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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	         USDL-20-2033
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, November 6, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                    THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 638,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
declined to 6.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. These
improvements in the labor market reflect the continued resumption of economic activity
that had been curtailed due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain
it. In October, notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, professional and
business services, retail trade, and construction. Employment in government declined.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In October, the unemployment rate declined by 1.0 percentage point to 6.9 percent, and
the number of unemployed persons fell by 1.5 million to 11.1 million. Both measures have
declined for 6 consecutive months but are nearly twice their February levels (3.5 percent
and 5.8 million, respectively). (See table A-1. For more information about how the
household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box
note at the end of this news release.)

Unemployment rates declined among all major worker groups in October. The rate was 6.7
percent for adult men, 6.5 percent for adult women, 13.9 percent for teenagers, 6.0 percent
for Whites, 10.8 percent for Blacks, 7.6 percent for Asians, and 8.8 percent for Hispanics.
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff fell by 1.4 million to 3.2
million. This measure is down considerably from the high of 18.1 million in April but is 2.4
million higher than in February. The number of permanent job losers, at 3.7 million in October,
changed little over the month but is 2.4 million higher than in February. (See table A-11.)

In October, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) increased
by 1.2 million to 3.6 million, accounting for 32.5 percent of the total unemployed. By contrast,
the number of unemployed persons jobless 15 to 26 weeks decreased by 2.3 million to 2.6 million,
and the number of persons jobless 5 to 14 weeks decreased by 457,000 to 2.3 million. The number
of persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks was about unchanged at 2.5 million. (See table
A-12.)

The labor force participation rate increased by 0.3 percentage point to 61.7 percent in October;
this is 1.7 percentage points below the February level. The employment-population ratio increased
by 0.8 percentage point to 57.4 percent in October but is 3.7 percentage points lower than in
February. (See table A-1.)

In October, the number of persons who usually work full time rose by 1.2 million to 123.6 million,
and the number who usually work part time increased by 1.0 million to 26.2 million. (See table
A-9.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons increased by 383,000 to 6.7 million
in October, after declines totaling 4.6 million over the prior 5 months. These individuals, who would
have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced
or they were unable to find full-time jobs. This group includes persons who usually work full
time and persons who usually work part time. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job decreased by 539,000 to
6.7 million in October; this measure is 1.7 million higher than in February. These individuals
were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the last
4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons marginally
attached to the labor force, at 2.0 million, was about unchanged in October. These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime
in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number
of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available
for them, was 588,000 in October, essentially unchanged from the previous month. (See Summary
table A.) 

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In October, 21.2 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic, down
from 22.7 percent in September. These data refer to employed persons who teleworked or worked at
home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically because of the pandemic. 

In October, 15.1 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their employer
closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all or worked fewer 
hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure is down from 19.4 million
in September. Among those who reported in October that they were unable to work because of pandemic-
related closures or lost business, 11.7 percent received at least some pay from their employer for
the hours not worked, up from 10.3 percent in September. 
				
About 3.6 million persons not in the labor force in October were prevented from looking for work
due to the pandemic. This is down from 4.5 million in September. (To be counted as unemployed,
by definition, individuals must either be actively looking for work or on temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May to help
gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not seasonally adjusted. Tables
with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm. 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 638,000 in October and has increased for 6 consecutive
months. In October, nonfarm employment was below its February level by 10.1 million, or 6.6 
percent. Notable job gains occurred over the month in leisure and hospitality, professional and
business services, retail trade, and construction. Employment in government declined. (See table
B-1. For more information about how the establishment survey and its measures were affected by
the coronavirus pandemic, see the box note at the end of this news release.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 271,000 in October, with gains in food services
and drinking places (+192,000); arts, entertainment, and recreation (+44,000); and accommodation
(+34,000). Leisure and hospitality has added 4.8 million jobs since April, but employment in the
industry is down by 3.5 million since February. 

Professional and business services added 208,000 jobs in October, with temporary help services
(+109,000) accounting for about half of the gain. Employment also increased in services to buildings
and dwellings (+19,000), computer systems design and related services (+16,000), and management 
and technical consulting services (+15,000). Employment in professional and business services is
1.1 million below its February level.

In October, retail trade added 104,000 jobs, with almost one-third of the gain in electronics and
appliance stores (+31,000). Employment also rose in motor vehicle and parts dealers (+23,000),
furniture and home furnishings stores (+14,000), clothing and clothing accessories stores (+13,000),
general merchandise stores (+10,000), and nonstore retailers (+9,000). Employment in retail trade
has risen by 1.9 million since April but is 499,000 below its February level.

Construction added 84,000 jobs in October. Specialty trade contractors added jobs, both in the
nonresidential (+28,000) and residential (+18,000) components. Employment also rose in heavy and
civil engineering construction and in construction of buildings (+19,000 each). Construction has
added 789,000 jobs in the last 6 months, but employment is down by 294,000 since February.

Employment in health care and social assistance rose by 79,000 in October but is down by 950,000
since February. In October, health care employment increased by 58,000, with the largest gains
occurring in hospitals (+16,000), offices of physicians (+14,000), offices of dentists (+11,000),
and outpatient care centers (+10,000). These increases were partially offset by a decline of 9,000
in nursing and residential care facilities. Social assistance added 21,000 jobs over the month. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 63,000 in October, with gains occurring
in warehousing and storage (+28,000), transit and ground passenger transportation (+25,000), and
truck transportation (+10,000). By contrast, air transportation shed 18,000 jobs. Employment in
transportation and warehousing is 271,000 below its February level.

The other services industry added 47,000 jobs in October, with gains occurring in personal and
laundry services (+27,000) and in repair and maintenance (+18,000). Employment in other services
is 436,000 below its February level.

Manufacturing employment rose by 38,000 in October but is 621,000 lower than in February. Gains
occurred in fabricated metal products (+7,000), primary metals (+6,000), and wood products
(+4,000). Employment continued to trend up in food manufacturing (+6,000) and in plastics and
rubber products (+4,000). 

Employment in financial activities rose by 31,000 in October but is 129,000 lower than in February.
Over-the-month job gains occurred in finance and insurance (+17,000) and real estate (+10,000). 

In October, government employment fell by 268,000. A decrease of 138,000 in federal government was
driven by a loss of 147,000 temporary 2020 Census workers. Job losses also occurred in local 
government education and state government education (-98,000 and -61,000, respectively).

Employment in other major industries, including mining, wholesale trade, and information, changed
little in October. 

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 4
cents to $29.50. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
rose by 5 cents to $24.82. The large employment fluctuations over the past several months--especially
in industries with lower-paid workers--complicate the analysis of recent trends in average hourly
earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.8 hours in
October. In manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.3 hour to 40.5 hours, and overtime rose by
0.2 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees increased
by 0.1 hour to 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised up by 4,000 from +1,489,000
to +1,493,000, and the change for September was revised up by 11,000 from +661,000 to +672,000.
With these revisions, employment in August and September combined was 15,000 higher than previously
reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on
Friday, December 4, 2020, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


  ________________________________________________________________________________________           
 |           										  |
 |            Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on October 2020 Establishment		  |
 |                              and Household Survey Data                		  |
 |  											  |
 | Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.  |
 | In the establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the establishments are	  |
 | assigned to four regional data collection centers for collection. Although these	  |
 | centers were closed, interviewers at these centers worked remotely to collect data	  |
 | by telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to report electronically. The	  |
 | collection rate for the establishment survey was 79 percent in October, higher than	  |
 | the average for the 12 months ending in February 2020. The household survey is	  |
 | generally conducted through in-person and telephone interviews. However, for the	  |
 | safety of both interviewers and respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only  |
 | when telephone interviews could not be done. The household survey response rate was 	  |
 | 80 percent in October, considerably higher than the low of 65 percent in June but	  |
 | below the average of 83 percent for the 12 months ending in February 2020. 		  |
 |											  |
 | In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any	  |
 | part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even	  |
 | if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently	  |
 | absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if	  |
 | they continue to receive benefits. 							  |
 | 											  |
 | In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not	  |
 | in the labor force based on their answers to a series of questions about their	  |
 | activities during the survey reference week (October 11th through October 17th).	  |
 | Workers who indicate they were not working during the entire survey reference week	  |
 | and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be classified as unemployed on	  |
 | temporary layoff. As in recent months, a large number of persons were classified as	  |
 | unemployed on temporary layoff in October. 						  |
 |  											  |
 | Since March, household survey interviewers have been instructed to classify employed	  |
 | persons absent from work due to temporary, coronavirus-related business closures or	  |
 | cutbacks as unemployed on temporary layoff. BLS and Census Bureau analyses of the	  |
 | underlying data suggest there still may be some workers affected by the pandemic who	  |
 | should have been classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. However, the share of	  |
 | responses that may have been misclassified was highest in the early months of the 	  |
 | pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent months. 				  |
 |  											  |
 | For March through September, BLS published an estimate of what the unemployment rate	  |
 | would have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed.	  |
 | Repeating this same approach, the overall October unemployment rate would have been	  |
 | 0.3 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents the upper bound	  |
 | of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size of the		  |
 | misclassification error. 								  |
 |  											  |
 | According to usual practice, the data from the household survey are accepted as	  |
 | recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify	  |
 | survey responses. 									  |
 |  											  |
 | More information is available at							  |
 | www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-october-2020.htm. 		  |
 |________________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Change from:
Sept.
2020-
Oct.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,845 260,558 260,742 260,925 183

Civilian labor force

164,401 160,838 160,143 160,867 724

Participation rate

63.3 61.7 61.4 61.7 0.3

Employed

158,544 147,288 147,563 149,806 2,243

Employment-population ratio

61.0 56.5 56.6 57.4 0.8

Unemployed

5,857 13,550 12,580 11,061 -1,519

Unemployment rate

3.6 8.4 7.9 6.9 -1.0

Not in labor force

95,444 99,720 100,599 100,058 -541

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 8.4 7.9 6.9 -1.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.2 8.0 7.4 6.7 -0.7

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.2 8.4 7.7 6.5 -1.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.3 16.1 15.9 13.9 -2.0

White

3.2 7.3 7.0 6.0 -1.0

Black or African American

5.5 13.0 12.1 10.8 -1.3

Asian

2.8 10.7 8.9 7.6 -1.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.1 10.5 10.3 8.8 -1.5

