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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	                  USDL-24-0629
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, April 5, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	      (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2024


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 303,000 in March, and the unemployment rate changed
little at 3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred 
in health care, government, and construction.  

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information
about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical
Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.8 percent, and the number of unemployed people, at 6.4
million, changed little in March. The unemployment rate has been in a narrow range of 3.7
percent to 3.9 percent since August 2023. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Blacks (6.4 percent) increased in
March, while the rates for Asians (2.5 percent) and Hispanics (4.5 percent) decreased. The
jobless rates for adult men (3.3 percent), adult women (3.6 percent), teenagers (12.6
percent), and Whites (3.4 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2 million, was
little changed in March. The long-term unemployed accounted for 19.5 percent of all unemployed
people. (See table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, and the employment-population ratio,
at 60.3 percent, were little changed in March. These measures showed little change over the
year. (See table A-1.)

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.3 million, changed little
in March. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See
table A-8.)

In March, the number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 5.4
million, was little changed. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they
were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable
to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally attached
to the labor force, at 1.6 million, was little changed in March. These individuals wanted and
were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was
little changed at 337,000 in March. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 303,000 in March, higher than the average monthly
gain of 231,000 over the prior 12 months. In March, job gains occurred in health care,
government, and construction. (See table B-1.)

Health care added 72,000 jobs in March, above the average monthly gain of 60,000 over the
prior 12 months. In March, job growth continued in ambulatory health care services (+28,000),
hospitals (+27,000), and nursing and residential care facilities (+18,000).

In March, employment in government increased by 71,000, higher than the average monthly gain
of 54,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment increased in local government
(+49,000) and federal government (+9,000). 

Construction added 39,000 jobs in March, about double the average monthly gain of 19,000 over
the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment increased in nonresidential specialty trade
contractors (+16,000). 

Employment in leisure and hospitality trended up in March (+49,000) and has returned to its
pre-pandemic February 2020 level. Over the prior 12 months, job growth in the industry had
averaged 37,000 per month.

Employment in the other services industry continued its upward trend in March (+16,000). The
industry had added an average of 8,000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. Employment
in other services remains below its February 2020 level by 40,000, or 0.7 percent.

Employment in social assistance continued to trend up in March (+9,000), below the average
monthly gain of 22,000 over the prior 12 months. 

In March, employment was little changed in retail trade (+18,000). A job gain in general
merchandise retailers (+20,000) was partially offset by job losses in building material and
garden equipment and supplies dealers (-10,000) and in automotive parts, accessories, and tire
retailers (-3,000). 

Employment showed little or no change over the month in other major industries, including 
mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation
and warehousing; information; financial activities; and professional and business services. 

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by
12 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $34.69. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have
increased by 4.1 percent. In March, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees edged up by 7 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $29.79. (See tables B-3 and
B-8.) 

In March, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1
hour to 34.4 hours. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.0 hours, and
overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 2.9 hours in March. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour to 33.9 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised up by 27,000, from
+229,000 to +256,000, and the change for February was revised down by 5,000, from +275,000 to
+270,000. With these revisions, employment in January and February combined is 22,000 higher
than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on
Friday, May 3, 2024, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Change from:
Feb.
2024-
Mar.
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,272 267,540 267,711 267,884 173

Civilian labor force

166,690 167,276 167,426 167,895 469

Participation rate

62.6 62.5 62.5 62.7 0.2

Employed

160,824 161,152 160,968 161,466 498

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.2 60.1 60.3 0.2

Unemployed

5,866 6,124 6,458 6,429 -29

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.7 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Not in labor force

99,582 100,265 100,285 99,989 -296

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.5 3.7 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.6 3.5 3.3 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.2 3.2 3.5 3.6 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

9.9 10.6 12.5 12.6 0.1

White

3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

5.1 5.3 5.6 6.4 0.8

Asian

2.8 2.9 3.4 2.5 -0.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.6 5.0 5.0 4.5 -0.5

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 3.2 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

4.8 6.0 6.1 4.9 -1.2

High school graduates, no college

4.0 4.3 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.0 3.3 3.1 3.4 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,884 3,028 3,216 3,042 -174

Job leavers

841 794 711 823 112

Reentrants

1,683 1,834 1,946 1,920 -26

New entrants

506 550 611 678 67

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,279 2,140 2,326 2,189 -137

5 to 14 weeks

1,765 1,848 1,933 1,979 46

15 to 26 weeks

797 867 974 982 8

27 weeks and over

1,050 1,277 1,203 1,246 43

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,091 4,422 4,376 4,308 -68

Slack work or business conditions

2,853 2,994 2,863 2,972 109

Could only find part-time work

892 1,026 1,104 999 -105

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,416 22,156 22,309 22,902 593

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,326 1,654 1,558 1,595 37

Discouraged workers

347 452 425 337 -88

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

146 256 270 303

Total private

91 196 207 232

Goods-producing

-12 30 17 42

Mining and logging

2 -2 1 3

Construction

-6 26 26 39

Manufacturing

-8 6 -10 0

Durable goods(1)

-1 -4 -3 4

Motor vehicles and parts

-1.1 2.2 -1.9 6.5

Nondurable goods

-7 10 -7 -4

Private service-providing

103 166 190 190

Wholesale trade

9.2 -6.7 -2.9 8.5

Retail trade

-27.2 16.6 23.0 17.6

Transportation and warehousing

-16.1 -3.8 22.5 1.2

Utilities

2.5 1.5 3.1 -0.4

Information

5 8 -3 0

Financial activities

4 -4 -6 3

Professional and business services(1)

18 48 17 7

Temporary help services

-14.6 7.5 -11.9 -1.3

Private education and health services(1)

62 100 82 88

Health care and social assistance

63.0 73.0 85.4 81.3

Leisure and hospitality

35 -3 43 49

Other services

11 10 11 16

Government

55 60 63 71

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

305 243 272 276

Total private

225 187 206 212

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.2 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$33.31 $34.51 $34.57 $34.69

Average weekly earnings

$1,145.86 $1,180.24 $1,185.75 $1,193.34

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.5 115.4 115.9 116.5

Over-the-month percent change

-0.3 -0.4 0.4 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

182.4 190.4 191.6 193.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.1 0.6 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

60.2 62.2 58.6 59.4

Manufacturing (72 industries)

45.1 53.5 48.6 43.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes. About 45 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes. Monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed people limited to just those receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No. The estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All people who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes. However, there are separate estimates of people outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. People who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of people who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   people who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 119,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 629,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of the employed and unemployed.
Those people not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including people on paid leave. People are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable. The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. Benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of industries
when necessary. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,272 267,711 267,884 266,272 267,822 267,991 267,540 267,711 267,884

Civilian labor force

166,783 167,285 167,960 166,690 168,127 167,451 167,276 167,426 167,895

Participation rate

62.6 62.5 62.7 62.6 62.8 62.5 62.5 62.5 62.7

Employed

160,741 160,315 161,356 160,824 161,866 161,183 161,152 160,968 161,466

Employment-population ratio

60.4 59.9 60.2 60.4 60.4 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.3

Unemployed

6,043 6,970 6,604 5,866 6,262 6,268 6,124 6,458 6,429

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.2 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

99,489 100,426 99,924 99,582 99,695 100,540 100,265 100,285 99,989

Persons who currently want a job

4,646 5,546 5,110 4,959 5,343 5,671 5,793 5,672 5,443

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,150 130,520 130,605 130,150 130,903 130,985 130,436 130,520 130,605

Civilian labor force

88,958 88,299 88,892 88,841 89,555 89,250 88,507 88,391 88,812

Participation rate

68.4 67.7 68.1 68.3 68.4 68.1 67.9 67.7 68.0

Employed

85,420 84,391 85,253 85,623 85,981 85,794 85,034 84,993 85,490

Employment-population ratio

65.6 64.7 65.3 65.8 65.7 65.5 65.2 65.1 65.5

Unemployed

3,538 3,908 3,639 3,219 3,574 3,456 3,473 3,398 3,323

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.4 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

41,192 42,221 41,713 41,309 41,348 41,735 41,929 42,129 41,793

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,415 121,611 121,685 121,415 122,111 122,187 121,539 121,611 121,685

Civilian labor force

85,876 85,313 85,656 85,565 86,256 86,007 85,364 85,180 85,398

Participation rate

70.7 70.2 70.4 70.5 70.6 70.4 70.2 70.0 70.2

Employed

82,654 81,802 82,457 82,688 83,084 82,958 82,304 82,178 82,543

Employment-population ratio

68.1 67.3 67.8 68.1 68.0 67.9 67.7 67.6 67.8

Unemployed

3,222 3,511 3,199 2,877 3,172 3,050 3,060 3,002 2,855

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.1 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

35,539 36,299 36,029 35,850 35,854 36,180 36,175 36,431 36,287

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

136,122 137,191 137,279 136,122 136,919 137,006 137,104 137,191 137,279

Civilian labor force

77,825 78,986 79,068 77,849 78,572 78,201 78,768 79,035 79,083

Participation rate

57.2 57.6 57.6 57.2 57.4 57.1 57.5 57.6 57.6

Employed

75,320 75,924 76,103 75,201 75,885 75,389 76,118 75,975 75,976

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.3 55.4 55.2 55.4 55.0 55.5 55.4 55.3

