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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-20-0010
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 10, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov
	

                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 145,000 in December, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.5 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Notable job gains occurred in retail trade and health care, while mining
lost jobs.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics.
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these
two surveys, see the Technical Note.
 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|                                                                                       |
|                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data                |
|                                                                                       |
|  Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal   |
|  adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally    |
|  adjusted estimates back to January 2015 were subject to revision. The unemployment   |
|  rates for January 2019 through November 2019 (as originally published and as revised)|
|  appear in table A, along with additional information about the revisions.            |
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

In December, the unemployment rate held at 3.5 percent, and the number of unemployed
persons was unchanged at 5.8 million. A year earlier, the jobless rate was 3.9 percent,
and the number of unemployed persons was 6.3 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.1 percent), adult
women (3.2 percent), teenagers (12.6 percent), Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (5.9 percent),
Asians (2.5 percent), and Hispanics (4.2 percent) showed little or no change in December.
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2 million,
was unchanged in December and accounted for 20.5 percent of the unemployed. (See table
A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was unchanged at 63.2 percent in December. The
employment-population ratio was 61.0 percent for the fourth consecutive month but was
up by 0.4 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.1 million, changed
little in December but was down by 507,000 over the year. These individuals, who would
have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In December, 1.2 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by
310,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were
not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job 
sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 277,000 discouraged workers in December, down
by 98,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for
them. The remaining 969,000 persons marginally attached to the labor force in December
had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities.
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 145,000 in December. Notable job gains
occurred in retail trade and health care, while mining lost jobs. In 2019, payroll
employment rose by 2.1 million, down from a gain of 2.7 million in 2018. (See table B-1.)

In December, retail trade added 41,000 jobs. Employment increased in clothing and 
accessories stores (+33,000) and in building material and garden supply stores (+7,000);
both industries showed employment declines in the prior month. Employment in retail trade
changed little, on net, in both 2019 and 2018 (+9,000 and +14,000, respectively). 

Employment in health care increased by 28,000 in December. Ambulatory health care services
and hospitals added jobs over the month (+23,000 and +9,000, respectively). Health care
added 399,000 jobs in 2019, compared with an increase of 350,000 in 2018. 

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in December (+40,000). The
industry added 388,000 jobs in 2019, similar to the increase in 2018 (+359,000). 

Mining employment declined by 8,000 in December. In 2019, employment in mining declined
by 24,000, after rising by 63,000 in 2018. 

Construction employment changed little in December (+20,000). Employment in the industry
rose by 151,000 in 2019, about half of the 2018 gain of 307,000. 

In December, employment in professional and business services showed little change
(+10,000). The industry added 397,000 jobs in 2019, down from an increase of 561,000
jobs in 2018.  

Employment in transportation and warehousing changed little in December (-10,000).
Employment in the industry increased by 57,000 in 2019, about one-fourth of the 2018
gain of 216,000. 

Manufacturing employment was little changed in December (-12,000). Employment in the
industry changed little in 2019 (+46,000), after increasing in 2018 (+264,000). 

In December, employment showed little change in other major industries, including wholesale
trade, information, financial activities, and government. 

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 3 cents to $28.32. Over the last 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by
2.9 percent. In December, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees, at $23.79, were little changed (+2 cents). (See tables B-3 and
B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.3
hours in December. In manufacturing, the average workweek and overtime remained at 40.5
hours and 3.2 hours, respectively. The average workweek of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees held at 33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised down by 4,000 from
+156,000 to +152,000, and the change for November was revised down by 10,000 from +266,000
to +256,000. With these revisions, employment gains in October and November combined were
14,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged
184,000 over the last 3 months. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, February 7,
2020, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).


 ______________________________________________________________________________________
|										       |
|                   Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data			       |
|										       |
|  With the publication of The Employment Situation for January 2020 on February 7,    |
|  2020, two not seasonally adjusted series currently displayed in Summary table       |
|  A--persons marginally attached to the labor force and discouraged workers--will     |
|  be replaced with new seasonally adjusted series. The new seasonally adjusted	       |
|  series will be available in the BLS online database back to 1994. Not seasonally    |
|  adjusted data for persons marginally attached to the labor force and for	       |
|  discouraged workers will continue to be published in table A-16. These series       |
|  will also be available in the BLS online database back to 1994.		       |
| 										       |
|  Persons marginally attached to the labor force and discouraged workers are inputs   |
|  into three alternative measures of labor underutilization displayed in table A-15.  |
|  Therefore, with the publication of The Employment Situation for January 2020, data  |
|  for U-4, U-5, and U-6 in table A-15 will reflect the new seasonally adjusted	       |
|  series. Revised data back to 1994 will be available in the BLS online database.     |
|  Not seasonally adjusted series for the alternative measures will be unaffected.     |
| 										       |
|  Beginning with data for January 2020, occupation estimates in table A-13 will       |
|  reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupation classification system into   |
|  the household survey. This occupation classification system is derived from the     |
|  2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. In addition, industry       |
|  estimates in table A-14 will reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry   |
|  classification system, which is derived from the 2017 North American Industry       |
|  Classification System (NAICS). Historical data on occupation and industry will      |
|  not be revised. Beginning with data for January 2020, estimates will not be	       |
|  strictly comparable with earlier years.  					       |
| 										       |
|  Also beginning with data for January 2020, estimates of married persons will        |
|  include those in opposite- and same-sex marriages. Prior to January 2020, these     |
|  estimates included only those in opposite-sex marriages. This will affect marital   |
|  status estimates in tables A-9 and A-10.  Historical data will not be revised.      |
| 										       |
|  Also effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2020, new   |
|  population controls will be used in the household survey estimation process. These  |
|  new controls reflect the annual update of intercensal population estimates by the   |
|  U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice, historical data will not     |
|  be revised to incorporate the new controls; consequently, household survey data     |
|  for January 2020 will not be directly comparable with data for December 2019 or     |
|  earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls on the major labor |
|  force series will be included in the January 2020 news release. In addition, the    |
|  population controls for veterans, which are derived from a Department of Veterans   |
|  Affairs' population model and are updated periodically, will also be updated with   |
|  the release of January data. 						       |
|______________________________________________________________________________________|


 ______________________________________________________________________________________
|                 								       |
|                 Upcoming Revisions to Establishment Survey Data		       |
|										       |
|  Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2020 on February |
|  7, 2020, the establishment survey will revise nonfarm payroll employment, hours,    |
|  and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal      |
|  adjustment factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2018 and      |
|  seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2015 are subject to revision.       |
|  Consistent with standard practice, additional historical data may be revised as a   |
|  result of the benchmark process.						       |
|______________________________________________________________________________________|


             Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data

At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment
factors for the national labor force series derived from the household survey. As
a result of this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2015 through
November 2019 were subject to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not
subject to revision.)

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2019 through November 2019, as
first published and as revised. The rates were unchanged for all 11 months.
Revised seasonally adjusted data for other major labor force series beginning
in December 2018 appear in table B.

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted household series
is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. 
Detailed information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this news
release can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical
seasonally adjusted data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.

Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2019 and changes due to revision
January - November 2019


Month                 As first published          As revised              Change

January.............                 4.0                 4.0                 0.0
February............                 3.8                 3.8                 0.0
March...............                 3.8                 3.8                 0.0
April...............                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
May.................                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
June................                 3.7                 3.7                 0.0
July................                 3.7                 3.7                 0.0
August..............                 3.7                 3.7                 0.0
September...........                 3.5                 3.5                 0.0
October.............                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
November............                 3.5                 3.5                 0.0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2018 2019
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

258,888 258,239 258,392 258,537 258,693 258,861 259,037 259,225 259,432 259,638 259,845 260,020 260,181

Civilian labor force

163,111 163,142 163,047 162,935 162,546 162,782 163,133 163,373 163,894 164,051 164,401 164,347 164,556

Participation rate

63.0 63.2 63.1 63.0 62.8 62.9 63.0 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.3 63.2 63.2

Employed

156,825 156,627 156,866 156,741 156,696 156,844 157,148 157,346 157,895 158,298 158,544 158,536 158,803

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.7 60.7 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.7 60.9 61.0 61.0 61.0 61.0

Unemployed

6,286 6,516 6,181 6,194 5,850 5,938 5,985 6,027 5,999 5,753 5,857 5,811 5,753

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

116,739 116,436 116,513 116,586 116,665 116,752 116,843 116,939 117,040 117,140 117,242 117,331 117,413

Civilian labor force

83,483 83,586 83,588 83,566 83,421 83,569 83,568 83,771 83,852 83,841 83,911 84,057 84,008

Participation rate

71.5 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.5 71.6 71.5 71.6 71.6 71.6 71.6 71.6 71.5

Employed

80,496 80,474 80,677 80,570 80,609 80,761 80,780 80,975 81,046 81,146 81,196 81,377 81,390

Employment-population ratio

69.0 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.2 69.2 69.3 69.3 69.4 69.3

Unemployed

2,987 3,112 2,911 2,995 2,812 2,808 2,788 2,796 2,806 2,695 2,715 2,679 2,618

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

125,393 125,099 125,177 125,252 125,332 125,419 125,509 125,604 125,705 125,806 125,907 125,998 126,082

Civilian labor force

73,673 73,643 73,667 73,508 73,440 73,439 73,655 73,585 74,116 74,313 74,542 74,291 74,584

