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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		  USDL-21-1571
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, September 3, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- AUGUST 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 235,000 in August, and the unemployment rate 
declined by 0.2 percentage point to 5.2 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. So far this year, monthly job growth has averaged 586,000. In August, 
notable job gains occurred in professional and business services, transportation and 
warehousing, private education, manufacturing, and other services. Employment in retail
trade declined over the month. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to 5.2 percent in August. The number
of unemployed persons edged down to 8.4 million, following a large decrease in July. Both
measures are down considerably from their highs at the end of the February-April 2020 
recession. However, they remain above their levels prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) 
pandemic (3.5 percent and 5.7 million, respectively, in February 2020). (See table A-1. 
See the box note at the end of this news release for more information about how the 
household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (5.1 percent) and 
Whites (4.5 percent) declined in August, while the rate for teenagers (11.2 percent) 
increased. The jobless rates for adult women (4.8 percent), Blacks (8.8 percent), Asians
(4.6 percent), and Hispanics (6.4 percent) showed little change over the month. (See 
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers declined by 443,000 to 2.5 
million in August but is 1.2 million higher than in February 2020. The number of persons 
on temporary layoff, at 1.3 million, was essentially unchanged in August. This measure is
down considerably from the high of 18.0 million in April 2020 but is 502,000 above the 
February 2020 level. The number of reentrants to the labor force increased by 200,000 in 
August to 2.5 million. (Reentrants are persons who previously worked but were not in the
labor force prior to beginning their job search.) (See table A-11.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) decreased by 
246,000 in August to 3.2 million but is 2.1 million higher than in February 2020. These 
long-term unemployed accounted for 37.4 percent of the total unemployed in August. The 
number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks, at 2.1 million, was little changed. 
(See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate, at 61.7 percent in August, was unchanged over the 
month and has remained within a narrow range of 61.4 percent to 61.7 percent since June 
2020. The participation rate is 1.6 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The 
employment-population ratio, at 58.5 percent, was little changed in August. This measure 
is up from its low of 51.3 percent in April 2020 but remains below the figure of 61.1 
percent in February 2020. (See table A-1.) 

In August, the number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.5 million,
was essentially unchanged. There were 4.4 million persons in this category in February 
2020. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. 
(See table A-8.) 

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job declined by 835,000
in August to 5.7 million but remains higher than the level in February 2020 (5.0 million).
These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking 
for work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force, at 1.6 million in August, decreased by 295,000 over the 
month. These individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job 
sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who 
believed that no jobs were available for them, was 392,000 in August, down by 115,000 from
the previous month. (See Summary table A.) 

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In August, 13.4 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic, little changed from the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic. 

In August, 5.6 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all 
or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure
is up from 5.2 million in July. Among those who reported in August that they were unable 
to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 13.9 percent received at 
least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, up from 9.1 percent in the 
prior month. 

Among those not in the labor force in August, 1.5 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic, little changed from July. (To be counted as 
unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for work or on 
temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in 
May 2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 235,000 in August, following increases of 1.1 
million in July and 962,000 in June. Nonfarm employment has risen by 17.0 million since
April 2020 but is down by 5.3 million, or 3.5 percent, from its pre-pandemic level in 
February 2020. In August, notable job gains occurred in professional and business 
services, transportation and warehousing, private education, manufacturing, and other 
services. Employment in retail trade declined over the month. (See table B-1. See the box
note at the end of this news release for more information about how the establishment 
survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.) 

Employment in professional and business services increased by 74,000 in August. Employment
rose in architectural and engineering services (+19,000), computer systems design and 
related services (+10,000), scientific research and development services (+7,000), and 
office administrative services (+6,000). Since February 2020, employment in professional 
and business services is down by 468,000, over half of which is in temporary help services
(-262,000). 

Transportation and warehousing added 53,000 jobs in August, bringing employment in the 
industry slightly above (+22,000) its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. Employment gains
have been led by strong growth in couriers and messengers and in warehousing and storage,
which added 20,000 jobs each in August. Air transportation also added jobs (+11,000), while
transit and ground passenger transportation--which includes school buses--lost jobs (-8,000).

In August, employment increased by 40,000 in private education, declined by 21,000 in state
government education, and changed little in local government education (-6,000). In all 
three industries, these employment changes followed job gains in June and July. August marks
the beginning of the traditional back-to-school season. However, recent employment changes 
are challenging to interpret, as pandemic-related staffing fluctuations in public and 
private education have distorted the normal seasonal hiring and layoff patterns. Since 
February 2020, employment is down by 159,000 in private education, by 186,000 in state 
government education, and by 220,000 in local government education.

Manufacturing added 37,000 jobs in August, with gains in motor vehicles and parts (+24,000)
and fabricated metal products (+7,000). Employment in manufacturing is down by 378,000 from
its pre-pandemic level in February 2020.

The other services industry added 37,000 jobs in August, but employment is 189,000 lower 
than in February 2020. In August, employment rose in personal and laundry services 
(+19,000) and in repair and maintenance (+9,000). 

Employment in information increased by 17,000 in August, reflecting a gain in data 
processing, hosting, and related services (+12,000). Employment in information is down by
150,000 since February 2020.  

Employment in financial activities rose by 16,000 over the month, with most of the gain
occurring in real estate (+11,000). Employment in financial activities is down by 29,000
since February 2020. 

Mining added 6,000 jobs in August, reflecting a gain in support activities for mining 
(+4,000). Mining employment has risen by 55,000 since a trough in August 2020 but is 
96,000 below a peak in January 2019.

Employment in retail trade declined by 29,000 in August, with losses in food and beverage
stores (-23,000) and in building material and garden supply stores (-13,000). Retail trade
employment is down by 285,000 since February 2020.

In August, employment in leisure and hospitality was unchanged, after increasing by an 
average of 350,000 per month over the prior 6 months. In August, a job gain in arts, 
entertainment, and recreation (+36,000) was more than offset by a loss in food services 
and drinking places (-42,000). Employment in leisure and hospitality is down by 1.7 
million, or 10.0 percent, since February 2020.

In August, employment showed little change in other major industries, including 
construction, wholesale trade, and health care. 

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 17 cents to
$30.73 in August, following increases in the prior 4 months. In August, average hourly
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 14 cents to 
$25.99. The data for recent months suggest that the rising demand for labor associated 
with the recovery from the pandemic may have put upward pressure on wages. However, 
because average hourly earnings vary widely across industries, the large employment 
fluctuations since February 2020 complicate the analysis of recent trends in average 
hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

In August, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 34.7 
hours for the third consecutive month. In manufacturing, the average workweek fell by 0.2
hour over the month to 40.3 hours, and overtime remained at 3.2 hours. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 
unchanged at 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for June was revised up by 24,000, from 
+938,000 to +962,000, and the change for July was revised up by 110,000, from +943,000 
to +1,053,000. With these revisions, employment in June and July combined is 134,000 
higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports 
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for September is scheduled to be released on Friday, October 8,
2021, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|              Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on August 2021 Household and               |
|                                Establishment Survey Data                              |
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed 	|
| but not at work. However, the share of responses that may have been misclassified was |
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. Since March 2020, BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate |
| might have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed.		|
| Repeating this same approach, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in August 	|
| 2021 would have been 0.3 percentage point higher than reported. However, this 	|
| represents the upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably 		|
| overstates the size of the misclassification error. 					|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at  |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-august-2021.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Change from:
July
2021-
Aug.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,558 261,338 261,469 261,611 142

Civilian labor force

160,818 161,086 161,347 161,537 190

Participation rate

61.7 61.6 61.7 61.7 0.0

Employed

147,276 151,602 152,645 153,154 509

Employment-population ratio

56.5 58.0 58.4 58.5 0.1

Unemployed

13,542 9,484 8,702 8,384 -318

Unemployment rate

8.4 5.9 5.4 5.2 -0.2

Not in labor force

99,740 100,253 100,123 100,074 -49

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

8.4 5.9 5.4 5.2 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

8.0 5.9 5.4 5.1 -0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

8.3 5.5 5.0 4.8 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.4 9.9 9.6 11.2 1.6

White

7.4 5.2 4.8 4.5 -0.3

Black or African American

12.8 9.2 8.2 8.8 0.6

Asian

10.6 5.8 5.3 4.6 -0.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

10.5 7.4 6.6 6.4 -0.2

Total, 25 years and over

7.5 5.4 4.8 4.5 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

12.6 10.2 9.5 7.8 -1.7

High school graduates, no college

9.8 7.0 6.3 6.0 -0.3

Some college or associate degree

8.0 5.8 5.0 5.1 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

5.3 3.5 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

10,248 5,787 4,960 4,468 -492

Job leavers

595 942 930 822 -108

Reentrants

2,104 2,298 2,287 2,487 200

New entrants

549 494 463 512 49

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,312 1,981 2,257 2,083 -174

5 to 14 weeks

3,213 2,166 1,861 2,066 205

15 to 26 weeks

6,536 1,329 1,174 1,164 -10

27 weeks and over

1,593 3,985 3,425 3,179 -246

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

7,533 4,627 4,483 4,469 -14

Slack work or business conditions

6,181 3,430 2,965 3,183 218

Could only find part-time work

1,120 1,007 1,116 1,032 -84

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,630 20,337 20,087 20,359 272

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,061 1,830 1,872 1,577 -295

Discouraged workers

552 617 507 392 -115

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

1,583 962 1,053 235

Total private

1,066 808 798 243

Goods-producing

53 42 64 40

Mining and logging

-4 12 6 6

Construction

26 -2 6 -3

Manufacturing

31 32 52 37

Durable goods(1)

-2 31 41 31

Motor vehicles and parts

-4.1 -2.8 10.5 24.1

Nondurable goods

33 1 11 6

Private service-providing

1,013 766 734 203

Wholesale trade

7.1 27.4 13.6 1.4

Retail trade

252.9 88.9 -8.0 -28.5

Transportation and warehousing

87.2 23.6 55.0 53.2

Utilities

0.4 -0.7 0.0 -1.3

Information

25 12 21 17

Financial activities

28 0 24 16

Professional and business services(1)