Unemployed

2,505 3,062 2,965 2,648 2,688 2,811 2,650 3,060 3,106

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9

Not in labor force

58,297 58,205 58,211 58,273 58,346 58,805 58,336 58,156 58,197

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,684 128,581 128,659 127,684 128,430 128,513 128,503 128,581 128,659

Civilian labor force

74,860 75,995 75,945 74,723 75,399 75,047 75,529 75,835 75,792

Participation rate

58.6 59.1 59.0 58.5 58.7 58.4 58.8 59.0 58.9

Employed

72,606 73,299 73,304 72,368 73,049 72,587 73,144 73,182 73,061

Employment-population ratio

56.9 57.0 57.0 56.7 56.9 56.5 56.9 56.9 56.8

Unemployed

2,253 2,696 2,642 2,355 2,350 2,460 2,385 2,653 2,731

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6

Not in labor force

52,825 52,586 52,714 52,961 53,031 53,466 52,974 52,746 52,867

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,173 17,519 17,540 17,173 17,281 17,291 17,498 17,519 17,540

Civilian labor force

6,048 5,978 6,359 6,402 6,472 6,396 6,383 6,411 6,704

Participation rate

35.2 34.1 36.3 37.3 37.5 37.0 36.5 36.6 38.2

Employed

5,480 5,214 5,595 5,767 5,733 5,638 5,704 5,608 5,862

Employment-population ratio

31.9 29.8 31.9 33.6 33.2 32.6 32.6 32.0 33.4

Unemployed

568 763 764 635 739 758 679 803 842

Unemployment rate

9.4 12.8 12.0 9.9 11.4 11.9 10.6 12.5 12.6

Not in labor force

11,125 11,541 11,181 10,771 10,809 10,895 11,115 11,108 10,835

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,186 204,677 204,752 204,186 204,949 205,022 204,608 204,677 204,752

Civilian labor force

126,976 126,960 127,640 126,956 127,773 127,226 126,962 127,040 127,596

Participation rate

62.2 62.0 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.1 62.3

Employed

122,698 122,180 123,175 122,846 123,550 122,802 122,663 122,685 123,286

Employment-population ratio

60.1 59.7 60.2 60.2 60.3 59.9 60.0 59.9 60.2

Unemployed

4,278 4,779 4,465 4,110 4,223 4,424 4,299 4,356 4,310

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

77,210 77,717 77,112 77,230 77,177 77,796 77,646 77,637 77,156

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,467 65,748 66,098 66,309 66,695 66,405 65,869 65,685 65,963

Participation rate

70.3 69.6 70.0 70.2 70.3 70.0 69.8 69.6 69.8

Employed

64,180 63,315 63,906 64,287 64,559 64,208 63,674 63,658 64,029

Employment-population ratio

67.9 67.1 67.7 68.0 68.1 67.7 67.5 67.4 67.8

Unemployed

2,288 2,433 2,193 2,022 2,136 2,197 2,195 2,027 1,933

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.7 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,812 56,629 56,614 55,706 56,130 55,844 56,219 56,454 56,489

Participation rate

57.4 58.0 58.0 57.3 57.5 57.2 57.6 57.9 57.9

Employed

54,203 54,791 54,849 54,046 54,609 54,175 54,615 54,646 54,677

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.2 56.2 55.6 56.0 55.5 56.0 56.0 56.0

Unemployed

1,609 1,838 1,765 1,660 1,521 1,669 1,604 1,808 1,811

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,696 4,583 4,928 4,940 4,947 4,976 4,874 4,902 5,145

Participation rate

37.6 36.1 38.8 39.5 39.5 39.7 38.4 38.6 40.5

Employed

4,316 4,075 4,420 4,513 4,382 4,418 4,374 4,381 4,580

Employment-population ratio

34.5 32.1 34.8 36.1 35.0 35.3 34.5 34.5 36.1

Unemployed

381 508 508 427 565 558 500 520 565

Unemployment rate

8.1 11.1 10.3 8.7 11.4 11.2 10.3 10.6 11.0

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,550 34,849 34,883 34,550 34,821 34,853 34,813 34,849 34,883

Civilian labor force

22,062 22,084 22,124 22,111 22,171 22,094 22,051 22,190 22,170

Participation rate

63.9 63.4 63.4 64.0 63.7 63.4 63.3 63.7 63.6

Employed

20,938 20,810 20,689 20,974 20,886 20,952 20,887 20,950 20,746

Employment-population ratio

60.6 59.7 59.3 60.7 60.0 60.1 60.0 60.1 59.5

Unemployed

1,124 1,274 1,435 1,138 1,285 1,143 1,164 1,240 1,424

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.8 6.5 5.1 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.6 6.4

Not in labor force

12,488 12,765 12,759 12,439 12,650 12,759 12,762 12,659 12,713

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,353 10,300 10,303 10,358 10,299 10,294 10,266 10,344 10,317

Participation rate

70.2 69.5 69.5 70.2 69.3 69.2 69.4 69.8 69.6

Employed

9,776 9,615 9,624 9,811 9,648 9,821 9,717 9,709 9,677

Employment-population ratio

66.3 64.9 64.9 66.5 64.9 66.0 65.7 65.5 65.3

Unemployed

577 685 679 547 651 473 548 636 640

Unemployment rate

5.6 6.6 6.6 5.3 6.3 4.6 5.3 6.1 6.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,991 11,048 11,014 10,982 11,067 11,014 10,967 11,050 10,999

Participation rate

63.6 63.3 63.1 63.6 63.6 63.2 62.9 63.4 63.0

Employed

10,541 10,563 10,416 10,506 10,533 10,486 10,445 10,568 10,387

Employment-population ratio

61.0 60.6 59.7 60.8 60.5 60.2 59.9 60.6 59.5

Unemployed

450 485 598 477 534 528 521 482 612

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.4 5.4 4.3 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.4 5.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

718 737 807 771 805 786 819 796 854

Participation rate

28.5 28.4 31.0 30.6 31.5 30.7 31.6 30.7 32.8

Employed

621 632 649 657 705 644 724 673 682

Employment-population ratio

24.6 24.3 24.9 26.1 27.6 25.2 27.9 25.9 26.2

Unemployed

97 105 159 114 100 142 95 122 171

Unemployment rate

13.5 14.2 19.6 14.8 12.4 18.0 11.6 15.4 20.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,545 17,784 17,781 17,545 17,769 17,896 17,930 17,784 17,781

Civilian labor force

11,421 11,479 11,442 11,374 11,548 11,436 11,559 11,472 11,403

Participation rate

65.1 64.5 64.3 64.8 65.0 63.9 64.5 64.5 64.1

Employed

11,104 11,084 11,157 11,056 11,144 11,084 11,223 11,081 11,113

Employment-population ratio

63.3 62.3 62.7 63.0 62.7 61.9 62.6 62.3 62.5

Unemployed

317 395 285 318 404 353 336 390 290

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.4 2.5 2.8 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.4 2.5

Not in labor force

6,123 6,305 6,339 6,170 6,221 6,459 6,372 6,312 6,379

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,194 48,467 48,565 47,194 47,974 48,068 48,364 48,467 48,565

Civilian labor force

31,551 32,513 32,459 31,524 32,101 32,081 32,318 32,499 32,442

Participation rate

66.9 67.1 66.8 66.8 66.9 66.7 66.8 67.1 66.8

Employed

30,017 30,732 30,948 30,065 30,636 30,480 30,700 30,883 30,994

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.4 63.7 63.7 63.9 63.4 63.5 63.7 63.8

Unemployed

1,534 1,781 1,510 1,459 1,465 1,602 1,618 1,616 1,448

Unemployment rate

4.9 5.5 4.7 4.6 4.6 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5

Not in labor force

15,643 15,953 16,106 15,670 15,873 15,986 16,046 15,967 16,123

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

17,035 17,434 17,512 16,985 17,267 17,261 17,372 17,415 17,455

Participation rate

79.4 79.6 79.8 79.2 79.2 79.1 79.5 79.5 79.5

Employed

16,260 16,601 16,781 16,298 16,537 16,438 16,519 16,720 16,800

Employment-population ratio

75.8 75.8 76.4 76.0 75.9 75.3 75.6 76.3 76.5

Unemployed

775 832 732 688 729 824 852 695 654

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.8 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.8 4.9 4.0 3.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,064 13,575 13,473 13,061 13,260 13,346 13,336 13,535 13,483

Participation rate

61.1 61.7 61.1 61.1 61.0 61.3 60.7 61.5 61.1

Employed

12,462 12,862 12,847 12,473 12,737 12,746 12,759 12,860 12,870

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.4 58.3 58.3 58.6 58.5 58.1 58.4 58.4

Unemployed

602 713 627 588 523 601 577 675 612

Unemployment rate

4.6 5.3 4.7 4.5 3.9 4.5 4.3 5.0 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,452 1,504 1,473 1,477 1,574 1,474 1,610 1,549 1,504