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 7.6 7.1 6.1 -1.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.5 12.6 10.6 9.8 -0.8

High school graduates, no college

3.7 9.8 9.0 8.1 -0.9

Some college or associate degree

2.8 8.0 8.1 6.5 -1.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 5.3 4.8 4.2 -0.6

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,691 10,307 9,135 7,712 -1,423

Job leavers

846 589 801 769 -32

Reentrants

1,698 2,095 2,146 2,009 -137

New entrants

622 554 537 528 -9

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,978 2,281 2,552 2,500 -52

5 to 14 weeks

1,747 3,134 2,732 2,275 -457

15 to 26 weeks

884 6,517 4,918 2,617 -2,301

27 weeks and over

1,259 1,624 2,405 3,556 1,151

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,397 7,572 6,300 6,683 383

Slack work or business conditions

2,747 6,214 4,936 5,312 376

Could only find part-time work

1,278 1,139 1,122 1,133 11

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,544 18,630 18,918 19,421 503

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,254 2,080 1,922 1,956 34

Discouraged workers

326 535 581 588 7

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

185 1,493 672 638

Total private

190 1,028 892 906

Goods-producing

-20 53 97 123

Mining and logging

4 -1 2 1

Construction

17 24 35 84

Manufacturing

-41 30 60 38

Durable goods(1)

-47 -2 44 21

Motor vehicles and parts

-42.3 -4.8 7.7 1.4

Nondurable goods

6 32 16 17

Private service-providing

210 975 795 783

Wholesale trade

10.1 12.4 18.9 6.4

Retail trade

21.9 261.0 23.4 103.7

Transportation and warehousing

6.8 85.5 40.2 63.2

Utilities

-1.3 -0.1 2.2 -1.5

Information

-1 23 47 -3

Financial activities

21 28 37 31

Professional and business services(1)

42 184 122 208

Temporary help services

-6.2 101.5 21.8 108.7

Education and health services(1)

40 175 49 57

Health care and social assistance

41.1 103.3 118.0 79.0

Leisure and hospitality

70 138 406 271

Other services

0 69 49 47

Government

-5 465 -220 -268

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

200 2,678 1,309 934

Total private

181 2,428 1,149 942

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.8 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.6 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.2 81.3 81.4 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.7 34.8 34.8

Average hourly earnings

$28.24 $29.45 $29.46 $29.50

Average weekly earnings

$971.46 $1,021.92 $1,025.21 $1,026.60

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

111.3 103.7 104.8 105.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 1.2 1.1 0.8

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

150.3 146.0 147.6 148.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 1.5 1.1 0.9

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

56.8 70.2 70.9 68.6

Manufacturing (76 industries)

40.8 61.2 64.5 59.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,845 260,742 260,925 259,845 260,204 260,373 260,558 260,742 260,925

Civilian labor force

164,576 160,073 161,053 164,401 159,932 159,870 160,838 160,143 160,867

Participation rate

63.3 61.4 61.7 63.3 61.5 61.4 61.7 61.4 61.7

Employed

159,067 147,796 150,433 158,544 142,182 143,532 147,288 147,563 149,806

Employment-population ratio

61.2 56.7 57.7 61.0 54.6 55.1 56.5 56.6 57.4

Unemployed

5,510 12,277 10,620 5,857 17,750 16,338 13,550 12,580 11,061

Unemployment rate

3.3 7.7 6.6 3.6 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9 6.9

Not in labor force

95,269 100,670 99,872 95,444 100,273 100,503 99,720 100,599 100,058

Persons who currently want a job

4,412 6,984 6,317 4,756 8,195 7,732 6,985 7,227 6,688

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,687 126,127 126,218 125,687 125,860 125,944 126,036 126,127 126,218

Civilian labor force

86,824 85,068 85,464 86,901 84,596 84,533 85,315 85,237 85,569

Participation rate

69.1 67.4 67.7 69.1 67.2 67.1 67.7 67.6 67.8

Employed

83,918 78,817 79,794 83,776 75,629 76,212 78,255 78,674 79,587

Employment-population ratio

66.8 62.5 63.2 66.7 60.1 60.5 62.1 62.4 63.1

Unemployed

2,906 6,251 5,670 3,126 8,967 8,321 7,061 6,563 5,982

Unemployment rate

3.3 7.3 6.6 3.6 10.6 9.8 8.3 7.7 7.0

Not in labor force

38,863 41,059 40,754 38,786 41,264 41,411 40,720 40,890 40,649

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,242 117,763 117,854 117,242 117,492 117,580 117,672 117,763 117,854

Civilian labor force

83,967 82,248 82,575 83,911 81,995 81,904 82,512 82,296 82,562

Participation rate

71.6 69.8 70.1 71.6 69.8 69.7 70.1 69.9 70.1

Employed

81,433 76,468 77,330 81,196 73,641 74,184 75,945 76,231 77,049

Employment-population ratio

69.5 64.9 65.6 69.3 62.7 63.1 64.5 64.7 65.4

Unemployed

2,534 5,781 5,245 2,715 8,354 7,720 6,567 6,065 5,513

Unemployment rate

3.0 7.0 6.4 3.2 10.2 9.4 8.0 7.4 6.7

Not in labor force

33,275 35,515 35,279 33,330 35,497 35,676 35,160 35,467 35,291

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,158 134,615 134,707 134,158 134,344 134,429 134,523 134,615 134,707

Civilian labor force

77,752 75,005 75,589 77,500 75,336 75,337 75,523 74,906 75,298

Participation rate

58.0 55.7 56.1 57.8 56.1 56.0 56.1 55.6 55.9

Employed

75,149 68,979 70,639 74,769 66,552 67,320 69,033 68,890 70,220

Employment-population ratio

56.0 51.2 52.4 55.7 49.5 50.1 51.3 51.2 52.1

Unemployed

2,603 6,026 4,950 2,731 8,783 8,017 6,489 6,016 5,079

Unemployment rate

3.3 8.0 6.5 3.5 11.7 10.6 8.6 8.0 6.7

Not in labor force

56,406 59,610 59,118 56,658 59,009 59,092 59,000 59,709 59,409

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,907 126,429 126,520 125,907 126,155 126,243 126,336 126,429 126,520

Civilian labor force

74,891 72,129 72,728 74,542 72,580 72,720 72,715 71,850 72,330

Participation rate

59.5 57.1 57.5 59.2 57.5 57.6 57.6 56.8 57.2

Employed

72,584 66,547 68,109 72,130 64,426 65,113 66,637 66,289 67,615

Employment-population ratio

57.6 52.6 53.8 57.3 51.1 51.6 52.7 52.4 53.4

Unemployed

2,307 5,582 4,619 2,411 8,154 7,607 6,078 5,561 4,715

Unemployment rate

3.1 7.7 6.4 3.2 11.2 10.5 8.4 7.7 6.5

Not in labor force

51,016 54,299 53,792 51,365 53,575 53,523 53,622 54,578 54,190

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,696 16,551 16,551 16,696 16,557 16,550 16,550 16,551 16,551

Civilian labor force

5,718 5,695 5,750 5,948 5,356 5,245 5,611 5,997 5,974

Participation rate

34.2 34.4 34.7 35.6 32.3 31.7 33.9 36.2 36.1

Employed

5,050 4,781 4,994 5,218 4,114 4,235 4,706 5,043 5,142

Employment-population ratio

30.2 28.9 30.2 31.3 24.8 25.6 28.4 30.5 31.1

Unemployed

668 914 756 730 1,242 1,011 905 954 832

Unemployment rate

11.7 16.0 13.1 12.3 23.2 19.3 16.1 15.9 13.9

Not in labor force

10,978 10,856 10,801 10,748 11,201 11,304 10,939 10,554 10,577

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,172 201,515 201,610 201,172 201,233 201,319 201,417 201,515 201,610

Civilian labor force

127,165 124,095 124,735 127,122 124,009 123,618 124,471 124,213 124,694

Participation rate

63.2 61.6 61.9 63.2 61.6 61.4 61.8 61.6 61.8

Employed

123,402 115,603 117,599 123,028 111,538 112,226 115,354 115,496 117,181

Employment-population ratio

61.3 57.4 58.3 61.2 55.4 55.7 57.3 57.3 58.1

Unemployed

3,763 8,492 7,135 4,094 12,470 11,392 9,118 8,717 7,513

Unemployment rate

3.0 6.8 5.7 3.2 10.1 9.2 7.3 7.0 6.0

Not in labor force

74,007 77,420 76,876 74,050 77,224 77,701 76,946 77,302 76,916

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,081 64,919 65,076 66,115 64,688 64,420 64,911 64,976 65,145

Participation rate

71.7 70.3 70.4 71.7 70.1 69.8 70.3 70.3 70.5

Employed

64,316 60,904 61,491 64,173 58,898 59,054 60,425 60,738 61,335

Employment-population ratio

69.8 65.9 66.5 69.6 63.8 64.0 65.4 65.7 66.3

Unemployed

1,765 4,014 3,585 1,941 5,790 5,367 4,485 4,238 3,810

Unemployment rate

2.7 6.2 5.5 2.9 9.0 8.3 6.9 6.5 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

56,682 54,696 55,151 56,399 55,147 55,124 55,124 54,568 54,836

Participation rate

58.6 56.4 56.8 58.3 56.9 56.9 56.9 56.3 56.5

Employed

55,143 50,917 52,153 54,755 49,440 49,822 51,124 50,794 51,742

Employment-population ratio

57.0 52.5 53.7 56.6 51.1 51.4 52.7 52.4 53.3

Unemployed

1,539 3,779 2,998 1,644 5,707 5,302 4,000 3,774 3,094

Unemployment rate

2.7 6.9 5.4 2.9 10.3 9.6 7.3 6.9 5.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,402 4,481 4,507 4,608 4,174 4,074 4,437 4,669 4,714

Participation rate

36.0 36.9 37.1 37.6 34.4 33.6 36.6 38.5 38.8

Employed

3,943 3,782 3,955 4,099 3,201 3,350 3,805 3,965 4,105

Employment-population ratio

32.2 31.2 32.6 33.5 26.4 27.6 31.4 32.7 33.8

Unemployed

460 699 552 509 973 724 632 704 609

Unemployment rate

10.4 15.6 12.3 11.0 23.3 17.8 14.2 15.1 12.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,152 33,420 33,453 33,152 33,323 33,353 33,386 33,420 33,453

