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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-19-1735
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, October 4, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2019


The unemployment rate declined to 3.5 percent in September, and total nonfarm 
payroll employment rose by 136,000, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today. Employment in health care and in professional and business services continued 
to trend up.  

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. 
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In September, the unemployment rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to 3.5 percent. 
The last time the rate was this low was in December 1969, when it also was 3.5 percent.
Over the month, the number of unemployed persons decreased by 275,000 to 5.8 million. 
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Whites declined to 3.2 
percent in September. The jobless rates for adult men (3.2 percent), adult women 
(3.1 percent), teenagers (12.5 percent), Blacks (5.5 percent), Asians (2.5 percent), 
and Hispanics (3.9 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, 
A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of job losers and persons who completed temporary 
jobs declined by 304,000 to 2.6 million in September, while the number of new entrants 
increased by 103,000 to 677,000. New entrants are unemployed persons who never 
previously worked. (See table A-11.)

In September, the number of persons unemployed for less than 5 weeks fell by 339,000 
to 1.9 million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) 
was little changed at 1.3 million and accounted for 22.7 percent of the unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate held at 63.2 percent in September. The employment-
population ratio, at 61.0 percent, was little changed over the month but was up by 
0.6 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to 
as involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged at 4.4 million in September. 
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time 
because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. 
(See table A-8.)

In September, 1.3 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by 
278,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were 
not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job 
sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not 
searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 321,000 discouraged workers in September, 
little changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged 
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are 
available for them. The remaining 978,000 persons marginally attached to the labor 
force in September had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or 
family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)
 
Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 136,000 in September. Job growth has 
averaged 161,000 per month thus far in 2019, compared with an average monthly gain 
of 223,000 in 2018. In September, employment continued to trend up in health care and in 
professional and business services. (See table B-1.)

In September, health care added 39,000 jobs, in line with its average monthly gain over 
the prior 12 months. Ambulatory health care services (+29,000) and hospitals (+8,000) 
added jobs over the month. 

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in September 
(+34,000). The industry has added an average of 35,000 jobs per month thus far in 2019, 
compared with 47,000 jobs per month in 2018.  

Employment in government continued on an upward trend in September (+22,000). Federal 
hiring for the 2020 Census was negligible (+1,000). Government has added 147,000 jobs 
over the past 12 months, largely in local government. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing edged up in September (+16,000). Within the 
industry, job growth occurred in transit and ground passenger transportation (+11,000) 
and in couriers and messengers (+4,000). 

Retail trade employment changed little in September (-11,000). Within the industry, 
clothing and clothing accessories stores lost 14,000 jobs, while food and beverage stores 
added 9,000 jobs. Since reaching a peak in January 2017, retail trade has lost 197,000 
jobs. 

Employment in other major industries, including mining, construction, manufacturing, 
wholesale trade, information, financial activities, and leisure and hospitality, showed 
little change over the month. 

In September, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls, 
at $28.09, were little changed (-1 cent), after rising by 11 cents in August. Over the 
past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 2.9 percent. In September, average 
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 4 cents 
to $23.65. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.4 
hours in September. In manufacturing, the average workweek and overtime remained at 40.5 
hours and 3.2 hours, respectively. The average workweek of private-sector production and 
nonsupervisory employees held at 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised up by 7,000 from 
+159,000 to +166,000, and the change for August was revised up by 38,000 from +130,000 to 
+168,000. With these revisions, employment gains in July and August combined were 45,000 
more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received 
from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 157,000 per 
month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
November 1, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Change from:
Aug.
2019-
Sept.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,290 259,225 259,432 259,638 206

Civilian labor force

162,055 163,351 163,922 164,039 117

Participation rate

62.7 63.0 63.2 63.2 0.0

Employed

156,069 157,288 157,878 158,269 391

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.7 60.9 61.0 0.1

Unemployed

5,986 6,063 6,044 5,769 -275

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Not in labor force

96,235 95,874 95,510 95,599 89

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.6 12.8 12.6 12.5 -0.1

White

3.3 3.3 3.4 3.2 -0.2

Black or African American

6.0 6.0 5.5 5.5 0.0

Asian

3.5 2.8 2.8 2.5 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.5 4.5 4.2 3.9 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.6 5.1 5.4 4.8 -0.6