Participation rate

33.4 33.1 32.3 33.9 35.5 33.2 35.5 34.0 33.0

Employed

1,296 1,269 1,321 1,294 1,361 1,296 1,422 1,304 1,323

Employment-population ratio

29.8 27.9 29.0 29.7 30.7 29.2 31.3 28.6 29.0

Unemployed

157 235 152 184 213 177 188 246 181

Unemployment rate

10.8 15.6 10.3 12.4 13.5 12.0 11.7 15.9 12.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,138 8,887 8,864 9,173 9,492 9,384 9,271 9,192 8,916

Participation rate

46.2 46.7 46.0 46.4 48.3 47.5 47.1 48.3 46.3

Employed

8,605 8,204 8,349 8,732 8,891 8,819 8,715 8,626 8,483

Employment-population ratio

43.5 43.1 43.4 44.2 45.2 44.6 44.3 45.4 44.1

Unemployed

532 683 514 441 601 564 556 565 433

Unemployment rate

5.8 7.7 5.8 4.8 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.1 4.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,827 36,541 36,504 35,728 35,790 35,748 35,927 36,474 36,364

Participation rate

56.3 57.1 57.5 56.1 57.3 57.1 57.0 57.0 57.3

Employed

34,275 34,866 34,889 34,289 34,327 34,247 34,385 34,948 34,866

Employment-population ratio

53.8 54.5 54.9 53.9 55.0 54.7 54.6 54.7 54.9

Unemployed

1,553 1,675 1,615 1,439 1,463 1,501 1,543 1,526 1,498

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,943 36,297 36,198 35,923 35,874 35,737 36,205 36,322 36,147

Participation rate

63.6 63.4 63.3 63.6 62.1 62.4 62.6 63.5 63.2

Employed

34,852 35,049 34,934 34,853 34,866 34,623 35,020 35,178 34,918

Employment-population ratio

61.7 61.2 61.1 61.7 60.4 60.4 60.6 61.5 61.1

Unemployed

1,091 1,248 1,264 1,069 1,009 1,114 1,184 1,144 1,229

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.4 3.5 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

64,036 64,479 64,820 63,692 64,452 64,297 64,195 63,965 64,478

Participation rate

73.5 72.7 72.8 73.1 72.7 72.3 72.7 72.1 72.4

Employed

62,786 63,013 63,469 62,411 63,091 62,933 62,836 62,527 63,095

Employment-population ratio

72.1 71.1 71.2 71.7 71.2 70.8 71.2 70.5 70.8

Unemployed

1,250 1,466 1,351 1,281 1,360 1,364 1,359 1,438 1,383

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,983 17,654 15,947 15,609 2,036 2,045

Civilian labor force

8,718 8,556 7,573 7,382 1,145 1,174

Participation rate

48.5 48.5 47.5 47.3 56.2 57.4

Employed

8,507 8,300 7,388 7,154 1,119 1,146

Employment-population ratio

47.3 47.0 46.3 45.8 55.0 56.0

Unemployed

211 257 185 228 26 28

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.0 2.4 3.1 2.2 2.4

Not in labor force

9,265 9,098 8,374 8,227 891 871

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,970 5,336 4,065 4,388 905 948

Civilian labor force

4,057 4,264 3,395 3,585 662 679

Participation rate

81.6 79.9 83.5 81.7 73.2 71.6

Employed

3,944 4,143 3,299 3,488 645 655

Employment-population ratio

79.4 77.6 81.1 79.5 71.3 69.1

Unemployed

113 121 96 97 17 24

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 3.6

Not in labor force

912 1,072 670 803 242 269

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,980 2,761 2,527 2,320 453 441

Civilian labor force

2,131 1,945 1,826 1,654 305 291

Participation rate

71.5 70.5 72.3 71.3 67.3 65.9

Employed

2,085 1,880 1,780 1,589 305 291

Employment-population ratio

70.0 68.1 70.4 68.5 67.3 65.9

Unemployed

46 65 46 65 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.2 3.4 2.5 4.0 0.0 0.0

Not in labor force

849 816 701 665 148 150

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,055 5,730 5,798 5,488 257 242

Civilian labor force

806 706 781 677 25 29

Participation rate

13.3 12.3 13.5 12.3 9.7 11.9

Employed

781 667 761 642 20 25

Employment-population ratio

12.9 11.6 13.1 11.7 7.9 10.1

Unemployed

25 39 20 35 4 4

Unemployment rate

3.1 5.6 2.6 5.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,249 5,024 5,017 4,811 232 213

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,978 3,827 3,557 3,413 421 414

Civilian labor force

1,723 1,640 1,571 1,465 152 175

Participation rate

43.3 42.9 44.2 42.9 36.1 42.4

Employed

1,697 1,610 1,548 1,435 148 175

Employment-population ratio

42.6 42.1 43.5 42.0 35.2 42.4

Unemployed

27 30 23 30 4 0

Unemployment rate

1.5 1.9 1.5 2.1 2.5 0.0

Not in labor force

2,255 2,187 1,986 1,948 269 239

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,167 241,051 109,561 110,429 129,606 130,621

Civilian labor force

155,858 157,149 80,266 80,439 75,592 76,710

Participation rate

65.2 65.2 73.3 72.8 58.3 58.7

Employed

150,224 151,111 77,021 77,177 73,203 73,934

Employment-population ratio

62.8 62.7 70.3 69.9 56.5 56.6

Unemployed

5,634 6,038 3,246 3,262 2,389 2,776

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.8 4.0 4.1 3.2 3.6

Not in labor force

83,309 83,902 29,295 29,990 54,014 53,912

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,062 33,955 233,210 233,929

Civilian labor force

7,904 8,315 158,879 159,645

Participation rate

23.9 24.5 68.1 68.2

Employed

7,256 7,599 153,484 153,757

Employment-population ratio

21.9 22.4 65.8 65.7

Unemployed

648 716 5,395 5,888

Unemployment rate

8.2 8.6 3.4 3.7

Not in labor force

25,158 25,639 74,331 74,285

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,272 3,351 79,656 79,198

Participation rate

41.6 39.9 82.8 83.1

Employed

2,986 3,010 76,591 76,106

Employment-population ratio

38.0 35.8 79.6 79.9

Unemployed

286 341 3,065 3,093

Unemployment rate

8.7 10.2 3.8 3.9

Not in labor force

4,588 5,054 16,531 16,051

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,315 3,453 69,455 70,457

Participation rate

38.9 40.6 72.3 73.0

Employed

3,011 3,163 67,364 67,913

Employment-population ratio

35.3 37.2 70.2 70.4

Unemployed

304 289 2,091 2,544

Unemployment rate

9.2 8.4 3.0 3.6

Not in labor force

5,217 5,046 26,549 26,036

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,318 1,512 9,767 9,989

Participation rate

7.9 8.9 23.8 23.7

Employed

1,260 1,426 9,529 9,738

Employment-population ratio

7.6 8.4 23.2 23.1

Unemployed

58 86 238 251

Unemployment rate

4.4 5.7 2.4 2.5

Not in labor force

15,353 15,540 31,251 32,198

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,445 49,034 22,786 24,262 23,659 24,771

Civilian labor force

30,845 32,292 17,678 18,542 13,167 13,750

Participation rate

66.4 65.9 77.6 76.4 55.7 55.5

Employed

29,848 31,114 17,089 17,943 12,759 13,171

Employment-population ratio

64.3 63.5 75.0 74.0 53.9 53.2

Unemployed

997 1,178 589 599 408 579

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.1 4.2

Not in labor force

15,600 16,742 5,108 5,720 10,492 11,022

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,827 218,850 107,364 106,342 112,463 112,508

Civilian labor force

135,938 135,668 71,280 70,350 64,658 65,318

Participation rate

61.8 62.0 66.4 66.2 57.5 58.1

Employed

130,893 130,242 68,331 67,310 62,562 62,932

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.5 63.6 63.3 55.6 55.9

Unemployed

5,045 5,426 2,949 3,040 2,096 2,386

Unemployment rate

3.7 4.0 4.1 4.3 3.2 3.7

Not in labor force

83,888 83,182 36,084 35,992 47,805 47,190

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,106 2,111 2,099 2,223 2,262 2,205 2,184 2,201 2,217

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,439 1,454 1,427 1,515 1,549 1,520 1,489 1,524 1,507

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

639 621 627 663 701 680 687 649 654

Unpaid family workers

28 35 44 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

158,634 158,205 159,258 158,332 159,578 158,993 158,735 158,601 158,970

Wage and salary workers(1)

149,499 148,897 149,720 149,272 150,505 149,702 149,741 149,321 149,513

Government

21,919 21,517 21,866 21,475 21,878 21,700 21,490 21,142 21,436

Private industries

127,580 127,380 127,854 127,806 128,612 128,086 128,407 128,256 128,092

Private households

561 746 679 - - - - - -

Other industries

127,019 126,634 127,175 127,149 127,889 127,414 127,521 127,392 127,331

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,087 9,261 9,487 9,151 9,014 9,335 9,087 9,377 9,522

Unpaid family workers

48 47 51 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,205 4,592 4,422 4,091 3,994 4,211 4,422 4,376 4,308