200 70 79 74

Temporary help services

99.4 31.0 10.1 -5.8

Education and health services(1)

199 72 88 35

Health care and social assistance

110.2 15.5 43.5 -4.6

Leisure and hospitality

139 397 415 0

Other services

74 76 46 37

Government

517 154 255 -8

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

2,718 615 876 750

Total private

2,465 530 720 616

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.9 49.8

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.3 81.3 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$29.47 $30.44 $30.56 $30.73

Average weekly earnings

$1,022.61 $1,056.27 $1,060.43 $1,066.33

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

103.7 108.1 108.8 109.0

Over-the-month percent change

1.2 0.4 0.6 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

146.1 157.3 159.0 160.2

Over-the-month percent change

1.5 0.8 1.1 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

69.1 69.8 68.9 61.7

Manufacturing (75 industries)

58.0 68.7 66.0 55.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,558 261,469 261,611 260,558 261,103 261,210 261,338 261,469 261,611

Civilian labor force

160,966 162,817 161,788 160,818 160,988 160,935 161,086 161,347 161,537

Participation rate

61.8 62.3 61.8 61.7 61.7 61.6 61.6 61.7 61.7

Employed

147,224 153,596 153,232 147,276 151,176 151,620 151,602 152,645 153,154

Employment-population ratio

56.5 58.7 58.6 56.5 57.9 58.0 58.0 58.4 58.5

Unemployed

13,742 9,221 8,556 13,542 9,812 9,316 9,484 8,702 8,384

Unemployment rate

8.5 5.7 5.3 8.4 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2

Not in labor force

99,592 98,653 99,823 99,740 100,115 100,275 100,253 100,123 100,074

Persons who currently want a job

7,184 6,818 5,810 7,049 6,647 6,600 6,428 6,517 5,682

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,036 126,499 126,570 126,036 126,316 126,369 126,434 126,499 126,570

Civilian labor force

85,600 86,723 86,074 85,270 85,410 85,210 85,320 85,507 85,684

Participation rate

67.9 68.6 68.0 67.7 67.6 67.4 67.5 67.6 67.7

Employed

78,711 81,918 81,670 78,213 80,017 80,062 80,176 80,712 81,100

Employment-population ratio

62.5 64.8 64.5 62.1 63.3 63.4 63.4 63.8 64.1

Unemployed

6,889 4,806 4,404 7,057 5,394 5,148 5,144 4,795 4,584

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.5 5.1 8.3 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.4

Not in labor force

40,436 39,776 40,496 40,765 40,905 41,159 41,114 40,992 40,886

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,672 118,192 118,261 117,672 118,003 118,059 118,125 118,192 118,261

Civilian labor force

82,554 83,075 82,817 82,461 82,333 82,182 82,414 82,526 82,665

Participation rate

70.2 70.3 70.0 70.1 69.8 69.6 69.8 69.8 69.9

Employed

76,178 78,698 78,783 75,903 77,348 77,340 77,545 78,041 78,440

Employment-population ratio

64.7 66.6 66.6 64.5 65.5 65.5 65.6 66.0 66.3

Unemployed

6,376 4,376 4,034 6,558 4,985 4,842 4,869 4,484 4,225

Unemployment rate

7.7 5.3 4.9 8.0 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.4 5.1

Not in labor force

35,118 35,118 35,444 35,211 35,670 35,877 35,711 35,667 35,597

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,523 134,970 135,041 134,523 134,787 134,841 134,905 134,970 135,041

Civilian labor force

75,366 76,093 75,714 75,548 75,577 75,725 75,766 75,840 75,853

Participation rate

56.0 56.4 56.1 56.2 56.1 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2

Employed

68,513 71,678 71,562 69,063 71,159 71,557 71,426 71,934 72,054

Employment-population ratio

50.9 53.1 53.0 51.3 52.8 53.1 52.9 53.3 53.4

Unemployed

6,853 4,416 4,152 6,485 4,418 4,168 4,340 3,906 3,799

Unemployment rate

9.1 5.8 5.5 8.6 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.0

Not in labor force

59,156 58,877 59,327 58,975 59,210 59,116 59,139 59,130 59,188

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,336 126,837 126,906 126,336 126,648 126,704 126,770 126,837 126,906

Civilian labor force

72,415 72,547 72,571 72,728 72,503 72,707 72,855 72,883 72,842

Participation rate

57.3 57.2 57.2 57.6 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.4

Employed

65,997 68,494 68,746 66,667 68,430 68,811 68,817 69,235 69,357

Employment-population ratio

52.2 54.0 54.2 52.8 54.0 54.3 54.3 54.6 54.7

Unemployed

6,418 4,053 3,825 6,061 4,073 3,895 4,038 3,648 3,485

Unemployment rate

8.9 5.6 5.3 8.3 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.8

Not in labor force

53,921 54,290 54,335 53,608 54,145 53,998 53,915 53,954 54,065

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,550 16,440 16,443 16,550 16,451 16,446 16,443 16,440 16,443

Civilian labor force

5,998 7,195 6,400 5,630 6,152 6,046 5,817 5,938 6,031

Participation rate

36.2 43.8 38.9 34.0 37.4 36.8 35.4 36.1 36.7

Employed

5,049 6,403 5,702 4,706 5,398 5,468 5,240 5,369 5,357

Employment-population ratio

30.5 38.9 34.7 28.4 32.8 33.2 31.9 32.7 32.6

Unemployed

949 792 697 924 754 578 577 569 674

Unemployment rate

15.8 11.0 10.9 16.4 12.3 9.6 9.9 9.6 11.2

Not in labor force

10,552 9,245 10,044 10,920 10,300 10,400 10,626 10,502 10,412

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,417 201,888 201,968 201,417 201,687 201,743 201,814 201,888 201,968

Civilian labor force

124,491 125,285 124,329 124,512 123,964 123,897 123,800 124,413 124,332

Participation rate

61.8 62.1 61.6 61.8 61.5 61.4 61.3 61.6 61.6

Employed

115,205 118,974 118,601 115,342 117,358 117,553 117,320 118,428 118,697

Employment-population ratio

57.2 58.9 58.7 57.3 58.2 58.3 58.1 58.7 58.8

Unemployed

9,286 6,311 5,728 9,170 6,606 6,344 6,480 5,985 5,635

Unemployment rate

7.5 5.0 4.6 7.4 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.5

Not in labor force

76,927 76,602 77,639 76,906 77,723 77,845 78,013 77,475 77,635

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,909 65,140 64,844 64,946 64,593 64,492 64,478 64,858 64,856

Participation rate

70.3 70.3 70.0 70.3 69.8 69.7 69.6 70.0 70.0

Employed

60,577 62,093 62,142 60,459 61,155 61,182 61,122 61,701 61,980

Employment-population ratio

65.6 67.0 67.1 65.5 66.1 66.1 66.0 66.6 66.9

Unemployed

4,331 3,048 2,702 4,487 3,439 3,311 3,357 3,157 2,875

Unemployment rate

6.7 4.7 4.2 6.9 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.9 4.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,837 54,594 54,494 55,140 54,603 54,698 54,800 54,993 54,816

Participation rate

56.6 56.2 56.0 56.9 56.2 56.3 56.4 56.6 56.4

Employed

50,557 51,831 51,930 51,111 51,965 52,079 52,084 52,538 52,496

Employment-population ratio

52.2 53.3 53.4 52.7 53.5 53.6 53.6 54.0 54.0

Unemployed

4,279 2,763 2,564 4,029 2,638 2,618 2,716 2,455 2,319

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.1 4.7 7.3 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,746 5,551 4,991 4,425 4,768 4,707 4,522 4,562 4,661

Participation rate

39.1 46.0 41.4 36.5 39.5 39.0 37.5 37.8 38.7

Employed

4,070 5,050 4,530 3,771 4,238 4,292 4,114 4,189 4,220

Employment-population ratio

33.5 41.9 37.6 31.1 35.1 35.6 34.1 34.7 35.0

Unemployed

676 501 462 654 530 415 408 373 441

Unemployment rate

14.2 9.0 9.2 14.8 11.1 8.8 9.0 8.2 9.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,386 33,619 33,645 33,386 33,551 33,572 33,595 33,619 33,645

Civilian labor force

20,199 20,692 20,823 20,112 20,544 20,439 20,679 20,430 20,717

Participation rate

60.5 61.6 61.9 60.2 61.2 60.9 61.6 60.8 61.6

Employed

17,551 18,883 18,934 17,530 18,546 18,584 18,769 18,757 18,892

Employment-population ratio

52.6 56.2 56.3 52.5 55.3 55.4 55.9 55.8 56.2

Unemployed

2,648 1,809 1,889 2,582 1,998 1,854 1,910 1,673 1,825

Unemployment rate

13.1 8.7 9.1 12.8 9.7 9.1 9.2 8.2 8.8

Not in labor force

13,187 12,926 12,822 13,274 13,007 13,133 12,916 13,189 12,928

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,331 9,503 9,544 9,281 9,465 9,460 9,607 9,402 9,491

Participation rate

66.3 66.9 67.1 65.9 66.8 66.7 67.7 66.2 66.7

Employed

8,125 8,699 8,700 8,059 8,498 8,533 8,648 8,609 8,628

Employment-population ratio

57.7 61.2 61.2 57.3 59.9 60.1 60.9 60.6 60.7

Unemployed

1,206 804 844 1,222 967 927 958 793 864

Unemployment rate

12.9 8.5 8.8 13.2 10.2 9.8 10.0 8.4 9.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,141 10,284 10,495 10,140 10,315 10,293 10,358 10,293 10,480

Participation rate

60.0 60.4 61.6 60.0 60.7 60.6 60.9 60.5 61.5

Employed

8,870 9,426 9,589 8,945 9,429 9,448 9,473 9,511 9,652

Employment-population ratio

52.5 55.4 56.3 52.9 55.5 55.6 55.7 55.9 56.7

Unemployed

1,271 858 906 1,195 887 844 886 782 828

Unemployment rate

12.5 8.3 8.6 11.8 8.6 8.2 8.5 7.6 7.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