Participation rate

58.8 58.9 58.8 58.7 58.6 58.6 58.7 58.6 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.0 59.2

Employed

71,123 71,004 71,169 71,056 71,136 71,038 71,209 71,120 71,665 71,990 72,130 71,881 72,200

Employment-population ratio

56.7 56.8 56.9 56.7 56.8 56.6 56.7 56.6 57.0 57.2 57.3 57.0 57.3

Unemployed

2,550 2,639 2,497 2,451 2,304 2,401 2,447 2,465 2,451 2,323 2,411 2,411 2,383

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,756 16,704 16,702 16,698 16,696 16,690 16,686 16,682 16,687 16,691 16,696 16,692 16,686

Civilian labor force

5,955 5,913 5,792 5,862 5,685 5,774 5,910 6,017 5,926 5,897 5,948 5,999 5,964

Participation rate

35.5 35.4 34.7 35.1 34.1 34.6 35.4 36.1 35.5 35.3 35.6 35.9 35.7

Employed

5,205 5,149 5,019 5,115 4,951 5,044 5,159 5,250 5,184 5,162 5,218 5,278 5,213

Employment-population ratio

31.1 30.8 30.1 30.6 29.7 30.2 30.9 31.5 31.1 30.9 31.3 31.6 31.2

Unemployed

750 765 773 747 734 730 751 767 742 735 730 721 752

Unemployment rate

12.6 12.9 13.3 12.7 12.9 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.5 12.5 12.3 12.0 12.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Change from:
Nov.
2019-
Dec.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,888 259,845 260,020 260,181 161

Civilian labor force

163,111 164,401 164,347 164,556 209

Participation rate

63.0 63.3 63.2 63.2 0.0

Employed

156,825 158,544 158,536 158,803 267

Employment-population ratio

60.6 61.0 61.0 61.0 0.0

Unemployed

6,286 5,857 5,811 5,753 -58

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 0.0

Not in labor force

95,777 95,444 95,673 95,625 -48

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.6 3.2 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.0

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.6 12.3 12.0 12.6 0.6

White

3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.0

Black or African American

6.6 5.5 5.6 5.9 0.3

Asian

3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2 0.0

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 2.9 2.9 2.8 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.8 5.5 5.3 5.2 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.3 2.8 2.9 2.7 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,892 2,691 2,804 2,686 -118

Job leavers

827 846 776 829 53

Reentrants

1,968 1,698 1,663 1,655 -8

New entrants

600 622 581 551 -30

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,117 1,978 2,026 2,065 39

5 to 14 weeks

2,007 1,747 1,753 1,730 -23

15 to 26 weeks

899 884 865 812 -53

27 weeks and over

1,311 1,259 1,219 1,186 -33

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,655 4,397 4,288 4,148 -140

Slack work or business conditions

2,895 2,747 2,634 2,657 23

Could only find part-time work

1,487 1,278 1,259 1,215 -44

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,230 21,544 21,532 21,586 54

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,556 1,229 1,246 1,246 -

Discouraged workers

375 341 325 277 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

227 152 256 145

Total private

224 164 243 139

Goods-producing

40 -29 52 -1

Mining and logging

4 2 -8 -9

Construction

16 14 2 20

Manufacturing

20 -45 58 -12

Durable goods(1)

14 -51 48 -7

Motor vehicles and parts

1.2 -43.6 39.3 -0.8

Nondurable goods

6 6 10 -5

Private service-providing

184 193 191 140

Wholesale trade

12.5 10.7 -2.5 8.3

Retail trade

-5.9 30.9 -14.1 41.2

Transportation and warehousing

-1.1 2.8 11.9 -10.4

Utilities

-0.2 -1.4 1.2 0.8

Information

-2 0 8 3

Financial activities

1 16 14 6

Professional and business services(1)

37 35 53 10

Temporary help services

13.5 -5.4 4.0 6.4

Education and health services(1)

67 31 72 36

Health care and social assistance

52.9 37.8 63.8 33.9

Leisure and hospitality

65 70 38 40

Other services

11 -2 10 5

Government

3 -12 13 6

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

233 188 200 184

Total private

236 170 197 182

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private women employees

48.3 48.6 48.6 48.7

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.2 82.2 82.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.3 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$27.53 $28.20 $28.29 $28.32

Average weekly earnings

$949.79 $967.26 $970.35 $971.38

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.7 111.4 111.6 111.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 -0.1 0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

145.6 150.1 150.9 151.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.1 0.5 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

65.9 55.2 65.7 57.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

65.1 38.2 65.8 44.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,888 260,020 260,181 258,888 259,432 259,638 259,845 260,020 260,181

Civilian labor force

162,510 164,386 164,007 163,111 163,894 164,051 164,401 164,347 164,556

Participation rate

62.8 63.2 63.0 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.3 63.2 63.2

Employed

156,481 158,945 158,504 156,825 157,895 158,298 158,544 158,536 158,803

Employment-population ratio

60.4 61.1 60.9 60.6 60.9 61.0 61.0 61.0 61.0

Unemployed

6,029 5,441 5,503 6,286 5,999 5,753 5,857 5,811 5,753

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.3 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

96,378 95,634 96,174 95,777 95,538 95,587 95,444 95,673 95,625

Persons who currently want a job

5,121 4,515 4,643 5,312 5,117 4,861 4,756 4,832 4,832

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,227 125,773 125,852 125,227 125,481 125,583 125,687 125,773 125,852

Civilian labor force

85,857 86,864 86,500 86,406 86,824 86,855 86,901 87,104 87,049

Participation rate

68.6 69.1 68.7 69.0 69.2 69.2 69.1 69.3 69.2

Employed

82,440 83,973 83,467 83,016 83,613 83,747 83,776 84,018 84,034

Employment-population ratio

65.8 66.8 66.3 66.3 66.6 66.7 66.7 66.8 66.8

Unemployed

3,417 2,890 3,033 3,390 3,210 3,109 3,126 3,086 3,015

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.3 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

39,370 38,909 39,352 38,820 38,657 38,728 38,786 38,669 38,803

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,739 117,331 117,413 116,739 117,040 117,140 117,242 117,331 117,413

Civilian labor force

83,101 83,970 83,628 83,483 83,852 83,841 83,911 84,057 84,008

Participation rate

71.2 71.6 71.2 71.5 71.6 71.6 71.6 71.6 71.5

Employed

80,036 81,464 80,940 80,496 81,046 81,146 81,196 81,377 81,390

Employment-population ratio

68.6 69.4 68.9 69.0 69.2 69.3 69.3 69.4 69.3

Unemployed

3,066 2,506 2,688 2,987 2,806 2,695 2,715 2,679 2,618

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

33,638 33,361 33,785 33,256 33,187 33,300 33,330 33,274 33,405

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,662 134,247 134,329 133,662 133,951 134,054 134,158 134,247 134,329

Civilian labor force

76,654 77,522 77,507 76,705 77,070 77,195 77,500 77,243 77,507

Participation rate

57.3 57.7 57.7 57.4 57.5 57.6 57.8 57.5 57.7

Employed

74,041 74,971 75,036 73,808 74,282 74,551 74,769 74,518 74,769

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.8 55.9 55.2 55.5 55.6 55.7 55.5 55.7

Unemployed

2,612 2,550 2,471 2,896 2,788 2,644 2,731 2,725 2,738

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

57,008 56,725 56,822 56,957 56,881 56,859 56,658 57,004 56,822

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,393 125,998 126,082 125,393 125,705 125,806 125,907 125,998 126,082

Civilian labor force

73,768 74,695 74,730 73,673 74,116 74,313 74,542 74,291 74,584

Participation rate

58.8 59.3 59.3 58.8 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.0 59.2

Employed

71,422 72,426 72,534 71,123 71,665 71,990 72,130 71,881 72,200

Employment-population ratio

57.0 57.5 57.5 56.7 57.0 57.2 57.3 57.0 57.3

Unemployed

2,345 2,269 2,196 2,550 2,451 2,323 2,411 2,411 2,383

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.0 2.9 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

51,625 51,303 51,352 51,720 51,590 51,493 51,365 51,706 51,498

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,756 16,692 16,686 16,756 16,687 16,691 16,696 16,692 16,686

Civilian labor force

5,641 5,721 5,649 5,955 5,926 5,897 5,948 5,999 5,964

Participation rate

33.7 34.3 33.9 35.5 35.5 35.3 35.6 35.9 35.7

Employed

5,023 5,055 5,029 5,205 5,184 5,162 5,218 5,278 5,213

Employment-population ratio

30.0 30.3 30.1 31.1 31.1 30.9 31.3 31.6 31.2

Unemployed

619 666 619 750 742 735 730 721 752

Unemployment rate

11.0 11.6 11.0 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.3 12.0 12.6

Not in labor force

11,115 10,971 11,038 10,801 10,761 10,794 10,748 10,693 10,722

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,774 201,254 201,326 200,774 200,953 201,062 201,172 201,254 201,326

Civilian labor force

126,072 127,170 126,758 126,546 126,853 127,018 127,122 127,191 127,197

Participation rate

62.8 63.2 63.0 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2

Employed

121,900 123,397 122,919 122,209 122,566 122,955 123,028 123,077 123,175

Employment-population ratio

60.7 61.3 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.2 61.2 61.2 61.2

Unemployed

4,173 3,773 3,839 4,337 4,286 4,063 4,094 4,115 4,022

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

74,702 74,084 74,568 74,228 74,100 74,044 74,050 74,063 74,129

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,822 66,143 65,827 66,081 66,064 66,109 66,115 66,204 66,076