High school graduates, no college

3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.2 2.1 2.0 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,796 2,798 2,876 2,572 -304

Job leavers

739 833 781 840 59

Reentrants

1,889 1,810 1,801 1,669 -132

New entrants

588 595 574 677 103

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,065 2,201 2,207 1,868 -339

5 to 14 weeks

1,751 1,797 1,757 1,781 24

15 to 26 weeks

861 905 835 819 -16

27 weeks and over

1,379 1,166 1,243 1,314 71

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,656 3,984 4,381 4,350 -31

Slack work or business conditions

2,807 2,385 2,678 2,588 -90

Could only find part-time work

1,471 1,364 1,351 1,322 -29

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,404 21,437 21,697 21,573 -124

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,577 1,478 1,564 1,299 -

Discouraged workers

383 368 467 321 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

108 166 168 136

Total private

108 122 122 114

Goods-producing

38 -4 1 5

Mining and logging

3 -5 -5 0

Construction

17 -3 4 7

Manufacturing

18 4 2 -2

Durable goods(1)

14 2 0 -4

Motor vehicles and parts

2.8 -2.4 -1.3 -4.1

Nondurable goods

4 2 2 2

Private service-providing

70 126 121 109

Wholesale trade

2.0 5.2 0.0 2.4

Retail trade

-26.0 -2.0 -6.0 -11.4

Transportation and warehousing

23.2 -0.7 -4.1 15.7

Utilities

0.1 -0.8 -0.9 -1.8

Information

-4 -2 2 9

Financial activities

14 19 15 3

Professional and business services(1)

53 37 43 34

Temporary help services

13.7 -10.5 14.5 10.2

Education and health services(1)

25 76 56 40

Health care and social assistance

37.7 46.9 51.4 41.4

Leisure and hospitality

-24 -13 9 21

Other services

7 7 7 -3

Government

0 44 46 22

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

189 135 171 157

Total private

176 121 135 119

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.5 48.6

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.3 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$27.30 $27.99 $28.10 $28.09

Average weekly earnings

$941.85 $960.06 $966.64 $966.30

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.0 110.9 111.4 111.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.0 -0.2 0.5 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

143.6 148.4 149.6 149.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.1 0.8 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

61.8 58.1 53.5 53.7

Manufacturing (76 industries)

63.2 52.6 52.0 44.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,290 259,432 259,638 258,290 258,861 259,037 259,225 259,432 259,638

Civilian labor force

161,958 164,019 163,943 162,055 162,646 162,981 163,351 163,922 164,039

Participation rate

62.7 63.2 63.1 62.7 62.8 62.9 63.0 63.2 63.2

Employed

156,191 157,816 158,478 156,069 156,758 157,005 157,288 157,878 158,269

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.8 61.0 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.9 61.0

Unemployed

5,766 6,203 5,465 5,986 5,888 5,975 6,063 6,044 5,769

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

96,332 95,413 95,694 96,235 96,215 96,057 95,874 95,510 95,599

Persons who currently want a job

5,070 5,331 4,637 5,266 5,045 5,322 5,043 5,150 4,880

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,928 125,481 125,583 124,928 125,197 125,285 125,378 125,481 125,583

Civilian labor force

85,815 87,155 86,729 85,912 86,377 86,479 86,805 86,832 86,839

Participation rate

68.7 69.5 69.1 68.8 69.0 69.0 69.2 69.2 69.1

Employed

82,814 84,077 83,862 82,686 83,192 83,293 83,584 83,600 83,732

Employment-population ratio

66.3 67.0 66.8 66.2 66.4 66.5 66.7 66.6 66.7

Unemployed

3,002 3,078 2,867 3,226 3,185 3,185 3,221 3,233 3,107

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

39,113 38,326 38,855 39,016 38,820 38,806 38,573 38,649 38,744

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,437 117,040 117,140 116,437 116,752 116,843 116,939 117,040 117,140