Civilian labor force

20,834 19,907 20,249 20,704 20,010 20,094 20,150 19,956 20,136

Participation rate

62.8 59.6 60.5 62.5 60.0 60.2 60.4 59.7 60.2

Employed

19,695 17,609 18,109 19,571 16,927 17,161 17,528 17,537 17,970

Employment-population ratio

59.4 52.7 54.1 59.0 50.8 51.5 52.5 52.5 53.7

Unemployed

1,139 2,298 2,140 1,133 3,083 2,933 2,621 2,420 2,166

Unemployment rate

5.5 11.5 10.6 5.5 15.4 14.6 13.0 12.1 10.8

Not in labor force

12,317 13,513 13,204 12,448 13,313 13,258 13,237 13,464 13,318

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,552 9,133 9,285 9,485 9,161 9,229 9,277 9,117 9,227

Participation rate

68.5 64.8 65.8 68.0 65.2 65.6 65.9 64.7 65.4

Employed

9,068 8,031 8,249 9,003 7,670 7,827 8,051 7,967 8,169

Employment-population ratio

65.0 57.0 58.5 64.6 54.6 55.7 57.2 56.5 57.9

Unemployed

484 1,102 1,036 482 1,492 1,402 1,225 1,150 1,057

Unemployment rate

5.1 12.1 11.2 5.1 16.3 15.2 13.2 12.6 11.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,567 10,102 10,245 10,494 10,113 10,156 10,174 10,116 10,180

Participation rate

63.1 59.7 60.5 62.6 60.0 60.2 60.2 59.8 60.1

Employed

10,039 9,026 9,296 9,984 8,693 8,785 8,949 8,997 9,244

Employment-population ratio

59.9 53.4 54.9 59.6 51.6 52.0 53.0 53.2 54.6

Unemployed

528 1,076 949 511 1,420 1,371 1,224 1,120 936

Unemployment rate

5.0 10.7 9.3 4.9 14.0 13.5 12.0 11.1 9.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

715 672 718 724 735 709 699 723 729

Participation rate

29.1 27.9 29.8 29.5 30.4 29.4 29.0 30.0 30.3

Employed

588 552 563 584 564 549 527 573 557

Employment-population ratio

23.9 22.9 23.4 23.8 23.3 22.7 21.9 23.8 23.1

Unemployed

127 120 155 141 171 160 172 150 172

Unemployment rate

17.8 17.8 21.6 19.4 23.2 22.5 24.6 20.7 23.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,399 16,668 16,542 16,399 16,471 16,420 16,597 16,668 16,542

Civilian labor force

10,669 10,507 10,365 10,713 10,108 10,408 10,595 10,501 10,398

Participation rate

65.1 63.0 62.7 65.3 61.4 63.4 63.8 63.0 62.9

Employed

10,371 9,581 9,588 10,409 8,717 9,163 9,462 9,568 9,611

Employment-population ratio

63.2 57.5 58.0 63.5 52.9 55.8 57.0 57.4 58.1

Unemployed

298 926 777 305 1,392 1,245 1,133 933 787

Unemployment rate

2.8 8.8 7.5 2.8 13.8 12.0 10.7 8.9 7.6

Not in labor force

5,730 6,162 6,177 5,686 6,362 6,012 6,001 6,167 6,145

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,814 44,388 44,475 43,814 44,132 44,212 44,300 44,388 44,475

Civilian labor force

29,542 28,771 29,235 29,482 28,907 28,560 28,925 28,798 29,186

Participation rate

67.4 64.8 65.7 67.3 65.5 64.6 65.3 64.9 65.6

Employed

28,419 25,897 26,754 28,279 24,711 24,885 25,886 25,834 26,619

Employment-population ratio

64.9 58.3 60.2 64.5 56.0 56.3 58.4 58.2 59.9

Unemployed

1,123 2,874 2,481 1,203 4,195 3,675 3,040 2,964 2,567

Unemployment rate

3.8 10.0 8.5 4.1 14.5 12.9 10.5 10.3 8.8

Not in labor force

14,272 15,617 15,240 14,332 15,225 15,652 15,375 15,590 15,289

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,858 15,833 16,103 15,841 15,588 15,488 15,761 15,848 16,095

Participation rate

80.2 79.0 80.2 80.1 78.2 77.6 78.8 79.1 80.1

Employed

15,377 14,529 14,845 15,310 13,590 13,728 14,213 14,463 14,785

Employment-population ratio

77.7 72.5 73.9 77.4 68.2 68.8 71.0 72.1 73.6

Unemployed

481 1,303 1,258 531 1,999 1,761 1,549 1,386 1,310

Unemployment rate

3.0 8.2 7.8 3.4 12.8 11.4 9.8 8.7 8.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,376 11,602 11,816 12,318 11,999 11,881 11,904 11,580 11,765

Participation rate

61.8 57.1 58.0 61.5 59.4 58.7 58.7 57.0 57.8

Employed

11,922 10,326 10,793 11,834 10,158 10,217 10,649 10,307 10,711

Employment-population ratio

59.5 50.8 53.0 59.1 50.3 50.5 52.5 50.7 52.6

Unemployed

455 1,276 1,023 485 1,841 1,664 1,255 1,272 1,054

Unemployment rate

3.7 11.0 8.7 3.9 15.3 14.0 10.5 11.0 9.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,307 1,336 1,316 1,323 1,319 1,191 1,260 1,370 1,326

Participation rate

32.6 33.2 32.6 33.0 32.9 29.7 31.3 34.0 32.9

Employed

1,121 1,042 1,117 1,135 964 940 1,024 1,063 1,123

Employment-population ratio

27.9 25.9 27.7 28.3 24.0 23.4 25.5 26.4 27.8

Unemployed

187 295 199 188 355 251 236 306 203

Unemployment rate

14.3 22.1 15.1 14.2 26.9 21.0 18.7 22.4 15.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,588 8,946 9,052 9,783 8,342 8,255 8,500 8,835 9,234

Participation rate

46.3 44.2 45.4 47.2 42.9 44.9 44.9 43.7 46.4

Employed

9,137 8,093 8,243 9,240 6,958 6,981 7,427 7,898 8,327

Employment-population ratio

44.1 40.0 41.4 44.6 35.7 38.0 39.2 39.0 41.8

Unemployed

452 853 809 543 1,385 1,274 1,073 937 907

Unemployment rate

4.7 9.5 8.9 5.5 16.6 15.4 12.6 10.6 9.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,439 35,328 35,692 36,263 33,598 33,942 34,129 34,953 35,534

Participation rate

58.0 55.6 56.1 57.8 55.3 55.4 54.9 55.0 55.9

Employed

35,160 32,284 32,910 34,928 29,519 30,266 30,768 31,803 32,668

Employment-population ratio

56.0 50.8 51.7 55.6 48.6 49.4 49.5 50.0 51.4

Unemployed

1,279 3,044 2,782 1,335 4,079 3,677 3,361 3,150 2,866

Unemployment rate

3.5 8.6 7.8 3.7 12.1 10.8 9.8 9.0 8.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,881 35,921 36,145 37,585 36,661 36,455 36,427 35,970 35,814

Participation rate

65.3 63.5 63.1 64.8 63.8 63.4 64.0 63.6 62.5

Employed

36,862 33,055 33,863 36,515 32,662 32,816 33,504 33,060 33,472

Employment-population ratio

63.6 58.4 59.1 63.0 56.9 57.1 58.9 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

1,018 2,866 2,282 1,069 3,999 3,639 2,922 2,910 2,341

Unemployment rate

2.7 8.0 6.3 2.8 10.9 10.0 8.0 8.1 6.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

59,700 59,840 59,639 59,555 61,861 61,847 61,930 59,954 59,469

Participation rate

74.0 72.2 72.1 73.9 72.7 72.1 72.8 72.3 71.9

Employed

58,520 57,021 57,199 58,319 57,614 57,710 58,654 57,098 56,980

Employment-population ratio

72.6 68.8 69.2 72.3 67.7 67.3 68.9 68.9 68.9

Unemployed

1,180 2,818 2,440 1,235 4,247 4,137 3,276 2,857 2,488

Unemployment rate

2.0 4.7 4.1 2.1 6.9 6.7 5.3 4.8 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,710 18,359 16,821 16,449 1,889 1,910

Civilian labor force

9,169 8,706 8,105 7,607 1,064 1,099

Participation rate

49.0 47.4 48.2 46.2 56.3 57.5

Employed

8,895 8,224 7,891 7,180 1,004 1,044

Employment-population ratio

47.5 44.8 46.9 43.6 53.1 54.7

Unemployed

274 483 214 428 60 55

Unemployment rate

3.0 5.5 2.6 5.6 5.7 5.0

Not in labor force

9,541 9,653 8,716 8,842 825 811

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,370 4,503 3,597 3,727 772 776

Civilian labor force

3,441 3,497 2,943 2,963 498 534

Participation rate

78.7 77.7 81.8 79.5 64.5 68.8

Employed

3,320 3,281 2,869 2,765 451 516

Employment-population ratio

76.0 72.9 79.8 74.2 58.4 66.5

Unemployed

121 216 74 198 47 18

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.2 2.5 6.7 9.5 3.4

Not in labor force

929 1,006 654 764 274 242

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,074 3,101 2,609 2,604 466 497

Civilian labor force

2,297 2,256 1,965 1,934 332 323

Participation rate

74.7 72.8 75.3 74.3 71.3 65.0

Employed

2,216 2,136 1,889 1,832 328 303

Employment-population ratio

72.1 68.9 72.4 70.4 70.3 61.1

Unemployed

81 121 77 101 4 19

Unemployment rate

3.5 5.3 3.9 5.2 1.3 6.0

Not in labor force

777 844 643 670 134 174

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,094 6,711 6,848 6,475 246 236

Civilian labor force

1,443 1,155 1,396 1,117 47 38

Participation rate

20.3 17.2 20.4 17.2 19.0 16.3

Employed

1,409 1,116 1,363 1,081 47 35

Employment-population ratio

19.9 16.6 19.9 16.7 18.9 14.8

Unemployed

34 39 34 35 0 4

Unemployment rate

2.3 3.4 2.4 3.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,651 5,556 5,452 5,358 199 198

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,172 4,044 3,767 3,643 405 401

