954 1,027

18 to 19 years

1,636 1,653 1,695 1,691 1,769 1,742 1,761 1,749 1,751

20 years and over

79,556 82,075 82,093 79,164 81,242 81,164 81,225 81,878 81,792

20 to 24 years

6,969 7,003 7,150 6,972 7,081 7,022 6,900 7,038 7,146

25 years and over

72,587 75,072 74,943 72,181 74,052 74,151 74,233 74,762 74,581

25 to 54 years

53,007 54,560 54,379 52,717 54,161 54,190 54,193 54,381 54,130

25 to 34 years

18,855 18,926 18,845 18,715 18,842 18,740 18,767 18,866 18,718

35 to 44 years

17,866 18,656 18,721 17,784 18,492 18,631 18,651 18,579 18,656

45 to 54 years

16,286 16,979 16,813 16,218 16,828 16,819 16,776 16,936 16,756

55 years and over

19,580 20,512 20,564 19,464 19,890 19,961 20,040 20,381 20,450

Women, 16 years and over

72,803 74,316 74,345 72,399 74,050 74,399 74,687 74,349 74,037

16 to 19 years

2,529 2,726 2,717 2,609 2,739 2,689 2,958 2,856 2,813

16 to 17 years

1,027 1,157 1,183 1,008 1,067 1,088 1,219 1,133 1,162

18 to 19 years

1,501 1,568 1,534 1,598 1,674 1,601 1,724 1,715 1,637

20 years and over

70,274 71,590 71,628 69,790 71,311 71,710 71,729 71,493 71,224

20 to 24 years

6,831 6,663 6,699 6,746 6,771 6,880 6,770 6,717 6,635

25 years and over

63,443 64,928 64,929 63,101 64,551 64,818 65,026 64,836 64,633

25 to 54 years

46,348 47,731 47,649 46,078 47,334 47,496 47,860 47,656 47,418

25 to 34 years

16,401 16,525 16,682 16,314 16,595 16,696 16,789 16,526 16,602

35 to 44 years

15,371 16,079 16,039 15,258 16,016 15,986 16,044 16,039 15,951

45 to 54 years

14,576 15,127 14,928 14,505 14,722 14,814 15,028 15,091 14,865

55 years and over

17,095 17,197 17,280 17,023 17,218 17,322 17,165 17,180 17,216

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,910 46,100 45,631 43,794 45,222 45,449 45,422 45,912 45,556

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,209 36,616 36,309 34,988 36,526 36,954 36,828 36,615 36,155

Women who maintain families(2)

9,696 9,813 9,629 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

128,848 133,027 132,544 128,409 132,648 132,577 132,335 132,661 132,228

Part-time workers(4)

26,119 25,976 26,600 25,903 25,440 25,824 26,237 26,230 26,394

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,166 7,739 7,676 6,984 7,541 7,633 7,747 7,746 7,496

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.9 4.8 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.7

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,334 6,710 6,851 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10,332 9,935 10,095 10,234 10,002 9,723 9,629 9,858 9,974

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,375 5,753 6,059 4.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.7

16 to 19 years

697 713 691 11.7 11.0 11.5 10.4 11.4 11.0

16 to 17 years

223 294 240 10.1 11.2 10.3 9.7 12.4 9.9

18 to 19 years

475 424 456 12.6 10.2 12.1 10.9 10.9 11.9

20 years and over

6,679 5,040 5,368 4.3 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,071 1,030 1,020 7.2 6.8 6.4 6.9 7.0 6.9

25 years and over

5,579 3,980 4,319 4.0 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.0

25 to 54 years

4,266 3,074 3,386 4.1 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,763 1,313 1,457 4.8 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.6 4.0

35 to 44 years

1,311 1,072 1,025 3.8 3.2 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.9

45 to 54 years

1,192 689 904 3.7 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.1 2.8

55 years and over

1,363 926 962 3.6 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.5

Men, 16 years and over

3,900 3,124 3,218 4.5 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.7

16 to 19 years

361 341 384 11.9 11.2 11.5 11.2 11.2 12.1

16 to 17 years

106 145 138 9.8 11.2 8.7 11.5 13.2 11.8

18 to 19 years

257 200 254 13.2 9.8 12.8 11.2 10.3 12.7

20 years and over

3,539 2,783 2,834 4.3 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3

20 to 24 years

620 606 550 8.2 7.6 7.3 8.1 7.9 7.1

25 years and over

2,912 2,165 2,271 3.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.0

25 to 54 years

2,214 1,675 1,771 4.0 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.2

25 to 34 years

995 706 769 5.0 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.9

35 to 44 years

676 564 502 3.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

543 405 500 3.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.9

55 years and over

699 490 501 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.4

Women, 16 years and over

3,475 2,629 2,841 4.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7

16 to 19 years

336 372 307 11.4 10.8 11.4 9.6 11.5 9.8

16 to 17 years

117 149 102 10.4 11.1 11.6 8.2 11.6 8.1

18 to 19 years

218 224 202 12.0 10.6 11.3 10.5 11.6 11.0

20 years and over

3,139 2,258 2,534 4.3 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.4

20 to 24 years

452 424 470 6.3 6.0 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.6

25 years and over

2,667 1,815 2,047 4.1 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.7 3.1

25 to 54 years

2,052 1,399 1,615 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.3

25 to 34 years

768 607 688 4.5 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.5 4.0

35 to 44 years

635 507 523 4.0 3.6 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.2

45 to 54 years

649 284 404 4.3 2.6 2.4 2.7 1.8 2.6

55 years and over

642 420 446 3.6 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.5

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,120 840 891 2.5 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,080 708 801 3.0 2.3 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