Slack work or business conditions

2,929 3,098 3,051 2,853 2,790 2,960 2,994 2,863 2,972

Could only find part-time work

942 1,139 1,053 892 934 964 1,026 1,104 999

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,822 23,043 23,416 21,416 21,879 22,458 22,156 22,309 22,902

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,115 4,479 4,343 4,027 3,931 4,138 4,371 4,300 4,255

Slack work or business conditions

2,873 3,013 3,010 2,813 2,735 2,913 2,959 2,803 2,949

Could only find part-time work

935 1,130 1,033 883 923 953 1,018 1,098 980

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,472 22,677 23,054 21,052 21,444 22,060 21,793 21,951 22,523

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

160,741 160,315 161,356 160,824 161,866 161,183 161,152 160,968 161,466

16 to 19 years

5,480 5,214 5,595 5,767 5,733 5,638 5,704 5,608 5,862

16 to 17 years

2,010 1,833 1,946 2,215 2,235 2,194 2,292 2,035 2,146

18 to 19 years

3,470 3,381 3,650 3,584 3,514 3,446 3,428 3,595 3,756

20 years and over

155,260 155,101 155,761 155,056 156,133 155,545 155,448 155,360 155,604

20 to 24 years

14,742 13,969 14,121 14,876 14,787 14,756 14,562 14,192 14,287

25 years and over

140,518 141,131 141,641 140,398 141,194 140,617 140,972 141,300 141,485

25 to 54 years

103,200 103,564 103,766 103,120 103,451 103,161 103,489 103,717 103,669

25 to 34 years

35,798 35,631 35,696 35,756 35,779 35,859 35,700 35,672 35,667

35 to 44 years

35,519 36,077 36,185 35,494 35,680 35,546 35,818 36,117 36,123

45 to 54 years

31,883 31,856 31,885 31,871 31,992 31,757 31,970 31,928 31,879

55 years and over

37,318 37,567 37,875 37,277 37,742 37,455 37,484 37,582 37,816

Men, 16 years and over

85,420 84,391 85,253 85,623 85,981 85,794 85,034 84,993 85,490

16 to 19 years

2,766 2,589 2,796 2,935 2,897 2,836 2,730 2,815 2,947

16 to 17 years

1,012 828 922 1,120 1,071 1,033 1,063 939 1,022

18 to 19 years

1,754 1,761 1,874 1,843 1,846 1,807 1,679 1,900 1,964

20 years and over

82,654 81,802 82,457 82,688 83,084 82,958 82,304 82,178 82,543

20 to 24 years

7,585 6,951 7,116 7,672 7,446 7,432 7,320 7,107 7,222

25 years and over

75,069 74,851 75,341 75,228 75,514 75,397 75,093 75,239 75,496

25 to 54 years

55,095 54,836 55,060 55,214 55,262 55,178 55,008 55,126 55,179

25 to 34 years

19,110 18,868 18,945 19,110 19,088 19,104 18,948 18,945 18,957

35 to 44 years

19,056 19,162 19,288 19,116 19,107 19,108 19,109 19,266 19,332

45 to 54 years

16,930 16,806 16,827 16,989 17,067 16,966 16,951 16,916 16,890

55 years and over

19,974 20,016 20,282 20,014 20,252 20,219 20,085 20,112 20,316

Women, 16 years and over

75,320 75,924 76,103 75,201 75,885 75,389 76,118 75,975 75,976

16 to 19 years

2,714 2,625 2,799 2,832 2,836 2,802 2,974 2,793 2,915

16 to 17 years

998 1,005 1,023 1,095 1,164 1,162 1,229 1,096 1,124

18 to 19 years

1,716 1,620 1,776 1,741 1,668 1,639 1,749 1,694 1,793

20 years and over

72,606 73,299 73,304 72,368 73,049 72,587 73,144 73,182 73,061

20 to 24 years

7,158 7,019 7,005 7,204 7,342 7,324 7,241 7,085 7,065

25 years and over

65,448 66,280 66,299 65,169 65,679 65,220 65,879 66,061 65,989

25 to 54 years

48,105 48,728 48,706 47,906 48,189 47,983 48,480 48,591 48,490

25 to 34 years

16,688 16,763 16,751 16,646 16,691 16,755 16,752 16,727 16,710

35 to 44 years

16,463 16,916 16,896 16,378 16,573 16,438 16,709 16,851 16,791

45 to 54 years

14,953 15,050 15,059 14,882 14,926 14,791 15,019 15,013 14,989

55 years and over

17,344 17,552 17,593 17,263 17,490 17,237 17,399 17,470 17,500

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,462 45,452 46,100 46,267 46,344 46,392 45,672 45,387 45,962

Married women, spouse present(1)

37,081 37,035 37,358 36,807 36,887 36,790 37,033 36,822 37,069

Women who maintain families(2)

9,748 9,955 9,785 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

133,453 131,815 132,070 134,287 134,727 133,196 133,133 132,946 132,940

Part-time workers(4)

27,288 28,501 29,287 26,744 27,032 27,794 27,890 27,941 28,632

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,137 8,411 8,637 7,984 8,343 8,565 8,272 8,259 8,476

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,285 6,565 6,637 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,726 9,883 10,114 9,815 9,715 10,014 9,774 10,026 10,176

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,866 6,458 6,429 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8

16 to 19 years

635 803 842 9.9 11.4 11.9 10.6 12.5 12.6

16 to 17 years

227 290 353 9.3 11.4 13.1 10.0 12.5 14.1

18 to 19 years

410 499 490 10.3 11.5 11.2 10.8 12.2 11.5

20 years and over

5,232 5,655 5,587 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,042 1,097 1,091 6.5 6.6 6.4 5.9 7.2 7.1

25 years and over

4,169 4,655 4,499 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,141 3,544 3,466 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,419 1,607 1,518 3.8 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.3 4.1

35 to 44 years

930 1,078 982 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

792 859 967 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.9

55 years and over

1,013 1,081 1,016 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,219 3,398 3,323 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7

16 to 19 years

342 396 467 10.4 12.2 12.5 13.2 12.3 13.7

16 to 17 years

120 124 167 9.7 13.3 15.2 15.1 11.6 14.1

18 to 19 years

220 272 298 10.7 11.7 11.3 12.1 12.5 13.2

20 years and over

2,877 3,002 2,855 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3

20 to 24 years

576 610 549 7.0 7.1 6.4 7.0 7.9 7.1

25 years and over

2,306 2,474 2,329 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,728 1,896 1,779 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1

25 to 34 years

819 840 813 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.1

35 to 44 years

542 597 436 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.0 2.2

45 to 54 years

366 459 529 2.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.0

55 years and over

579 577 550 2.8 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.6

Women, 16 years and over

2,648 3,060 3,106 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9

16 to 19 years

293 408 375 9.4 10.6 11.1 8.2 12.7 11.4

16 to 17 years

106 166 186 8.9 9.5 11.2 5.0 13.1 14.2

18 to 19 years

190 227 193 9.8 11.2 11.1 9.6 11.8 9.7

20 years and over

2,355 2,653 2,731 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6

20 to 24 years

466 487 542 6.1 6.1 6.4 4.9 6.4 7.1

25 years and over

1,863 2,182 2,170 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2

25 to 54 years

1,413 1,648 1,687 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4

25 to 34 years

600 767 704 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.9 4.4 4.0

35 to 44 years

388 481 546 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.1

45 to 54 years

425 401 437 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.8

55 years and over

434 520 463 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

890 879 831 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

753 766 860 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

471 583 550 4.6 4.8 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,780 5,356 5,090 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,091 1,131 1,329 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.2 3.9 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,159 3,691 3,295 2,884 3,058 3,058 3,028 3,216 3,042

On temporary layoff

961 1,123 938 781 889 917 876 827 779

Not on temporary layoff

2,198 2,568 2,357 2,104 2,169 2,140 2,151 2,389 2,263

Permanent job losers

1,602 1,812 1,719 1,539 1,589 1,543 1,556 1,730 1,655

Persons who completed temporary jobs

596 756 639 565 580 597 595 659 607

Job leavers

828 712 811 841 821 833 794 711 823

Reentrants

1,670 1,991 1,916 1,683 1,771 1,741 1,834 1,946 1,920

New entrants

385 576 582 506 582 609 550 611 678

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

52.3 53.0 49.9 48.8 49.1 49.0 48.8 49.6 47.1

On temporary layoff

15.9 16.1 14.2 13.2 14.3 14.7 14.1 12.8 12.1

Not on temporary layoff

36.4 36.8 35.7 35.6 34.8 34.3 34.7 36.8 35.0

Job leavers

13.7 10.2 12.3 14.2 13.2 13.4 12.8 11.0 12.7

Reentrants

27.6 28.6 29.0 28.5 28.4 27.9 29.5 30.0 29.7

New entrants

6.4 8.3 8.8 8.6 9.3 9.8 8.9 9.4 10.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1

New entrants

0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,978 2,198 1,909 2,279 2,069 2,191 2,140 2,326 2,189