Civilian labor force

83,115 83,939 83,837 83,104 83,561 83,501 83,794 83,868 83,829

Participation rate

71.4 71.7 71.6 71.4 71.6 71.5 71.7 71.7 71.6

Employed

80,458 81,272 81,348 80,251 80,766 80,718 80,981 81,039 81,135

Employment-population ratio

69.1 69.4 69.4 68.9 69.2 69.1 69.3 69.2 69.3

Unemployed

2,658 2,667 2,488 2,853 2,795 2,783 2,814 2,830 2,694

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2

Not in labor force

33,322 33,101 33,304 33,333 33,191 33,341 33,144 33,171 33,311

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,362 133,951 134,054 133,362 133,664 133,753 133,847 133,951 134,054

Civilian labor force

76,142 76,864 77,214 76,143 76,269 76,502 76,546 77,090 77,199

Participation rate

57.1 57.4 57.6 57.1 57.1 57.2 57.2 57.6 57.6

Employed

73,378 73,740 74,616 73,383 73,566 73,712 73,705 74,278 74,537

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.0 55.7 55.0 55.0 55.1 55.1 55.5 55.6

Unemployed

2,765 3,125 2,598 2,760 2,703 2,790 2,841 2,812 2,662

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.1 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

57,220 57,087 56,840 57,219 57,395 57,251 57,301 56,861 56,855

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,091 125,705 125,806 125,091 125,419 125,509 125,604 125,705 125,806

Civilian labor force

73,280 73,756 74,501 73,107 73,347 73,579 73,548 74,123 74,314

Participation rate

58.6 58.7 59.2 58.4 58.5 58.6 58.6 59.0 59.1

Employed

70,858 70,983 72,204 70,710 70,981 71,139 71,069 71,655 71,974

Employment-population ratio

56.6 56.5 57.4 56.5 56.6 56.7 56.6 57.0 57.2

Unemployed

2,422 2,773 2,297 2,398 2,366 2,441 2,479 2,468 2,340

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.8 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

51,811 51,949 51,304 51,984 52,071 51,929 52,057 51,582 51,491

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,762 16,687 16,691 16,762 16,690 16,686 16,682 16,687 16,691

Civilian labor force

5,562 6,324 5,605 5,843 5,738 5,900 6,009 5,931 5,895

Participation rate

33.2 37.9 33.6 34.9 34.4 35.4 36.0 35.5 35.3

Employed

4,876 5,560 4,926 5,108 5,011 5,148 5,239 5,184 5,160

Employment-population ratio

29.1 33.3 29.5 30.5 30.0 30.9 31.4 31.1 30.9

Unemployed

686 763 680 735 726 751 770 747 735

Unemployment rate

12.3 12.1 12.1 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.5

Not in labor force

11,199 10,363 11,086 10,918 10,953 10,786 10,673 10,756 10,796

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,476 200,953 201,062 200,476 200,658 200,746 200,843 200,953 201,062

Civilian labor force

125,413 126,920 126,928 125,617 125,980 126,244 126,345 126,765 127,053

Participation rate

62.6 63.2 63.1 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.1 63.2

Employed

121,500 122,439 123,055 121,507 121,883 122,125 122,144 122,471 122,972

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.9 61.2 60.6 60.7 60.8 60.8 60.9 61.2

Unemployed

3,913 4,481 3,873 4,110 4,097 4,119 4,201 4,293 4,081

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.2

Not in labor force

75,063 74,033 74,133 74,858 74,678 74,502 74,498 74,188 74,008

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,625 66,119 66,100 65,661 65,973 65,928 65,994 66,066 66,134