Civilian labor force

1,987 1,797 1,800 1,593 187 204

Participation rate

47.6 44.4 47.8 43.7 46.3 50.8

Employed

1,949 1,691 1,770 1,501 179 190

Employment-population ratio

46.7 41.8 47.0 41.2 44.1 47.3

Unemployed

39 107 30 93 9 14

Unemployment rate

1.9 5.9 1.7 5.8 4.6 6.9

Not in labor force

2,185 2,247 1,967 2,050 218 197

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,012 233,874 104,279 105,419 127,733 128,455

Civilian labor force

153,292 150,260 77,718 76,842 75,575 73,417

Participation rate

66.1 64.2 74.5 72.9 59.2 57.2

Employed

148,318 140,364 75,158 71,745 73,160 68,619

Employment-population ratio

63.9 60.0 72.1 68.1 57.3 53.4

Unemployed

4,974 9,895 2,559 5,097 2,415 4,798

Unemployment rate

3.2 6.6 3.3 6.6 3.2 6.5

Not in labor force

78,719 83,614 26,561 28,577 52,158 55,038

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,797 29,583 230,048 231,342

Civilian labor force

6,125 6,093 158,451 154,960

Participation rate

20.6 20.6 68.9 67.0

Employed

5,705 5,417 153,362 145,016

Employment-population ratio

19.1 18.3 66.7 62.7

Unemployed

420 676 5,090 9,944

Unemployment rate

6.9 11.1 3.2 6.4

Not in labor force

23,672 23,489 71,596 76,382

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,665 2,611 78,118 76,968

Participation rate

35.9 35.3 82.9 81.9

Employed

2,460 2,340 75,558 71,822

Employment-population ratio

33.2 31.6 80.1 76.4

Unemployed

205 270 2,560 5,145

Unemployment rate

7.7 10.4 3.3 6.7

Not in labor force

4,749 4,792 16,170 17,013

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,255 2,335 70,619 68,494

Participation rate

30.6 31.3 72.6 70.7

Employed

2,088 2,004 68,317 64,174

Employment-population ratio

28.3 26.9 70.2 66.2

Unemployed

167 331 2,303 4,320

Unemployment rate

7.4 14.2 3.3 6.3

Not in labor force

5,122 5,119 26,646 28,375

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,204 1,147 9,714 9,498

Participation rate

8.0 7.8 25.2 23.5

Employed

1,157 1,073 9,487 9,020

Employment-population ratio

7.7 7.3 24.6 22.3

Unemployed

47 74 227 478

Unemployment rate

3.9 6.5 2.3 5.0

Not in labor force

13,802 13,578 28,780 30,995

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,326 41,891 20,385 20,120 21,940 21,770

Civilian labor force

28,067 26,919 15,931 15,452 12,137 11,468

Participation rate

66.3 64.3 78.1 76.8 55.3 52.7

Employed

27,346 24,865 15,565 14,442 11,780 10,423

Employment-population ratio

64.6 59.4 76.4 71.8 53.7 47.9

Unemployed

722 2,055 365 1,010 356 1,045

Unemployment rate

2.6 7.6 2.3 6.5 2.9 9.1

Not in labor force

14,258 14,971 4,455 4,669 9,803 10,303

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,519 219,034 105,301 106,098 112,218 112,937

Civilian labor force

136,509 134,134 70,893 70,013 65,615 64,121

Participation rate

62.8 61.2 67.3 66.0 58.5 56.8

Employed

131,721 125,569 68,352 65,352 63,369 60,216

Employment-population ratio

60.6 57.3 64.9 61.6 56.5 53.3

Unemployed

4,788 8,565 2,541 4,660 2,247 3,905

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.4 3.6 6.7 3.4 6.1

Not in labor force

81,010 84,901 34,408 36,085 46,603 48,816

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,553 2,309 2,620 2,473 2,297 2,128 2,159 2,257 2,529

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,738 1,480 1,670 1,651 1,530 1,446 1,422 1,454 1,579

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

786 816 892 793 716 677 736 792 881

Unpaid family workers

30 12 58 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,513 145,487 147,813 155,970 139,944 141,487 145,156 145,235 147,222

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,522 136,709 138,954 147,118 131,444 132,888 136,258 136,509 138,501

Government

21,598 20,361 20,799 21,513 20,895 20,597 21,132 20,483 20,605

Private industries

125,924 116,348 118,155 125,812 110,584 112,361 115,172 116,088 117,993

Private households

784 683 636 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,140 115,665 117,520 124,979 110,045 111,663 114,478 115,385 117,320

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,926 8,723 8,789 8,811 8,376 8,559 8,808 8,680 8,677

Unpaid family workers

66 54 70 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,046 5,955 6,338 4,397 9,062 8,443 7,572 6,300 6,683

Slack work or business conditions

2,533 4,669 5,065 2,747 7,939 7,281 6,214 4,936 5,312

Could only find part-time work

1,268 1,124 1,115 1,278 942 1,048 1,139 1,122 1,133

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,088 19,012 19,921 21,544 17,137 17,792 18,630 18,918 19,421

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,961 5,901 6,237 4,306 8,961 8,382 7,468 6,224 6,565

Slack work or business conditions

2,469 4,623 5,002 2,684 7,860 7,234 6,148 4,881 5,241

Could only find part-time work

1,258 1,120 1,092 1,267 941 1,047 1,124 1,116 1,113

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,679 18,612 19,465 21,137 16,793 17,404 18,264 18,519 18,978

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

159,067 147,796 150,433 158,544 142,182 143,532 147,288 147,563 149,806

16 to 19 years

5,050 4,781 4,994 5,218 4,114 4,235 4,706 5,043 5,142

16 to 17 years

1,854 1,845 1,845 1,851 1,501 1,727 1,845 1,787 1,822

18 to 19 years

3,197 2,936 3,148 3,411 2,649 2,581 2,838 3,202 3,323

20 years and over

154,016 143,015 145,440 153,326 138,068 139,297 142,582 142,521 144,664

20 to 24 years

14,337 12,561 13,225 14,362 11,249 11,593 12,253 12,635 13,246

25 years and over

139,679 130,454 132,215 139,023 126,771 127,741 130,231 129,859 131,475

25 to 54 years

101,942 95,026 96,365 101,437 92,702 93,068 94,928 94,606 95,802

25 to 34 years

36,230 33,405 34,018 36,070 32,028 32,105 32,889 33,253 33,838

35 to 44 years

33,594 31,844 32,100 33,390 30,991 31,398 31,972 31,656 31,886

45 to 54 years

32,118 29,777 30,247 31,978 29,683 29,565 30,067 29,697 30,079

55 years and over

37,738 35,428 35,850 37,585 34,069 34,673 35,304 35,253 35,672

Men, 16 years and over

83,918 78,817 79,794 83,776 75,629 76,212 78,255 78,674 79,587

16 to 19 years

2,485 2,349 2,464 2,580 1,988 2,028 2,310 2,442 2,537

16 to 17 years

868 873 869 899 714 753 860 839 872

18 to 19 years

1,617 1,476 1,594 1,694 1,302 1,297 1,435 1,577 1,670

20 years and over

81,433 76,468 77,330 81,196 73,641 74,184 75,945 76,231 77,049

20 to 24 years

7,157 6,477 6,720 7,208 5,726 5,949 6,345 6,521 6,770

25 years and over

74,276 69,991 70,610 73,986 67,865 68,243 69,503 69,688 70,285

25 to 54 years

54,139 50,918 51,369 53,952 49,471 49,683 50,763 50,721 51,148

25 to 34 years

19,353 17,882 18,150 19,312 16,987 17,019 17,566 17,808 18,082

35 to 44 years

17,954 17,232 17,292 17,875 16,582 16,867 17,210 17,151 17,213

45 to 54 years

16,832 15,804 15,927 16,765 15,903 15,796 15,987 15,762 15,852

55 years and over

20,137 19,073 19,241 20,034 18,394 18,560 18,740 18,966 19,137

Women, 16 years and over

75,149 68,979 70,639 74,769 66,552 67,320 69,033 68,890 70,220

16 to 19 years

2,565 2,432 2,530 2,639 2,126 2,207 2,396 2,600 2,605

16 to 17 years

985 972 976 952 788 974 984 948 950

18 to 19 years

1,580 1,460 1,554 1,717 1,347 1,284 1,402 1,626 1,653

20 years and over

72,584 66,547 68,109 72,130 64,426 65,113 66,637 66,289 67,615

20 to 24 years

7,180 6,085 6,505 7,154 5,523 5,644 5,908 6,114 6,476

25 years and over

65,403 60,462 61,605 65,037 58,906 59,498 60,728 60,171 61,190

25 to 54 years

47,803 44,108 44,995 47,486 43,231 43,385 44,164 43,885 44,655

25 to 34 years

16,877 15,523 15,867 16,758 15,041 15,086 15,323 15,444 15,756

35 to 44 years

15,640 14,612 14,808 15,514 14,409 14,531 14,762 14,505 14,672

45 to 54 years

15,286 13,972 14,321 15,214 13,781 13,769 14,079 13,936 14,227

55 years and over

17,601 16,355 16,609 17,551 15,675 16,113 16,564 16,286 16,535

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,113 43,845 43,951 45,971 43,702 43,768 44,391 43,605 43,789

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,933 34,350 35,001 36,657 34,440 34,794 35,275 34,326 34,713

Women who maintain families(2)

9,791 9,109 9,275 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,990 122,998 124,165 131,518 118,941 119,532 122,369 122,423 123,593

Part-time workers(4)

27,077 24,798 26,269 26,992 23,179 23,982 24,973 25,161 26,163

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,351 6,482 6,866 8,132 6,279 6,602 6,784 6,445 6,649

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.4 4.6 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.4

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,358 6,275 6,315 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,712 9,540 9,681 9,604 9,092 9,236 9,544 9,473 9,558

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,857 12,580 11,061 3.6 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9 6.9