5 to 14 weeks

1,891 2,370 2,141 1,765 2,060 1,791 1,848 1,933 1,979

15 weeks and over

2,173 2,402 2,554 1,847 2,150 2,350 2,144 2,176 2,228

15 to 26 weeks

1,007 1,113 1,195 797 931 1,104 867 974 982

27 weeks and over

1,167 1,288 1,359 1,050 1,220 1,245 1,277 1,203 1,246

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

20.1 20.6 22.3 19.5 19.5 22.3 20.8 20.9 21.6

Median duration, in weeks

9.6 9.2 10.7 8.4 9.0 9.7 9.6 9.3 9.5

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.7 31.5 28.9 38.7 33.0 34.6 34.9 36.1 34.2

5 to 14 weeks

31.3 34.0 32.4 30.0 32.8 28.3 30.1 30.0 30.9

15 weeks and over

36.0 34.5 38.7 31.4 34.2 37.1 35.0 33.8 34.8

15 to 26 weeks

16.7 16.0 18.1 13.5 14.8 17.4 14.1 15.1 15.3

27 weeks and over

19.3 18.5 20.6 17.8 19.4 19.7 20.8 18.7 19.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

160,741 161,356 6,043 6,604 3.6 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

70,651 70,786 1,368 1,580 1.9 2.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,285 30,519 647 717 2.1 2.3

Professional and related occupations

40,366 40,267 721 863 1.8 2.1

Service occupations

25,600 26,127 1,242 1,241 4.6 4.5

Sales and office occupations

30,361 29,800 1,138 1,288 3.6 4.1

Sales and related occupations

14,447 14,142 552 700 3.7 4.7

Office and administrative support occupations

15,913 15,658 586 588 3.6 3.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,003 14,347 808 794 5.5 5.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

797 868 70 100 8.1 10.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,415 8,540 601 579 6.7 6.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,792 4,939 137 116 2.8 2.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,125 20,297 1,101 1,112 5.2 5.2

Production occupations

8,405 8,330 384 389 4.4 4.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,721 11,967 718 724 5.8 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,043 6,604 3.6 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,842 5,201 3.7 3.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

36 17 6.5 3.3

Construction

598 570 5.6 5.4

Manufacturing

459 469 2.9 3.0

Durable goods

257 311 2.5 3.1

Nondurable goods

202 158 3.6 2.9

Wholesale and retail trade

846 939 4.4 4.8

Transportation and utilities

390 401 4.6 4.9

Information

84 96 3.1 3.6

Financial activities

189 225 1.8 2.2

Professional and business services

744 826 3.9 4.4

Education and health services

604 611 2.4 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

684 746 5.0 5.5

Other services

208 300 3.3 4.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

108 105 7.4 7.1

Government workers

372 372 1.7 1.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

334 343 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.6 4.2 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.8 4.4 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.3 5.1 4.7 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.8 7.8 7.4 6.7 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,489 99,924 41,192 41,713 58,297 58,211

Persons who currently want a job

4,646 5,110 2,314 2,552 2,332 2,557

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,190 1,439 638 835 552 604

Discouraged workers(2)

303 286 202 195 100 91

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

887 1,152 436 640 452 512

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,137 8,637 4,031 4,203 4,106 4,435

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.4 4.7 4.9 5.5 5.8

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,649 5,055 2,511 2,662 2,138 2,394

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,976 2,080 717 703 1,259 1,377

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

395 380 230 257 166 122

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,034 1,051 527 531 507 520

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Change from:
Feb.2024 - Mar.2024(p)

Total nonfarm

154,253 155,432 156,559 157,218 155,206 157,560 157,830 158,133 303

Total private

131,367 132,430 133,112 133,647 132,600 134,424 134,631 134,863 232

Goods-producing

21,218 21,313 21,401 21,527 21,508 21,753 21,770 21,812 42

Mining and logging

628 628 632 639 635 641 642 645 3

Logging

43.9 41.8 41.8 41.6 44.8 41.9 41.9 42.4 0.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

584.1 586.6 590.0 597.8 589.9 598.8 600.3 602.9 2.6

Oil and gas extraction

115.5 118.8 118.2 118.7 116.2 119.6 119.2 119.5 0.3

Mining (except oil and gas)

183.3 183.7 184.4 186.0 187.1 189.1 189.2 189.5 0.3

Coal mining

42.7 42.7 42.9 42.9 42.7 42.8 42.9 42.8 -0.1

Metal ore mining

43.3 43.3 43.4 42.8 43.4 43.5 43.4 43.0 -0.4

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

97.3 97.7 98.1 100.3 101.0 102.8 103.0 103.7 0.7

Support activities for mining

285.3 284.1 287.4 293.1 286.6 290.1 291.9 293.9 2.0

Construction

7,701 7,804 7,860 7,976 7,941 8,146 8,172 8,211 39

Construction of buildings

1,762.1 1,800.4 1,808.9 1,823.3 1,796.2 1,843.1 1,848.2 1,856.0 7.8

Residential building construction

907.5 911.6 914.9 923.8 925.5 935.1 935.6 941.1 5.5

Nonresidential building construction

854.6 888.8 894.0 899.5 870.7 908.0 912.6 914.9 2.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,043.8 1,032.4 1,056.3 1,088.0 1,108.8 1,135.1 1,144.7 1,150.7 6.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,894.6 4,971.4 4,995.0 5,064.4 5,035.8 5,167.9 5,179.4 5,204.6 25.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,277.9 2,305.2 2,316.1 2,339.1 2,344.4 2,398.3 2,398.7 2,407.6 8.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,616.7 2,666.2 2,678.9 2,725.3 2,691.4 2,769.6 2,780.7 2,797.0 16.3

Manufacturing

12,889 12,881 12,909 12,912 12,932 12,966 12,956 12,956 0

Durable goods

8,054 8,104 8,120 8,124 8,074 8,144 8,141 8,145 4

Wood product manufacturing

419.6 411.5 413.0 414.4 420.6 414.2 415.2 415.6 0.4

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

414.5 412.0 411.3 414.1 420.9 421.5 420.1 420.8 0.7

Primary metal manufacturing

373.7 370.1 370.1 369.2 373.5 371.6 370.5 369.3 -1.2

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,444.4 1,462.7 1,470.4 1,468.9 1,445.9 1,467.9 1,472.0 1,471.3 -0.7

Machinery manufacturing

1,129.3 1,136.3 1,135.4 1,131.4 1,131.9 1,138.3 1,136.4 1,133.9 -2.5

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,102.4 1,104.3 1,103.4 1,101.2 1,106.2 1,108.8 1,106.5 1,104.8 -1.7

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

162.7 162.9 161.2 159.7 163.8 162.7 161.6 160.8 -0.8

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.1 86.1 86.2 85.7 85.0 86.5 86.4 85.7 -0.7

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

395.6 391.9 391.5 391.4 396.5 393.9 392.8 392.1 -0.7

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

428.4 433.1 434.1 433.9 429.9 434.9 434.8 435.3 0.5

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.6 30.3 30.4 30.5 31.1 30.8 30.8 30.9 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

414.6 410.2 412.5 410.9 415.1 411.4 413.8 411.7 -2.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,764.5 1,829.7 1,831.8 1,841.4 1,766.2 1,836.1 1,832.0 1,843.4 11.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,025.4 1,060.6 1,062.0 1,070.5 1,025.0 1,065.3 1,063.4 1,069.9 6.5

Furniture and related product manufacturing

363.5 345.3 346.7 345.6 363.6 347.2 347.1 345.8 -1.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing

627.5 622.2 625.4 626.6 629.6 626.8 627.6 628.7 1.1

Nondurable goods

4,835 4,777 4,789 4,788 4,858 4,822 4,815 4,811 -4

Food manufacturing

1,718.7 1,719.2 1,725.4 1,721.1 1,728.2 1,731.5 1,730.9 1,730.7 -0.2

Textile mills

91.9 88.3 89.1 89.1 92.3 89.3 89.9 89.3 -0.6

Textile product mills

101.6 95.8 95.5 94.5 101.1 95.6 95.4 94.2 -1.2

Apparel manufacturing

90.7 86.2 85.7 83.2 91.0 86.9 86.0 83.9 -2.1

Paper manufacturing

362.4 350.4 350.6 351.8 361.5 351.0 350.3 350.7 0.4

Printing and related support activities

374.6 364.0 363.3 364.7 376.0 367.2 365.7 365.8 0.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

105.0 105.7 107.1 108.1 108.1 110.4 110.8 110.8 0.0

Chemical manufacturing

898.5 892.7 895.6 900.2 898.5 896.6 895.1 899.5 4.4

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

741.6 725.6 725.6 725.9 741.8 729.5 727.9 726.8 -1.1

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

350.4 349.5 350.9 349.7 359.5 363.6 362.9 359.4 -3.5

Private service-providing

110,149 111,117 111,711 112,120 111,092 112,671 112,861 113,051 190

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,553 28,795 28,687 28,703 28,819 28,874 28,920 28,947 27

Wholesale trade

6,072.1 6,109.3 6,114.5 6,135.2 6,096.2 6,152.8 6,149.9 6,158.4 8.5

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,374.0 3,406.1 3,408.1 3,411.7 3,381.3 3,421.3 3,417.8 3,418.6 0.8

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,189.1 2,195.8 2,198.4 2,212.1 2,203.0 2,220.7 2,221.2 2,225.5 4.3