Participation rate

71.5 71.8 71.8 71.5 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.8 71.8

Employed

63,796 64,252 64,380 63,664 64,042 64,009 64,005 64,094 64,246

Employment-population ratio

69.5 69.8 69.9 69.4 69.7 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.7

Unemployed

1,829 1,867 1,720 1,996 1,931 1,919 1,989 1,972 1,888

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,404 55,839 56,449 55,378 55,526 55,704 55,663 56,063 56,356

Participation rate

57.5 57.8 58.4 57.5 57.5 57.7 57.6 58.0 58.3

Employed

53,811 53,798 54,807 53,792 53,869 53,993 53,988 54,286 54,707

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.7 56.7 55.8 55.8 55.9 55.9 56.2 56.6

Unemployed

1,594 2,042 1,643 1,586 1,657 1,711 1,675 1,776 1,649

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,383 4,962 4,379 4,578 4,482 4,612 4,687 4,636 4,563

Participation rate

35.6 40.5 35.8 37.2 36.6 37.7 38.3 37.9 37.3

Employed

3,893 4,389 3,868 4,051 3,972 4,123 4,151 4,091 4,019

Employment-population ratio

31.6 35.9 31.6 32.9 32.4 33.7 33.9 33.4 32.8

Unemployed

490 573 511 527 510 489 536 545 545

Unemployment rate

11.2 11.5 11.7 11.5 11.4 10.6 11.4 11.8 11.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,848 33,081 33,116 32,848 32,984 33,014 33,045 33,081 33,116

Civilian labor force

20,484 20,645 20,656 20,504 20,562 20,430 20,714 20,588 20,669

Participation rate

62.4 62.4 62.4 62.4 62.3 61.9 62.7 62.2 62.4

Employed

19,295 19,503 19,611 19,265 19,280 19,199 19,481 19,463 19,540

Employment-population ratio

58.7 59.0 59.2 58.6 58.5 58.2 59.0 58.8 59.0

Unemployed

1,189 1,143 1,045 1,239 1,282 1,231 1,233 1,125 1,129

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.5 5.1 6.0 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.5

Not in labor force

12,365 12,435 12,460 12,345 12,421 12,584 12,331 12,492 12,447

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,369 9,546 9,509 9,349 9,422 9,303 9,502 9,490 9,490

Participation rate

68.0 68.7 68.3 67.9 68.0 67.1 68.4 68.3 68.2

Employed

8,842 9,005 9,032 8,800 8,833 8,768 8,953 8,931 8,975

Employment-population ratio

64.2 64.8 64.9 63.9 63.8 63.2 64.5 64.2 64.5

Unemployed

526 540 477 549 589 535 549 559 515

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.7 5.0 5.9 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,421 10,346 10,480 10,422 10,469 10,396 10,421 10,379 10,460

Participation rate

62.8 61.9 62.6 62.8 62.8 62.3 62.4 62.1 62.5

Employed

9,892 9,858 10,024 9,874 9,934 9,846 9,877 9,926 9,978

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.0 59.9 59.5 59.6 59.0 59.2 59.4 59.6

Unemployed

529 488 456 548 535 550 544 453 482

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.7 4.3 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.2 4.4 4.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

694 753 668 733 671 731 790 719 719

Participation rate

27.8 30.6 27.2 29.4 27.2 29.7 32.1 29.2 29.3

Employed

560 639 556 591 513 586 650 605 587

Employment-population ratio

22.5 26.0 22.6 23.7 20.8 23.8 26.4 24.6 23.9

Unemployed

134 114 112 141 158 145 140 113 132

Unemployment rate

19.3 15.2 16.8 19.3 23.5 19.9 17.7 15.7 18.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,011 16,433 16,400 16,011 16,361 16,557 16,399 16,433 16,400

Civilian labor force

10,289 10,554 10,518 10,303 10,304 10,526 10,449 10,524 10,519

Participation rate

64.3 64.2 64.1 64.3 63.0 63.6 63.7 64.0 64.1

Employed

9,933 10,248 10,261 9,943 10,046 10,303 10,160 10,225 10,260

Employment-population ratio

62.0 62.4 62.6 62.1 61.4 62.2 62.0 62.2 62.6

Unemployed

356 306 257 360 258 222 289 299 258

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.9 2.4 3.5 2.5 2.1 2.8 2.8 2.5