Participation rate

71.6 71.7 71.4 71.9 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.8 71.6

Employed

63,649 64,336 63,897 64,015 64,099 64,224 64,173 64,247 64,238

Employment-population ratio

69.2 69.8 69.3 69.6 69.6 69.7 69.6 69.7 69.6

Unemployed

2,174 1,807 1,930 2,066 1,965 1,886 1,941 1,957 1,839

Unemployment rate

3.3 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,939 56,591 56,509 55,894 56,152 56,348 56,399 56,299 56,429

Participation rate

58.0 58.5 58.4 57.9 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.2 58.3

Employed

54,368 55,095 55,086 54,144 54,379 54,709 54,755 54,666 54,827

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.9 56.9 56.1 56.3 56.6 56.6 56.5 56.6

Unemployed

1,571 1,496 1,423 1,750 1,773 1,639 1,644 1,633 1,602

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.6 2.5 3.1 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,311 4,436 4,423 4,571 4,636 4,561 4,608 4,688 4,692

Participation rate

35.1 36.2 36.2 37.2 37.9 37.3 37.6 38.3 38.4

Employed

3,883 3,966 3,936 4,050 4,088 4,022 4,099 4,164 4,111

Employment-population ratio

31.6 32.4 32.2 32.9 33.4 32.9 33.5 34.0 33.6

Unemployed

428 470 486 521 548 539 509 524 581

Unemployment rate

9.9 10.6 11.0 11.4 11.8 11.8 11.0 11.2 12.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,956 33,184 33,215 32,956 33,081 33,116 33,152 33,184 33,215

Civilian labor force

20,325 20,670 20,855 20,422 20,604 20,685 20,704 20,675 20,949

Participation rate

61.7 62.3 62.8 62.0 62.3 62.5 62.5 62.3 63.1

Employed

19,067 19,587 19,692 19,082 19,485 19,550 19,571 19,527 19,712

Employment-population ratio

57.9 59.0 59.3 57.9 58.9 59.0 59.0 58.8 59.3

Unemployed

1,257 1,083 1,163 1,340 1,119 1,135 1,133 1,148 1,238

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.2 5.6 6.6 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.9

Not in labor force

12,632 12,515 12,360 12,534 12,477 12,431 12,448 12,509 12,266

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,214 9,475 9,500 9,304 9,487 9,488 9,485 9,504 9,591

Participation rate

66.7 67.9 68.0 67.3 68.2 68.1 68.0 68.1 68.6

Employed

8,645 9,024 8,965 8,712 8,937 8,976 9,003 9,019 9,034

Employment-population ratio

62.5 64.6 64.1 63.0 64.3 64.5 64.6 64.6 64.6

Unemployed

570 451 535 592 550 512 482 485 557

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.8 5.6 6.4 5.8 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,329 10,490 10,646 10,309 10,400 10,478 10,494 10,445 10,625

Participation rate

62.1 62.5 63.4 61.9 62.2 62.6 62.6 62.3 63.3

Employed

9,779 9,995 10,139 9,727 9,944 9,987 9,984 9,929 10,094

Employment-population ratio

58.8 59.6 60.4 58.4 59.5 59.7 59.6 59.2 60.1

Unemployed

551 494 507 582 456 491 511 516 530

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.7 4.8 5.6 4.4 4.7 4.9 4.9 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

781 704 709 808 717 719 724 727 734

Participation rate

31.4 28.7 28.9 32.5 29.1 29.3 29.5 29.6 29.9

Employed

644 568 588 642 604 588 584 579 583

Employment-population ratio

25.9 23.1 24.0 25.8 24.6 23.9 23.8 23.6 23.8

Unemployed

137 137 121 166 113 132 141 147 151

Unemployment rate

17.5 19.4 17.1 20.5 15.8 18.3 19.4 20.3 20.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,138 16,558 16,482 16,138 16,433 16,400 16,399 16,558 16,482

Civilian labor force

10,250 10,666 10,443 10,287 10,527 10,521 10,713 10,705 10,478

Participation rate

63.5 64.4 63.4 63.7 64.1 64.2 65.3 64.7 63.6

Employed

9,928 10,391 10,189 9,951 10,227 10,262 10,409 10,429 10,214

Employment-population ratio

61.5 62.8 61.8 61.7 62.2 62.6 63.5 63.0 62.0

Unemployed

322 274 254 335 299 259 305 276 264

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.6 2.4 3.3 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.5

Not in labor force

5,888 5,892 6,040 5,852 5,906 5,879 5,686 5,852 6,004

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,234 43,902 43,986 43,234 43,630 43,722 43,814 43,902 43,986

Civilian labor force

28,913 29,679 29,493 28,920 29,088 29,293 29,482 29,575 29,517

Participation rate

66.9 67.6 67.1 66.9 66.7 67.0 67.3 67.4 67.1

Employed

27,659 28,472 28,275 27,652 27,876 28,156 28,279 28,339 28,286

Employment-population ratio

64.0 64.9 64.3 64.0 63.9 64.4 64.5 64.6 64.3

Unemployed

1,255 1,207 1,218 1,268 1,213 1,137 1,203 1,236 1,231

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.2

Not in labor force

14,321 14,223 14,493 14,315 14,542 14,430 14,332 14,327 14,468

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,639 16,015 15,878 15,635 15,719 15,793 15,841 15,983 15,875

Participation rate

80.1 80.8 79.9 80.1 79.8 80.0 80.1 80.6 79.9

Employed

15,042 15,551 15,352 15,083 15,191 15,320 15,310 15,498 15,393

Employment-population ratio

77.1 78.4 77.3 77.3 77.1 77.6 77.4 78.2 77.5

Unemployed

596 464 526 552 528 473 531 485 483

Unemployment rate

3.8 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,996 12,294 12,310 11,981 12,119 12,192 12,318 12,196 12,293

Participation rate

60.8 61.3 61.2 60.7 60.8 61.0 61.5 60.8 61.1

Employed

11,511 11,771 11,779 11,469 11,609 11,723 11,834 11,675 11,736

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.7 58.6 58.1 58.2 58.7 59.1 58.2 58.4

Unemployed

485 522 531 512 510 468 485 521 558

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,278 1,370 1,305 1,303 1,250 1,308 1,323 1,396 1,349

Participation rate

32.2 34.1 32.5 32.8 31.3 32.7 33.0 34.8 33.6

Employed

1,105 1,150 1,143 1,099 1,075 1,112 1,135 1,166 1,157

Employment-population ratio

27.8 28.6 28.5 27.7 26.9 27.8 28.3 29.0 28.8

Unemployed

173 221 161 203 175 196 188 230 191

Unemployment rate

13.6 16.1 12.4 15.6 14.0 15.0 14.2 16.5 14.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,265 9,778 9,918 10,246 10,020 9,917 9,783 9,761 9,895

Participation rate

46.0 46.6 46.6 46.0 47.1 45.9 47.2 46.5 46.5

Employed

9,604 9,279 9,330 9,654 9,478 9,440 9,240 9,245 9,379

Employment-population ratio

43.1 44.2 43.8 43.3 44.5 43.7 44.6 44.1 44.0

Unemployed

661 498 588 592 542 477 543 516 516

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.1 5.9 5.8 5.4 4.8 5.5 5.3 5.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,011 36,238 35,923 36,186 36,313 36,305 36,263 36,178 36,094

Participation rate

57.8 58.1 58.2 58.1 57.3 57.8 57.8 58.0 58.5

Employed

34,631 34,977 34,585 34,814 35,011 34,990 34,928 34,850 34,764

Employment-population ratio

55.6 56.1 56.0 55.9 55.3 55.7 55.6 55.9 56.3

Unemployed

1,380 1,260 1,337 1,372 1,302 1,315 1,335 1,328 1,330

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,132 37,626 37,499 37,160 37,701 37,455 37,585 37,478 37,509

Participation rate

65.6 65.0 64.7 65.6 65.6 65.1 64.8 64.7 64.7

Employed

35,952 36,572 36,516 35,936 36,558 36,370 36,515 36,393 36,491

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.2 63.0 63.5 63.6 63.2 63.0 62.9 63.0

Unemployed

1,180 1,054 983 1,224 1,143 1,085 1,069 1,085 1,018

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.8 2.6 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

58,701 60,112 60,174 58,535 58,866 59,159 59,555 59,924 59,938

Participation rate

73.6 74.2 73.8 73.4 74.0 74.0 73.9 74.0 73.5

Employed

57,519 59,024 59,096 57,264 57,630 57,966 58,319 58,750 58,778

Employment-population ratio

72.1 72.8 72.5 71.8 72.4 72.5 72.3 72.5 72.1

Unemployed

1,182 1,088 1,079 1,271 1,236 1,193 1,235 1,174 1,160

Unemployment rate

2.0 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,028 18,638 17,153 16,745 1,875 1,893