610 488 577 5.9 4.5 4.7 5.1 4.7 5.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,144 4,751 5,027 4.6 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,269 1,010 1,073 4.7 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,306 2,176 2,335 3,700 2,645 2,547 2,720 2,495 2,663

On temporary layoff

693 463 526 1,041 827 791 782 758 847

Not on temporary layoff

2,613 1,713 1,809 2,659 1,818 1,756 1,938 1,737 1,816

Permanent job losers

2,082 1,161 1,260 2,102 1,273 1,166 1,354 1,181 1,241

Persons who completed temporary jobs

530 552 549 557 545 589 584 556 576

Job leavers

869 976 887 845 832 842 898 905 862

Reentrants

2,186 1,867 1,887 2,206 1,990 1,826 1,836 1,840 1,886

New entrants

536 441 501 537 464 460 440 447 485

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

47.9 39.9 41.6 50.8 44.6 44.9 46.2 43.9 45.2

On temporary layoff

10.1 8.5 9.4 14.3 13.9 13.9 13.3 13.3 14.4

Not on temporary layoff

37.9 31.4 32.2 36.5 30.7 30.9 32.9 30.5 30.8

Job leavers

12.6 17.9 15.8 11.6 14.0 14.8 15.2 15.9 14.6

Reentrants

31.7 34.2 33.6 30.3 33.6 32.2 31.2 32.4 32.0

New entrants

7.8 8.1 8.9 7.4 7.8 8.1 7.5 7.9 8.2

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.0 1.3 1.4 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,884 2,127 2,023 2,051 2,262 2,080 2,223 2,154 2,211

5 to 14 weeks

1,762 1,474 1,696 1,876 1,552 1,772 1,807 1,645 1,783

15 weeks and over

3,251 1,859 1,889 3,340 2,089 1,785 2,022 1,966 1,970

15 to 26 weeks

919 751 714 1,001 753 718 885 899 805

27 weeks and over

2,332 1,109 1,175 2,339 1,336 1,067 1,137 1,067 1,165

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.7 20.7 21.5 26.9 22.3 22.1 22.3 20.2 20.8

Median duration, in weeks

13.1 8.8 8.6 13.0 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

27.3 39.0 36.1 28.2 38.3 36.9 36.7 37.4 37.1

5 to 14 weeks

25.5 27.0 30.2 25.8 26.3 31.4 29.9 28.5 29.9

15 weeks and over

47.1 34.1 33.7 46.0 35.4 31.7 33.4 34.1 33.0

15 to 26 weeks

13.3 13.7 12.7 13.8 12.8 12.7 14.6 15.6 13.5

27 weeks and over

33.8 20.3 21.0 32.2 22.6 18.9 18.8 18.5 19.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,966 159,144 6,896 5,609 4.3 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

65,335 68,918 1,453 1,398 2.2 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,665 29,433 656 639 2.3 2.1

Professional and related occupations

37,669 39,485 796 759 2.1 1.9

Service occupations

25,458 25,749 1,709 1,134 6.3 4.2

Sales and office occupations

29,914 29,886 1,400 1,060 4.5 3.4

Sales and related occupations

14,155 14,242 672 497 4.5 3.4

Office and administrative support occupations

15,759 15,644 728 563 4.4 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,258 14,463 616 606 4.1 4.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,076 938 65 77 5.7 7.6

Construction and extraction occupations

8,356 8,658 446 413 5.1 4.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,826 4,867 104 116 2.1 2.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,001 20,128 1,169 886 5.5 4.2

Production occupations

8,268 8,184 388 295 4.5 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,733 11,944 782 591 6.2 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,896 5,609 4.3 3.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,301 4,381 4.2 3.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

63 4 10.0 0.8

Construction

398 419 4.0 4.1

Manufacturing

499 463 3.3 3.1

Durable goods

279 319 2.9 3.3

Nondurable goods

220 144 4.0 2.7

Wholesale and retail trade

1,019 699 5.2 3.6

Transportation and utilities

381 273 4.7 3.3

Information

83 94 3.5 3.3

Financial activities

192 195 1.9 1.9

Professional and business services

791 645 4.4 3.5

Education and health services

677 677 2.8 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

960 738 7.5 5.5

Other services

239 174 3.5 2.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

83 81 5.1 5.1

Government workers

467 321 2.2 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

510 325 4.7 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
June
2022
July
2022
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 1.1 1.1 2.1 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 1.3 1.4 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.3 3.3 3.4 4.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.5 3.6 3.6 4.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.2 4.3 4.3 5.5 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.7 6.4 6.3 8.2 6.7 6.7 7.0 6.7 6.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2022

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,045 99,782 40,994 41,212 59,052 58,570

Persons who currently want a job

5,567 5,341 2,478 2,618 3,089 2,723

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,638 1,469 842 786 796 683

Discouraged workers(2)

460 373 315 261 145 112

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,178 1,096 527 525 651 571

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,166 7,676 3,467 3,846 3,699 3,830

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.8 4.2 4.5 5.1 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,193 4,449 2,194 2,449 1,999 1,999

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,598 1,733 540 612 1,059 1,122

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

361 347 215 194 146 154

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

953 1,095 499 565 454 530

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Change from:
Sept.2022 - Oct.2022(p)