Not in labor force

5,722 5,879 5,881 5,709 6,058 6,032 5,950 5,909 5,881

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,959 43,630 43,722 42,959 43,370 43,453 43,537 43,630 43,722

Civilian labor force

28,316 29,065 29,258 28,388 28,689 28,855 28,896 29,082 29,287

Participation rate

65.9 66.6 66.9 66.1 66.2 66.4 66.4 66.7 67.0

Employed

27,105 27,849 28,210 27,102 27,493 27,602 27,581 27,866 28,152

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.8 64.5 63.1 63.4 63.5 63.4 63.9 64.4

Unemployed

1,211 1,216 1,048 1,287 1,196 1,253 1,314 1,216 1,135

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.2 3.6 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

14,642 14,565 14,464 14,571 14,681 14,599 14,642 14,548 14,435

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,414 15,726 15,783 15,424 15,731 15,659 15,651 15,718 15,791

Participation rate

79.5 79.8 80.0 79.5 80.4 79.8 79.6 79.8 80.0

Employed

14,888 15,244 15,390 14,832 15,188 15,093 15,017 15,186 15,320

Employment-population ratio

76.8 77.4 78.0 76.5 77.6 76.9 76.4 77.1 77.6

Unemployed

526 482 393 592 543 566 634 532 471

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 2.5 3.8 3.4 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,682 12,034 12,210 11,689 11,810 11,885 11,929 12,113 12,191

Participation rate

59.6 60.4 61.1 59.6 59.6 59.9 60.0 60.8 61.0

Employed

11,175 11,494 11,737 11,188 11,330 11,382 11,480 11,604 11,724

Employment-population ratio

57.0 57.7 58.8 57.0 57.2 57.3 57.7 58.2 58.7

Unemployed

507 540 472 501 480 503 449 509 467

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.5 3.9 4.3 4.1 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,220 1,305 1,265 1,276 1,149 1,310 1,316 1,251 1,305

Participation rate

30.9 32.6 31.6 32.3 28.9 32.9 33.0 31.3 32.6

Employed

1,042 1,111 1,083 1,082 975 1,126 1,084 1,076 1,108

Employment-population ratio

26.3 27.8 27.0 27.4 24.5 28.3 27.2 26.9 27.7

Unemployed

179 194 182 193 174 184 232 175 197

Unemployment rate

14.6 14.9 14.4 15.2 15.1 14.0 17.6 14.0 15.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,273 10,062 10,008 10,204 9,915 10,025 9,975 10,032 9,929

Participation rate

46.4 47.3 46.3 46.1 44.6 45.4 47.1 47.1 46.0

Employed

9,773 9,585 9,608 9,635 9,383 9,489 9,466 9,490 9,448

Employment-population ratio

44.2 45.0 44.5 43.5 42.2 43.0 44.7 44.6 43.7

Unemployed

499 477 400 569 533 536 509 542 480

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.7 4.0 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.4 4.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,540 36,554 36,701 36,213 35,781 36,120 36,286 36,318 36,313

Participation rate

58.0 57.7 58.4 57.5 57.4 57.8 57.5 57.3 57.8

Employed

35,268 35,252 35,474 34,856 34,522 34,715 34,982 35,023 35,005

Employment-population ratio

56.0 55.6 56.5 55.3 55.4 55.6 55.4 55.3 55.7

Unemployed

1,272 1,302 1,227 1,357 1,259 1,404 1,304 1,295 1,308

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,364 37,404 37,404 37,390 37,614 37,200 37,222 37,710 37,452