727 905 784 691 764 686 714 735 746

Participation rate

30.1 37.9 32.9 28.6 32.0 28.7 29.9 30.8 31.2

Employed

556 758 646 525 620 603 648 637 612

Employment-population ratio

23.0 31.8 27.1 21.8 25.9 25.2 27.1 26.7 25.6

Unemployed

171 147 138 166 144 83 67 98 134

Unemployment rate

23.5 16.3 17.6 24.0 18.9 12.1 9.3 13.3 17.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,597 16,514 16,555 16,597 16,532 16,529 16,428 16,514 16,555

Civilian labor force

10,627 10,703 10,672 10,582 10,375 10,471 10,387 10,654 10,610

Participation rate

64.0 64.8 64.5 63.8 62.8 63.4 63.2 64.5 64.1

Employed

9,491 10,118 10,181 9,461 9,786 9,890 9,789 10,094 10,122

Employment-population ratio

57.2 61.3 61.5 57.0 59.2 59.8 59.6 61.1 61.1

Unemployed

1,136 585 492 1,121 589 581 598 559 488

Unemployment rate

10.7 5.5 4.6 10.6 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.3 4.6

Not in labor force

5,969 5,811 5,883 6,015 6,157 6,057 6,042 5,861 5,945

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,300 44,927 45,004 44,300 44,719 44,786 44,857 44,927 45,004

Civilian labor force

28,901 29,607 29,449 28,940 29,199 29,243 29,367 29,529 29,534

Participation rate

65.2 65.9 65.4 65.3 65.3 65.3 65.5 65.7 65.6

Employed

25,859 27,652 27,635 25,897 26,889 27,110 27,183 27,576 27,652

Employment-population ratio

58.4 61.5 61.4 58.5 60.1 60.5 60.6 61.4 61.4

Unemployed

3,042 1,955 1,814 3,042 2,310 2,133 2,184 1,953 1,882

Unemployment rate

10.5 6.6 6.2 10.5 7.9 7.3 7.4 6.6 6.4

Not in labor force

15,399 15,320 15,555 15,361 15,520 15,543 15,490 15,398 15,470

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,763 16,209 16,239 15,760 16,086 16,079 16,068 16,228 16,285

Participation rate

78.8 79.8 79.8 78.8 79.6 79.5 79.3 79.9 80.1

Employed

14,261 15,316 15,374 14,218 14,882 15,006 15,005 15,225 15,318

Employment-population ratio

71.3 75.4 75.6 71.1 73.6 74.1 74.0 75.0 75.3

Unemployed

1,502 893 865 1,542 1,204 1,073 1,063 1,003 967

Unemployment rate

9.5 5.5 5.3 9.8 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.2 5.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,831 11,939 11,902 11,912 11,790 11,928 12,071 12,020 11,977

Participation rate

58.4 58.0 57.7 58.8 57.6 58.2 58.8 58.4 58.1

Employed

10,547 11,087 11,160 10,652 10,909 11,043 11,111 11,209 11,253

Employment-population ratio

52.0 53.9 54.1 52.5 53.3 53.8 54.1 54.5 54.6

Unemployed

1,284 851 742 1,260 881 884 959 811 725

Unemployment rate

10.9 7.1 6.2 10.6 7.5 7.4 7.9 6.7 6.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,307 1,459 1,308 1,267 1,323 1,236 1,228 1,280 1,271

Participation rate

32.5 36.0 32.3 31.5 32.8 30.6 30.4 31.6 31.3

Employed

1,051 1,248 1,101 1,027 1,098 1,061 1,066 1,142 1,081

Employment-population ratio

26.1 30.8 27.2 25.5 27.2 26.3 26.4 28.2 26.7

Unemployed

256 211 207 240 225 175 162 138 190

Unemployment rate

19.6 14.5 15.8 18.9 17.0 14.2 13.2 10.8 15.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,545 9,046 9,188 8,528 9,020 8,790 9,142 9,254 9,158

Participation rate

45.1 45.7 45.9 45.0 44.2 42.8 44.1 46.7 45.8

Employed

7,536 8,214 8,542 7,455 8,185 7,993 8,210 8,377 8,448

Employment-population ratio

39.8 41.5 42.7 39.3 40.1 38.9 39.6 42.3 42.2

Unemployed

1,009 832 646 1,073 835 797 932 877 710

Unemployment rate

11.8 9.2 7.0 12.6 9.3 9.1 10.2 9.5 7.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

34,365 34,895 35,571 34,228 34,704 34,930 34,972 34,947 35,347

Participation rate

55.3 55.2 55.7 55.1 55.3 55.5 55.9 55.3 55.3

Employed

31,007 32,721 33,473 30,875 32,307 32,543 32,517 32,735 33,232

Employment-population ratio

49.9 51.7 52.4 49.7 51.5 51.7 52.0 51.8 52.0

Unemployed

3,358 2,175 2,098 3,354 2,397 2,388 2,455 2,211 2,115

Unemployment rate

9.8 6.2 5.9 9.8 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,155 35,827 35,502 36,558 35,485 35,917 36,079 35,896 35,845

Participation rate

63.5 62.9 63.0 64.2 63.0 63.4 63.1 63.0 63.6

Employed

33,169 33,955 33,611 33,642 33,422 33,808 33,970 34,111 34,019

Employment-population ratio

58.3 59.6 59.7 59.1 59.3 59.7 59.4 59.9 60.4

Unemployed

2,987 1,872 1,890 2,916 2,063 2,108 2,109 1,785 1,826

Unemployment rate

8.3 5.2 5.3 8.0 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.0 5.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

61,379 60,526 60,321 61,815 60,804 60,727 60,483 60,927 60,794

Participation rate

72.1 71.9 71.7 72.7 72.2 72.5 72.3 72.4 72.3

Employed

57,935 58,438 58,441 58,563 58,662 58,802 58,392 59,027 59,077

Employment-population ratio

68.1 69.4 69.5 68.8 69.6 70.2 69.8 70.1 70.2

Unemployed

3,444 2,089 1,880 3,252 2,142 1,925 2,091 1,900 1,717

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.5 3.1 5.3 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.1 2.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,422 18,037 16,515 16,119 1,907 1,918

Civilian labor force

8,821 8,443 7,796 7,335 1,025 1,108

Participation rate

47.9 46.8 47.2 45.5 53.8 57.8

Employed

8,261 8,141 7,320 7,068 941 1,073

Employment-population ratio

44.8 45.1 44.3 43.8 49.4 55.9

Unemployed

560 303 476 267 84 35

Unemployment rate

6.4 3.6 6.1 3.6 8.2 3.2

Not in labor force

9,601 9,594 8,719 8,784 882 810

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,578 4,625 3,833 3,833 744 792

Civilian labor force

3,637 3,579 3,171 3,005 467 574

Participation rate

79.5 77.4 82.7 78.4 62.7 72.5

Employed

3,382 3,466 2,936 2,905 446 562

Employment-population ratio

73.9 75.0 76.6 75.8 59.9 71.0

Unemployed

256 112 235 100 21 12

Unemployment rate

7.0 3.1 7.4 3.3 4.5 2.1

Not in labor force

940 1,046 663 828 278 218

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,002 3,086 2,479 2,579 524 507

Civilian labor force

2,214 2,228 1,841 1,913 372 314

Participation rate

73.7 72.2 74.3 74.2 71.0 62.0

Employed

2,110 2,154 1,782 1,850 328 304

Employment-population ratio

70.3 69.8 71.9 71.7 62.7 59.9

Unemployed

104 74 60 63 44 10

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.3 3.2 3.3 11.8 3.3

Not in labor force

789 859 637 666 152 193

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,776 6,391 6,539 6,166 237 225

Civilian labor force

1,165 1,017 1,142 964 23 54

Participation rate

17.2 15.9 17.5 15.6 9.7 23.9

Employed

1,093 975 1,073 926 20 49

Employment-population ratio

16.1 15.3 16.4 15.0 8.4 21.6

Unemployed

72 43 69 38 3 5

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.2 6.0 3.9 - -

Not in labor force

5,611 5,374 5,397 5,202 214 171

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,066 3,935 3,664 3,541 402 394

Civilian labor force

1,806 1,620 1,642 1,454 164 166

Participation rate

44.4 41.2 44.8 41.1 40.7 42.1

Employed

1,677 1,546 1,529 1,388 148 158

Employment-population ratio

41.2 39.3 41.7 39.2 36.7 40.1

Unemployed

129 74 113 66 16 8

Unemployment rate

7.1 4.6 6.9 4.5 9.8 4.7

Not in labor force

2,260 2,315 2,022 2,087 238 228

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

233,177 234,885 105,012 106,117 128,165 128,768

Civilian labor force

149,789 150,808 76,683 77,539 73,106 73,269

Participation rate

64.2 64.2 73.0 73.1 57.0 56.9

Employed

136,921 142,825 70,410 73,517 66,511 69,308

Employment-population ratio

58.7 60.8 67.0 69.3 51.9 53.8

Unemployed

12,868 7,983 6,273 4,023 6,595 3,961

Unemployment rate

8.6 5.3 8.2 5.2 9.0 5.4

Not in labor force

83,388 84,077 28,329 28,578 55,059 55,499

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,304 31,258 231,254 230,353

Civilian labor force

6,050 6,738 154,916 155,050

Participation rate

20.6 21.6 67.0 67.3

Employed

5,254 6,004 141,970 147,228

Employment-population ratio

17.9 19.2 61.4 63.9

Unemployed

796 734 12,946 7,823

Unemployment rate

13.2 10.9 8.4 5.0

Not in labor force

23,253 24,520 76,338 75,303

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,610 2,938 77,128 77,166

Participation rate

36.1 38.3 81.9 82.5

Employed

2,281 2,587 71,015 73,364

Employment-population ratio

31.6 33.7 75.4 78.5

Unemployed

329 351 6,113 3,802

Unemployment rate

12.6 12.0 7.9 4.9

Not in labor force

4,616 4,738 17,000 16,326

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,266 2,633 68,392 68,393

Participation rate

31.1 33.0 70.4 71.2

Employed

1,897 2,345 62,360 64,775

Employment-population ratio

26.1 29.4 64.2 67.5

Unemployed

368 289 6,032 3,617

Unemployment rate

16.3 11.0 8.8 5.3

Not in labor force

5,012 5,347 28,719 27,631

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,174 1,166 9,396 9,491

Participation rate

7.9 7.5 23.5 23.2

Employed

1,076 1,073 8,595 9,088

Employment-population ratio

7.3 6.9 21.5 22.3

Unemployed

99 94 801 403

Unemployment rate

8.4 8.0 8.5 4.2

Not in labor force

13,625 14,435 30,620 31,345

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,041 42,890 20,287 20,760 21,754 22,129