Total nonfarm

149,310 152,674 153,197 154,369 148,005 152,732 153,047 153,308 261

Total private

126,847 131,180 130,793 131,656 125,911 130,406 130,725 130,958 233

Goods-producing

20,705 21,481 21,409 21,451 20,499 21,196 21,244 21,277 33

Mining and logging

584 638 637 639 578 631 634 634 0

Logging

45.5 47.0 46.4 45.5 44.9 45.4 45.7 44.7 -1.0

Mining

538.9 590.9 591.0 593.3 533.5 585.8 588.2 588.8 0.6

Oil and gas extraction

121.7 135.0 134.9 135.2 121.3 134.5 135.2 135.6 0.4

Mining, except oil and gas

177.6 183.5 182.4 183.0 176.0 180.2 180.4 181.1 0.7

Coal mining

36.5 37.8 37.9 37.9 36.5 38.0 38.1 37.9 -0.2

Metal ore mining

41.8 43.9 43.6 43.6 41.9 43.6 43.8 43.7 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.3 101.8 100.9 101.5 97.7 98.6 98.5 99.5 1.0

Support activities for mining

239.6 272.4 273.7 275.1 236.2 271.1 272.6 272.1 -0.5

Construction

7,636 7,911 7,877 7,888 7,455 7,698 7,720 7,721 1

Construction of buildings

1,684.0 1,745.4 1,731.3 1,742.1 1,654.0 1,709.7 1,711.3 1,716.9 5.6

Residential building

883.1 918.8 907.9 915.3 869.0 900.8 901.3 903.7 2.4

Nonresidential building

800.9 826.6 823.4 826.8 785.0 808.9 810.0 813.2 3.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,099.9 1,125.0 1,124.9 1,127.1 1,043.5 1,074.7 1,074.3 1,073.9 -0.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,852.3 5,040.1 5,020.3 5,019.2 4,757.0 4,914.0 4,934.0 4,930.0 -4.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,236.6 2,315.7 2,306.3 2,305.1 2,203.1 2,266.2 2,275.2 2,273.7 -1.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,615.7 2,724.4 2,714.0 2,714.1 2,553.9 2,647.8 2,658.8 2,656.3 -2.5

Manufacturing

12,485 12,932 12,895 12,924 12,466 12,867 12,890 12,922 32

Durable goods

7,764 8,030 8,008 8,031 7,766 8,003 8,016 8,039 23

Wood products

415.8 431.8 429.4 430.0 413.5 430.8 430.8 429.9 -0.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

407.1 423.3 420.9 425.0 402.1 416.6 416.4 419.6 3.2

Primary metals

352.1 363.5 364.6 364.6 353.6 363.6 366.3 366.1 -0.2

Fabricated metal products

1,397.5 1,445.4 1,446.9 1,452.5 1,398.1 1,443.6 1,449.1 1,454.3 5.2

Machinery

1,060.9 1,102.1 1,097.2 1,098.8 1,063.6 1,099.3 1,099.6 1,102.6 3.0

Computer and electronic products

1,064.4 1,096.5 1,088.9 1,096.3 1,066.0 1,091.7 1,091.2 1,096.6 5.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.1 164.7 164.5 166.7 159.2 164.0 164.4 166.4 2.0

Communications equipment

84.8 84.1 82.4 84.4 85.4 84.2 83.2 84.7 1.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

370.1 390.6 387.5 390.3 371.5 388.6 388.6 391.0 2.4

Electronic instruments

419.6 424.5 422.4 423.0 419.5 422.9 423.1 422.8 -0.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

30.8 32.6 32.1 31.9 30.4 31.9 31.9 31.6 -0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

397.5 411.1 410.9 410.9 398.0 410.8 412.1 412.4 0.3

Transportation equipment(1)

1,672.7 1,729.5 1,730.7 1,730.2 1,676.6 1,723.0 1,727.7 1,732.4 4.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

992.1 1,022.3 1,024.2 1,018.3 998.4 1,011.1 1,018.5 1,023.3 4.8

Furniture and related products

379.6 382.1 379.2 379.7 379.4 381.7 381.4 381.2 -0.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

616.5 644.6 639.7 642.9 615.3 641.6 641.7 643.5 1.8

Nondurable goods

4,721 4,902 4,887 4,893 4,700 4,864 4,874 4,883 9

Food manufacturing

1,656.4 1,723.9 1,720.4 1,719.3 1,642.6 1,701.3 1,709.1 1,710.1 1.0

Textile mills

99.7 100.1 100.2 99.3 99.4 99.7 100.0 99.3 -0.7

Textile product mills

104.6 103.4 102.9 102.5 104.3 104.1 103.4 102.8 -0.6

Apparel

92.5 95.1 94.1 94.8 91.5 94.8 94.2 94.6 0.4

Paper and paper products

348.0 357.7 358.4 358.8 348.7 358.4 359.6 360.5 0.9

Printing and related support activities

372.5 378.3 373.4 376.2 369.9 377.5 373.7 374.7 1.0

Petroleum and coal products

107.8 107.9 107.4 107.9 105.6 105.6 105.9 105.8 -0.1

Chemicals

871.3 908.4 904.9 906.7 874.1 906.2 908.9 910.5 1.6

Plastics and rubber products

726.8 756.7 754.1 757.8 729.2 757.5 758.1 761.1 3.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

341.3 370.3 371.0 369.5 334.7 359.3 361.3 363.4 2.1

Private service-providing

106,142 109,699 109,384 110,205 105,412 109,210 109,481 109,681 200

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,100 28,643 28,586 28,845 28,013 28,799 28,792 28,823 31

Wholesale trade

5,725.0 5,913.1 5,903.3 5,931.5 5,716.3 5,896.9 5,908.5 5,923.1 14.6

Durable goods

3,148.3 3,255.6 3,249.0 3,260.0 3,149.9 3,247.2 3,253.9 3,262.6 8.7

Nondurable goods

2,092.7 2,154.1 2,149.0 2,164.2 2,083.4 2,147.1 2,149.4 2,155.4 6.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