16 to 19 years

730 954 832 12.3 23.2 19.3 16.1 15.9 13.9

16 to 17 years

301 367 289 14.0 23.8 17.6 13.9 17.0 13.7

18 to 19 years

436 582 547 11.3 22.5 19.8 17.6 15.4 14.1

20 years and over

5,127 11,626 10,228 3.2 10.7 9.9 8.1 7.5 6.6

20 to 24 years

945 1,807 1,599 6.2 19.8 18.3 14.1 12.5 10.8

25 years and over

4,156 9,858 8,606 2.9 9.7 9.1 7.6 7.1 6.1

25 to 54 years

3,157 7,322 6,562 3.0 9.8 9.2 7.5 7.2 6.4

25 to 34 years

1,394 3,173 2,668 3.7 11.7 11.4 9.7 8.7 7.3

35 to 44 years

905 2,105 1,975 2.6 9.1 8.1 6.5 6.2 5.8

45 to 54 years

859 2,045 1,919 2.6 8.3 7.8 6.2 6.4 6.0

55 years and over

1,000 2,524 2,052 2.6 9.7 8.8 7.7 6.7 5.4

Men, 16 years and over

3,126 6,563 5,982 3.6 10.6 9.8 8.3 7.7 7.0

16 to 19 years

410 499 469 13.7 23.6 22.8 17.6 17.0 15.6

16 to 17 years

151 196 168 14.4 19.0 24.2 14.7 19.0 16.2

18 to 19 years

257 303 296 13.2 25.6 21.5 20.3 16.1 15.1

20 years and over

2,715 6,065 5,513 3.2 10.2 9.4 8.0 7.4 6.7

20 to 24 years

587 956 888 7.5 19.0 17.8 14.2 12.8 11.6

25 years and over

2,118 5,111 4,618 2.8 9.3 8.6 7.4 6.8 6.2

25 to 54 years

1,623 3,830 3,578 2.9 9.5 8.9 7.4 7.0 6.5

25 to 34 years

742 1,687 1,512 3.7 11.8 11.7 9.8 8.7 7.7

35 to 44 years

440 1,119 1,039 2.4 8.9 7.9 6.4 6.1 5.7

45 to 54 years

441 1,023 1,027 2.6 7.5 6.7 5.7 6.1 6.1

55 years and over

496 1,281 1,039 2.4 8.9 8.0 7.3 6.3 5.2

Women, 16 years and over

2,731 6,016 5,079 3.5 11.7 10.6 8.6 8.0 6.7

16 to 19 years

320 456 364 10.8 22.8 15.7 14.7 14.9 12.3

16 to 17 years

150 171 121 13.6 27.8 11.6 13.3 15.3 11.3

18 to 19 years

179 279 250 9.4 19.4 18.0 14.8 14.7 13.2

20 years and over

2,411 5,561 4,715 3.2 11.2 10.5 8.4 7.7 6.5

20 to 24 years

358 850 711 4.8 20.6 18.8 14.0 12.2 9.9

25 years and over

2,038 4,747 3,988 3.0 10.2 9.6 7.8 7.3 6.1

25 to 54 years

1,534 3,493 2,984 3.1 10.1 9.5 7.7 7.4 6.3

25 to 34 years

652 1,486 1,156 3.7 11.6 11.1 9.5 8.8 6.8

35 to 44 years

465 986 936 2.9 9.4 8.4 6.6 6.4 6.0

45 to 54 years

418 1,021 893 2.7 9.3 9.0 6.8 6.8 5.9

55 years and over

489 1,265 1,003 2.7 10.5 9.6 8.0 7.2 5.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

819 2,217 1,877 1.7 6.9 6.2 5.0 4.8 4.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

844 2,172 1,745 2.3 8.9 8.6 6.4 6.0 4.8

Women who maintain families(2)

558 1,012 871 5.4 13.1 12.4 10.4 10.0 8.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,789 10,311 9,176 3.5 10.4 9.8 8.3 7.8 6.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,054 2,299 1,864 3.8 14.7 12.6 9.0 8.4 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,340 8,738 7,313 2,691 14,272 12,924 10,307 9,135 7,712

On temporary layoff

468 4,280 2,870 772 10,565 9,225 6,160 4,637 3,205

Not on temporary layoff

1,872 4,457 4,443 1,919 3,707 3,699 4,147 4,498 4,507

Permanent job losers

1,216 3,704 3,608 1,260 2,883 2,877 3,411 3,756 3,684

Persons who completed temporary jobs

656 754 835 659 824 823 736 742 823

Job leavers

859 869 787 846 565 571 589 801 769

Reentrants

1,719 2,139 2,009 1,698 2,356 2,358 2,095 2,146 2,009

New entrants

592 531 511 622 563 513 554 537 528

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

42.5 71.2 68.9 45.9 80.4 79.0 76.1 72.4 70.0

On temporary layoff

8.5 34.9 27.0 13.2 59.5 56.4 45.5 36.7 29.1

Not on temporary layoff

34.0 36.3 41.8 32.8 20.9 22.6 30.6 35.6 40.9

Job leavers

15.6 7.1 7.4 14.4 3.2 3.5 4.4 6.4 7.0

Reentrants

31.2 17.4 18.9 29.0 13.3 14.4 15.5 17.0 18.2

New entrants

10.7 4.3 4.8 10.6 3.2 3.1 4.1 4.3 4.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.4 5.5 4.5 1.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 5.7 4.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,755 2,518 2,300 1,978 2,838 3,202 2,281 2,552 2,500

5 to 14 weeks

1,651 2,518 2,198 1,747 11,496 5,169 3,134 2,732 2,275

15 weeks and over

2,104 7,241 6,122 2,144 3,294 7,986 8,140 7,323 6,173

15 to 26 weeks

856 4,806 2,570 884 1,903 6,484 6,517 4,918 2,617

27 weeks and over

1,249 2,435 3,552 1,259 1,391 1,501 1,624 2,405 3,556

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.1 21.9 22.7 21.6 15.7 17.9 20.2 20.7 21.2

Median duration, in weeks

9.8 18.2 19.9 9.2 13.6 15.0 16.7 17.8 19.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.9 20.5 21.7 33.7 16.1 19.6 16.8 20.2 22.8

5 to 14 weeks

30.0 20.5 20.7 29.8 65.2 31.6 23.1 21.7 20.8

15 weeks and over

38.2 59.0 57.6 36.5 18.7 48.8 60.1 58.1 56.4

15 to 26 weeks

15.5 39.1 24.2 15.1 10.8 39.6 48.1 39.0 23.9

27 weeks and over

22.7 19.8 33.4 21.5 7.9 9.2 12.0 19.1 32.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

159,067 150,433 5,510 10,620 3.3 6.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,997 63,277 1,161 2,448 1.8 3.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,517 27,004 471 1,212 1.7 4.3

Professional and related occupations

37,480 36,274 690 1,237 1.8 3.3

Service occupations

27,132 24,137 1,257 2,796 4.4 10.4

Sales and office occupations

34,055 30,501 1,145 2,132 3.3 6.5

Sales and related occupations

16,050 14,531 572 1,087 3.4 7.0

Office and administrative support occupations

18,005 15,970 573 1,045 3.1 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,389 13,956 534 993 3.6 6.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,123 1,117 55 73 4.7 6.1

Construction and extraction occupations

8,365 8,240 402 691 4.6 7.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,901 4,599 76 229 1.5 4.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,494 18,562 797 1,730 4.1 8.5

Production occupations

8,412 7,753 386 525 4.4 6.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,083 10,809 411 1,205 3.9 10.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,510 10,620 3.3 6.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,233 8,681 3.3 6.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

23 89 2.8 13.8

Construction

398 674 4.0 6.8

Manufacturing

484 787 3.1 5.2

Durable goods

286 436 2.9 4.6

Nondurable goods

198 351 3.5 6.3

Wholesale and retail trade

732 1,333 3.6 6.5

Transportation and utilities

197 588 2.6 7.9

Information

79 137 3.3 5.8

Financial activities

198 383 2.0 3.8

Professional and business services

625 1,066 3.5 6.1

Education and health services

552 1,007 2.2 4.2

Leisure and hospitality

747 2,102 5.3 16.3

Other services

197 514 2.9 8.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

62 110 3.6 6.3

Government workers

414 685 1.9 3.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

209 632 2.1 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 4.5 3.8 1.3 2.1 5.0 5.1 4.6 3.8

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 5.5 4.5 1.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 5.7 4.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.3 7.7 6.6 3.6 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9 6.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.5 8.0 6.9 3.8 11.5 10.6 8.7 8.2 7.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.1 8.8 7.7 4.3 12.5 11.3 9.6 8.9 8.0

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.5 12.4 11.6 6.9 18.0 16.5 14.2 12.8 12.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,269 99,872 38,863 40,754 56,406 59,118

Persons who currently want a job

4,412 6,317 2,093 2,996 2,318 3,321

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,229 1,923 668 1,049 561 874

Discouraged workers(2)

341 594 227 367 114 228

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

888 1,328 441 682 447 646

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,351 6,866 4,065 3,363 4,286 3,503

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.6 4.8 4.2 5.7 5.0

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,602 3,813 2,471 2,101 2,131 1,711

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,172 1,716 801 565 1,370 1,150

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

377 248 207 145 169 103

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,149 1,046 564 541 585 505

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Change from:
Sept.2020 - Oct.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

152,570 140,700 141,854 143,459 151,553 141,063 141,735 142,373 638

Total private

129,547 119,717 120,063 121,524 128,908 119,046 119,938 120,844 906

Goods-producing

21,283 20,291 20,259 20,386 21,086 19,978 20,075 20,198 123

Mining and logging

743 626 627 629 735 619 621 622 1

Logging

55.2 52.1 51.9 52.7 54.0 50.6 50.8 50.9 0.1

Mining

687.7 574.2 575.3 575.9 680.8 567.9 569.8 571.3 1.5

Oil and gas extraction

155.9 157.1 157.7 159.9 155.8 156.0 157.5 158.9 1.4

Mining, except oil and gas

191.7 183.1 182.2 180.8 189.5 179.8 179.9 178.4 -1.5

Coal mining

52.2 45.4 44.6 43.5 52.0 45.2 44.3 43.2 -1.1

Metal ore mining

40.8 40.9 40.4 40.5 41.0 40.6 40.7 40.7 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

98.7 96.8 97.2 96.8 96.5 94.0 94.9 94.5 -0.4

Support activities for mining

340.1 234.0 235.4 235.2 335.5 232.1 232.4 234.0 1.6

Construction

7,720 7,465 7,424 7,528 7,541 7,226 7,261 7,345 84

Construction of buildings

1,696.3 1,650.0 1,641.8 1,669.9 1,670.3 1,611.7 1,625.1 1,644.5 19.4

Residential building

842.6 835.9 836.5 851.1 829.5 821.7 828.9 834.9 6.0

Nonresidential building

853.7 814.1 805.3 818.8 840.8 790.0 796.2 809.6 13.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,142.7 1,075.8 1,069.8 1,091.8 1,084.8 1,010.8 1,008.7 1,027.5 18.8