Civilian labor force

27,325 27,916 15,547 16,072 11,778 11,845

Participation rate

65.0 65.1 76.6 77.4 54.1 53.5

Employed

24,551 26,453 14,225 15,285 10,326 11,168

Employment-population ratio

58.4 61.7 70.1 73.6 47.5 50.5

Unemployed

2,774 1,464 1,322 787 1,451 677

Unemployment rate

10.2 5.2 8.5 4.9 12.3 5.7

Not in labor force

14,716 14,973 4,739 4,688 9,977 10,285

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,517 218,721 105,749 105,810 112,768 112,912

Civilian labor force

133,641 133,872 70,053 70,002 63,588 63,870

Participation rate

61.2 61.2 66.2 66.2 56.4 56.6

Employed

122,673 126,779 64,486 66,385 58,186 60,394

Employment-population ratio

56.1 58.0 61.0 62.7 51.6 53.5

Unemployed

10,968 7,092 5,566 3,617 5,402 3,475

Unemployment rate

8.2 5.3 7.9 5.2 8.5 5.4

Not in labor force

84,876 84,850 35,696 35,808 49,180 49,042

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,259 2,401 2,385 2,194 2,292 2,293 2,318 2,305 2,329

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,457 1,636 1,606 1,461 1,527 1,534 1,604 1,584 1,606

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

788 740 744 754 688 737 692 708 712

Unpaid family workers

14 24 34 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

144,965 151,195 150,847 145,216 148,942 149,397 149,329 150,481 151,115

Wage and salary workers(1)

136,073 141,412 141,181 136,168 139,825 139,799 139,873 140,487 141,168

Government

20,445 19,923 20,277 20,988 20,410 20,454 20,578 20,761 20,793

Private industries

115,628 121,489 120,904 115,141 119,548 119,449 119,460 119,955 120,345

Private households

715 679 733 - - - - - -

Other industries

114,913 120,810 120,171 114,440 118,995 118,901 118,948 119,334 119,608

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,815 9,716 9,607 8,788 8,962 9,265 9,146 9,571 9,541

Unpaid family workers

77 67 60 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,488 4,605 4,385 7,533 5,243 5,271 4,627 4,483 4,469

Slack work or business conditions

6,106 2,997 3,087 6,181 3,997 4,069 3,430 2,965 3,183

Could only find part-time work

1,039 1,149 958 1,120 974 966 1,007 1,116 1,032

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

17,110 18,660 18,871 18,630 19,057 19,160 20,337 20,087 20,359

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,387 4,526 4,309 7,439 5,178 5,231 4,544 4,351 4,414

Slack work or business conditions

6,033 2,953 3,029 6,110 3,949 4,039 3,381 2,908 3,126

Could only find part-time work

1,027 1,127 943 1,107 970 963 996 1,099 1,019

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

16,744 18,310 18,557 18,257 18,713 18,774 19,982 19,736 20,027

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

147,224 153,596 153,232 147,276 151,176 151,620 151,602 152,645 153,154

16 to 19 years

5,049 6,403 5,702 4,706 5,398 5,468 5,240 5,369 5,357

16 to 17 years

2,042 2,407 2,266 1,816 2,057 2,080 1,952 1,971 2,025

18 to 19 years

3,007 3,996 3,436 2,851 3,337 3,380 3,287 3,378 3,293

20 years and over

142,175 147,193 147,530 142,571 145,778 146,151 146,362 147,277 147,797

20 to 24 years

12,528 13,865 13,462 12,281 13,118 13,157 13,399 13,342 13,238

25 years and over

129,647 133,327 134,068 130,340 132,540 132,898 133,068 134,135 134,652

25 to 54 years

94,500 97,586 97,881 94,986 96,952 97,172 97,331 98,131 98,289

25 to 34 years

32,765 34,421 34,575 32,953 34,319 34,406 34,284 34,589 34,742

35 to 44 years

31,873 32,740 32,828 31,978 32,407 32,491 32,612 32,923 32,914

45 to 54 years

29,863 30,426 30,479 30,055 30,226 30,275 30,436 30,620 30,633

55 years and over

35,147 35,741 36,186 35,354 35,588 35,726 35,737 36,003 36,363

Men, 16 years and over

78,711 81,918 81,670 78,213 80,017 80,062 80,176 80,712 81,100

16 to 19 years

2,533 3,220 2,887 2,310 2,669 2,722 2,631 2,670 2,660

16 to 17 years

982 1,172 1,085 845 970 1,013 942 944 949

18 to 19 years

1,552 2,047 1,802 1,442 1,680 1,707 1,679 1,720 1,691

20 years and over

76,178 78,698 78,783 75,903 77,348 77,340 77,545 78,041 78,440

20 to 24 years

6,563 7,074 6,982 6,339 6,770 6,719 6,737 6,713 6,769

25 years and over

69,615 71,624 71,801 69,559 70,562 70,798 70,955 71,479 71,690

25 to 54 years

50,761 52,327 52,406 50,741 51,616 51,664 51,804 52,220 52,348

25 to 34 years

17,572 18,507 18,523 17,595 18,339 18,352 18,167 18,472 18,535

35 to 44 years

17,240 17,750 17,741 17,197 17,477 17,525 17,616 17,707 17,699

45 to 54 years

15,949 16,069 16,142 15,950 15,801 15,787 16,021 16,041 16,115

55 years and over

18,855 19,297 19,395 18,818 18,946 19,134 19,150 19,259 19,342

Women, 16 years and over

68,513 71,678 71,562 69,063 71,159 71,557 71,426 71,934 72,054

16 to 19 years

2,516 3,183 2,816 2,396 2,729 2,746 2,609 2,698 2,697

16 to 17 years

1,060 1,235 1,181 970 1,087 1,067 1,010 1,027 1,076

18 to 19 years

1,456 1,949 1,635 1,409 1,656 1,673 1,608 1,658 1,602

20 years and over

65,997 68,494 68,746 66,667 68,430 68,811 68,817 69,235 69,357

20 to 24 years

5,965 6,791 6,480 5,943 6,348 6,438 6,662 6,629 6,469

25 years and over

60,032 61,703 62,266 60,781 61,978 62,100 62,113 62,655 62,962

25 to 54 years

43,739 45,259 45,476 44,245 45,336 45,508 45,527 45,911 45,941

25 to 34 years

15,193 15,913 16,052 15,359 15,980 16,054 16,117 16,116 16,207

35 to 44 years

14,633 14,990 15,087 14,781 14,930 14,966 14,995 15,216 15,215

45 to 54 years

13,914 14,356 14,337 14,105 14,425 14,488 14,415 14,579 14,519

55 years and over

16,292 16,444 16,791 16,536 16,642 16,592 16,587 16,744 17,021

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

44,420 43,622 43,637 44,404 43,805 43,647 43,533 43,823 43,641

Married women, spouse present(1)

34,703 34,394 34,485 35,262 35,013 34,950 34,891 35,208 35,043

Women who maintain families(2)

8,689 9,520 9,642 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

123,619 128,863 128,664 122,461 126,161 126,384 126,201 127,466 127,436

Part-time workers(4)

23,605 24,732 24,568 24,896 25,024 25,202 25,610 25,360 25,783

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,541 7,013 6,783 6,802 6,916 7,269 7,109 7,026 7,041

Percent of total employed

4.4 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,327 6,144 6,091 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,603 10,456 10,351 9,541 9,651 10,002 9,837 10,279 10,253

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

13,542 8,702 8,384 8.4 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2

16 to 19 years

924 569 674 16.4 12.3 9.6 9.9 9.6 11.2

16 to 17 years

314 211 264 14.8 11.3 8.9 9.6 9.7 11.6

18 to 19 years

611 352 407 17.6 13.0 9.5 10.1 9.4 11.0

20 years and over

12,618 8,132 7,710 8.1 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.2 5.0

20 to 24 years

2,021 1,331 1,365 14.1 10.5 10.1 9.1 9.1 9.3

25 years and over

10,581 6,768 6,358 7.5 5.3 5.1 5.4 4.8 4.5

25 to 54 years

7,678 5,077 4,870 7.5 5.5 5.2 5.5 4.9 4.7

25 to 34 years

3,490 2,252 2,069 9.6 6.4 5.8 6.5 6.1 5.6

35 to 44 years

2,193 1,610 1,512 6.4 4.9 5.0 5.3 4.7 4.4

45 to 54 years

1,996 1,215 1,289 6.2 4.9 4.8 4.6 3.8 4.0

55 years and over

2,902 1,649 1,489 7.6 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.4 3.9

Men, 16 years and over

7,057 4,795 4,584 8.3 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.4

16 to 19 years

500 311 359 17.8 13.3 10.1 9.5 10.4 11.9

16 to 17 years

144 106 119 14.5 11.5 8.0 10.5 10.1 11.2

18 to 19 years

358 201 243 19.9 14.1 11.2 8.8 10.5 12.6

20 years and over

6,558 4,484 4,225 8.0 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.4 5.1