484.0 503.4 505.3 507.3 483.0 502.6 505.2 505.1 -0.1

Retail trade

15,577.9 15,778.2 15,659.5 15,822.3 15,537.0 15,829.5 15,821.9 15,829.1 7.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,951.0 1,988.7 1,980.2 1,980.5 1,946.8 1,974.7 1,975.3 1,977.1 1.8

Automobile dealers

1,223.7 1,240.8 1,235.6 1,235.5 1,222.5 1,235.5 1,234.6 1,235.7 1.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

172.2 177.5 174.0 174.1 172.3 170.7 172.4 173.3 0.9

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

555.1 570.4 570.6 570.9 552.0 568.5 568.4 568.1 -0.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

445.8 426.2 423.5 429.9 444.8 433.1 431.4 430.2 -1.2

Electronics and appliance stores

440.2 423.8 422.2 423.8 423.5 427.9 424.7 419.0 -5.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,364.6 1,405.1 1,378.6 1,373.6 1,379.4 1,397.2 1,393.2 1,394.6 1.4

Food and beverage stores

3,118.4 3,209.8 3,181.9 3,195.6 3,118.8 3,200.9 3,201.6 3,198.9 -2.7

Health and personal care stores

1,054.7 1,058.7 1,062.7 1,080.0 1,050.9 1,069.1 1,073.4 1,075.6 2.2

Gasoline stations

949.5 990.6 981.4 984.4 943.5 974.6 975.4 980.0 4.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,064.8 1,087.5 1,071.5 1,085.1 1,072.0 1,085.5 1,086.8 1,091.5 4.7

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

540.8 529.1 520.0 533.1 544.0 533.0 530.4 531.8 1.4

General merchandise stores

3,160.8 3,147.5 3,136.2 3,209.6 3,138.2 3,225.4 3,219.0 3,216.8 -2.2

Department stores

956.0 939.3 929.8 957.6 950.7 966.7 962.1 956.9 -5.2

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,204.8 2,208.2 2,206.4 2,252.0 2,187.4 2,258.7 2,256.9 2,259.9 3.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

825.7 868.3 856.1 867.5 826.1 859.5 862.6 865.8 3.2

Nonstore retailers

661.6 642.9 645.2 659.2 649.0 648.6 648.1 647.8 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,258.3 6,407.6 6,481.4 6,547.2 6,220.2 6,529.5 6,518.2 6,526.4 8.2

Air transportation

505.0 567.9 567.3 571.1 505.5 564.3 567.0 571.2 4.2

Rail transportation

145.8 146.8 147.3 147.3 145.7 146.8 147.2 147.1 -0.1

Water transportation

55.7 63.3 62.9 61.7 55.0 61.4 61.7 61.8 0.1

Truck transportation

1,546.5 1,612.2 1,594.4 1,614.2 1,528.9 1,597.4 1,587.9 1,601.1 13.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

404.7 354.5 423.9 432.1 384.1 414.0 409.1 411.5 2.4

Pipeline transportation

50.4 47.8 47.0 47.2 50.3 47.8 47.3 47.2 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

26.4 35.3 34.1 32.3 26.1 29.1 30.4 31.0 0.6

Support activities for transportation

746.1 786.9 790.2 797.2 741.0 785.6 790.6 792.0 1.4

Couriers and messengers

1,044.8 1,044.7 1,057.0 1,077.1 1,077.6 1,114.5 1,114.9 1,121.4 6.5

Warehousing and storage

1,732.9 1,748.2 1,757.3 1,767.0 1,706.0 1,768.6 1,762.1 1,742.1 -20.0

Utilities

538.9 543.9 541.7 544.1 539.5 542.6 543.2 544.3 1.1

Information

2,897 3,056 3,042 3,052 2,886 3,032 3,039 3,043 4

Publishing industries, except Internet

793.2 844.9 846.0 837.0 793.8 839.8 845.4 840.5 -4.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

423.4 448.9 431.8 446.1 412.0 435.4 432.8 436.5 3.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

234.4 234.0 234.6 234.4 232.4 234.8 233.9 232.9 -1.0

Telecommunications

660.5 664.2 663.8 661.0 661.8 664.6 662.6 661.3 -1.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

402.0 427.6 432.1 434.4 401.4 427.7 431.4 432.4 1.0

Other information services

383.1 436.5 433.2 439.4 384.8 429.8 433.0 439.8 6.8

Financial activities

8,846 9,022 8,969 8,995 8,817 8,967 8,968 8,971 3

Finance and insurance

6,534.9 6,622.3 6,585.8 6,617.9 6,527.9 6,605.3 6,599.6 6,612.0 12.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.8 21.1 21.0 21.2 20.8 21.0 21.0 21.1 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,703.2 2,708.5 2,691.6 2,692.2 2,705.4 2,700.4 2,699.0 2,696.5 -2.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,727.6 1,748.6 1,740.4 1,742.2 1,733.4 1,741.5 1,745.6 1,747.5 1.9

Commercial banking

1,342.0 1,347.5 1,339.0 1,344.4 1,347.9 1,342.5 1,344.7 1,348.1 3.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

641.9 627.5 620.5 622.6 639.5 626.9 621.7 621.5 -0.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

333.7 332.4 330.7 327.4 332.5 331.9 331.7 327.5 -4.2

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

1,004.8 1,050.3 1,043.6 1,056.0 1,001.6 1,041.1 1,045.6 1,051.0 5.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,806.1 2,842.4 2,829.6 2,848.5 2,800.1 2,842.8 2,834.0 2,843.4 9.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,310.9 2,399.3 2,383.6 2,377.5 2,289.2 2,361.9 2,367.9 2,359.2 -8.7