Specialty trade contractors

4,880.8 4,739.2 4,712.8 4,766.3 4,785.8 4,603.8 4,627.3 4,672.6 45.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,130.3 2,117.8 2,109.0 2,140.9 2,092.9 2,064.4 2,081.2 2,099.0 17.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,750.5 2,621.4 2,603.8 2,625.4 2,692.9 2,539.4 2,546.1 2,573.6 27.5

Manufacturing

12,820 12,200 12,208 12,229 12,810 12,133 12,193 12,231 38

Durable goods

8,012 7,585 7,595 7,607 8,019 7,559 7,603 7,624 21

Wood products

412.2 392.9 393.7 397.3 410.7 389.4 393.5 397.9 4.4

Nonmetallic mineral products

429.0 404.6 406.8 406.8 423.9 397.8 402.8 402.0 -0.8

Primary metals

377.6 338.4 334.6 338.8 379.4 338.8 335.4 341.4 6.0

Fabricated metal products

1,488.1 1,390.5 1,389.0 1,394.7 1,490.5 1,387.5 1,392.5 1,399.7 7.2

Machinery

1,115.6 1,040.4 1,044.8 1,049.1 1,121.2 1,037.9 1,050.5 1,054.4 3.9

Computer and electronic products

1,087.8 1,090.7 1,085.1 1,089.4 1,089.2 1,086.5 1,088.1 1,091.6 3.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

165.6 170.6 168.8 170.6 165.7 170.0 169.1 170.5 1.4

Communications equipment

83.3 82.9 83.0 82.5 83.3 82.7 83.3 82.7 -0.6

Semiconductors and electronic components

376.9 374.6 371.9 373.5 378.3 372.5 373.2 374.4 1.2

Electronic instruments

428.9 426.9 426.2 427.3 429.2 426.1 427.7 428.7 1.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 32.8 35.2 34.8 35.3 0.5

Electrical equipment and appliances

404.6 378.7 380.1 378.7 405.1 377.1 379.8 378.9 -0.9

Transportation equipment(1)

1,692.9 1,601.7 1,611.3 1,599.8 1,696.5 1,599.1 1,609.0 1,606.6 -2.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

952.6 904.9 912.5 906.0 955.4 904.2 911.9 913.3 1.4

Furniture and related products

386.2 353.2 354.0 351.9 386.3 352.8 354.3 353.1 -1.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

617.5 593.8 595.5 600.2 616.6 592.1 596.6 598.7 2.1

Nondurable goods

4,808 4,615 4,613 4,622 4,791 4,574 4,590 4,607 17

Food manufacturing

1,667.0 1,636.0 1,631.0 1,630.4 1,653.6 1,612.1 1,613.9 1,620.1 6.2

Textile mills

107.6 94.1 95.7 96.9 107.6 93.8 95.6 97.4 1.8

Textile product mills

112.8 102.4 104.4 103.8 112.7 102.0 104.1 103.1 -1.0

Apparel

109.1 86.1 85.5 86.9 109.0 85.7 85.4 86.6 1.2

Paper and paper products

364.2 354.5 355.4 353.4 365.3 353.5 356.5 355.0 -1.5

Printing and related support activities

423.4 361.9 365.2 368.2 422.3 360.6 364.8 367.2 2.4

Petroleum and coal products

114.7 106.5 106.2 106.8 112.5 103.7 103.5 105.5 2.0

Chemicals

849.0 839.4 834.2 834.1 851.7 838.5 836.5 836.4 -0.1

Plastics and rubber products

735.9 725.6 722.6 726.9 738.9 722.9 724.9 728.4 3.5

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

323.9 308.4 312.4 314.2 317.7 301.0 304.5 307.1 2.6

Private service-providing

108,264 99,426 99,804 101,138 107,822 99,068 99,863 100,646 783

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,793 26,397 26,442 26,810 27,750 26,494 26,579 26,751 172

Wholesale trade

5,931.0 5,625.7 5,621.8 5,639.1 5,923.3 5,605.3 5,624.2 5,630.6 6.4

Durable goods

3,219.3 3,059.1 3,056.8 3,061.8 3,222.1 3,045.8 3,057.3 3,057.7 0.4

Nondurable goods

2,177.3 2,063.7 2,063.1 2,073.7 2,167.8 2,057.6 2,064.2 2,070.8 6.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

534.4 502.9 501.9 503.6 533.4 501.9 502.7 502.1 -0.6

Retail trade

15,648.3 15,013.8 14,941.8 15,184.6 15,644.7 15,046.4 15,069.8 15,173.5 103.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,049.7 1,940.2 1,950.7 1,968.8 2,044.0 1,928.8 1,945.1 1,967.8 22.7

Automobile dealers

1,302.0 1,208.2 1,217.0 1,226.9 1,298.7 1,205.0 1,213.9 1,224.0 10.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

165.0 160.4 157.4 157.0 165.5 154.0 155.8 159.1 3.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

582.7 571.6 576.3 584.9 579.8 569.8 575.4 584.7 9.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

469.4 401.8 408.8 428.9 468.2 408.5 415.7 429.3 13.6

Electronics and appliance stores

481.8 414.0 420.4 465.8 478.8 429.6 430.7 461.9 31.2

Building material and garden supply stores

1,284.9 1,403.6 1,388.6 1,383.6 1,308.3 1,391.2 1,401.3 1,402.9 1.6

Food and beverage stores

3,092.8 3,149.5 3,133.4 3,149.8 3,092.3 3,132.5 3,142.8 3,145.5 2.7

Health and personal care stores

1,058.0 961.6 973.9 982.8 1,058.9 969.1 984.4 982.9 -1.5

Gasoline stations

953.8 931.2 926.6 927.9 952.2 917.7 924.4 927.2 2.8

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,261.5 922.4 925.2 955.3 1,277.6 923.5 954.3 966.9 12.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

549.1 440.4 448.6 459.5 550.4 453.0 460.5 462.6 2.1

General merchandise stores

3,047.5 3,174.9 3,084.1 3,146.9 3,029.1 3,221.9 3,124.6 3,134.6 10.0

Department stores

1,080.5 1,019.7 1,010.8 1,053.0 1,075.0 1,054.3 1,042.0 1,043.8 1.8

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,967.0 2,155.2 2,073.3 2,093.9 1,954.1 2,167.6 2,082.6 2,090.8 8.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

836.7 732.3 735.9 748.7 827.7 724.5 733.8 731.2 -2.6

Nonstore retailers

563.1 541.9 545.6 566.6 557.2 546.1 552.2 560.7 8.5

Transportation and warehousing

5,667.9 5,218.0 5,339.6 5,447.8 5,635.4 5,304.0 5,344.2 5,407.4 63.2

Air transportation

506.3 409.4 404.1 387.0 507.3 405.9 404.4 386.7 -17.7

Rail transportation

167.6 146.0 146.3 146.3 167.4 145.9 146.1 145.8 -0.3

Water transportation

66.7 57.2 57.0 56.3 66.2 54.8 56.0 56.2 0.2

Truck transportation

1,543.8 1,466.7 1,470.0 1,478.1 1,529.7 1,449.5 1,454.1 1,463.7 9.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

519.3 282.4 366.3 396.7 500.9 346.1 353.4 378.6 25.2

Pipeline transportation

51.3 49.8 49.4 49.3 51.2 49.7 49.4 49.3 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

36.1 27.4 25.6 24.1 35.7 21.0 21.8 23.6 1.8

Support activities for transportation

759.3 680.7 680.0 689.7 756.0 679.4 680.7 688.8 8.1

Couriers and messengers

810.8 882.9 904.1 939.8 829.4 927.5 938.3 946.6 8.3

Warehousing and storage

1,206.7 1,215.5 1,236.8 1,280.5 1,191.6 1,224.2 1,240.0 1,268.1 28.1

Utilities

545.3 539.8 539.0 538.4 546.2 538.7 540.9 539.4 -1.5

Information

2,875 2,600 2,625 2,637 2,865 2,588 2,635 2,632 -3

Publishing industries, except Internet

765.2 737.6 738.7 737.9 763.9 734.1 734.7 737.2 2.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

446.2 249.1 276.8 288.2 439.2 239.4 284.5 282.1 -2.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

267.4 240.9 244.7 246.7 265.7 242.1 243.7 246.4 2.7

Telecommunications

706.4 677.6 675.5 673.9 707.5 679.6 678.4 672.6 -5.8

Data processing, hosting and related services

344.1 336.3 335.6 338.3 343.0 338.1 338.1 338.9 0.8

Other information services

345.4 358.1 353.2 352.3 345.9 354.8 355.1 355.0 -0.1

Financial activities

8,804 8,704 8,682 8,722 8,792 8,648 8,685 8,716 31

Finance and insurance

6,455.6 6,483.8 6,472.3 6,496.9 6,452.6 6,467.2 6,483.3 6,500.1 16.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.6 20.0 19.9 19.9 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.9 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,656.9 2,664.2 2,654.2 2,663.4 2,657.9 2,657.9 2,662.0 2,670.7 8.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,771.4 1,769.1 1,752.9 1,748.0 1,776.5 1,763.1 1,760.6 1,757.3 -3.3

Commercial banking

1,384.1 1,380.0 1,365.1 1,361.1 1,388.4 1,375.3 1,372.5 1,370.8 -1.7

Nondepository credit intermediation

580.4 585.8 589.2 597.1 576.5 583.2 587.3 594.8 7.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

305.1 309.3 312.1 318.3 304.9 311.6 314.1 318.6 4.5

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

969.2 979.6 973.0 978.2 968.7 970.2 974.0 975.4 1.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,809.9 2,820.0 2,825.2 2,835.4 2,806.3 2,819.3 2,827.4 2,834.1 6.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,348.5 2,220.4 2,209.8 2,225.1 2,339.3 2,180.9 2,201.2 2,215.7 14.5

Real estate

1,743.4 1,704.5 1,697.1 1,714.5 1,735.6 1,681.1 1,695.5 1,705.9 10.4

Rental and leasing services

581.8 492.4 489.8 487.3 580.5 476.7 482.6 486.7 4.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 23.5 22.9 23.3 23.2 23.1 23.1 23.1 0.0