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

509.0 507.4 508.0 511.4 511.9 510.8 510.9 514.3 3.4

Retail trade

15,390.8 15,573.0 15,482.9 15,491.4 15,579.6 15,619.3 15,642.3 15,659.9 17.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,018.4 2,049.3 2,056.5 2,064.8 2,026.0 2,071.3 2,072.6 2,073.5 0.9

Automobile dealers

1,264.4 1,286.4 1,287.9 1,294.1 1,265.7 1,294.1 1,291.7 1,295.7 4.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

175.1 163.9 165.5 168.5 179.0 174.0 173.2 172.9 -0.3

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

578.9 599.0 603.1 602.2 581.3 603.2 607.6 604.9 -2.7

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,409.5 1,339.0 1,339.7 1,358.8 1,411.6 1,381.4 1,374.2 1,364.7 -9.5

Food and beverage retailers

3,210.9 3,239.7 3,254.9 3,243.1 3,231.0 3,251.6 3,257.7 3,260.7 3.0

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

857.5 836.2 825.8 821.6 860.9 830.3 826.0 824.6 -1.4

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

437.3 431.7 425.4 423.5 437.0 426.3 423.8 423.0 -0.8

Electronics and appliance retailers

420.2 404.5 400.4 398.1 423.9 404.1 402.2 401.6 -0.6

General merchandise retailers

3,154.9 3,248.0 3,213.0 3,222.9 3,222.3 3,230.8 3,252.5 3,272.6 20.1

Department stores

935.1 964.8 940.0 940.3 973.3 950.3 961.1 968.8 7.7

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,219.8 2,283.2 2,273.0 2,282.6 2,248.9 2,280.5 2,291.4 2,303.8 12.4

Health and personal care retailers

1,093.7 1,104.8 1,098.9 1,087.5 1,095.3 1,091.5 1,093.9 1,090.2 -3.7

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,034.9 1,062.2 1,063.3 1,066.7 1,045.8 1,071.8 1,074.5 1,076.8 2.3

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,122.0 1,167.4 1,116.1 1,110.8 1,156.6 1,146.2 1,144.0 1,143.9 -0.1

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,489.0 1,526.4 1,514.7 1,515.2 1,530.1 1,544.4 1,546.9 1,552.9 6.0

Transportation and warehousing

6,519.4 6,528.6 6,504.1 6,489.4 6,571.9 6,516.8 6,539.3 6,540.5 1.2

Air transportation

542.1 564.4 568.1 571.4 542.5 569.0 572.1 572.5 0.4

Rail transportation

152.3 153.0 153.6 153.6 152.1 153.0 153.3 153.4 0.1

Water transportation

65.8 69.6 69.5 72.3 67.9 72.5 72.8 74.3 1.5

Truck transportation

1,551.6 1,528.9 1,526.1 1,532.2 1,577.5 1,552.6 1,553.8 1,558.9 5.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

442.3 438.8 445.6 445.7 428.7 430.1 431.9 432.0 0.1

Pipeline transportation

52.1 52.8 53.1 53.2 52.0 53.1 53.0 53.1 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.6 25.8 26.7 26.8 29.4 31.2 31.7 31.0 -0.7

Support activities for transportation

819.6 833.6 837.0 839.2 820.2 835.1 838.3 839.8 1.5

Couriers and messengers

1,047.3 1,085.2 1,053.0 1,031.2 1,082.1 1,052.9 1,069.7 1,068.3 -1.4

Warehousing and storage

1,821.7 1,776.5 1,771.4 1,763.8 1,819.5 1,767.3 1,762.7 1,757.2 -5.5

Utilities

570.4 583.6 585.4 587.1 571.6 585.3 588.4 588.0 -0.4

Information

3,036 2,976 2,997 2,997 3,054 3,020 3,017 3,017 0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

410.3 411.6 428.7 427.4 422.9 441.7 441.0 438.4 -2.6

Publishing industries

949.0 921.2 919.0 923.4 954.5 927.9 927.0 931.5 4.5

Broadcasting and content providers

352.0 340.8 345.2 341.7 351.4 343.4 343.8 341.5 -2.3

Telecommunications

656.3 631.3 631.9 631.0 655.0 633.7 631.2 629.8 -1.4

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

482.7 494.2 494.3 495.4 484.1 494.9 495.0 497.4 2.4

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

186.1 177.2 177.4 177.6 186.3 178.5 178.5 178.0 -0.5

Financial activities

9,094 9,177 9,169 9,166 9,150 9,229 9,223 9,226 3

Finance and insurance

6,690.6 6,716.6 6,709.9 6,707.0 6,704.7 6,731.9 6,723.5 6,723.7 0.2

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.6 22.6 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,636.7 2,598.4 2,592.3 2,588.9 2,639.2 2,600.0 2,591.9 2,590.9 -1.0

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,804.5 1,782.8 1,782.3 1,781.6 1,803.7 1,783.3 1,780.9 1,780.7 -0.2

Commercial banking

1,400.8 1,373.8 1,374.3 1,372.4 1,399.6 1,374.7 1,372.1 1,371.0 -1.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

537.5 530.2 525.0 522.3 540.1 530.9 526.7 524.7 -2.0

Activities related to credit intermediation

294.7 285.4 285.0 285.0 295.5 285.8 284.4 285.5 1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,084.1 1,105.0 1,103.0 1,103.3 1,091.1 1,111.8 1,110.6 1,112.1 1.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,947.3 2,990.7 2,992.1 2,992.3 2,951.8 2,997.5 2,998.4 2,998.1 -0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,403.7 2,460.4 2,458.6 2,458.7 2,445.3 2,497.3 2,499.2 2,502.2 3.0

Real estate

1,824.1 1,857.1 1,858.0 1,858.3 1,849.1 1,876.4 1,878.7 1,883.4 4.7

Rental and leasing services

557.1 580.4 577.5 577.3 573.3 597.5 597.1 595.3 -1.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.5 22.9 23.1 23.1 22.9 23.4 23.4 23.5 0.1

Professional and business services

22,552 22,549 22,693 22,718 22,797 22,930 22,947 22,954 7

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,727.0 10,917.6 10,986.5 10,961.8 10,732.8 10,956.4 10,970.5 10,979.0 8.5

Legal services

1,171.0 1,181.4 1,185.6 1,177.1 1,179.1 1,187.7 1,190.0 1,187.0 -3.0

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,219.6 1,195.3 1,236.1 1,240.6 1,139.0 1,162.4 1,162.5 1,162.7 0.2

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,625.7 1,660.5 1,667.5 1,665.5 1,648.8 1,683.0 1,690.7 1,689.7 -1.0

Specialized design services

150.9 154.2 153.4 151.0 153.0 156.2 154.9 153.3 -1.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,459.7 2,524.2 2,530.7 2,513.9 2,481.1 2,528.9 2,533.0 2,537.1 4.1

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,830.9 1,877.6 1,882.3 1,878.9 1,846.2 1,890.3 1,891.2 1,896.3 5.1

Scientific research and development services

919.5 945.6 947.3 949.1 926.2 953.9 952.8 956.0 3.2

Advertising, public relations, and related services

500.2 514.5 517.7 518.6 502.3 520.4 520.0 520.9 0.9

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

849.5 864.3 865.9 867.1 857.1 873.8 875.4 876.0 0.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,545.0 2,548.0 2,555.6 2,549.4 2,553.8 2,556.2 2,563.0 2,558.3 -4.7

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,279.8 9,083.6 9,151.3 9,206.4 9,510.5 9,417.0 9,413.1 9,416.8 3.7

Administrative and support services

8,789.8 8,578.7 8,644.7 8,698.6 9,014.1 8,903.4 8,900.3 8,903.0 2.7

Office administrative services

607.6 627.8 629.0 629.7 613.2 634.3 635.4 636.7 1.3

Facilities support services

167.0 173.3 175.4 175.3 167.2 173.7 174.7 174.9 0.2

Employment services(1)

3,639.9 3,434.8 3,482.4 3,480.7 3,714.3 3,546.5 3,535.7 3,536.0 0.3

Temporary help services

2,876.6 2,668.3 2,718.6 2,710.2 2,940.4 2,772.0 2,760.1 2,758.8 -1.3

Business support services

749.0 720.9 716.3 709.4 754.8 719.1 716.9 714.8 -2.1

Travel arrangement and reservation services

183.6 194.3 194.3 194.9 185.9 197.2 197.3 197.3 0.0

Investigation and security services

992.6 1,005.3 1,013.7 1,013.0 997.8 1,016.3 1,020.9 1,018.3 -2.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,118.7 2,088.1 2,096.0 2,156.5 2,244.9 2,273.2 2,274.5 2,281.2 6.7

Other support services

331.4 334.2 337.6 339.1 336.0 343.2 344.9 343.7 -1.2

Waste management and remediation services

490.0 504.9 506.6 507.8 496.4 513.6 512.8 513.8 1.0

Private education and health services

25,133 25,748 26,119 26,205 25,030 25,931 26,013 26,101 88

Private educational services

3,931.5 3,763.6 4,003.0 4,014.4 3,793.8 3,869.7 3,866.2 3,872.3 6.1

Health care and social assistance

21,201.7 21,983.9 22,115.6 22,190.2 21,236.0 22,061.5 22,146.9 22,228.2 81.3

Health care(3)