Real estate

1,785.8 1,823.8 1,820.8 1,830.1 1,769.6 1,805.1 1,815.4 1,814.5 -0.9

Rental and leasing services

504.6 554.7 542.2 526.7 499.1 536.3 531.9 524.1 -7.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

20.5 20.8 20.6 20.7 20.5 20.5 20.6 20.6 0.0

Professional and business services

21,875 22,474 22,466 22,707 21,619 22,402 22,454 22,493 39

Professional and technical services

10,090.9 10,516.5 10,449.6 10,601.3 10,073.2 10,515.3 10,538.6 10,581.3 42.7

Legal services

1,173.3 1,179.2 1,170.9 1,186.6 1,168.6 1,180.8 1,178.7 1,182.1 3.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,024.6 1,064.3 1,062.8 1,082.2 1,076.3 1,112.7 1,118.6 1,123.5 4.9

Architectural and engineering services

1,582.3 1,671.9 1,659.3 1,674.7 1,570.9 1,651.3 1,656.4 1,663.2 6.8

Specialized design services

146.5 153.9 153.7 156.4 144.3 153.7 154.4 154.7 0.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,355.3 2,446.0 2,423.6 2,456.3 2,339.9 2,434.7 2,438.2 2,447.0 8.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,700.8 1,774.4 1,769.7 1,807.9 1,675.5 1,772.5 1,777.5 1,784.9 7.4

Scientific research and development services

840.8 896.9 888.2 897.8 842.0 888.4 892.9 898.2 5.3

Advertising and related services

455.4 491.6 487.7 493.9 452.0 489.6 489.7 491.8 2.1

Other professional and technical services

811.9 838.3 833.7 845.5 803.7 831.6 832.2 835.9 3.7

Management of companies and enterprises

2,342.7 2,400.0 2,389.0 2,395.9 2,342.9 2,390.4 2,392.8 2,397.0 4.2

Administrative and waste services

9,441.4 9,557.2 9,627.5 9,709.8 9,202.4 9,496.6 9,523.0 9,514.9 -8.1

Administrative and support services

8,972.7 9,073.4 9,144.7 9,223.1 8,738.2 9,017.9 9,043.2 9,034.2 -9.0

Office administrative services

561.6 605.8 604.6 608.9 560.2 601.6 604.0 606.8 2.8

Facilities support services

157.3 157.1 157.5 158.8 156.3 156.2 157.1 157.1 0.0

Employment services(1)

3,843.8 3,817.6 3,912.9 3,985.9 3,699.7 3,872.2 3,882.9 3,884.4 1.5

Temporary help services

3,146.5 3,090.2 3,174.6 3,241.1 3,025.1 3,155.0 3,167.6 3,179.4 11.8

Business support services

813.0 766.4 763.0 768.6 801.6 775.7 767.3 761.5 -5.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

145.6 156.7 157.0 157.4 143.7 153.6 155.2 155.7 0.5

Investigation and security services

909.3 934.5 941.5 943.7 904.9 932.4 939.4 938.0 -1.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,229.2 2,306.0 2,279.0 2,270.4 2,164.1 2,201.0 2,213.6 2,207.2 -6.4

Other support services

312.9 329.3 329.2 329.4 307.7 325.2 323.7 323.6 -0.1

Waste management and remediation services

468.7 483.8 482.8 486.7 464.2 478.7 479.8 480.7 0.9

Education and health services

24,048 24,298 24,624 24,954 23,805 24,562 24,653 24,732 79

Educational services

3,827.8 3,585.7 3,851.7 4,006.7 3,651.8 3,840.7 3,850.8 3,859.1 8.3

Health care and social assistance

20,220.2 20,712.6 20,772.1 20,947.7 20,153.6 20,721.0 20,801.7 20,872.8 71.1

Health care(3)

16,096.0 16,468.2 16,522.8 16,629.8 16,056.7 16,460.0 16,524.6 16,577.2 52.6

Ambulatory health care services

7,990.9 8,211.2 8,234.5 8,311.2 7,965.3 8,218.1 8,250.2 8,280.9 30.7

Offices of physicians

2,775.6 2,838.7 2,850.7 2,877.0 2,766.2 2,843.9 2,855.3 2,864.9 9.6

Offices of dentists

1,010.1 1,047.3 1,041.4 1,054.2 1,006.8 1,042.9 1,045.9 1,050.9 5.0

Offices of other health practitioners

1,040.9 1,095.7 1,096.3 1,109.9 1,036.3 1,094.1 1,100.1 1,106.4 6.3

Outpatient care centers

1,004.4 1,030.9 1,031.6 1,033.5 1,005.2 1,031.6 1,032.0 1,033.4 1.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

310.4 313.7 311.8 310.6 309.7 314.9 313.5 310.2 -3.3

Home health care services

1,538.2 1,566.7 1,579.8 1,598.3 1,529.2 1,571.1 1,581.0 1,587.1 6.1

Other ambulatory health care services

311.3 318.2 322.9 327.7 312.0 319.7 322.4 327.9 5.5

Hospitals

5,128.5 5,216.2 5,244.3 5,254.5 5,122.3 5,211.9 5,237.0 5,247.8 10.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