Professional and business services

21,676 20,215 20,266 20,627 21,444 20,071 20,193 20,401 208

Professional and technical services

9,624.0 9,336.8 9,296.6 9,435.8 9,624.0 9,338.0 9,390.0 9,445.8 55.8

Legal services

1,157.3 1,112.9 1,107.1 1,119.6 1,153.7 1,110.9 1,112.6 1,117.4 4.8

Accounting and bookkeeping services

985.9 949.6 944.2 962.9 1,033.4 1,010.2 1,011.9 1,013.3 1.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,526.1 1,504.3 1,500.9 1,512.3 1,518.6 1,486.6 1,500.1 1,504.1 4.0

Specialized design services

148.1 133.2 134.8 138.9 146.8 133.3 135.3 138.6 3.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,239.2 2,186.4 2,165.4 2,204.5 2,228.0 2,165.8 2,177.7 2,193.5 15.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,570.2 1,504.3 1,501.4 1,532.8 1,553.0 1,496.3 1,502.2 1,516.7 14.5

Scientific research and development services

736.2 753.4 750.5 759.3 737.8 747.5 755.1 762.2 7.1

Advertising and related services

496.8 443.9 444.1 448.1 494.7 441.4 445.9 446.0 0.1

Other professional and technical services

764.2 748.8 748.2 757.4 758.1 746.0 749.2 754.0 4.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,440.9 2,351.6 2,350.5 2,355.2 2,442.8 2,338.7 2,353.8 2,357.5 3.7

Administrative and waste services

9,611.3 8,526.9 8,619.0 8,836.4 9,377.5 8,394.0 8,449.4 8,598.1 148.7

Administrative and support services

9,148.0 8,067.4 8,159.9 8,377.3 8,916.1 7,941.4 7,992.7 8,140.0 147.3

Office administrative services

530.3 507.8 508.1 511.5 529.6 505.7 508.7 508.9 0.2

Facilities support services

168.2 156.2 154.5 155.1 166.5 156.3 154.0 153.9 -0.1

Employment services(1)

3,793.3 3,109.0 3,199.4 3,392.2 3,645.4 3,098.5 3,121.4 3,241.6 120.2

Temporary help services

3,077.6 2,473.9 2,556.6 2,731.4 2,942.9 2,466.6 2,488.4 2,597.1 108.7

Business support services

880.8 766.2 779.9 789.2 867.5 773.2 780.7 778.1 -2.6

Travel arrangement and reservation services

219.8 157.3 154.9 153.9 219.3 155.7 154.2 153.9 -0.3

Investigation and security services

967.8 907.8 915.0 921.4 961.9 904.6 905.4 917.7 12.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,240.3 2,165.4 2,146.7 2,151.2 2,183.6 2,048.9 2,070.5 2,089.5 19.0

Other support services

347.5 297.7 301.4 302.8 342.2 298.5 297.8 296.4 -1.4

Waste management and remediation services

463.3 459.5 459.1 459.1 461.4 452.6 456.7 458.1 1.4

Education and health services

24,561 22,839 23,138 23,472 24,363 23,154 23,203 23,260 57

Educational services

3,950.7 3,234.7 3,446.3 3,617.9 3,791.1 3,543.5 3,474.4 3,452.9 -21.5

Health care and social assistance

20,610.4 19,604.7 19,692.1 19,853.9 20,572.2 19,610.5 19,728.5 19,807.5 79.0

Health care(3)

16,403.9 15,806.1 15,843.0 15,947.5 16,377.2 15,787.0 15,859.1 15,917.4 58.3

Ambulatory health care services

7,778.4 7,493.6 7,542.9 7,626.3 7,760.7 7,488.5 7,558.8 7,609.5 50.7

Offices of physicians

2,696.0 2,617.7 2,629.7 2,655.4 2,687.9 2,618.1 2,636.9 2,651.2 14.3

Offices of dentists

970.3 939.5 937.6 950.6 969.9 935.9 940.3 951.1 10.8

Offices of other health practitioners

981.2 899.3 911.5 926.1 980.5 897.1 915.3 923.6 8.3

Outpatient care centers

971.2 951.7 957.5 969.7 971.4 952.4 960.9 970.6 9.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

288.0 275.0 277.7 282.5 287.2 275.0 277.7 283.5 5.8

Home health care services

1,553.3 1,507.5 1,523.4 1,535.9 1,546.8 1,507.0 1,523.4 1,527.1 3.7

Other ambulatory health care services

318.4 302.9 305.5 306.1 317.1 303.0 304.3 302.4 -1.9

Hospitals

5,232.5 5,143.0 5,139.1 5,164.2 5,225.6 5,142.4 5,138.5 5,154.7 16.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,393.0 3,169.5 3,161.0 3,157.0 3,390.9 3,156.1 3,161.8 3,153.2 -8.6

Nursing care facilities

1,597.5 1,471.2 1,465.3 1,461.1 1,596.6 1,465.9 1,464.0 1,459.1 -4.9

Residential mental health facilities

651.1 619.6 620.8 621.7 651.6 617.0 622.0 621.7 -0.3

Community care facilities for the elderly

978.0 919.6 916.6 915.6 976.6 915.2 917.6 913.8 -3.8

Other residential care facilities

166.4 159.1 158.3 158.6 166.2 158.0 158.2 158.6 0.4

Social assistance

4,206.5 3,798.6 3,849.1 3,906.4 4,195.0 3,823.5 3,869.4 3,890.1 20.7

Individual and family services

2,656.1 2,528.4 2,534.9 2,568.6 2,655.0 2,527.0 2,553.0 2,565.0 12.0

Emergency and other relief services

185.1 179.6 179.8 179.8 185.4 181.0 180.6 180.3 -0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

325.4 283.1 281.8 283.6 325.3 280.2 283.1 284.1 1.0

Child day care services

1,039.9 807.5 852.6 874.4 1,029.3 835.3 852.7 860.7 8.0

Leisure and hospitality

16,648 13,226 13,207 13,365 16,701 12,704 13,110 13,381 271

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,410.8 1,799.0 1,722.9 1,721.4 2,451.3 1,610.5 1,696.4 1,740.4 44.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

523.2 286.8 285.8 306.6 516.4 273.3 275.7 299.6 23.9

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

174.4 135.8 132.1 135.0 173.9 126.4 131.0 134.4 3.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,713.2 1,376.4 1,305.0 1,279.8 1,761.0 1,210.8 1,289.7 1,306.4 16.7

Accommodation and food services

14,237.0 11,426.6 11,484.2 11,643.9 14,249.9 11,093.4 11,413.7 11,640.1 226.4

Accommodation

2,076.6 1,455.0 1,439.7 1,421.5 2,088.5 1,313.3 1,401.1 1,435.3 34.2

Food services and drinking places

12,160.4 9,971.6 10,044.5 10,222.4 12,161.4 9,780.1 10,012.6 10,204.8 192.2

Other services

5,907 5,445 5,444 5,505 5,907 5,409 5,458 5,505 47

Repair and maintenance

1,366.6 1,308.9 1,312.4 1,332.7 1,364.0 1,305.7 1,312.1 1,330.0 17.9

Personal and laundry services

1,527.4 1,260.2 1,261.0 1,290.1 1,524.8 1,256.8 1,261.4 1,288.5 27.1

Membership associations and organizations

3,013.0 2,875.4 2,870.8 2,881.9 3,018.3 2,846.8 2,884.5 2,886.6 2.1

Government

23,023 20,983 21,791 21,935 22,645 22,017 21,797 21,529 -268

Federal

2,845.0 3,172 3,136 2,996 2,844.0 3,164 3,131 2,993 -138

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,238.5 2,571.7 2,534.5 2,393.8 2,236.4 2,560.6 2,528.5 2,389.7 -138.8

U.S. Postal Service

606.3 599.8 601.3 602.0 607.1 603.1 602.9 602.8 -0.1

State government

5,347.0 4,712 4,968 5,024 5,184.0 4,988 4,909 4,844 -65

State government education

2,649.6 2,004.7 2,269.0 2,330.1 2,481.3 2,293.2 2,211.0 2,149.6 -61.4

State government, excluding education

2,697.3 2,707.3 2,699.3 2,693.5 2,702.5 2,694.6 2,697.8 2,694.1 -3.7

Local government

14,831.0 13,099 13,687 13,915 14,617.0 13,865 13,757 13,692 -65

Local government education

8,287.4 6,741.3 7,416.8 7,640.3 8,027.9 7,680.0 7,473.6 7,375.8 -97.8

Local government, excluding education

6,543.9 6,357.6 6,270.3 6,275.0 6,589.4 6,185.2 6,283.1 6,316.4 33.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.7 34.8 34.8

Goods-producing

40.2 39.7 39.8 40.0

Mining and logging

46.1 43.9 44.2 44.1

Construction

39.3 38.8 38.8 38.8

Manufacturing

40.3 40.1 40.2 40.5

Durable goods

40.8 40.3 40.5 40.6

Nondurable goods

39.7 39.8 39.8 40.2

Private service-providing

33.2 33.6 33.7 33.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.2 34.4 34.4

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.5 38.6 38.7

Retail trade

30.6 30.7 30.9 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.5 38.8 39.1

Utilities

42.2 43.3 42.8 42.9

Information

36.4 36.6 36.5 36.7

Financial activities

37.7 37.5 37.6 37.8

Professional and business services

36.1 36.5 36.5 36.6

Education and health services

33.0 33.4 33.5 33.5

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 25.8 26.1 26.0

Other services

31.9 32.2 32.3 32.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.0 3.0 3.2

Durable goods

3.2 2.9 2.9 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

Total private

$28.24 $29.45 $29.46 $29.50 $971.46 $1,021.92 $1,025.21 $1,026.60

Goods-producing

29.26 30.15 30.13 30.12 1,176.25 1,196.96 1,199.17 1,204.80

Mining and logging

34.72 35.25 35.26 35.66 1,600.59 1,547.48 1,558.49 1,572.61

Construction

30.98 31.81 31.81 31.86 1,217.51 1,234.23 1,234.23 1,236.17

Manufacturing

27.91 28.91 28.88 28.81 1,124.77 1,159.29 1,160.98 1,166.81

Durable goods

29.38 30.38 30.27 30.30 1,198.70 1,224.31 1,225.94 1,230.18

Nondurable goods

25.39 26.45 26.52 26.30 1,007.98 1,052.71 1,055.50 1,057.26

Private service-providing

28.00 29.29 29.30 29.36 929.60 984.14 987.41 992.37

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.44 25.45 25.55 25.50 835.85 870.39 878.92 877.20