16,705.1 17,292.9 17,386.5 17,453.9 16,742.3 17,354.1 17,418.3 17,490.6 72.3

Ambulatory health care services

8,340.0 8,620.6 8,678.7 8,702.8 8,356.5 8,659.9 8,691.2 8,718.7 27.5

Offices of physicians

2,872.6 2,984.5 2,996.1 2,996.7 2,879.8 2,992.7 3,001.0 3,006.1 5.1

Offices of dentists

1,018.0 1,027.3 1,030.2 1,031.0 1,022.1 1,030.8 1,034.5 1,035.3 0.8

Offices of other health practitioners

1,134.3 1,176.6 1,192.4 1,191.5 1,138.3 1,185.9 1,191.5 1,195.6 4.1

Outpatient care centers

1,056.3 1,077.5 1,075.3 1,078.4 1,054.1 1,076.2 1,073.3 1,077.1 3.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

317.9 322.2 323.3 322.6 318.7 322.7 323.1 323.5 0.4

Home health care services

1,595.3 1,681.8 1,707.2 1,725.4 1,598.7 1,699.4 1,713.0 1,724.7 11.7

Other ambulatory health care services

345.6 350.7 354.2 357.2 344.9 352.2 354.7 356.4 1.7

Hospitals

5,270.4 5,451.8 5,477.8 5,506.6 5,277.9 5,462.2 5,487.3 5,514.4 27.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,094.7 3,220.5 3,230.0 3,244.5 3,107.9 3,232.0 3,239.8 3,257.5 17.7

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,388.3 1,447.1 1,447.5 1,453.7 1,397.5 1,450.9 1,453.3 1,462.8 9.5

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

623.2 651.3 657.5 659.1 625.0 655.4 659.4 661.6 2.2

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

927.5 963.7 965.7 970.3 929.4 966.4 967.7 971.8 4.1

Other residential care facilities

155.7 158.4 159.3 161.4 156.1 159.3 159.4 161.4 2.0

Social assistance

4,496.6 4,691.0 4,729.1 4,736.3 4,493.7 4,707.4 4,728.6 4,737.6 9.0

Individual and family services

2,966.9 3,127.2 3,153.4 3,159.8 2,970.4 3,137.3 3,154.8 3,164.0 9.2

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

216.3 223.3 225.5 225.1 215.1 224.0 224.4 224.2 -0.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

278.0 283.4 286.1 287.5 279.1 287.4 288.1 288.1 0.0

Child care services

1,035.4 1,057.1 1,064.1 1,063.9 1,029.1 1,058.7 1,061.3 1,061.3 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

16,031 16,076 16,225 16,473 16,447 16,813 16,856 16,905 49

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,292.8 2,372.4 2,403.6 2,477.5 2,461.1 2,618.4 2,629.8 2,647.3 17.5

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

511.0 552.8 571.7 592.9 545.6 618.9 620.9 627.9 7.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

160.7 163.5 163.7 169.6 169.4 177.0 177.5 178.4 0.9

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,621.1 1,656.1 1,668.2 1,715.0 1,746.1 1,822.5 1,831.4 1,841.0 9.6

Accommodation and food services

13,738.3 13,703.8 13,821.2 13,995.0 13,986.2 14,194.8 14,226.3 14,257.8 31.5

Accommodation

1,806.7 1,821.5 1,829.4 1,855.2 1,880.1 1,923.7 1,926.7 1,929.9 3.2

Food services and drinking places

11,931.6 11,882.3 11,991.8 12,139.8 12,106.1 12,271.1 12,299.6 12,327.9 28.3

Other services

5,750 5,796 5,821 5,858 5,795 5,874 5,885 5,901 16

Repair and maintenance

1,429.2 1,457.7 1,461.4 1,473.1 1,437.2 1,475.9 1,477.8 1,482.0 4.2

Personal and laundry services

1,511.5 1,524.0 1,530.8 1,540.2 1,524.9 1,546.9 1,549.3 1,554.0 4.7

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,809.4 2,813.8 2,829.0 2,844.7 2,832.6 2,851.3 2,857.6 2,865.4 7.8

Government

22,886 23,002 23,447 23,571 22,606 23,136 23,199 23,270 71

Federal

2,884 2,958 2,972 2,980 2,900 2,974 2,984 2,993 9

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,280.2 2,353.5 2,364.9 2,371.6 2,296.0 2,368.1 2,377.3 2,386.3 9.0

U.S. Postal Service

603.5 604.8 607.1 608.2 603.6 605.9 606.3 607.1 0.8

State government

5,374 5,321 5,555 5,582 5,249 5,420 5,431 5,444 13

State government education

2,682.1 2,561.1 2,785.6 2,804.1 2,549.8 2,644.4 2,648.9 2,659.0 10.1

State government, excluding education

2,691.7 2,759.6 2,769.0 2,777.5 2,699.0 2,775.6 2,781.7 2,784.8 3.1

Local government

14,628 14,723 14,920 15,009 14,457 14,742 14,784 14,833 49

Local government education

8,204.7 8,159.3 8,318.2 8,357.1 7,930.7 8,047.6 8,061.7 8,079.6 17.9

Local government, excluding education

6,422.8 6,563.3 6,601.3 6,651.9 6,526.1 6,694.0 6,722.5 6,753.3 30.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.2 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

39.9 39.5 39.7 39.9

Mining and logging

45.7 44.6 45.1 45.4

Construction

38.9 38.5 38.9 39.3

Manufacturing

40.2 39.8 40.0 40.0

Durable goods

40.7 40.3 40.5 40.5

Nondurable goods

39.5 39.1 39.1 39.2

Private service-providing

33.4 33.1 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.6 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.1 29.4 29.8 29.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.2 38.1 38.0 38.4

Utilities

42.4 42.2 42.1 42.1

Information

36.4 36.3 36.4 36.5

Financial activities

37.4 37.3 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.5 36.3 36.4 36.5

Private education and health services

33.4 33.2 33.3 33.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.4 25.3 25.6 25.5

Other services

32.2 32.2 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 2.8 3.0 2.9

Durable goods

3.2 2.9 3.1 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

Total private

$33.31 $34.51 $34.57 $34.69 $1,145.86 $1,180.24 $1,185.75 $1,193.34

Goods-producing

33.56 35.09 35.16 35.36 1,339.04 1,386.06 1,395.85 1,410.86

Mining and logging

37.28 39.10 39.34 39.10 1,703.70 1,743.86 1,774.23 1,775.14

Construction

35.99 37.60 37.60 37.80 1,400.01 1,447.60 1,462.64 1,485.54

Manufacturing

31.91 33.35 33.43 33.63 1,282.78 1,327.33 1,337.20 1,345.20

Durable goods

33.45 35.15 35.25 35.49 1,361.42 1,416.55 1,427.63 1,437.35

Nondurable goods

29.28 30.23 30.24 30.38 1,156.56 1,181.99 1,182.38 1,190.90

Private service-providing

33.25 34.38 34.44 34.54 1,110.55 1,137.98 1,146.85 1,150.18

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.69 29.72 29.76 29.85 975.46 998.59 1,008.86 1,014.90

Wholesale trade

36.38 37.29 37.37 37.61 1,411.54 1,450.58 1,461.17 1,470.55

Retail trade

23.67 24.24 24.33 24.35 712.47 712.66 725.03 725.63

Transportation and warehousing

28.83 30.46 30.48 30.55 1,101.31 1,160.53 1,158.24 1,173.12

Utilities

49.37 50.78 50.77 50.81 2,093.29 2,142.92 2,137.42 2,139.10

Information

48.21 49.14 49.25 49.48 1,754.84 1,783.78 1,792.70 1,806.02

Financial activities

42.75 44.78 44.99 45.23 1,598.85 1,670.29 1,687.13 1,700.65

Professional and business services

39.99 41.43 41.51 41.68 1,459.64 1,503.91 1,510.96 1,521.32

Private education and health services

32.89 33.78 33.84 33.83 1,098.53 1,121.50 1,126.87 1,123.16

Leisure and hospitality

20.98 21.67 21.79 21.90 532.89 548.25 557.82 558.45

Other services

29.93 31.15 31.18 31.06 963.75 1,003.03 1,007.11 1,003.24

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2024 - Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2024 - Mar.
2024(p)

Total private

114.5 115.4 115.9 116.5 0.5 182.4 190.4 191.6 193.2 0.8

Goods-producing

97.8 97.9 98.5 99.2 0.7 148.3 155.3 156.5 158.5 1.3

Mining and logging

91.2 89.8 91.0 92.0 1.1 136.5 141.0 143.7 144.4 0.5

Construction

106.5 108.1 109.6 111.2 1.5 166.5 176.6 179.0 182.7 2.1

Manufacturing

93.5 92.8 93.2 93.2 0.0 138.8 144.0 144.9 145.8 0.6

Durable goods

92.5 92.4 92.8 92.9 0.1 137.4 144.2 145.3 146.4 0.8

Nondurable goods

95.8 94.1 94.0 94.1 0.1 142.3 144.4 144.2 145.1 0.6

Private service-providing

119.5 120.1 121.0 121.2 0.2 193.1 200.6 202.5 203.5 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.1 106.0 107.1 107.5 0.4 165.6 169.9 171.9 173.1 0.7