Civilian labor force

9,337 9,323 8,175 8,202 1,162 1,121

Participation rate

49.1 50.0 47.7 49.0 62.0 59.2

Employed

9,040 9,058 7,906 7,959 1,135 1,100

Employment-population ratio

47.5 48.6 46.1 47.5 60.5 58.1

Unemployed

296 265 269 243 27 22

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.8 3.3 3.0 2.3 1.9

Not in labor force

9,691 9,315 8,978 8,543 713 772

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,251 4,383 3,556 3,619 696 764

Civilian labor force

3,437 3,526 2,951 2,995 486 531

Participation rate

80.8 80.4 83.0 82.8 69.9 69.5

Employed

3,313 3,418 2,841 2,904 471 514

Employment-population ratio

77.9 78.0 79.9 80.2 67.8 67.3

Unemployed

124 108 110 91 15 17

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.7 3.0 3.0 3.1

Not in labor force

814 857 605 624 210 233

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,062 3,151 2,547 2,671 514 480

Civilian labor force

2,371 2,381 1,988 2,055 383 325

Participation rate

77.5 75.6 78.0 77.0 74.5 67.8

Employed

2,300 2,322 1,924 2,000 376 322

Employment-population ratio

75.1 73.7 75.5 74.9 73.2 67.1

Unemployed

71 59 64 55 7 3

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.5 3.2 2.7 1.9 1.0

Not in labor force

690 770 559 615 131 155

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,434 6,945 7,179 6,701 255 244

Civilian labor force

1,550 1,450 1,492 1,404 57 46

Participation rate

20.8 20.9 20.8 20.9 22.5 19.0

Employed

1,511 1,403 1,453 1,357 57 46

Employment-population ratio

20.3 20.2 20.2 20.2 22.5 18.9

Unemployed

39 47 39 47 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.3 2.6 3.4 - -

Not in labor force

5,884 5,495 5,687 5,297 198 198

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,281 4,159 3,871 3,754 410 405

Civilian labor force

1,978 1,966 1,744 1,748 235 219

Participation rate

46.2 47.3 45.0 46.6 57.3 54.0

Employed

1,917 1,915 1,687 1,698 230 217

Employment-population ratio

44.8 46.0 43.6 45.2 56.0 53.6

Unemployed

62 51 56 50 5 2

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.6 3.2 2.8 2.2 0.7

Not in labor force

2,303 2,193 2,127 2,006 175 186

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

231,032 232,706 103,609 104,721 127,424 127,985

Civilian labor force

151,248 152,648 76,777 77,373 74,470 75,275

Participation rate

65.5 65.6 74.1 73.9 58.4 58.8

Employed

145,746 147,652 73,757 74,712 71,989 72,940

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.4 71.2 71.3 56.5 57.0

Unemployed

5,502 4,996 3,020 2,661 2,481 2,335

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.3 3.9 3.4 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

79,785 80,059 26,831 27,348 52,954 52,710

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,426 30,705 228,462 229,476

Civilian labor force

6,288 6,281 156,222 157,726

Participation rate

20.7 20.5 68.4 68.7

Employed

5,793 5,840 150,688 152,663

Employment-population ratio

19.0 19.0 66.0 66.5

Unemployed

495 440 5,535 5,063

Unemployment rate

7.9 7.0 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

24,138 24,425 72,240 71,749

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,690 2,657 77,618 77,840

Participation rate

35.5 34.9 82.3 82.7

Employed

2,469 2,445 74,570 75,176

Employment-population ratio

32.6 32.2 79.1 79.9

Unemployed

221 211 3,048 2,664

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.9 3.9 3.4

Not in labor force

4,880 4,948 16,681 16,268

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,455 2,389 69,515 70,052

Participation rate

31.2 31.6 71.6 72.1

Employed

2,230 2,201 67,262 67,898

Employment-population ratio

28.3 29.1 69.3 69.9

Unemployed

225 188 2,253 2,154

Unemployment rate

9.2 7.9 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

5,414 5,165 27,528 27,105

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,144 1,235 9,090 9,834

Participation rate

7.6 7.9 24.5 25.7

Employed

1,094 1,193 8,856 9,589

Employment-population ratio

7.3 7.7 23.9 25.1

Unemployed

49 42 234 245

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.4 2.6 2.5

Not in labor force

13,843 14,312 28,031 28,376

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,985 42,438 20,855 20,625 22,130 21,813

Civilian labor force

28,359 28,086 16,140 15,936 12,219 12,150

Participation rate

66.0 66.2 77.4 77.3 55.2 55.7

Employed

27,393 27,223 15,633 15,513 11,761 11,709

Employment-population ratio

63.7 64.1 75.0 75.2 53.1 53.7

Unemployed

966 863 507 422 459 441

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 3.1 2.7 3.8 3.6

Not in labor force

14,626 14,352 4,715 4,689 9,911 9,663

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,903 217,743 104,372 105,228 111,532 112,516

Civilian labor force

134,151 135,921 69,717 70,564 64,435 65,357

Participation rate

62.1 62.4 66.8 67.1 57.8 58.1

Employed

129,088 131,281 66,807 67,954 62,281 63,327

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.3 64.0 64.6 55.8 56.3

Unemployed

5,064 4,640 2,910 2,610 2,154 2,030

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.4 4.2 3.7 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

81,752 81,822 34,655 34,663 47,097 47,159

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,393 2,363 2,449 2,491 2,414 2,416 2,473 2,356 2,533

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,659 1,676 1,795 1,718 1,579 1,634 1,651 1,661 1,849

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

708 663 637 759 785 765 793 692 684

Unpaid family workers

26 24 17 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,088 156,581 156,055 154,266 155,546 155,816 155,970 156,167 156,241

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,063 147,544 147,176 145,366 146,586 146,852 147,118 147,275 147,431

Government

20,709 21,619 21,367 20,654 20,968 21,144 21,513 21,342 21,323

Private industries

124,354 125,925 125,808 124,657 125,582 125,734 125,812 125,996 126,069

Private households

879 824 841 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,474 125,101 124,968 123,795 124,731 124,864 124,979 125,157 125,250

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,973 8,954 8,809 9,012 8,895 8,850 8,811 8,856 8,821

Unpaid family workers

52 83 70 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,740 4,110 4,247 4,655 4,381 4,336 4,397 4,288 4,148

Slack work or business conditions

2,984 2,512 2,742 2,895 2,683 2,600 2,747 2,634 2,657

Could only find part-time work

1,456 1,249 1,190 1,487 1,338 1,310 1,278 1,259 1,215

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,726 22,482 22,086 21,230 21,673 21,559 21,544 21,532 21,586

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,621 4,053 4,170 4,570 4,303 4,257 4,306 4,221 4,111

Slack work or business conditions

2,909 2,476 2,685 2,832 2,626 2,554 2,684 2,599 2,613

Could only find part-time work

1,435 1,246 1,186 1,464 1,325 1,300 1,267 1,254 1,209

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,349 22,109 21,685 20,830 21,284 21,178 21,137 21,163 21,180

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,481 158,945 158,504 156,825 157,895 158,298 158,544 158,536 158,803

16 to 19 years

5,023 5,055 5,029 5,205 5,184 5,162 5,218 5,278 5,213

16 to 17 years

1,695 1,914 1,793 1,776 1,839 1,809 1,851 1,978 1,874

18 to 19 years

3,328 3,141 3,236 3,439 3,347 3,321 3,411 3,315 3,339

20 years and over

151,458 153,890 153,474 151,620 152,711 153,136 153,326 153,258 153,590

20 to 24 years

13,753 14,037 13,947 13,939 14,047 14,282 14,362 14,112 14,142

25 years and over

137,706 139,852 139,527 137,649 138,542 138,787 139,023 139,176 139,426

25 to 54 years

100,845 102,027 101,783 100,746 101,074 101,201 101,437 101,517 101,653

25 to 34 years

35,664 36,351 36,263 35,640 35,945 35,928 36,070 36,190 36,230

35 to 44 years

32,884 33,459 33,432 32,868 33,165 33,385 33,390 33,293 33,406

45 to 54 years

32,298 32,217 32,088 32,238 31,964 31,887 31,978 32,033 32,017

55 years and over

36,860 37,826 37,744 36,903 37,468 37,586 37,585 37,660 37,773

Men, 16 years and over

82,440 83,973 83,467 83,016 83,613 83,747 83,776 84,018 84,034

16 to 19 years

2,404 2,509 2,527 2,520 2,567 2,601 2,580 2,640 2,644

16 to 17 years

777 862 797 855 894 896 899 929 876

18 to 19 years

1,627 1,647 1,730 1,667 1,663 1,686 1,694 1,717 1,766

20 years and over

80,036 81,464 80,940 80,496 81,046 81,146 81,196 81,377 81,390

20 to 24 years

6,934 7,073 7,001 7,079 7,096 7,208 7,208 7,157 7,152

25 years and over

73,102 74,391 73,940 73,392 73,835 73,896 73,986 74,224 74,217

25 to 54 years

53,612 54,247 53,863 53,760 53,773 53,870 53,952 54,101 54,005

25 to 34 years

19,084 19,451 19,295 19,152 19,208 19,197 19,312 19,413 19,364

35 to 44 years

17,645 17,915 17,819 17,708 17,773 17,928 17,875 17,890 17,881

45 to 54 years

16,883 16,880 16,748 16,900 16,793 16,745 16,765 16,797 16,761

55 years and over

19,490 20,144 20,077 19,631 20,061 20,026 20,034 20,124 20,212

Women, 16 years and over

74,041 74,971 75,036 73,808 74,282 74,551 74,769 74,518 74,769

16 to 19 years

2,619 2,546 2,502 2,685 2,617 2,561 2,639 2,637 2,568

16 to 17 years

918 1,052 996 921 946 914 952 1,049 999

18 to 19 years

1,701 1,494 1,506 1,772 1,684 1,635 1,717 1,598 1,573

20 years and over

71,422 72,426 72,534 71,123 71,665 71,990 72,130 71,881 72,200

20 to 24 years

6,819 6,964 6,947 6,860 6,950 7,073 7,154 6,955 6,990

25 years and over

64,604 65,461 65,587 64,258 64,708 64,891 65,037 64,952 65,208

25 to 54 years

47,233 47,780 47,921 46,986 47,301 47,331 47,486 47,416 47,648

25 to 34 years

16,580 16,900 16,969 16,488 16,738 16,731 16,758 16,777 16,866

35 to 44 years

15,238 15,543 15,613 15,159 15,392 15,457 15,514 15,403 15,525

45 to 54 years

15,415 15,337 15,339 15,338 15,171 15,143 15,214 15,236 15,256

55 years and over

17,371 17,681 17,666 17,272 17,406 17,560 17,551 17,536 17,561

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,720 46,035 45,969 45,908 46,221 46,011 45,971 46,059 46,177