Participation rate

65.2 65.1 65.0 65.2 65.3 64.7 65.0 65.6 65.1

Employed

36,204 36,191 36,348 36,200 36,569 36,069 36,028 36,549 36,363

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.5 62.7 62.9 63.6 63.2

Unemployed

1,160 1,213 1,056 1,189 1,045 1,132 1,194 1,161 1,089

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

57,279 58,295 59,077 57,294 58,217 58,510 58,664 58,800 59,080

Participation rate

73.6 73.2 73.9 73.6 73.8 73.8 73.4 73.9 73.9

Employed

56,160 56,891 57,919 56,167 56,980 57,275 57,399 57,551 57,884

Employment-population ratio

72.2 71.5 72.5 72.2 72.2 72.3 71.8 72.3 72.4

Unemployed

1,120 1,405 1,157 1,127 1,237 1,235 1,265 1,249 1,196

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,120 18,744 17,251 16,854 1,869 1,890

Civilian labor force

9,482 9,229 8,313 8,125 1,169 1,104

Participation rate

49.6 49.2 48.2 48.2 62.5 58.4

Employed

9,161 8,947 8,055 7,887 1,107 1,060

Employment-population ratio

47.9 47.7 46.7 46.8 59.2 56.1

Unemployed

320 282 258 238 62 45

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 3.1 2.9 5.3 4.0

Not in labor force

9,638 9,515 8,938 8,729 700 786

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,121 4,377 3,389 3,626 733 751

Civilian labor force

3,355 3,516 2,807 3,022 548 495

Participation rate

81.4 80.3 82.8 83.3 74.8 65.8

Employed

3,224 3,360 2,709 2,900 515 460

Employment-population ratio

78.2 76.8 79.9 80.0 70.3 61.2

Unemployed

131 157 98 122 33 35

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.5 3.5 4.0 6.0 7.0

Not in labor force

766 861 582 604 184 257

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,152 3,055 2,682 2,569 469 486

Civilian labor force

2,519 2,320 2,160 1,945 358 374

Participation rate

79.9 75.9 80.5 75.7 76.4 77.1

Employed

2,447 2,260 2,110 1,890 337 370

Employment-population ratio

77.6 74.0 78.7 73.6 71.9 76.1

Unemployed

71 60 50 55 21 5

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.6 2.3 2.8 5.9 1.2

Not in labor force

633 735 522 624 111 111

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,537 7,129 7,280 6,882 257 247

Civilian labor force

1,580 1,459 1,531 1,407 49 53

Participation rate

21.0 20.5 21.0 20.4 19.0 21.3

Employed

1,521 1,427 1,472 1,374 49 52

Employment-population ratio

20.2 20.0 20.2 20.0 19.0 21.2

Unemployed

60 33 60 32 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.8 2.2 3.9 2.3 - -

Not in labor force

5,957 5,670 5,749 5,475 208 194

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,310 4,183 3,900 3,777 410 406

Civilian labor force

2,028 1,934 1,814 1,751 213 183

Participation rate

47.0 46.2 46.5 46.4 52.1 45.0

Employed

1,970 1,901 1,765 1,723 205 178

Employment-population ratio

45.7 45.4 45.2 45.6 50.0 43.8

Unemployed

58 33 49 28 8 5

Unemployment rate

2.9 1.7 2.7 1.6 4.0 2.6

Not in labor force

2,282 2,249 2,086 2,026 197 223

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,212 231,979 103,100 104,218 127,112 127,761

Civilian labor force

150,416 152,624 76,597 77,584 73,819 75,040

Participation rate

65.3 65.8 74.3 74.4 58.1 58.7

Employed

145,204 147,662 73,960 75,059 71,244 72,603

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.7 71.7 72.0 56.0 56.8

Unemployed

5,212 4,962 2,637 2,525 2,575 2,437

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

79,796 79,355 26,503 26,634 53,293 52,721

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,254 30,105 228,036 229,533

Civilian labor force

6,489 6,193 155,469 157,751

Participation rate

21.4 20.6 68.2 68.7

Employed

6,018 5,817 150,173 152,661

Employment-population ratio

19.9 19.3 65.9 66.5

Unemployed

470 376 5,296 5,089

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.1 3.4 3.2

Not in labor force

23,765 23,912 72,567 71,782

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,793 2,632 77,334 78,114

Participation rate

36.4 35.4 82.2 82.9

Employed

2,589 2,458 74,717 75,564

Employment-population ratio

33.7 33.0 79.4 80.2

Unemployed

204 174 2,617 2,549

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.6 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