2,976.6 3,040.8 3,044.0 3,064.1 2,969.1 3,030.0 3,037.4 3,048.5 11.1

Nursing care facilities

1,356.3 1,364.4 1,367.4 1,378.8 1,349.2 1,360.6 1,362.9 1,367.0 4.1

Residential mental health facilities

596.6 614.6 616.1 618.0 597.0 613.0 615.8 617.4 1.6

Community care facilities for the elderly

870.3 903.5 903.6 909.1 869.6 899.0 901.4 906.1 4.7

Other residential care facilities

153.4 158.3 156.9 158.2 153.3 157.4 157.4 158.0 0.6

Social assistance

4,124.2 4,244.4 4,249.3 4,317.9 4,096.9 4,261.0 4,277.1 4,295.6 18.5

Individual and family services

2,739.2 2,825.5 2,821.0 2,860.1 2,734.5 2,822.4 2,838.7 2,848.3 9.6

Emergency and other relief services

192.9 202.6 200.4 205.9 193.3 204.3 202.6 206.9 4.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

276.4 278.2 274.7 276.7 274.4 274.7 275.0 274.5 -0.5

Child day care services

915.7 938.1 953.2 975.2 894.6 959.7 960.9 965.8 4.9

Leisure and hospitality

14,805 16,441 15,979 15,902 14,728 15,744 15,851 15,886 35

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,108.8 2,568.5 2,378.7 2,309.3 2,123.5 2,304.2 2,324.2 2,333.8 9.6

Performing arts and spectator sports

450.8 511.3 524.7 513.1 430.3 490.8 497.4 498.8 1.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

146.4 172.1 163.5 163.1 143.4 161.1 161.5 161.7 0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,511.6 1,885.1 1,690.5 1,633.1 1,549.8 1,652.3 1,665.3 1,673.3 8.0

Accommodation and food services

12,695.7 13,872.8 13,600.3 13,592.4 12,604.1 13,440.1 13,526.7 13,552.6 25.9

Accommodation

1,579.6 1,853.6 1,762.8 1,748.2 1,566.3 1,719.1 1,736.7 1,756.6 19.9

Food services and drinking places

11,116.1 12,019.2 11,837.5 11,844.2 11,037.8 11,721.0 11,790.0 11,796.0 6.0

Other services

5,571 5,765 5,718 5,750 5,544 5,704 5,724 5,733 9

Repair and maintenance

1,386.8 1,437.8 1,436.1 1,443.6 1,379.6 1,427.9 1,435.9 1,438.3 2.4

Personal and laundry services

1,414.5 1,472.1 1,468.1 1,481.2 1,401.7 1,460.4 1,468.3 1,469.6 1.3

Membership associations and organizations

2,769.4 2,855.4 2,813.9 2,825.4 2,762.6 2,815.2 2,819.7 2,824.9 5.2

Government

22,463 21,494 22,404 22,713 22,094 22,326 22,322 22,350 28

Federal

2,882 2,868 2,875 2,879 2,880 2,864 2,867 2,873 6

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,283.6 2,274.7 2,280.1 2,280.8 2,279.7 2,263.9 2,268.0 2,272.0 4.0

U.S. Postal Service

597.9 592.8 594.8 598.1 600.6 599.9 599.1 601.1 2.0

State government

5,388 5,000 5,345 5,419 5,224 5,261 5,261 5,254 -7

State government education

2,737.1 2,343.1 2,700.5 2,787.8 2,567.3 2,618.5 2,622.6 2,620.8 -1.8

State government, excluding education

2,650.7 2,656.9 2,644.6 2,630.9 2,657.0 2,642.4 2,638.1 2,633.1 -5.0

Local government

14,193 13,626 14,184 14,415 13,990 14,201 14,194 14,223 29

Local government education

7,876.7 7,024.2 7,751.1 7,991.8 7,633.0 7,776.2 7,755.0 7,768.5 13.5

Local government, excluding education

6,316.5 6,601.7 6,432.4 6,423.1 6,357.3 6,424.6 6,439.0 6,454.5 15.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.8 34.5 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

39.9 39.9 39.9 40.0

Mining and logging

44.8 46.2 46.3 46.2

Construction

38.8 38.7 38.7 38.9

Manufacturing

40.3 40.3 40.3 40.4

Durable goods

40.4 40.7 40.7 40.8

Nondurable goods

40.2 39.7 39.7 39.6

Private service-providing

33.8 33.4 33.5 33.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.0 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

39.4 38.9 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

30.8 30.1 30.1 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.4 38.5 38.6

Utilities

42.3 41.6 42.0 42.5

Information

36.9 36.6 36.6 36.5

Financial activities

37.5 37.4 37.4 37.5

Professional and business services

36.7 36.6 36.8 36.7

Education and health services

33.4 33.4 33.4 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

26.3 25.6 25.7 25.6

Other services

32.4 32.2 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Durable goods

3.0 3.3 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.1 3.0 2.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

Total private

$31.11 $32.36 $32.46 $32.58 $1,082.63 $1,116.42 $1,119.87 $1,124.01

Goods-producing

31.46 32.59 32.71 32.84 1,255.25 1,300.34 1,305.13 1,313.60

Mining and logging

35.30 36.55 36.52 36.56 1,581.44 1,688.61 1,690.88 1,689.07

Construction

33.41 34.91 35.07 35.27 1,296.31 1,351.02 1,357.21 1,372.00

Manufacturing

30.14 31.04 31.14 31.23 1,214.64 1,250.91 1,254.94 1,261.69

Durable goods

31.62 32.63 32.74 32.82 1,277.45 1,328.04 1,332.52 1,339.06

Nondurable goods

27.70 28.38 28.44 28.54 1,113.54 1,126.69 1,129.07 1,130.18

Private service-providing

31.03 32.31 32.40 32.52 1,048.81 1,079.15 1,085.40 1,089.42

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26.67 27.77 27.87 28.00 920.12 944.18 947.58 952.00