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,603 36,896 36,913 36,342 36,389 36,478 36,657 36,581 36,631

Women who maintain families(2)

9,667 9,618 9,757 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,143 131,385 131,142 129,825 130,877 131,123 131,518 131,561 131,755

Part-time workers(4)

27,338 27,560 27,362 26,982 26,988 27,079 26,992 26,958 26,992

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,030 8,279 8,058 7,918 8,335 8,312 8,132 8,107 7,946

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,085 6,299 6,554 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,682 9,618 9,446 9,771 9,679 9,615 9,604 9,548 9,506

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,286 5,811 5,753 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5

16 to 19 years

750 721 752 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.3 12.0 12.6

16 to 17 years

288 286 298 13.9 12.8 13.1 14.0 12.6 13.7

18 to 19 years

473 438 461 12.1 12.1 12.2 11.3 11.7 12.1

20 years and over

5,536 5,090 5,001 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,074 972 958 7.2 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.3

25 years and over

4,452 4,126 4,045 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

3,365 3,110 3,133 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,460 1,339 1,344 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6

35 to 44 years

935 930 947 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8

45 to 54 years

970 842 842 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6

55 years and over

1,096 998 911 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4

Men, 16 years and over

3,390 3,086 3,015 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

16 to 19 years

403 407 397 13.8 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.4 13.0

16 to 17 years

150 152 150 14.9 14.4 13.1 14.4 14.1 14.6

18 to 19 years

268 257 260 13.9 13.3 14.0 13.2 13.0 12.8

20 years and over

2,987 2,679 2,618 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

20 to 24 years

605 563 555 7.9 7.8 7.2 7.5 7.3 7.2

25 years and over

2,372 2,134 2,064 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7

25 to 54 years

1,777 1,596 1,619 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9

25 to 34 years

741 741 728 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6

35 to 44 years

513 469 466 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.5

45 to 54 years

523 386 424 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.2 2.5

55 years and over

595 538 445 2.9 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.2

Women, 16 years and over

2,896 2,725 2,738 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

16 to 19 years

347 314 355 11.4 11.4 11.2 10.8 10.6 12.1

16 to 17 years

138 133 148 13.0 11.3 13.2 13.6 11.3 12.9

18 to 19 years

205 181 201 10.4 10.8 10.2 9.4 10.2 11.3

20 years and over

2,550 2,411 2,383 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

20 to 24 years

469 409 403 6.4 6.3 5.4 4.8 5.5 5.5

25 years and over

2,079 1,992 1,981 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,588 1,514 1,514 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

719 598 616 4.2 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.4 3.5

35 to 44 years

421 460 481 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0

45 to 54 years

447 455 417 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.7

55 years and over

495 472 476 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

947 895 751 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.6

Married women, spouse present(1)

877 837 798 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

453 480 425 4.5 5.1 4.7 5.4 4.8 4.2

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,945 4,754 4,664 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,331 1,065 1,087 4.7 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,947 2,561 2,752 2,892 2,864 2,575 2,691 2,804 2,686

On temporary layoff

834 638 873 768 812 729 772 768 807

Not on temporary layoff

2,113 1,923 1,879 2,123 2,052 1,846 1,919 2,036 1,880

Permanent job losers

1,415 1,336 1,296 1,419 1,388 1,318 1,260 1,422 1,295

Persons who completed temporary jobs

698 587 583 704 664 528 659 614 585

Job leavers

775 759 776 827 784 840 846 776 829

Reentrants

1,810 1,599 1,524 1,968 1,785 1,669 1,698 1,663 1,655

New entrants

496 522 452 600 577 673 622 581 551

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.9 47.1 50.0 46.0 47.7 44.7 45.9 48.1 46.9

On temporary layoff

13.8 11.7 15.9 12.2 13.5 12.7 13.2 13.2 14.1

Not on temporary layoff

35.0 35.4 34.1 33.8 34.1 32.1 32.8 35.0 32.9

Job leavers

12.9 13.9 14.1 13.2 13.0 14.6 14.4 13.3 14.5

Reentrants

30.0 29.4 27.7 31.3 29.7 29.0 29.0 28.6 28.9

New entrants

8.2 9.6 8.2 9.5 9.6 11.7 10.6 10.0 9.6

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.8 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,050 1,871 2,001 2,117 2,218 1,869 1,978 2,026 2,065

5 to 14 weeks

1,901 1,609 1,651 2,007 1,746 1,778 1,747 1,753 1,730

15 weeks and over

2,078 1,962 1,852 2,210 2,082 2,124 2,144 2,083 1,998

15 to 26 weeks

859 818 755 899 831 806 884 865 812

27 weeks and over

1,219 1,143 1,097 1,311 1,251 1,318 1,259 1,219 1,186

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

21.5 20.8 20.3 22.0 22.1 21.7 21.6 20.2 20.8

Median duration, in weeks

8.9 9.3 8.4 9.4 9.0 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

34.0 34.4 36.4 33.4 36.7 32.4 33.7 34.6 35.6

5 to 14 weeks

31.5 29.6 30.0 31.7 28.9 30.8 29.8 29.9 29.9

15 weeks and over

34.5 36.1 33.6 34.9 34.4 36.8 36.5 35.5 34.5

15 to 26 weeks

14.2 15.0 13.7 14.2 13.7 14.0 15.1 14.7 14.0

27 weeks and over

20.2 21.0 19.9 20.7 20.7 22.8 21.5 20.8 20.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,481 158,504 6,029 5,503 3.7 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,642 65,682 1,368 1,171 2.1 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,450 27,748 582 533 2.2 1.9

Professional and related occupations

37,192 37,935 786 638 2.1 1.7

Service occupations

26,271 26,487 1,301 1,198 4.7 4.3

Sales and office occupations

33,718 33,441 1,244 1,062 3.6 3.1

Sales and related occupations

16,217 15,672 602 528 3.6 3.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,500 17,769 642 533 3.5 2.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,439 14,329 858 782 5.6 5.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,148 1,171 143 130 11.1 10.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,390 8,143 539 547 6.0 6.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,901 5,016 175 105 3.4 2.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,412 18,564 746 826 3.9 4.3

Production occupations

8,689 8,229 298 372 3.3 4.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,722 10,335 448 454 4.4 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,029 5,503 3.7 3.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,605 4,207 3.6 3.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

21 31 2.6 3.8

Construction

493 489 5.1 5.0

Manufacturing

441 422 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

231 246 2.3 2.5

Nondurable goods

210 175 3.5 3.1

Wholesale and retail trade

753 726 3.7 3.6

Transportation and utilities

280 196 3.9 2.6

Information

103 48 3.9 1.9

Financial activities

248 236 2.4 2.3

Professional and business services

723 546 4.3 3.1

Education and health services

519 604 2.1 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

814 685 6.0 5.0

Other services

211 225 3.0 3.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

151 185 8.6 9.6

Government workers

526 393 2.5 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

251 266 2.5 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.7 3.3 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.9 3.5 3.5 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.6 4.0 4.1 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.5 6.5 6.7 7.6 7.2 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,378 96,174 39,370 39,352 57,008 56,822

Persons who currently want a job

5,121 4,643 2,514 2,336 2,607 2,307

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,556 1,246 878 688 678 558

Discouraged workers(2)

375 277 232 172 143 105

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,181 969 646 516 535 452

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,030 8,058 3,952 3,972 4,078 4,086

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 5.5 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,329 4,419 2,331 2,377 1,998 2,041

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,177 2,072 733 727 1,445 1,344

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

267 336 180 221 88 115

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,203 1,165 700 606 504 560

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Change from:
Nov.2019 - Dec.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