20 to 24 years

1,059 778 727 14.3 11.5 10.9 10.2 10.4 9.7

25 years and over

5,489 3,661 3,515 7.3 5.5 5.3 5.4 4.9 4.7

25 to 54 years

4,028 2,778 2,699 7.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.1 4.9

25 to 34 years

1,898 1,231 1,159 9.7 6.7 6.2 7.0 6.2 5.9

35 to 44 years

1,161 867 837 6.3 4.6 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.5

45 to 54 years

969 680 703 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.1 4.2

55 years and over

1,461 883 815 7.2 5.2 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.0

Women, 16 years and over

6,485 3,906 3,799 8.6 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.0

16 to 19 years

424 258 314 15.0 11.2 9.0 10.4 8.7 10.4

16 to 17 years

170 105 145 14.9 11.1 9.7 8.8 9.3 11.9

18 to 19 years

253 151 164 15.2 11.8 7.7 11.3 8.3 9.3

20 years and over

6,061 3,648 3,485 8.3 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.8

20 to 24 years

962 553 638 13.9 9.3 9.2 7.9 7.7 9.0

25 years and over

5,092 3,107 2,843 7.7 5.2 4.9 5.3 4.7 4.3

25 to 54 years

3,650 2,300 2,171 7.6 5.4 4.9 5.3 4.8 4.5

25 to 34 years

1,592 1,021 910 9.4 6.2 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.3

35 to 44 years

1,032 743 675 6.5 5.3 4.7 5.5 4.7 4.2

45 to 54 years

1,027 535 586 6.8 4.5 4.5 4.6 3.5 3.9

55 years and over

1,440 749 674 8.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.3 3.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

2,328 1,547 1,464 5.0 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.2

Married women, spouse present(1)

2,417 1,197 1,035 6.4 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.3 2.9

Women who maintain families(2)

1,011 886 828 10.4 7.3 6.6 8.1 8.5 7.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

11,079 7,367 6,972 8.3 6.1 5.8 6.0 5.5 5.2

Part-time workers(4)

2,461 1,343 1,418 9.0 5.7 5.1 5.4 5.0 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

10,347 5,135 4,547 10,248 6,387 5,841 5,787 4,960 4,468

On temporary layoff

6,206 1,455 1,283 6,175 2,114 1,823 1,811 1,239 1,252

Not on temporary layoff

4,141 3,680 3,264 4,074 4,273 4,019 3,976 3,721 3,217

Permanent job losers

3,398 2,927 2,545 3,326 3,529 3,234 3,187 2,930 2,487

Persons who completed temporary jobs

743 753 719 747 744 785 789 791 730

Job leavers

672 967 905 595 824 778 942 930 822

Reentrants

2,103 2,447 2,514 2,104 2,072 2,149 2,298 2,287 2,487

New entrants

620 672 590 549 625 525 494 463 512

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

75.3 55.7 53.1 75.9 64.5 62.9 60.8 57.4 53.9

On temporary layoff

45.2 15.8 15.0 45.8 21.3 19.6 19.0 14.3 15.1

Not on temporary layoff

30.1 39.9 38.1 30.2 43.1 43.2 41.8 43.1 38.8

Job leavers

4.9 10.5 10.6 4.4 8.3 8.4 9.9 10.8 9.9

Reentrants

15.3 26.5 29.4 15.6 20.9 23.1 24.1 26.5 30.0

New entrants

4.5 7.3 6.9 4.1 6.3 5.7 5.2 5.4 6.2

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6.4 3.2 2.8 6.4 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.8

Job leavers

0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,283 2,534 2,051 2,312 2,414 2,023 1,981 2,257 2,083

5 to 14 weeks

3,442 2,165 2,269 3,213 1,939 2,126 2,166 1,861 2,066

15 weeks and over

8,018 4,522 4,236 8,129 5,386 5,013 5,314 4,599 4,343

15 to 26 weeks

6,381 1,019 1,042 6,536 1,203 1,262 1,329 1,174 1,164

27 weeks and over

1,637 3,503 3,195 1,593 4,183 3,752 3,985 3,425 3,179

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

19.7 28.3 29.2 20.0 28.8 29.9 31.6 29.5 29.6

Median duration, in weeks

16.2 13.9 14.3 16.7 19.8 19.3 19.8 15.2 14.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

16.6 27.5 24.0 16.9 24.8 22.1 20.9 25.9 24.5

5 to 14 weeks

25.0 23.5 26.5 23.5 19.9 23.2 22.9 21.3 24.3

15 weeks and over

58.3 49.0 49.5 59.5 55.3 54.7 56.2 52.8 51.1

15 to 26 weeks

46.4 11.1 12.2 47.9 12.4 13.8 14.0 13.5 13.7

27 weeks and over

11.9 38.0 37.3 11.7 43.0 40.9 42.1 39.3 37.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

147,224 153,232 13,742 8,556 8.5 5.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,095 64,122 3,680 2,123 5.5 3.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,090 28,160 1,325 849 4.7 2.9

Professional and related occupations

36,004 35,961 2,354 1,274 6.1 3.4

Service occupations

22,673 24,940 3,500 2,008 13.4 7.5

Sales and office occupations

30,434 29,671 2,581 1,604 7.8 5.1

Sales and related occupations

14,402 14,277 1,361 832 8.6 5.5

Office and administrative support occupations

16,032 15,394 1,220 772 7.1 4.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,559 14,588 1,162 723 7.9 4.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

977 1,146 77 74 7.3 6.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,972 8,330 739 480 8.5 5.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,610 5,113 345 169 7.0 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,464 19,911 2,187 1,490 11.1 7.0

Production occupations

7,427 8,231 800 442 9.7 5.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,037 11,679 1,386 1,048 12.1 8.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

13,742 8,556 8.5 5.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,099 6,572 8.8 5.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

93 70 12.4 10.2

Construction

762 448 7.6 4.6

Manufacturing

1,003 536 6.7 3.6

Durable goods

610 309 6.5 3.3

Nondurable goods

393 227 7.0 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

1,612 1,210 8.3 6.1

Transportation and utilities

847 481 11.3 5.9

Information

210 109 8.6 4.4

Financial activities

430 320 4.2 3.2

Professional and business services

1,286 824 7.2 4.6

Education and health services

1,530 1,047 6.3 4.3

Leisure and hospitality

2,751 1,201 21.3 9.1

Other services

574 327 9.1 5.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

83 94 5.6 5.7

Government workers

1,232 764 5.7 3.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

708 535 6.8 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.0 2.8 2.6 5.1 3.3 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

6.4 3.2 2.8 6.4 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

8.5 5.7 5.3 8.4 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

8.8 6.0 5.5 8.7 6.4 6.1 6.2 5.7 5.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.7 6.8 6.2 9.6 7.2 6.9 6.9 6.5 6.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

14.3 9.6 8.9 14.2 10.4 10.2 9.8 9.2 8.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021
Aug.
2020
Aug.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,592 99,823 40,436 40,496 59,156 59,327

Persons who currently want a job

7,184 5,810 3,389 2,518 3,795 3,293

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,083 1,558 1,119 819 965 739

Discouraged workers(2)

551 367 350 227 202 140

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,532 1,191 769 592 763 599

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,541 6,783 3,296 3,439 3,245 3,344

Percent of total employed

4.4 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.7 4.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,712 3,846 2,063 2,094 1,649 1,753

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,564 1,489 574 586 989 903

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

291 325 163 173 127 152

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

948 1,045 481 550 468 495

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Change from:
July2021 - Aug.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

140,728 146,578 146,544 146,856 141,149 145,902 146,955 147,190 235

Total private

119,704 124,910 125,769 125,871 119,076 124,104 124,902 125,145 243

Goods-producing

20,188 20,629 20,742 20,782 19,880 20,377 20,441 20,481 40

Mining and logging

595 634 643 647 589 632 638 644 6

Logging

45.9 44.7 45.5 45.7 44.7 44.8 44.7 44.7 0.0

Mining

549.1 589.0 597.3 601.0 544.3 586.7 593.2 599.2 6.0

Oil and gas extraction

135.9 137.6 139.4 140.3 134.8 137.6 138.2 139.0 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas

179.8 183.4 186.3 186.8 176.5 181.8 182.2 183.4 1.2

Coal mining

40.8 41.5 41.4 42.6 40.5 42.1 41.5 42.5 1.0

Metal ore mining

42.1 42.7 43.0 42.7 41.9 42.6 42.7 42.5 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.9 99.2 101.9 101.5 94.1 97.1 98.0 98.4 0.4

Support activities for mining

233.4 268.0 271.6 273.9 233.0 267.3 272.8 276.8 4.0

Construction

7,460 7,598 7,641 7,643 7,223 7,413 7,419 7,416 -3

Construction of buildings

1,652.7 1,716.1 1,732.7 1,723.3 1,613.9 1,688.0 1,691.0 1,688.3 -2.7

Residential building

834.4 884.4 897.4 894.2 819.7 873.4 880.6 880.7 0.1

Nonresidential building

818.3 831.7 835.3 829.1 794.2 814.6 810.4 807.6 -2.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,085.9 1,099.2 1,096.2 1,098.7 1,021.5 1,046.5 1,042.3 1,034.0 -8.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,721.5 4,783.0 4,812.4 4,820.8 4,587.5 4,678.1 4,685.2 4,693.3 8.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,132.2 2,209.0 2,215.0 2,221.1 2,086.1 2,160.6 2,161.1 2,178.4 17.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,589.3 2,574.0 2,597.4 2,599.7 2,501.4 2,517.5 2,524.1 2,514.9 -9.2

Manufacturing

12,133 12,397 12,458 12,492 12,068 12,332 12,384 12,421 37

Durable goods

7,524 7,710 7,728 7,762 7,500 7,663 7,704 7,735 31

Wood products

392.6 405.5 409.1 412.2 388.8 404.2 406.1 407.9 1.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