Wholesale trade

31.66 32.57 32.58 32.71 1,234.74 1,253.95 1,257.59 1,265.88

Retail trade

19.89 21.17 21.36 21.20 608.63 649.92 660.02 655.08

Transportation and warehousing

24.95 25.50 25.54 25.54 958.08 981.75 990.95 998.61

Utilities

41.63 44.08 44.11 44.30 1,756.79 1,908.66 1,887.91 1,900.47

Information

42.30 43.90 43.70 44.79 1,539.72 1,606.74 1,595.05 1,643.79

Financial activities

36.14 38.08 38.19 38.60 1,362.48 1,428.00 1,435.94 1,459.08

Professional and business services

34.04 35.19 35.25 35.31 1,228.84 1,284.44 1,286.63 1,292.35

Education and health services

27.85 28.55 28.60 28.57 919.05 953.57 958.10 957.10

Leisure and hospitality

16.70 17.00 17.06 17.10 430.86 438.60 445.27 444.60

Other services

25.39 26.43 26.38 26.31 809.94 851.05 852.07 852.44

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2020 - Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2020 - Oct.
2020(p)

Total private

111.3 103.7 104.8 105.6 0.8 150.3 146.0 147.6 148.9 0.9

Goods-producing

96.6 90.4 91.0 92.0 1.1 127.7 123.1 124.0 125.3 1.0

Mining and logging

106.5 85.4 86.2 86.2 0.0 148.4 120.8 122.1 123.4 1.1

Construction

102.2 96.6 97.1 98.2 1.1 137.5 133.6 134.2 136.0 1.3

Manufacturing

92.9 87.5 88.2 89.1 1.0 120.5 117.7 118.4 119.4 0.8

Durable goods

92.1 85.8 86.7 87.1 0.5 120.2 115.7 116.5 117.3 0.7

Nondurable goods

94.9 90.9 91.2 92.4 1.3 122.3 122.0 122.7 123.4 0.6

Private service-providing

115.2 107.2 108.3 109.5 1.1 156.8 152.6 154.3 156.3 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.6 98.9 99.8 100.4 0.6 136.5 135.7 137.5 138.1 0.4

Wholesale trade

101.9 95.2 95.8 96.1 0.3 134.9 129.7 130.5 131.5 0.8

Retail trade

97.2 93.8 94.6 95.2 0.6 127.8 131.2 133.5 133.4 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

124.3 117.3 119.1 121.5 2.0 157.8 152.2 154.8 157.8 1.9

Utilities

99.7 100.9 100.2 100.1 -0.1 137.2 147.0 146.0 146.5 0.3

Information

95.2 86.5 87.8 88.2 0.5 143.4 135.2 136.7 140.7 2.9

Financial activities

108.6 106.3 107.0 108.0 0.9 153.1 157.8 159.4 162.5 1.9

Professional and business services

121.4 114.9 115.6 117.1 1.3 167.3 163.7 164.9 167.4 1.5

Education and health services

131.3 126.3 126.9 127.2 0.2 175.9 173.4 174.6 174.9 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

122.9 93.5 97.6 99.3 1.7 165.6 128.3 134.4 136.9 1.9

Other services

108.6 100.4 101.6 102.8 1.2 151.2 145.5 147.0 148.3 0.9

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

75,731 70,202 70,508 70,788 50.0 49.8 49.7 49.7

Total private

62,650 57,512 57,968 58,405 48.6 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,735 4,524 4,538 4,571 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.6

Mining and logging

98 92 91 91 13.3 14.9 14.7 14.6

Construction

980 966 969 974 13.0 13.4 13.3 13.3

Manufacturing

3,657 3,466 3,478 3,506 28.5 28.6 28.5 28.7

Durable goods

1,937 1,846 1,854 1,865 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,720 1,620 1,624 1,641 35.9 35.4 35.4 35.6

Private service-providing

57,915 52,988 53,430 53,834 53.7 53.5 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,112 10,406 10,464 10,491 40.0 39.3 39.4 39.2

Wholesale trade

1,781.8 1,685.2 1,687.6 1,685.8 30.1 30.1 30.0 29.9

Retail trade

7,750.7 7,299.6 7,329.5 7,341.3 49.5 48.5 48.6 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,448.4 1,289.3 1,312.0 1,330.6 25.7 24.3 24.5 24.6

Utilities

131.4 132.1 134.9 133.6 24.1 24.5 24.9 24.8

Information

1,140 1,036 1,054 1,057 39.8 40.0 40.0 40.2

Financial activities

4,973 4,884 4,899 4,923 56.6 56.5 56.4 56.5

Professional and business services

9,797 9,205 9,265 9,364 45.7 45.9 45.9 45.9

Education and health services

18,849 17,841 17,899 17,955 77.4 77.1 77.1 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,893 6,770 6,976 7,140 53.2 53.3 53.2 53.4

Other services

3,151 2,846 2,873 2,904 53.3 52.6 52.6 52.8

Government

13,081 12,690 12,540 12,383 57.8 57.6 57.5 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

Total private

105,992 96,780 97,580 98,436

Goods-producing

15,086 14,174 14,219 14,334

Mining and logging

535 439 437 435

Construction

5,620 5,321 5,340 5,431

Manufacturing

8,931 8,414 8,442 8,468

Durable goods

5,502 5,134 5,153 5,165

Nondurable goods

3,429 3,280 3,289 3,303

Private service-providing

90,906 82,606 83,361 84,102

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,459 22,323 22,420 22,601

Wholesale trade

4,742.5 4,457.9 4,469.3 4,483.2

Retail trade

13,351.3 12,838.7 12,874.9 12,955.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,927.5 4,599.2 4,647.2 4,733.6

Utilities

437.2 426.9 428.3 428.8

Information

2,301 2,047 2,080 2,084

Financial activities

6,803 6,581 6,602 6,616

Professional and business services

17,408 16,068 16,202 16,400

Education and health services

21,396 20,280 20,329 20,377

Leisure and hospitality

14,654 10,917 11,286 11,535

Other services

4,885 4,390 4,442 4,489

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 34.1 34.1 34.2

Goods-producing

41.0 40.5 40.5 40.5

Mining and logging

47.2 44.5 44.8 44.7

Construction

39.7 39.2 39.3 39.2

Manufacturing

41.4 41.1 41.1 41.2

Durable goods

41.7 41.3 41.3 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.9 40.7 40.7 40.9

Private service-providing

32.3 33.0 33.1 33.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 34.1 34.2 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.1 38.4 38.5

Retail trade

30.3 30.9 30.9 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.2 38.4 39.3

Utilities

42.8 42.9 42.9 42.6

Information

35.2 36.8 36.2 36.5

Financial activities

36.9 36.9 37.2 37.2

Professional and business services

35.3 35.9 36.0 36.1

Education and health services

32.2 32.7 32.8 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.4 24.7 24.6

Other services

30.8 31.3 31.4 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.1 3.7 3.7 3.9

Durable goods

4.1 3.7 3.7 3.9

Nondurable goods

4.2 3.8 3.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)

Total private

$23.76 $24.78 $24.77 $24.82 $798.34 $845.00 $844.66 $848.84

Goods-producing

24.95 25.48 25.47 25.58 1,022.95 1,031.94 1,031.54 1,035.99

Mining and logging

30.85 30.61 30.40 30.46 1,456.12 1,362.15 1,361.92 1,361.56

Construction

28.68 29.38 29.07 29.36 1,138.60 1,151.70 1,142.45 1,150.91

Manufacturing

22.30 22.83 23.01 23.00 923.22 938.31 945.71 947.60

Durable goods

23.23 23.80 23.99 24.09 968.69 982.94 990.79 997.33

Nondurable goods

20.78 21.28 21.44 21.27 849.90 866.10 872.61 869.94

Private service-providing

23.52 24.63 24.63 24.66 759.70 812.79 815.25 816.25

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.80 21.61 21.51 21.62 703.04 736.90 735.64 743.73

Wholesale trade

26.28 26.99 27.00 27.03 1,014.41 1,028.32 1,036.80 1,040.66

Retail trade

16.77 17.75 17.79 17.89 508.13 548.48 549.71 554.59

Transportation and warehousing

22.52 23.29 22.73 22.94 853.51 889.68 872.83 901.54

Utilities

37.05 39.02 39.02 39.07 1,585.74 1,673.96 1,673.96 1,664.38

Information

34.53 36.16 36.11 36.49 1,215.46 1,330.69 1,307.18 1,331.89

Financial activities

27.89 29.32 29.49 29.66 1,029.14 1,081.91 1,097.03 1,103.35

Professional and business services

28.16 29.40 29.43 29.32 994.05 1,055.46 1,059.48 1,058.45

Education and health services

24.67 25.39 25.52 25.54 794.37 830.25 837.06 837.71

Leisure and hospitality

14.67 14.67 14.77 14.82 360.88 357.95 364.82 364.57

Other services

21.55 22.37 22.39 22.43 663.74 700.18 703.05 704.30

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2020 - Oct.
2020(p)
Oct.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020(p)
Oct.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2020 - Oct.
2020(p)

Total private

118.7 110.0 110.9 112.2 1.2 188.5 182.1 183.6 186.1 1.4

Goods-producing

94.5 87.7 88.0 88.7 0.8 144.4 136.9 137.3 139.0 1.2

Mining and logging

134.2 103.8 104.0 103.3 -0.7 240.8 184.8 183.9 183.1 -0.4

Construction

111.7 104.4 105.1 106.6 1.4 173.0 165.7 164.9 169.0 2.5

Manufacturing

84.9 79.4 79.6 80.1 0.6 123.8 118.5 119.9 120.5 0.5

Durable goods

86.2 79.7 80.0 80.3 0.4 125.0 118.4 119.8 120.8 0.8

Nondurable goods

82.6 78.7 78.9 79.6 0.9 121.3 118.3 119.5 119.6 0.1

Private service-providing

125.1 116.1 117.6 118.6 0.9 201.8 196.2 198.6 200.6 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.9 106.5 107.2 108.7 1.4 164.8 164.4 164.8 168.0 1.9

Wholesale trade

108.6 100.8 101.9 102.4 0.5 168.5 160.6 162.3 163.4 0.7

Retail trade

102.4 100.4 100.7 101.6 0.9 147.1 152.7 153.5 155.8 1.5

Transportation and warehousing

141.3 133.0 135.1 140.8<