151,203 153,001 153,620 153,342 150,275 151,982 152,238 152,383 145

Total private

128,363 129,995 130,493 130,344 127,790 129,355 129,598 129,737 139

Goods-producing

20,881 21,292 21,217 21,052 20,961 21,086 21,138 21,137 -1

Mining and logging

753 759 745 731 752 748 740 731 -9

Logging

47.7 52.4 52.5 50.9 47.2 51.1 51.0 50.3 -0.7

Mining

705.4 706.1 692.8 680.2 705.1 697.2 688.6 681.0 -7.6

Oil and gas extraction

148.3 165.9 165.6 167.1 148.3 165.7 165.1 167.6 2.5

Mining, except oil and gas

192.8 194.2 192.9 187.6 194.9 191.6 191.9 190.0 -1.9

Coal mining

52.9 53.2 53.3 52.1 52.7 52.9 53.2 52.0 -1.2

Metal ore mining

40.9 39.6 39.5 39.3 41.0 39.9 39.7 39.4 -0.3

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.0 101.4 100.1 96.2 101.1 98.9 99.0 98.5 -0.5

Support activities for mining

364.3 346.0 334.3 325.5 361.9 339.9 331.6 323.4 -8.2

Construction

7,313 7,713 7,603 7,456 7,400 7,529 7,531 7,551 20

Construction of buildings

1,643.4 1,694.0 1,678.7 1,664.9 1,649.7 1,666.3 1,667.1 1,671.1 4.0

Residential building

825.2 858.5 853.0 844.5 824.7 844.9 845.6 844.5 -1.1

Nonresidential building

818.2 835.5 825.7 820.4 825.0 821.4 821.5 826.6 5.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,033.2 1,146.7 1,108.1 1,048.1 1,075.4 1,087.2 1,089.5 1,091.3 1.8

Specialty trade contractors

4,636.6 4,872.5 4,816.2 4,742.8 4,674.5 4,775.2 4,774.1 4,788.2 14.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,026.9 2,113.0 2,090.4 2,054.6 2,046.7 2,074.8 2,073.0 2,077.3 4.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,609.7 2,759.5 2,725.8 2,688.2 2,627.8 2,700.4 2,701.1 2,710.9 9.8

Manufacturing

12,815 12,820 12,869 12,865 12,809 12,809 12,867 12,855 -12

Durable goods

8,045 8,011 8,064 8,067 8,036 8,015 8,063 8,056 -7

Wood products

406.1 413.3 412.7 413.5 406.2 411.9 412.1 413.3 1.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

415.6 424.0 422.2 416.2 417.6 418.1 418.0 416.8 -1.2

Primary metals

384.0 371.5 372.0 371.7 382.0 372.6 372.9 370.6 -2.3

Fabricated metal products

1,483.3 1,478.3 1,481.3 1,475.0 1,481.2 1,479.5 1,479.8 1,472.6 -7.2

Machinery

1,137.1 1,126.0 1,125.8 1,126.6 1,137.0 1,130.9 1,128.9 1,126.8 -2.1

Computer and electronic products

1,068.3 1,090.6 1,094.5 1,099.4 1,067.6 1,092.7 1,096.2 1,097.7 1.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.9 163.7 164.9 166.3 158.1 164.0 164.9 165.7 0.8

Communications equipment

86.6 86.0 86.6 86.7 86.4 86.1 86.5 86.5 0.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

372.4 378.0 379.4 380.2 372.3 379.5 380.2 379.7 -0.5

Electronic instruments

416.8 429.0 429.3 431.9 416.5 429.5 430.7 431.8 1.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.6 33.9 34.3 34.3 34.3 33.6 33.9 34.0 0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

405.5 402.9 403.9 406.1 404.9 403.2 403.9 404.8 0.9

Transportation equipment(1)

1,735.3 1,695.3 1,739.3 1,745.5 1,731.6 1,698.4 1,739.7 1,741.6 1.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,008.4 946.6 988.0 990.4 1,005.1 948.4 987.7 986.9 -0.8

Furniture and related products

395.3 391.9 393.1 393.0 395.2 392.0 393.9 392.6 -1.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

614.4 616.7 619.1 620.1 613.1 616.0 617.4 618.9 1.5

Nondurable goods

4,770 4,809 4,805 4,798 4,773 4,794 4,804 4,799 -5

Food manufacturing

1,629.0 1,662.4 1,657.2 1,652.1 1,631.7 1,649.0 1,656.0 1,652.3 -3.7

Textile mills

113.0 110.6 110.2 109.7 112.6 110.4 110.1 109.6 -0.5

Textile product mills

116.5 113.3 113.8 113.2 116.1 113.1 113.3 113.0 -0.3

Apparel

108.9 104.6 102.4 101.4 108.4 104.3 102.2 101.7 -0.5

Paper and paper products

370.4 368.9 368.7 370.5 370.7 370.2 370.0 370.2 0.2

Printing and related support activities

427.8 419.0 418.7 417.1 425.5 417.7 416.7 415.1 -1.6

Petroleum and coal products

114.6 116.0 114.0 114.1 116.7 114.0 114.9 116.0 1.1

Chemicals

850.6 857.0 859.7 862.6 849.4 859.9 861.8 861.6 -0.2

Plastics and rubber products

738.3 737.8 742.5 744.6 737.7 741.0 742.3 743.2 0.9

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

301.0 319.7 317.6 312.6 304.5 313.9 316.8 316.5 -0.3

Private service-providing

107,482 108,703 109,276 109,292 106,829 108,269 108,460 108,600 140

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,512 27,918 28,486 28,660 27,788 27,877 27,873 27,913 40

Wholesale trade

5,913.6 5,964.0 5,965.6 5,977.6 5,901.3 5,957.4 5,954.9 5,963.2 8.3

Durable goods

3,195.2 3,231.4 3,229.0 3,238.1 3,189.8 3,233.4 3,229.1 3,231.8 2.7

Nondurable goods

2,165.9 2,174.6 2,177.0 2,179.1 2,160.5 2,167.0 2,168.5 2,173.5 5.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

552.5 558.0 559.6 560.4 551.0 557.0 557.3 557.9 0.6

Retail trade

16,309.2 15,800.0 16,248.2 16,324.5 15,821.0 15,802.4 15,788.3 15,829.5 41.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,026.1 2,069.2 2,074.5 2,070.4 2,033.8 2,065.1 2,073.8 2,076.7 2.9

Automobile dealers

1,303.5 1,311.3 1,311.5 1,314.0 1,304.9 1,308.7 1,311.5 1,314.9 3.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

152.4 161.2 158.9 155.8 159.7 161.8 162.9 162.9 0.0

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

570.2 596.7 604.1 600.6 569.2 594.6 599.5 598.9 -0.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

507.3 482.7 496.4 504.5 484.5 481.6 481.0 482.7 1.7

Electronics and appliance stores

489.7 473.1 485.8 487.9 474.2 470.5 468.1 470.7 2.6

Building material and garden supply stores

1,264.2 1,299.7 1,286.3 1,287.2 1,301.0 1,323.0 1,317.5 1,324.6 7.1

Food and beverage stores

3,138.2 3,139.0 3,166.9 3,169.6 3,107.9 3,137.6 3,140.0 3,137.9 -2.1

Health and personal care stores

1,090.0 1,052.5 1,069.0 1,075.3 1,062.3 1,052.6 1,047.1 1,046.6 -0.5

Gasoline stations

939.9 961.6 963.0 956.5 942.7 959.8 959.2 959.2 0.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,477.9 1,283.5 1,389.0 1,437.7 1,348.2 1,302.3 1,280.0 1,313.2 33.2

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

596.5 557.5 591.9 600.3 542.8 557.1 551.3 548.4 -2.9

General merchandise stores

3,319.0 3,072.7 3,301.6 3,316.1 3,105.1 3,061.6 3,084.1 3,086.9 2.8

Department stores

1,280.9 1,124.7 1,250.6 1,282.3 1,142.6 1,123.3 1,134.6 1,138.9 4.3

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,038.1 1,948.0 2,051.0 2,033.8 1,962.5 1,938.3 1,949.5 1,947.9 -1.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

857.9 832.3 836.4 826.2 842.3 821.2 819.0 813.5 -5.5

Nonstore retailers

602.5 576.2 587.4 592.8 576.2 570.0 567.2 569.1 1.9

Transportation and warehousing

5,733.7 5,604.7 5,721.4 5,804.7 5,511.0 5,566.6 5,578.5 5,568.1 -10.4

Air transportation

506.5 520.5 517.7 519.4 508.3 521.4 520.5 521.3 0.8

Rail transportation

215.0 196.2 194.2 194.2 215.4 196.2 194.1 194.8 0.7

Water transportation

63.9 65.7 63.9 62.7 64.9 65.1 64.5 63.7 -0.8

Truck transportation

1,511.7 1,528.7 1,523.3 1,509.3 1,511.6 1,513.3 1,512.9 1,509.4 -3.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

503.1 509.0 509.2 511.2 487.4 490.8 492.9 495.6 2.7

Pipeline transportation

47.8 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.7 47.6 47.8 47.7 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

29.3 34.5 30.6 29.6 34.6 34.1 35.0 35.0 0.0

Support activities for transportation

726.4 726.8 728.5 732.6 721.3 723.5 725.7 727.1 1.4

Couriers and messengers

925.5 765.6 865.4 962.0 749.8 777.9 782.4 773.0 -9.4

Warehousing and storage

1,204.5 1,210.0 1,240.9 1,236.0 1,170.0 1,196.7 1,202.7 1,200.5 -2.2

Utilities

555.4 549.3 550.9 553.4 554.6 550.2 551.4 552.2 0.8

Information

2,839 2,836 2,864 2,857 2,827 2,828 2,836 2,839 3

Publishing industries, except Internet

735.5 744.8 747.2 745.2 732.8 743.1 743.5 742.8 -0.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