Wholesale trade

34.17 35.21 35.28 35.52 1,346.30 1,369.67 1,372.39 1,378.18

Retail trade

22.22 23.04 23.08 23.16 684.38 693.50 694.71 697.12

Transportation and warehousing

26.74 28.19 28.36 28.43 1,034.84 1,082.50 1,091.86 1,097.40

Utilities

45.28 47.25 47.85 48.12 1,915.34 1,965.60 2,009.70 2,045.10

Information

44.60 47.29 47.66 47.45 1,645.74 1,730.81 1,744.36 1,731.93

Financial activities

40.55 41.82 42.06 42.11 1,520.63 1,564.07 1,573.04 1,579.13

Professional and business services

37.29 38.91 38.98 39.17 1,368.54 1,424.11 1,434.46 1,437.54

Education and health services

30.71 31.96 31.98 32.06 1,025.71 1,067.46 1,068.13 1,067.60

Leisure and hospitality

19.19 20.27 20.32 20.43 504.70 518.91 522.22 523.01

Other services

28.21 28.65 28.85 28.98 914.00 922.53 931.86 936.05

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2022 - Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2022 - Oct.
2022(p)

Total private

110.0 112.9 113.2 113.4 0.2 163.6 174.7 175.7 176.7 0.6

Goods-producing

93.2 96.4 96.6 97.0 0.4 132.5 141.9 142.8 143.9 0.8

Mining and logging

81.4 91.6 92.2 92.0 -0.2 115.3 134.4 135.2 135.1 -0.1

Construction

99.7 102.7 103.0 103.5 0.5 144.7 155.8 156.9 158.7 1.1

Manufacturing

90.4 93.3 93.5 93.9 0.4 126.7 134.7 135.3 136.4 0.8

Durable goods

88.3 91.7 91.9 92.3 0.4 124.0 132.9 133.6 134.6 0.7

Nondurable goods

94.3 96.4 96.6 96.5 -0.1 132.6 138.8 139.4 139.8 0.3

Private service-providing

114.7 117.4 118.1 118.3 0.2 173.0 184.4 186.0 187.0 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

105.5 106.8 106.8 106.9 0.1 151.7 160.0 160.5 161.5 0.6

Wholesale trade

99.3 101.2 101.4 101.4 0.0 142.0 149.0 149.6 150.6 0.7

Retail trade

97.2 96.8 96.7 96.7 0.0 142.7 147.3 147.5 148.1 0.4

Transportation and warehousing

138.3 144.1 144.2 144.7 0.3 188.2 206.6 208.0 209.4 0.7

Utilities

98.7 97.7 98.7 100.1 1.4 147.7 152.5 156.1 159.1 1.9

Information

97.3 101.3 101.6 101.4 -0.2 154.4 170.6 172.4 171.4 -0.6

Financial activities

108.3 109.9 109.9 110.2 0.3 171.4 179.2 180.3 181.1 0.4

Professional and business services

124.4 128.6 129.6 129.4 -0.2 187.8 202.5 204.5 205.3 0.4

Education and health services

129.8 134.0 134.5 134.5 0.0 191.8 206.0 206.9 207.4 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

110.5 115.0 116.2 116.0 -0.2 171.1 188.1 190.6 191.3 0.4

Other services

103.6 105.9 106.6 106.8 0.2 160.1 166.3 168.6 169.6 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

Total nonfarm

73,744 76,156 76,337 76,510 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

60,970 63,180 63,356 63,504 48.4 48.4 48.5 48.5

Goods-producing

4,684 4,892 4,912 4,926 22.8 23.1 23.1 23.2

Mining and logging

72 83 84 84 12.5 13.2 13.2 13.2

Construction

1,034 1,080 1,087 1,089 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.1

Manufacturing

3,578 3,729 3,741 3,753 28.7 29.0 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

1,898 1,990 2,000 2,009 24.4 24.9 25.0 25.0

Nondurable goods

1,680 1,739 1,741 1,744 35.7 35.8 35.7 35.7

Private service-providing

56,286 58,288 58,444 58,578 53.4 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,083 11,459 11,465 11,468 39.6 39.8 39.8 39.8

Wholesale trade

1,719.6 1,800.5 1,803.0 1,806.6 30.1 30.5 30.5 30.5

Retail trade

7,590.3 7,746.7 7,752.1 7,749.3 48.9 48.9 49.0 49.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,637.9 1,773.2 1,770.7 1,772.8 26.3 27.2 27.2 27.2

Utilities

135.6 138.2 138.7 139.2 25.1 25.5 25.5 25.6

Information

1,136 1,220 1,232 1,237 39.4 40.2 40.5 40.7

Financial activities

4,941 4,998 4,994 5,004 56.0 55.7 55.7 55.8

Professional and business services

10,012 10,310 10,320 10,330 46.3 46.0 46.0 45.9

Education and health services

18,378 18,930 19,017 19,079 77.2 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

7,805 8,334 8,376 8,414 53.0 52.9 52.8 53.0

Other services

2,931 3,037 3,040 3,046 52.9 53.2 53.1 53.1

Government

12,774 12,976 12,981 13,006 57.8 58.1 58.2 58.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

Total private

102,682 106,280 106,500 106,667

Goods-producing

14,626 15,197 15,238 15,267

Mining and logging

431 473 472 470

Construction

5,502 5,691 5,703 5,713

Manufacturing

8,693 9,033 9,063 9,084

Durable goods

5,344 5,543 5,562 5,576

Nondurable goods

3,349 3,490 3,501 3,508

Private service-providing

88,056 91,083 91,262 91,400

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,648 24,304 24,303 24,311

Wholesale trade

4,543.8 4,683.1 4,691.0 4,704.8

Retail trade

13,263.5 13,496.4 13,487.6 13,478.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,411.2 5,690.1 5,690.0 5,692.0