396.6 401.6 403.5 404.0 389.6 394.2 396.1 396.5 0.4

Primary metals

345.2 355.6 357.5 354.7 345.5 352.2 354.9 355.1 0.2

Fabricated metal products

1,373.4 1,416.9 1,419.7 1,419.1 1,370.8 1,406.1 1,411.7 1,418.3 6.6

Machinery

1,041.8 1,074.8 1,082.0 1,079.3 1,039.1 1,067.8 1,076.9 1,076.9 0.0

Computer and electronic products

1,072.2 1,089.9 1,091.2 1,092.1 1,068.8 1,086.0 1,086.6 1,088.0 1.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.9 165.7 165.8 166.9 162.3 165.3 165.8 165.9 0.1

Communications equipment

85.6 86.6 86.2 85.0 85.3 86.1 86.0 84.9 -1.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

370.2 374.7 374.7 375.2 368.5 372.3 372.0 373.1 1.1

Electronic instruments

419.5 428.4 429.8 430.0 419.3 428.0 428.3 429.6 1.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.0 34.5 34.7 35.0 33.4 34.3 34.5 34.5 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

372.1 382.0 384.9 381.5 370.6 381.5 383.0 379.9 -3.1

Transportation equipment(1)

1,586.4 1,592.5 1,587.3 1,626.7 1,585.4 1,584.9 1,598.9 1,624.4 25.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

889.3 888.7 886.2 925.8 890.6 888.7 899.2 923.3 24.1

Furniture and related products

350.2 361.0 362.4 361.4 349.9 361.3 361.2 361.0 -0.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

593.1 630.0 630.8 630.8 591.0 624.8 629.0 627.2 -1.8

Nondurable goods

4,609 4,687 4,730 4,730 4,568 4,669 4,680 4,686 6

Food manufacturing

1,638.0 1,635.1 1,662.7 1,659.3 1,616.0 1,633.5 1,637.1 1,638.7 1.6

Textile mills

93.2 98.0 98.2 97.9 93.0 97.5 97.6 97.3 -0.3

Textile product mills

102.7 106.5 107.3 107.1 102.4 106.9 106.4 106.7 0.3

Apparel

88.5 94.0 93.1 93.0 88.1 92.9 92.8 92.3 -0.5

Paper and paper products

354.2 352.9 353.3 354.2 352.9 352.3 351.9 352.7 0.8

Printing and related support activities

365.1 374.5 373.4 374.9 362.6 373.9 372.9 372.4 -0.5

Petroleum and coal products

105.9 102.3 103.1 103.0 103.5 100.2 100.1 100.4 0.3

Chemicals

842.8 859.3 863.1 860.6 842.4 856.0 859.0 860.4 1.4

Plastics and rubber products

710.0 729.3 732.4 736.7 707.4 726.3 728.6 731.7 3.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

308.4 335.0 343.2 343.0 300.0 329.4 333.2 333.1 -0.1

Private service-providing

99,516 104,281 105,027 105,089 99,196 103,727 104,461 104,664 203

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,452 27,318 27,339 27,314 26,553 27,344 27,405 27,429 24

Wholesale trade

5,565.2 5,729.3 5,745.4 5,741.7 5,544.5 5,707.1 5,720.7 5,722.1 1.4

Durable goods

3,045.6 3,142.5 3,151.2 3,155.4 3,031.7 3,132.3 3,139.4 3,142.4 3.0

Nondurable goods

2,042.0 2,111.7 2,114.2 2,105.7 2,036.2 2,099.2 2,103.6 2,101.6 -2.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

477.6 475.1 480.0 480.6 476.6 475.6 477.7 478.1 0.4

Retail trade

14,965.5 15,339.3 15,350.5 15,286.1 14,995.8 15,361.4 15,353.4 15,324.9 -28.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,914.7 1,991.2 1,992.0 1,990.4 1,904.3 1,981.1 1,976.9 1,980.3 3.4

Automobile dealers

1,209.7 1,255.1 1,254.0 1,254.9 1,207.3 1,254.7 1,250.6 1,253.0 2.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

155.6 172.7 172.4 171.5 149.1 163.3 163.7 164.7 1.0

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

549.4 563.4 565.6 564.0 547.9 563.1 562.6 562.6 0.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

405.1 444.3 442.5 442.5 410.8 448.6 448.1 448.2 0.1

Electronics and appliance stores

406.3 407.5 410.0 414.9 421.2 421.4 425.0 428.5 3.5

Building material and garden supply stores

1,391.6 1,463.5 1,407.2 1,371.1 1,378.2 1,399.7 1,369.6 1,356.6 -13.0

Food and beverage stores

3,131.2 3,119.4 3,121.2 3,091.4 3,114.4 3,102.4 3,099.7 3,076.5 -23.2

Health and personal care stores

935.3 1,000.4 1,000.2 997.6 943.0 1,003.5 1,003.7 1,003.9 0.2

Gasoline stations

938.5 959.0 968.0 968.1 924.9 947.1 956.0 952.6 -3.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

926.8 1,021.2 1,047.3 1,044.9 930.9 1,048.4 1,051.0 1,047.0 -4.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

446.2 479.8 485.7 488.3 457.4 492.0 495.9 500.2 4.3

General merchandise stores

3,125.1 3,011.6 3,014.0 3,011.8 3,168.1 3,079.5 3,077.5 3,072.5 -5.0

Department stores

951.4 962.0 965.6 968.4 981.1 1,003.0 1,004.1 1,001.8 -2.3

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,173.7 2,049.6 2,048.4 2,043.4 2,187.0 2,076.5 2,073.4 2,070.7 -2.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

761.1 830.9 842.5 840.8 754.4 818.4 825.4 830.7 5.3

Nonstore retailers

583.6 610.5 619.9 624.3 588.2 619.3 624.6 627.9 3.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,380.1 5,708.0 5,700.5 5,747.7 5,472.4 5,736.8 5,791.8 5,845.0 53.2

Air transportation

414.4 436.6 441.6 451.9 410.8 432.7 436.6 448.0 11.4

Rail transportation

145.4 143.8 143.8 143.8 145.1 144.5 143.8 143.3 -0.5

Water transportation

60.0 61.2 62.7 60.7 57.8 59.4 59.5 58.8 -0.7

Truck transportation

1,463.4 1,501.9 1,512.5 1,517.4 1,445.8 1,488.3 1,493.1 1,498.5 5.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

273.2 381.0 337.2 328.6 337.6 385.8 401.2 393.4 -7.8

Pipeline transportation

50.6 49.2 49.3 49.2 50.6 49.1 49.2 49.1 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

27.1 38.0 40.3 40.6 20.5 30.2 30.6 30.7 0.1

Support activities for transportation

681.5 711.1 718.2 723.4 680.3 711.0 717.0 722.2 5.2

Couriers and messengers

920.3 976.5 973.4 983.4 968.9 1,001.2 1,011.3 1,031.3 20.0

Warehousing and storage

1,344.2 1,408.7 1,421.5 1,448.7 1,355.0 1,434.6 1,449.5 1,469.7 20.2

Utilities

541.4 540.9 542.4 538.5 539.9 538.6 538.6 537.3 -1.3

Information

2,622 2,730 2,763 2,771 2,617 2,726 2,747 2,764 17

Publishing industries, except Internet

753.3 775.9 777.8 779.9 749.9 772.1 771.7 776.2 4.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

238.2 299.9 320.4 315.6 233.2 294.4 312.6 309.0 -3.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

241.6 236.0 236.2 237.8 242.9 238.4 238.5 239.4 0.9

Telecommunications

683.0 673.0 677.5 674.9 685.3 676.6 677.1 677.3 0.2

Data processing, hosting and related services

350.0 370.3 369.8 377.7 351.9 370.7 368.3 380.2 11.9

Other information services

355.9 375.1 381.5 385.5 353.5 374.1 378.7 382.2 3.5

Financial activities

8,730 8,842 8,890 8,899 8,674 8,806 8,830 8,846 16

Finance and insurance

6,509.2 6,538.1 6,559.2 6,560.2 6,493.3 6,534.3 6,543.5 6,547.3 3.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.4 20.3 20.6 20.3 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,655.3 2,663.3 2,674.3 2,676.6 2,649.2 2,661.3 2,669.4 2,673.1 3.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,769.2 1,734.2 1,733.8 1,730.1 1,763.6 1,727.4 1,726.4 1,725.0 -1.4

Commercial banking

1,384.6 1,345.8 1,344.4 1,341.4 1,380.0 1,341.4 1,338.7 1,337.3 -1.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

582.2 611.0 616.1 621.0 579.8 613.0 617.8 620.8 3.0

Activities related to credit intermediation

303.9 318.1 324.4 325.5 305.9 320.9 325.2 327.3 2.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

974.8 992.3 1,004.9 1,006.3 965.8 991.0 995.3 996.2 0.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,858.7 2,862.2 2,859.4 2,857.0 2,858.1 2,861.8 2,858.6 2,857.8 -0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,221.1 2,304.3 2,330.5 2,338.6 2,181.0 2,271.8 2,286.5 2,298.9 12.4

Real estate

1,703.9 1,762.6 1,776.6 1,785.6 1,680.1 1,747.0 1,752.8 1,763.4 10.6

Rental and leasing services

494.3 519.1 531.4 530.5 478.4 502.6 511.6 513.4 1.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.9 22.6 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.2 22.1 22.1 0.0

Professional and business services

20,060 20,918 21,062 21,175 19,915 20,848 20,927 21,001 74

Professional and technical services

9,341.9 9,772.7 9,880.5 9,915.2 9,341.8 9,791.0 9,837.8 9,896.3 58.5

Legal services

1,113.6 1,143.4 1,145.2 1,142.6 1,111.6 1,134.0 1,136.9 1,141.2 4.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

935.8 1,002.4 1,011.9 1,013.3 993.6 1,055.0 1,063.5 1,067.9 4.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,517.2 1,575.1 1,593.2 1,599.1 1,499.4 1,556.5 1,560.8 1,579.5 18.7

Specialized design services

130.5 140.0 142.4 141.8 130.9 139.2 141.1 141.3 0.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,180.7 2,247.5 2,286.7 2,296.1 2,162.5 2,251.7 2,259.1 2,268.9 9.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,517.1 1,616.6 1,632.1 1,642.3 1,507.7 1,615.9 1,623.6 1,630.6 7.0