440.6 429.3 448.1 441.1 439.1 424.3 430.2 433.8 3.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

271.9 269.6 270.0 268.3 270.4 267.7 267.6 266.7 -0.9

Telecommunications

740.5 710.5 711.6 712.4 735.5 711.3 708.5 707.3 -1.2

Data processing, hosting and related services

329.1 339.8 341.0 343.0 329.5 339.0 340.7 342.8 2.1

Other information services

321.6 342.2 346.1 346.7 319.7 342.6 345.1 345.5 0.4

Financial activities

8,622 8,732 8,729 8,744 8,615 8,717 8,731 8,737 6

Finance and insurance

6,339.6 6,380.4 6,388.5 6,399.0 6,328.1 6,375.0 6,381.9 6,386.7 4.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.6 19.4 19.3 19.4 19.6 19.4 19.4 19.4 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,641.2 2,646.0 2,651.9 2,661.3 2,638.5 2,646.9 2,652.1 2,657.4 5.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,712.1 1,709.3 1,714.9 1,721.5 1,714.5 1,715.4 1,718.6 1,722.6 4.0

Commercial banking

1,313.4 1,304.0 1,308.5 1,312.7 1,315.5 1,309.2 1,311.6 1,313.8 2.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

620.6 625.4 624.4 627.4 616.6 621.2 622.2 624.0 1.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

308.5 311.3 312.6 312.4 307.3 310.3 311.3 310.8 -0.5

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

970.1 979.0 976.9 979.3 966.9 977.3 976.7 977.4 0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,708.7 2,736.0 2,740.4 2,739.0 2,703.1 2,731.4 2,733.7 2,732.5 -1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,282.8 2,351.4 2,340.8 2,344.9 2,286.9 2,341.7 2,348.6 2,349.9 1.3

Real estate

1,687.3 1,733.4 1,729.7 1,738.3 1,682.8 1,725.7 1,731.1 1,734.1 3.0

Rental and leasing services

572.1 594.8 587.8 583.1 580.8 592.9 594.3 592.5 -1.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.4 23.2 23.3 23.5 23.3 23.1 23.2 23.3 0.1

Professional and business services

21,345 21,815 21,877 21,745 21,254 21,588 21,641 21,651 10

Professional and technical services

9,463.6 9,661.5 9,724.9 9,739.2 9,434.9 9,667.5 9,701.1 9,710.3 9.2

Legal services

1,146.6 1,152.5 1,154.6 1,157.0 1,139.9 1,148.8 1,152.0 1,150.4 -1.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,030.8 1,011.3 1,040.1 1,069.7 1,034.3 1,064.0 1,066.8 1,071.4 4.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,494.5 1,529.5 1,531.9 1,531.6 1,495.3 1,522.6 1,529.7 1,532.8 3.1

Specialized design services

148.6 153.6 153.6 153.1 146.3 152.3 151.3 150.8 -0.5

Computer systems design and related services

2,164.1 2,244.3 2,258.6 2,244.2 2,162.2 2,233.0 2,242.5 2,243.2 0.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,519.0 1,572.1 1,572.5 1,570.4 1,505.7 1,554.8 1,555.6 1,557.3 1.7

Scientific research and development services

710.5 736.2 741.8 744.8 710.3 738.0 741.9 744.7 2.8

Advertising and related services

493.1 494.1 495.5 493.6 491.6 492.0 493.5 491.9 -1.6

Other professional and technical services

756.4 767.9 776.3 774.8 749.5 761.9 767.6 768.0 0.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,398.4 2,433.7 2,437.4 2,443.9 2,395.3 2,435.0 2,437.7 2,441.3 3.6

Administrative and waste services

9,483.3 9,719.9 9,714.6 9,561.6 9,423.3 9,485.8 9,502.5 9,499.8 -2.7

Administrative and support services

9,038.2 9,252.5 9,246.4 9,093.9 8,976.1 9,019.9 9,033.6 9,030.3 -3.3

Office administrative services

519.3 533.2 533.6 533.8 518.6 532.3 532.5 534.3 1.8

Facilities support services

155.0 160.1 158.7 158.1 155.3 158.5 158.3 158.2 -0.1

Employment services(1)

3,860.8 3,874.3 3,905.9 3,874.0 3,731.2 3,728.7 3,733.4 3,736.8 3.4

Temporary help services

3,178.7 3,162.8 3,194.9 3,169.9 3,059.8 3,032.9 3,036.9 3,043.3 6.4

Business support services

921.2 891.9 907.5 903.2 897.5 878.2 883.3 880.0 -3.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

213.9 216.3 218.8 218.6 216.5 216.4 220.0 221.1 1.1

Investigation and security services

954.4 964.3 965.6 964.1 948.1 957.4 958.3 959.2 0.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,087.6 2,265.2 2,211.2 2,101.2 2,177.2 2,205.5 2,200.2 2,194.5 -5.7

Other support services

326.0 347.2 345.1 340.9 331.6 342.9 347.6 346.1 -1.5

Waste management and remediation services

445.1 467.4 468.2 467.7 447.2 465.9 468.9 469.5 0.6

Education and health services

24,092 24,654 24,785 24,737 23,912 24,451 24,523 24,559 36

Educational services

3,852.5 3,989.7 4,033.6 3,942.5 3,745.5 3,825.7 3,834.6 3,835.9 1.3

Health care and social assistance

20,239.8 20,664.2 20,751.7 20,794.9 20,166.1 20,625.0 20,688.8 20,722.7 33.9

Health care(3)

16,248.1 16,536.1 16,599.3 16,646.3 16,184.7 16,509.3 16,555.4 16,583.5 28.1

Ambulatory health care services

7,649.2 7,844.8 7,885.8 7,917.4 7,614.6 7,828.4 7,860.9 7,884.0 23.1

Offices of physicians

2,664.8 2,710.6 2,728.2 2,741.7 2,647.8 2,703.3 2,718.1 2,723.5 5.4

Offices of dentists

975.5 984.1 991.3 992.0 971.5 983.9 989.2 989.1 -0.1

Offices of other health practitioners

957.5 982.7 983.9 988.3 954.0 980.8 979.7 984.6 4.9

Outpatient care centers

956.9 980.8 983.4 993.6 953.9 981.7 982.8 990.1 7.3

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

283.6 297.3 299.2 300.4 282.4 296.7 299.0 299.2 0.2

Home health care services

1,506.7 1,571.8 1,581.8 1,583.4 1,500.3 1,566.0 1,574.4 1,578.3 3.9

Other ambulatory health care services

304.2 317.5 318.0 318.0 304.7 316.1 317.8 319.2 1.4

Hospitals

5,207.4 5,282.7 5,300.7 5,311.4 5,195.1 5,276.4 5,288.3 5,297.1 8.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,391.5 3,408.6 3,412.8 3,417.5 3,375.0 3,404.5 3,406.2 3,402.4 -3.8

Nursing care facilities

1,617.5 1,606.5 1,608.6 1,604.2 1,609.2 1,604.6 1,603.7 1,597.0 -6.7

Residential mental health facilities

649.2 655.9 656.2 658.3 647.2 656.2 656.5 656.4 -0.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

955.8 974.5 975.6 981.9 949.7 972.2 973.8 976.4 2.6

Other residential care facilities

169.0 171.7 172.4 173.1 168.9 171.5 172.2 172.6 0.4

Social assistance

3,991.7 4,128.1 4,152.4 4,148.6 3,981.4 4,115.7 4,133.4 4,139.2 5.8

Individual and family services

2,503.5 2,608.1 2,626.4 2,621.8 2,502.2 2,606.0 2,620.4 2,622.1 1.7

Emergency and other relief services

179.2 178.9 179.8 182.1 177.2 179.2 179.5 180.0 0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

329.7 330.7 330.3 330.3 330.1 330.7 329.9 330.5 0.6

Child day care services

979.3 1,010.4 1,015.9 1,014.4 971.9 999.8 1,003.5 1,006.6 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

16,213 16,804 16,592 16,614 16,554 16,864 16,902 16,942 40

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,264.2 2,442.3 2,330.3 2,347.7 2,444.6 2,488.3 2,506.0 2,520.7 14.7

Performing arts and spectator sports

494.7 520.2 503.8 495.6 516.0 511.5 518.4 516.2 -2.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

166.1 177.6 174.2 174.5 174.0 177.9 179.7 182.2 2.5

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,603.4 1,744.5 1,652.3 1,677.6 1,754.6 1,798.9 1,807.9 1,822.3 14.4

Accommodation and food services

13,949.0 14,361.9 14,261.3 14,266.2 14,109.5 14,375.5 14,396.3 14,421.2 24.9

Accommodation

1,967.8 2,054.7 2,004.4 2,008.3 2,036.0 2,068.0 2,067.4 2,076.4 9.0

Food services and drinking places

11,981.2 12,307.2 12,256.9 12,257.9 12,073.5 12,307.5 12,328.9 12,344.8 15.9

Other services

5,859 5,944 5,943 5,935 5,879 5,944 5,954 5,959 5

Repair and maintenance

1,331.0 1,373.5 1,369.8 1,364.3 1,337.0 1,370.5 1,373.1 1,371.6 -1.5

Personal and laundry services

1,524.6 1,533.3 1,534.8 1,535.3 1,524.2 1,530.6 1,532.4 1,535.4 3.0

Membership associations and organizations

3,003.6 3,037.2 3,038.3 3,035.3 3,018.2 3,042.4 3,048.4 3,051.6 3.2

Government

22,840 23,006 23,127 22,998 22,485 22,627 22,640 22,646 6

Federal

2,815.0 2,832.0 2,836.0 2,836.0 2,798.0 2,828.0 2,826.0 2,826.0 0.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,186.9 2,225.4 2,221.2 2,215.2 2,191.9 2,221.3 2,220.3 2,222.1 1.8