Utilities

429.1 434.7 434.5 435.7

Information

2,291 2,417 2,422 2,420

Financial activities

6,639 6,749 6,755 6,762

Professional and business services

17,506 17,899 17,900 17,886

Education and health services

20,781 21,354 21,428 21,480

Leisure and hospitality

12,669 13,713 13,787 13,870

Other services

4,522 4,647 4,667 4,671

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.2 33.9 34.0 34.0

Goods-producing

40.8 40.6 40.7 40.8

Mining and logging

46.7 47.3 48.1 48.0

Construction

39.5 39.5 39.5 39.7

Manufacturing

41.3 41.0 41.1 41.1

Durable goods

41.2 41.3 41.5 41.6

Nondurable goods

41.4 40.4 40.5 40.4

Private service-providing

33.1 32.8 32.9 32.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 33.9 34.0 33.9

Wholesale trade

39.2 39.0 39.0 38.8

Retail trade

30.8 30.2 30.3 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 37.9 37.9 37.9

Utilities

42.2 42.4 42.0 42.6

Information

36.3 36.2 36.1 36.2

Financial activities

37.4 37.3 37.2 37.2

Professional and business services

36.3 36.3 36.6 36.5

Education and health services

32.6 32.6 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

25.0 24.5 24.6 24.5

Other services

31.4 31.2 31.2 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9

Durable goods

4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1

Nondurable goods

4.1 3.7 3.7 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)

Total private

$26.42 $27.67 $27.77 $27.86 $903.56 $938.01 $944.18 $947.24

Goods-producing

26.88 28.15 28.29 28.41 1,096.70 1,142.89 1,151.40 1,159.13

Mining and logging

31.30 33.14 33.09 33.15 1,461.71 1,567.52 1,591.63 1,591.20

Construction

30.95 32.63 32.83 32.99 1,222.53 1,288.89 1,296.79 1,309.70

Manufacturing

24.17 25.12 25.25 25.35 998.22 1,029.92 1,037.78 1,041.89

Durable goods

25.19 26.27 26.40 26.52 1,037.83 1,084.95 1,095.60 1,103.23

Nondurable goods

22.55 23.26 23.38 23.44 933.57 939.70 946.89 946.98

Private service-providing

26.32 27.57 27.66 27.75 871.19 904.30 910.01 912.98

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.85 24.07 24.17 24.26 786.04 815.97 821.78 822.41

Wholesale trade

28.20 29.37 29.55 29.71 1,105.44 1,145.43 1,152.45 1,152.75

Retail trade

18.92 19.63 19.67 19.76 582.74 592.83 596.00 598.73

Transportation and warehousing

24.49 26.42 26.60 26.58 942.87 1,001.32 1,008.14 1,007.38

Utilities

40.22 42.20 42.34 42.80 1,697.28 1,789.28 1,778.28 1,823.28

Information

36.91 38.36 38.90 38.93 1,339.83 1,388.63 1,404.29 1,409.27

Financial activities

30.73 32.44 32.53 32.57 1,149.30 1,210.01 1,210.12 1,211.60

Professional and business services

31.29 32.68 32.76 32.90 1,135.83 1,186.28 1,199.02 1,200.85

Education and health services

27.79 29.09 29.13 29.23 905.95 948.33 949.64 952.90

Leisure and hospitality

16.90 17.93 17.99 18.10 422.50 439.29 442.55 443.45

Other services

24.07 24.62 24.77 24.81 755.80 768.14 772.82 776.55

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2022 - Oct.
2022(p)
Oct.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022(p)
Oct.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2022 - Oct.
2022(p)

Total private

117.0 120.1 120.7 120.9 0.2 206.6 222.0 224.0 225.0 0.4

Goods-producing

91.2 94.3 94.8 95.2 0.4 150.1 162.5 164.2 165.6 0.9

Mining and logging

107.0 118.9 120.6 119.9 -0.6 194.7 229.1 232.2 231.1 -0.5

Construction

108.8 112.6 112.8 113.6 0.7 181.9 198.3 200.0 202.3 1.2

Manufacturing

82.4 85.0 85.5 85.7 0.2 130.3 139.7 141.2 142.1 0.6

Durable goods

82.7 86.0 86.7 87.1 0.5 130.1 141.0 142.9 144.3 1.0

Nondurable goods

81.7 83.1 83.5 83.5 0.0 130.2 136.5 138.0 138.3 0.2

Private service-providing

124.2 127.3 127.9 128.1 0.2 224.2 240.7 242.7 243.9 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

113.8 115.2 115.6 115.3 -0.3 185.8 198.2 199.6 199.8 0.1

Wholesale trade

105.7 108.4 108.6 108.3 -0.3 176.0 187.9 189.4 190.0 0.3

Retail trade

103.4 103.1 103.4 103.4 0.0 167.6 173.5 174.3 175.0 0.4

Transportation and warehousing

157.7 163.2 163.2 163.3 0.1 245.8 274.5 276.3 276.2 0.0

Utilities

92.6 94.3 93.3 94.9 1.7 155.5 166.0 164.9 169.6 2.9

Information

94.9 99.9 99.8 100.0 0.2 173.4 189.6 192.2 192.7 0.3

Financial activities

116.9 118.5 118.3 118.4 0.1 220.9 236.5 236.7 237.2 0.2

Professional and business services

142.1 145.3 146.5 146.0 -0.3 264.4 282.3