Scientific research and development services

768.3 822.7 833.5 837.0 762.6 817.2 824.9 832.3 7.4

Advertising and related services

435.8 445.9 448.1 449.8 433.4 444.6 445.6 447.3 1.7

Other professional and technical services

742.9 779.1 787.4 793.2 740.2 776.9 782.3 787.3 5.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,327.0 2,344.6 2,346.1 2,343.6 2,315.1 2,329.9 2,328.6 2,332.2 3.6

Administrative and waste services

8,390.6 8,800.9 8,835.1 8,916.2 8,258.3 8,726.6 8,760.2 8,772.8 12.6

Administrative and support services

7,944.5 8,348.9 8,380.7 8,462.2 7,819.0 8,280.0 8,313.5 8,325.5 12.0

Office administrative services

522.9 554.2 557.9 566.9 520.7 551.5 557.0 563.3 6.3

Facilities support services

154.8 149.7 150.4 151.6 155.1 150.5 151.0 152.0 1.0

Employment services(1)

2,965.2 3,271.8 3,277.1 3,339.9 2,955.0 3,314.5 3,324.5 3,323.0 -1.5

Temporary help services

2,387.6 2,636.0 2,636.4 2,692.6 2,380.0 2,678.3 2,688.4 2,682.6 -5.8

Business support services

781.3 768.8 768.4 774.4 788.2 780.4 779.0 781.3 2.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

153.8 155.5 160.1 161.1 152.0 152.8 158.0 159.2 1.2

Investigation and security services

891.9 900.0 896.7 901.8 889.0 899.9 898.3 898.8 0.5

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,184.2 2,241.9 2,259.9 2,251.7 2,067.4 2,128.1 2,131.6 2,132.2 0.6

Other support services

290.4 307.0 310.2 314.8 291.6 302.3 314.1 315.7 1.6

Waste management and remediation services

446.1 452.0 454.4 454.0 439.3 446.6 446.7 447.3 0.6

Education and health services

22,782 23,347 23,313 23,341 23,084 23,537 23,625 23,660 35

Educational services

3,171.1 3,333.1 3,289.9 3,309.8 3,460.9 3,535.8 3,579.9 3,620.1 40.2

Health care and social assistance

19,611.1 20,014.3 20,023.5 20,031.0 19,623.1 20,001.2 20,044.7 20,040.1 -4.6

Health care(3)

15,774.2 15,970.9 16,004.5 15,997.6 15,758.3 15,954.5 15,983.6 15,978.7 -4.9

Ambulatory health care services

7,513.7 7,810.2 7,838.2 7,836.9 7,509.7 7,802.0 7,831.0 7,829.8 -1.2

Offices of physicians

2,616.3 2,695.2 2,706.5 2,706.8 2,618.2 2,696.8 2,706.2 2,708.6 2.4

Offices of dentists

957.5 1,016.7 1,019.8 1,024.1 954.1 1,012.5 1,016.1 1,018.1 2.0

Offices of other health practitioners

911.9 976.4 989.7 993.1 909.3 974.1 987.4 989.9 2.5

Outpatient care centers

969.0 1,004.8 1,006.6 1,008.2 970.1 1,005.0 1,006.4 1,008.7 2.3

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

277.6 294.2 294.6 297.3 277.4 294.0 295.4 297.0 1.6

Home health care services

1,478.9 1,505.8 1,502.8 1,490.8 1,478.6 1,503.1 1,502.5 1,490.9 -11.6

Other ambulatory health care services

302.5 317.1 318.2 316.6 301.9 316.5 317.0 316.6 -0.4

Hospitals

5,112.8 5,139.6 5,150.1 5,151.8 5,113.9 5,138.1 5,149.5 5,152.7 3.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,147.7 3,021.1 3,016.2 3,008.9 3,134.7 3,014.4 3,003.1 2,996.2 -6.9

Nursing care facilities

1,464.6 1,372.8 1,375.0 1,369.2 1,459.2 1,371.1 1,371.1 1,364.0 -7.1

Residential mental health facilities

611.9 602.8 598.3 597.2 609.7 600.3 594.3 595.0 0.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

914.4 895.0 893.3 891.6 909.9 893.7 889.8 887.2 -2.6

Other residential care facilities

156.8 150.5 149.6 150.9 155.9 149.3 147.9 150.0 2.1

Social assistance

3,836.9 4,043.4 4,019.0 4,033.4 3,864.8 4,046.7 4,061.1 4,061.4 0.3

Individual and family services

2,560.2 2,658.8 2,674.9 2,676.5 2,559.3 2,650.5 2,669.1 2,675.1 6.0

Emergency and other relief services

181.2 184.3 183.2 182.6 182.4 183.9 183.8 184.2 0.4

Vocational rehabilitation services

280.4 286.5 287.0 284.7 277.5 282.3 282.5 282.3 -0.2

Child day care services

815.1 913.8 873.9 889.6 845.6 930.0 925.7 919.8 -5.9

Leisure and hospitality

13,445 15,397 15,872 15,798 12,963 14,801 15,216 15,216 0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,837.9 2,278.0 2,388.4 2,365.5 1,647.1 2,037.6 2,090.3 2,125.8 35.5

Performing arts and spectator sports

304.8 423.6 426.1 431.5 290.2 397.7 405.2 410.4 5.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

134.9 150.9 156.8 152.7 125.7 138.6 141.9 142.2 0.3

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,398.2 1,703.5 1,805.5 1,781.3 1,231.2 1,501.3 1,543.2 1,573.2 30.0

Accommodation and food services

11,606.8 13,118.6 13,483.1 13,432.8 11,315.7 12,762.9 13,125.5 13,090.6 -34.9

Accommodation

1,461.1 1,763.1 1,866.4 1,867.8 1,367.9 1,669.2 1,742.2 1,748.8 6.6

Food services and drinking places

10,145.7 11,355.5 11,616.7 11,565.0 9,947.8 11,093.7 11,383.3 11,341.8 -41.5

Other services

5,425 5,729 5,788 5,791 5,390 5,665 5,711 5,748 37

Repair and maintenance

1,289.8 1,357.2 1,371.6 1,377.5 1,287.2 1,351.3 1,360.6 1,369.3 8.7

Personal and laundry services

1,283.2 1,402.4 1,419.7 1,430.0 1,279.0 1,387.3 1,405.9 1,425.1 19.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,852.2 2,969.7 2,997.0 2,983.1 2,824.1 2,926.7 2,944.8 2,953.4 8.6

Government

21,024 21,668 20,775 20,985 22,073 21,798 22,053 22,045 -8

Federal

3,161 2,886 2,897 2,891 3,153 2,876 2,885 2,888 3

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,560.9 2,288.2 2,294.9 2,292.1 2,549.0 2,278.3 2,278.1 2,281.1 3.0

U.S. Postal Service

599.7 597.8 601.9 599.2 603.6 597.4 606.4 606.6 0.2

State government

4,784 4,808 4,747 4,782 5,060 5,074 5,085 5,060 -25

State government education

2,081.1 2,130.0 2,078.3 2,122.8 2,369.0 2,411.4 2,430.8 2,410.1 -20.7

State government, excluding education

2,703.1 2,678.1 2,668.5 2,658.7 2,691.0 2,663.0 2,654.4 2,649.5 -4.9

Local government

13,079 13,974 13,131 13,312 13,860 13,848 14,083 14,097 14

Local government education

6,717.0 7,525.6 6,625.3 6,848.3 7,672.0 7,590.8 7,815.7 7,810.0 -5.7

Local government, excluding education

6,361.8 6,448.1 6,505.9 6,463.4 6,187.9 6,256.8 6,267.6 6,287.2 19.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7

Goods-producing

39.8 39.9 40.0 39.9

Mining and logging

44.3 45.4 45.2 44.6

Construction

38.9 38.6 38.8 38.8

Manufacturing

40.1 40.3 40.5 40.3

Durable goods

40.3 40.4 40.7 40.4

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.2 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.6 33.7 33.7 33.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.5 34.5 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.5 39.1 39.4 39.3

Retail trade

30.8 30.9 30.8 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 39.0 38.7 38.7

Utilities

43.3 42.7 42.7 42.9

Information

36.7 37.2 37.2 37.2

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.4 36.6 36.7 36.6

Education and health services

33.4 33.3 33.3 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 26.5 26.4 26.3

Other services

32.2 32.2 32.1 32.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

Total private

$29.47 $30.44 $30.56 $30.73 $1,022.61 $1,056.27 $1,060.43 $1,066.33

Goods-producing

30.16 30.95 31.08 31.18 1,200.37 1,234.91 1,243.20 1,244.08

Mining and logging

34.80 35.06 35.32 35.53 1,541.64 1,591.72 1,596.46 1,584.64

Construction

31.82 32.86 32.95 33.07 1,237.80 1,268.40 1,278.46 1,283.12

Manufacturing

28.95 29.62 29.75 29.85 1,160.90 1,193.69 1,204.88 1,202.96

Durable goods

30.42 31.15 31.30 31.40 1,225.93 1,258.46 1,273.91 1,268.56

Nondurable goods

26.51 27.08 27.19 27.28 1,055.10 1,088.62 1,093.04 1,096.66

Private service-providing

29.30 30.32 30.44 30.62 984.48 1,021.78 1,025.83 1,031.89

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.41 26.35 26.48 26.61 869.02 909.08 913.56 918.05

Wholesale trade

32.49 33.50 33.71 33.79 1,250.87 1,309.85 1,328.17 1,327.95

Retail trade

21.19 21.97 21.97 22.12 652.65 678.87 676.68 681.30

Transportation and warehousing

25.40 26.65 26.85 26.97 977.90 1,039.35 1,039.10 1,043.74

Utilities

44.08 44.65 44.91 45.08 1,908.66 1,906.56 1,917.66 1,933.93

Information

44.00 44.25 44.33 44.46 1,614.80 1,646.10 1,649.08 1,653.91

Financial activities

38.10 40.17 40.28 40.53 1,432.56 1,510.39 1,514.53 1,523.93

Professional and business services

35.29 36.62 36.80 37.03 1,284.56 1,340.29 1,350.56 1,355.30

Education and health services

28.64 29.67 29.80 29.92 956.58 988.01 992.34 996.34

Leisure and hospitality

17.06 18.42 18.57 18.82 440.15 488.13 490.25 494.97

Other services

26.59 27.29 27.35 27.48 856.20 878.74 877.94 879.36

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
July
2021 - Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
July
2021 - Aug.
2021(p)