U.S. Postal Service

628.2 606.5 614.6 620.8 606.3 606.6 606.1 603.5 -2.6

State government

5,295.0 5,355.0 5,380.0 5,299.0 5,183.0 5,191.0 5,193.0 5,185.0 -8.0

State government education

2,611.8 2,645.3 2,671.8 2,602.9 2,486.7 2,477.8 2,480.8 2,477.8 -3.0

State government, excluding education

2,683.4 2,709.4 2,708.2 2,695.8 2,695.8 2,713.6 2,711.7 2,707.6 -4.1

Local government

14,730.0 14,819.0 14,911.0 14,863.0 14,504.0 14,608.0 14,621.0 14,635.0 14.0

Local government education

8,284.3 8,288.3 8,376.9 8,350.9 7,973.7 8,030.6 8,035.6 8,038.4 2.8

Local government, excluding education

6,446.1 6,530.5 6,533.7 6,511.9 6,529.9 6,577.2 6,585.1 6,596.1 11.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.3 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

40.6 40.1 40.1 40.1

Mining and logging

46.2 46.2 46.0 45.7

Construction

39.5 39.2 39.0 39.0

Manufacturing

40.9 40.3 40.5 40.5

Durable goods

41.2 40.8 40.9 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.3 39.6 39.7 39.7

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.1 34.0 34.2

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.9 39.0 38.9

Retail trade

30.6 30.5 30.3 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.5 38.5 38.7

Utilities

42.4 42.3 42.4 42.4

Information

36.3 36.3 36.3 36.2

Financial activities

37.6 37.7 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.1 36.1 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.1 33.1

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 25.8 25.9 25.8

Other services

31.9 31.8 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.3 3.3 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)

Total private

$27.53 $28.20 $28.29 $28.32 $949.79 $967.26 $970.35 $971.38

Goods-producing

28.62 29.28 29.36 29.43 1,161.97 1,174.13 1,177.34 1,180.14

Mining and logging

32.77 34.86 34.78 34.61 1,513.97 1,610.53 1,599.88 1,581.68

Construction

30.42 30.95 31.07 31.11 1,201.59 1,213.24 1,211.73 1,213.29

Manufacturing

27.33 27.95 28.04 28.15 1,117.80 1,126.39 1,135.62 1,140.08

Durable goods

28.82 29.42 29.53 29.65 1,187.38 1,200.34 1,207.78 1,212.69

Nondurable goods

24.77 25.42 25.45 25.56 998.23 1,006.63 1,010.37 1,014.73

Private service-providing

27.27 27.95 28.04 28.06 908.09 927.94 930.93 931.59

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.79 24.46 24.56 24.53 816.00 834.09 835.04 838.93

Wholesale trade

30.92 31.71 31.84 31.63 1,205.88 1,233.52 1,241.76 1,230.41

Retail trade

19.23 19.90 19.97 20.04 588.44 606.95 605.09 611.22

Transportation and warehousing

24.49 24.98 25.00 25.06 952.66 961.73 962.50 969.82

Utilities

41.68 41.72 41.94 41.98 1,767.23 1,764.76 1,778.26 1,779.95

Information

41.29 42.10 42.30 42.34 1,498.83 1,528.23 1,535.49 1,532.71

Financial activities

35.37 36.17 36.27 36.36 1,329.91 1,363.61 1,367.38 1,367.14

Professional and business services

32.99 34.02 34.12 34.22 1,190.94 1,228.12 1,235.14 1,235.34

Education and health services

27.32 27.77 27.82 27.82 901.56 916.41 920.84 920.84

Leisure and hospitality

16.27 16.69 16.75 16.77 423.02 430.60 433.83 432.67

Other services

24.88 25.17 25.26 25.38 793.67 800.41 803.27 807.08

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2019 - Dec.
2019(p)
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2019 - Dec.
2019(p)

Total private

110.7 111.4 111.6 111.7 0.1 145.6 150.1 150.9 151.2 0.2

Goods-producing

97.0 96.3 96.6 96.6 0.0 125.4 127.5 128.1 128.4 0.2

Mining and logging

109.2 108.6 107.0 105.0 -1.9 143.6 152.0 149.4 145.9 -2.3

Construction

100.8 101.7 101.2 101.5 0.3 133.2 136.8 136.7 137.2 0.4

Manufacturing

94.2 92.9 93.8 93.7 -0.1 119.8 120.7 122.3 122.6 0.2

Durable goods

93.2 92.1 92.8 92.8 0.0 119.3 120.3 121.8 122.2 0.3

Nondurable goods

96.0 94.8 95.2 95.1 -0.1 120.7 122.2 122.9 123.3 0.3

Private service-providing

114.4 115.6 115.8 116.0 0.2 151.7 157.1 157.9 158.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.9 103.7 103.3 104.1 0.8 133.3 136.7 136.8 137.6 0.6

Wholesale trade

101.5 102.2 102.4 102.3 -0.1 131.3 135.6 136.4 135.4 -0.7

Retail trade

98.3 97.9 97.1 98.0 0.9 124.9 128.7 128.2 129.8 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

122.5 122.5 122.8 123.2 0.3 152.2 155.2 155.7 156.6 0.6

Utilities

101.7 100.7 101.2 101.3 0.1 140.1 138.8 140.2 140.5 0.2

Information

93.7 93.8 94.0 93.9 -0.1 137.8 140.5 141.6 141.5 -0.1

Financial activities

106.1 107.6 107.8 107.6 -0.2 146.4 151.8 152.5 152.6 0.1

Professional and business services

120.3 122.2 122.8 122.5 -0.2 160.7 168.3 169.7 169.8 0.1

Education and health services

128.8 131.8 132.5 132.7 0.2 169.3 176.0 177.4 177.6 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

122.8 124.1 124.9 124.7 -0.2 161.2 167.2 168.8 168.7 -0.1

Other services

108.1 109.0 109.2 109.3 0.1 147.4 150.3 151.1 152.0 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)
Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

74,724 75,958 76,107 76,246 49.7 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private

61,748 62,877 63,012 63,145 48.3 48.6 48.6 48.7

Goods-producing

4,651 4,741 4,755 4,764 22.2 22.5 22.5 22.5

Mining and logging

95 101 100 101 12.6 13.5 13.5 13.8

Construction

956 981 983 988 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.1

Manufacturing

3,600 3,659 3,672 3,675 28.1 28.6 28.5 28.6

Durable goods

1,911 1,942 1,951 1,955 23.8 24.2 24.2 24.3

Nondurable goods

1,689 1,717 1,721 1,720 35.4 35.8 35.8 35.8

Private service-providing

57,097 58,136 58,257 58,381 53.4 53.7 53.7 53.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,129 11,183 11,180 11,210 40.0 40.1 40.1 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,769.5 1,794.5 1,797.9 1,804.0 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3

Retail trade

7,853.2 7,828.0 7,814.5 7,834.4 49.6 49.5 49.5 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,375.5 1,428.5 1,434.8 1,437.4 25.0 25.7 25.7 25.8

Utilities

130.8 132.4 132.8 134.2 23.6 24.1 24.1 24.3

Information

1,115 1,128 1,138 1,137 39.4 39.9 40.1 40.0

Financial activities

4,868 4,916 4,920 4,927 56.5 56.4 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,648 9,868 9,895 9,916 45.4 45.7 45.7 45.8

Education and health services

18,462 18,904 18,972 18,997 77.2 77.3 77.4 77.4

Leisure and hospitality

8,736 8,969 8,979 9,020 52.8 53.2 53.1 53.2

Other services

3,139 3,168 3,173 3,174 53.4 53.3 53.3 53.3

Government

12,976 13,081 13,095 13,101 57.7 57.8 57.8 57.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2018
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019(p)
Dec.
2019(p)

Total private

105,244 106,392 106,563 106,655

Goods-producing

15,063 15,081 15,108 15,105

Mining and logging

559 543 533 526

Construction

5,517 5,610 5,600 5,613

Manufacturing

8,987 8,928 8,975 8,966

Durable goods

5,540 5,497 5,535 5,532

Nondurable goods

3,447 3,431 3,440 3,434

Private service-providing

90,181 91,311 91,455 91,550

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,488 23,557 23,542 23,573

Wholesale trade

4,743.6 4,769.9 4,764.5 4,774.8

Retail trade

13,497.2 13,479.9 13,457.6 13,484.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,803.2 4,866.6 4,878.1 4,871.5

Utilities

443.7 440.3 441.8 442.4

Information

2,285 2,270 2,279 2,280

Financial activities

6,672 6,745 6,754 6,751

Professional and business services

17,340 17,542 17,585 17,581

Education and health services

20,984 21,474 21,536 21,569

Leisure and hospita