Wholesale trade

104.3 105.6 106.1 106.2 0.1 158.8 164.7 165.8 167.1 0.8

Retail trade

95.4 93.5 94.9 95.0 0.1 149.4 149.8 152.6 152.9 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

144.2 142.7 142.8 144.3 1.1 211.6 221.1 221.4 224.3 1.3

Utilities

104.9 106.9 107.2 107.1 -0.1 171.0 179.3 179.8 179.8 0.0

Information

101.5 100.1 100.3 100.6 0.3 174.3 175.2 175.9 177.2 0.7

Financial activities

112.1 112.8 113.3 113.6 0.3 186.9 197.0 198.8 200.5 0.9

Professional and business services

130.2 130.2 130.7 131.1 0.3 210.9 218.5 219.7 221.3 0.7

Private education and health services

136.5 140.6 141.4 141.5 0.1 216.0 228.4 230.3 230.3 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

119.2 121.4 123.1 123.0 -0.1 201.8 212.2 216.4 217.3 0.4

Other services

107.6 109.1 109.6 109.9 0.3 176.5 186.2 187.3 187.1 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

Total nonfarm

77,301 78,587 78,689 78,847 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

64,109 65,072 65,140 65,257 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,958 5,020 5,008 5,009 23.1 23.1 23.0 23.0

Mining and logging

82 85 86 87 12.9 13.3 13.4 13.5

Construction

1,121 1,161 1,163 1,164 14.1 14.3 14.2 14.2

Manufacturing

3,755 3,774 3,759 3,758 29.0 29.1 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

2,006 2,026 2,022 2,022 24.8 24.9 24.8 24.8

Nondurable goods

1,749 1,748 1,737 1,736 36.0 36.3 36.1 36.1

Private service-providing

59,151 60,052 60,132 60,248 53.2 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,340 11,274 11,260 11,261 39.3 39.0 38.9 38.9

Wholesale trade

1,875.6 1,872.1 1,868.0 1,870.9 30.8 30.4 30.4 30.4

Retail trade

7,529.8 7,516.8 7,509.6 7,514.8 48.3 48.1 48.0 48.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,784.8 1,730.0 1,726.8 1,719.4 27.2 26.5 26.4 26.3

Utilities

149.7 155.3 156.0 155.4 26.2 26.5 26.5 26.4

Information

1,228 1,221 1,215 1,215 40.2 40.4 40.3 40.3

Financial activities

5,087 5,137 5,135 5,133 55.6 55.7 55.7 55.6

Professional and business services

10,504 10,537 10,561 10,571 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.1

Private education and health services

19,243 19,919 19,984 20,064 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,664 8,833 8,837 8,855 52.7 52.5 52.4 52.4

Other services

3,085 3,131 3,140 3,149 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.4

Government

13,192 13,515 13,549 13,590 58.4 58.4 58.4 58.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

Total private

107,954 109,430 109,606 109,815

Goods-producing

15,433 15,540 15,535 15,564

Mining and logging

482 501 504 509

Construction

5,853 5,971 5,977 6,010

Manufacturing

9,098 9,068 9,054 9,045

Durable goods

5,606 5,582 5,572 5,567

Nondurable goods

3,492 3,486 3,482 3,478

Private service-providing

92,521 93,890 94,071 94,251

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,285 24,355 24,394 24,411

Wholesale trade

4,833.6 4,861.5 4,853.2 4,859.1

Retail trade

13,254.5 13,357.1 13,364.8 13,379.6

Transportation and warehousing

5,743.1 5,669.6 5,706.1 5,703.8

Utilities

453.9 466.7 469.9 468.6

Information

2,436 2,432 2,425 2,418

Financial activities

6,892 6,948 6,957 6,963

Professional and business services

18,065 18,082 18,097 18,115

Private education and health services

21,774 22,600 22,678 22,760

Leisure and hospitality

14,356 14,699 14,740 14,794

Other services

4,713 4,774 4,780 4,790

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.9 33.6 33.8 33.9

Goods-producing

40.5 39.9 40.4 40.7

Mining and logging

47.7 46.9 47.6 47.6

Construction

39.6 38.9 39.6 40.1

Manufacturing

40.6 40.2 40.6 40.7

Durable goods

40.9 40.4 40.9 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.3 39.9 40.1 40.2

Private service-providing

32.7 32.5 32.7 32.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.8 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.8 39.2 39.1

Retail trade

30.3 30.1 30.2 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 37.6 37.5 37.8

Utilities

42.7 42.4 42.3 42.5

Information

36.0 35.8 35.7 36.0

Financial activities

37.2 36.8 36.9 37.0

Professional and business services

36.3 36.1 36.3 36.4

Private education and health services

32.6 32.4 32.5 32.5

Leisure and hospitality

24.2 24.0 24.3 24.4

Other services

31.2 31.1 31.3 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6

Durable goods

3.8 3.4 3.6 3.6

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.6 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)

Total private

$28.58 $29.64 $29.72 $29.79 $968.86 $995.90 $1,004.54 $1,009.88

Goods-producing

29.14 30.57 30.68 30.84 1,180.17 1,219.74 1,239.47 1,255.19

Mining and logging

33.71 36.11 36.55 36.21 1,607.97 1,693.56 1,739.78 1,723.60

Construction

33.76 35.30 35.24 35.42 1,336.90 1,373.17 1,395.50 1,420.34

Manufacturing

25.95 27.21 27.36 27.48 1,053.57 1,093.84 1,110.82 1,118.44

Durable goods

27.08 28.53 28.74 28.93 1,107.57 1,152.61 1,175.47 1,183.24

Nondurable goods

24.12 25.05 25.11 25.11 972.04 999.50 1,006.91 1,009.42

Private service-providing

28.46 29.45 29.53 29.57 930.64 957.13 965.63 966.94

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.01 25.78 25.88 25.96 850.34 871.36 877.33 882.64

Wholesale trade

30.17 30.94 31.05 31.17 1,170.60 1,200.47 1,217.16 1,218.75

Retail trade

20.38 20.75 20.81 20.92 617.51 624.58 628.46 631.78

Transportation and warehousing

27.45 28.94 29.10 29.06 1,037.61 1,088.14 1,091.25 1,098.47

Utilities

43.71 44.88 44.64 44.96 1,866.42 1,902.91 1,888.27 1,910.80

Information

39.16 40.55 40.40 40.72 1,409.76 1,451.69 1,442.28 1,465.92

Financial activities

33.38 35.03 35.24 35.41 1,241.74 1,289.10 1,300.36 1,310.17

Professional and business services

33.82 34.96 35.03 35.19 1,227.67 1,262.06 1,271.59 1,280.92

Private education and health services

29.97 30.83 30.96 30.86 977.02 998.89 1,006.20 1,002.95

Leisure and hospitality

18.33 19.22 19.27 19.28 443.59 461.28 468.26 470.43

Other services

25.68 26.99 27.00 26.83 801.22 839.39 845.10 842.46

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2024 - Mar.
2024(p)
Mar.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024(p)
Mar.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2024 - Mar.
2024(p)

Total private

122.0 122.5 123.5 124.1 0.5 232.9 242.7 245.2 247.0 0.7

Goods-producing

95.5 94.8 95.9 96.8 0.9 170.4 177.4 180.2 182.8 1.4

Mining and logging

122.2 124.9 127.5 128.7 0.9 239.5 262.2 271.0 271.1 0.0

Construction

116.1 116.3 118.5 120.7 1.9 211.6 221.7 225.5 230.8 2.4

Manufacturing

84.8 83.7 84.4 84.5 0.1 143.9 148.9 151.0 151.9 0.6

Durable goods

86.1 84.7 85.6 85.5 -0.1 145.6 150.9 153.6 154.5 0.6

Nondurable goods

82.9 82.0 82.3 82.4 0.1 141.3 145.1 146.0 146.2 0.1

Private service-providing

128.9 130.0 131.1 131.3 0.2 251.6 262.6 265.5 266.3 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.6 115.2 115.8 116.2 0.3 206.6 212.3 214.1 215.5 0.7

Wholesale trade

111.3 111.9 112.9 112.8 -0.1 198.2 204.4 206.9 207.4 0.2

Retail trade

101.8 101.9 102.3 102.4 0.1 177.9 181.4 182.6 183.8 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

164.3 161.3 161.9 163.2 0.8 287.1 297.2 300.0 301.8 0.6

Utilities

99.1 101.2 101.7 101.9 0.2 180.8 189.6 189.4 191.1 0.9

Information

100.1 99.4 98.8 99.4 0.6 194.1 199.5 197.6 200.3 1.4

Financial activities

120.7 120.3 120.8 121.3 0.4 247.8 259.3 261.9 264.2 0.9

Professional and business services

146.4 145.7 146.6 147.2 0.4 294.5 303.0 305.5 308.1 0.9

Private education and health services

151.3 156.1 157.1 157.7 0.4 299.4 317.7 321.1 321.2 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

127.3 129.2 131.2 132.2 0.8 264.9 282.0 287.1 289.5 0.8

Other services

103.1 104.1 104.9