Total private

103.7 108.1 108.8 109.0 0.2 146.1 157.3 159.0 160.2 0.8

Goods-producing

90.1 92.6 93.2 93.1 -0.1 122.9 129.6 130.9 131.2 0.2

Mining and logging

82.0 90.2 90.6 90.3 -0.3 114.6 126.9 128.5 128.7 0.2

Construction

96.9 98.6 99.2 99.2 0.0 133.9 140.8 142.1 142.5 0.3

Manufacturing

87.1 89.4 90.2 90.1 -0.1 117.2 123.2 124.8 125.0 0.2

Durable goods

85.1 87.2 88.3 88.0 -0.3 115.0 120.6 122.7 122.7 0.0

Nondurable goods

90.7 93.7 93.9 94.0 0.1 122.1 128.7 129.6 130.2 0.5

Private service-providing

107.3 112.5 113.3 113.6 0.3 152.8 165.9 167.7 169.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

99.1 102.9 103.2 103.3 0.1 135.8 146.3 147.3 148.2 0.6

Wholesale trade

94.2 98.4 99.4 99.2 -0.2 128.0 137.9 140.2 140.2 0.0

Retail trade

93.8 96.4 96.0 95.8 -0.2 131.3 139.9 139.4 140.1 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

121.1 128.6 128.8 130.0 0.9 156.4 174.3 175.9 178.3 1.4

Utilities

101.1 99.5 99.5 99.7 0.2 147.3 146.8 147.6 148.5 0.6

Information

87.7 92.6 93.3 93.9 0.6 137.4 145.9 147.3 148.7 1.0

Financial activities

106.9 108.5 108.8 109.0 0.2 158.8 170.0 170.9 172.3 0.8

Professional and business services

113.7 119.6 120.4 120.5 0.1 162.4 177.4 179.4 180.7 0.7

Education and health services

125.9 128.0 128.5 128.6 0.1 173.5 182.7 184.2 185.2 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

95.4 111.9 114.6 114.2 -0.3 131.3 166.3 171.7 173.4 1.0

Other services

100.1 105.2 105.7 106.1 0.4 145.8 157.3 158.4 159.7 0.8

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

70,227 72,593 73,288 73,316 49.8 49.8 49.9 49.8

Total private

57,529 60,026 60,491 60,546 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,505 4,635 4,647 4,660 22.7 22.7 22.7 22.8

Mining and logging

86 83 83 83 14.6 13.1 13.0 12.9

Construction

966 1,014 1,020 1,026 13.4 13.7 13.7 13.8

Manufacturing

3,453 3,538 3,544 3,551 28.6 28.7 28.6 28.6

Durable goods

1,833 1,874 1,879 1,884 24.4 24.5 24.4 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,620 1,664 1,665 1,667 35.5 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

53,024 55,391 55,844 55,886 53.5 53.4 53.5 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,411 10,760 10,775 10,764 39.2 39.4 39.3 39.2

Wholesale trade

1,663.4 1,725.3 1,726.3 1,726.9 30.0 30.2 30.2 30.2

Retail trade

7,280.2 7,429.8 7,419.8 7,405.4 48.5 48.4 48.3 48.3

Transportation and warehousing

1,335.0 1,471.2 1,494.6 1,497.0 24.4 25.6 25.8 25.6

Utilities

132.5 134.1 134.4 134.6 24.5 24.9 25.0 25.1

Information

1,043 1,085 1,087 1,097 39.9 39.8 39.6 39.7

Financial activities

4,901 4,946 4,954 4,958 56.5 56.2 56.1 56.0

Professional and business services

9,127 9,592 9,681 9,717 45.8 46.0 46.3 46.3

Education and health services

17,804 18,163 18,246 18,230 77.1 77.2 77.2 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

6,880 7,838 8,058 8,052 53.1 53.0 53.0 52.9

Other services

2,858 3,007 3,043 3,068 53.0 53.1 53.3 53.4

Government

12,698 12,567 12,797 12,770 57.5 57.7 58.0 57.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

Total private

96,836 100,927 101,660 101,879

Goods-producing

14,163 14,517 14,598 14,625

Mining and logging

421 465 474 481

Construction

5,378 5,494 5,512 5,500

Manufacturing

8,364 8,558 8,612 8,644

Durable goods

5,091 5,220 5,270 5,309

Nondurable goods

3,273 3,338 3,342 3,335

Private service-providing

82,673 86,410 87,062 87,254

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,371 23,042 23,060 23,077

Wholesale trade

4,408.7 4,534.6 4,547.0 4,557.7

Retail trade

12,790.7 13,057.1 13,045.6 13,031.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,743.4 5,022.0 5,038.0 5,059.8

Utilities

427.9 428.1 429.3 427.7

Information

2,065 2,161 2,185 2,193

Financial activities

6,602 6,630 6,642 6,655

Professional and business services

15,940 16,637 16,718 16,798

Education and health services

20,226 20,599 20,674 20,691

Leisure and hospitality

11,097 12,752 13,140 13,157

Other services

4,372 4,589 4,643 4,683

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.0 34.1 34.2 34.2

Goods-producing

40.5 40.7 40.9 40.8

Mining and logging

44.9 47.3 46.6 46.0

Construction

39.2 39.1 39.4 39.3

Manufacturing

41.1 41.4 41.5 41.5

Durable goods

41.3 41.2 41.6 41.5

Nondurable goods

40.7 41.5 41.5 41.5

Private service-providing

32.9 33.0 33.1 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.3 34.4 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.2 38.8 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.9 30.8 30.8 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.2 38.6 38.6 38.6

Utilities

42.9 42.8 42.6 42.8

Information

36.8 36.8 36.9 37.3

Financial activities

37.0 37.4 37.5 37.4

Professional and business services

35.9 36.3 36.3 36.3

Education and health services

32.6 32.6 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

24.5 25.0 25.2 25.1

Other services

31.2 31.3 31.2 31.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.8 4.0 4.1 4.2

Durable goods

3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2

Nondurable goods

3.8 4.1 4.1 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)

Total private

$24.81 $25.72 $25.85 $25.99 $843.54 $877.05 $884.07 $888.86

Goods-producing

25.51 26.48 26.59 26.71 1,033.16 1,077.74 1,087.53 1,089.77

Mining and logging

30.35 31.05 31.37 31.55 1,362.72 1,468.67 1,461.84 1,451.30

Construction

29.39 30.48 30.58 30.70 1,152.09 1,191.77 1,204.85 1,206.51

Manufacturing

22.87 23.76 23.88 24.01 939.96 983.66 991.02 996.42

Durable goods

23.84 24.82 24.92 25.05 984.59 1,022.58 1,036.67 1,039.58

Nondurable goods

21.33 22.13 22.23 22.35 868.13 918.40 922.55 927.53

Private service-providing

24.66 25.57 25.69 25.84 811.31 843.81 850.34 852.72

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.57 22.35 22.54 22.63 735.54 766.61 775.38 776.21

Wholesale trade

26.92 27.59 27.87 27.87 1,028.34 1,070.49 1,089.72 1,089.72

Retail trade

17.75 18.57 18.63 18.70 548.48 571.96 573.80 574.09

Transportation and warehousing

23.15 23.78 24.10 24.29 884.33 917.91 930.26 937.59

Utilities

39.09 39.75 39.89 39.85 1,676.96 1,701.30 1,699.31 1,705.58

Information

36.16 37.06 36.83 36.75 1,330.69 1,363.81 1,359.03 1,370.78

Financial activities

29.43 30.29 30.38 30.51 1,088.91 1,132.85 1,139.25 1,141.07

Professional and business services

29.51 30.51 30.66 30.87 1,059.41 1,107.51 1,112.96 1,120.58

Education and health services

25.47 26.74 26.92 27.07 830.32 871.72 877.59 882.48

Leisure and hospitality

14.72 16.24 16.48 16.60 360.64 406.00 415.30 416.66

Other services

22.57 23.19 23.20 23.41 704.18 725.85 723.84 725.71

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
July
2021 - Aug.
2021(p)
Aug.
2020
June
2021
July
2021(p)
Aug.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
July
2021 - Aug.
2021(p)

Total private

109.7 114.7 115.9 116.1 0.2 181.9 197.1 200.2 201.7 0.7

Goods-producing

87.7 90.3 91.2 91.2 0.0 136.9 146.4 148.6 149.1 0.3

Mining and logging

100.5 116.9 117.4 117.6 0.2 177.3 211.1 214.1 215.7 0.7

Construction

105.6 107.6 108.7 108.2 -0.5 167.5 177.0 179.6 179.4 -0.1

Manufacturing

78.9 81.3 82.0 82.3 0.4 118.0 126.4 128.1 129.3 0.9

Durable goods

79.0 80.8 82.4 82.8 0.5 117.6 125.2 128.1 129.4 1.0

Nondurable goods

78.5 81.6 81.7 81.5 -0.2 118.3 127.6 128.4 128.8 0.3

Private service-providing

115.9 121.5 122.8 122.7 -0.1 196.0 213.1 216.4 217.4 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.7 110.5 110.9 110.7 -0.2 164.4 176.5 178.7 179.0 0.2

Wholesale trade

100.0 104.4 105.5 105.8 0.3 158.8 170.0 173.6 174.0 0.2

Retail trade

100.0 101.8 101.7 101.2 -0.5 152.1 161.9 162.3 162.2 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

137.1 146.7 147.2 147.8 0.4 202.1 222.1 225.8 228.5 1.2

Utilities

93.9 93.7 93.5 93.6 0.1 153.2 155.5 155.7 155.7 0.0

Information

86.7 90.8