4,882 4,805 16,772 16,089

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,488 2,419 69,058 69,975

Participation rate

31.8 32.0 71.2 72.1

Employed

2,275 2,256 66,677 67,657

Employment-population ratio

29.1 29.8 68.7 69.7

Unemployed

213 163 2,381 2,318

Unemployment rate

8.6 6.7 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

5,335 5,139 27,989 27,104

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,208 1,142 9,077 9,662

Participation rate

8.2 7.6 24.6 25.3

Employed

1,154 1,104 8,779 9,440

Employment-population ratio

7.8 7.3 23.8 24.7

Unemployed

54 38 298 222

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.4 3.3 2.3

Not in labor force

13,547 13,969 27,806 28,588

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,112 42,685 20,929 20,523 22,183 22,162

Civilian labor force

28,315 28,121 16,168 15,938 12,147 12,183

Participation rate

65.7 65.9 77.3 77.7 54.8 55.0

Employed

27,471 27,392 15,776 15,586 11,696 11,806

Employment-population ratio

63.7 64.2 75.4 75.9 52.7 53.3

Unemployed

844 729 393 352 451 377

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.6 2.4 2.2 3.7 3.1

Not in labor force

14,796 14,563 4,761 4,585 10,035 9,979

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,178 216,953 103,999 105,061 111,179 111,893

Civilian labor force

133,642 135,822 69,647 70,790 63,995 65,031

Participation rate

62.1 62.6 67.0 67.4 57.6 58.1

Employed

128,720 131,086 67,038 68,276 61,682 62,810

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.4 64.5 65.0 55.5 56.1

Unemployed

4,922 4,736 2,609 2,515 2,313 2,221

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

81,536 81,131 34,352 34,270 47,184 46,861

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,555 2,501 2,479 2,478 2,432 2,320 2,402 2,400 2,404

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,726 1,665 1,672 1,661 1,724 1,482 1,577 1,560 1,610

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

806 817 781 813 690 778 779 789 769

Unpaid family workers

23 19 27 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,636 155,315 155,999 153,634 154,314 154,725 154,904 155,528 155,830

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,570 146,376 147,030 144,480 145,590 145,906 145,880 146,480 146,837

Government

20,674 20,362 21,089 20,753 20,730 20,952 20,823 20,913 21,088

Private industries

123,896 126,014 125,942 123,773 124,870 124,901 125,012 125,602 125,756

Private households

741 869 842 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,154 125,145 125,100 122,968 124,064 124,115 124,224 124,745 124,867

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,970 8,863 8,889 8,957 8,711 8,766 8,945 8,891 8,843

Unpaid family workers

96 76 80 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,306 4,316 3,992 4,656 4,355 4,347 3,984 4,381 4,350

Slack work or business conditions

2,606 2,623 2,377 2,807 2,646 2,707 2,385 2,678 2,588

Could only find part-time work

1,464 1,252 1,327 1,471 1,339 1,337 1,364 1,351 1,322

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,475 20,138 21,666 21,404 21,366 21,524 21,437 21,697 21,573

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,238 4,237 3,925 4,575 4,241 4,258 3,878 4,295 4,264

Slack work or business conditions

2,572 2,560 2,337 2,767 2,565 2,669 2,323 2,634 2,537

Could only find part-time work

1,459 1,242 1,317 1,462 1,333 1,326 1,350 1,337 1,311

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,077 19,727 21,291 21,002 21,038 21,188 21,049 21,322 21,190

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,191 157,816 158,478 156,069 156,758 157,005 157,288 157,878 158,269

16 to 19 years

4,876 5,560 4,926 5,108 5,011 5,148 5,239 5,184 5,160

16 to 17 years

1,826 2,050 1,870 1,765 1,704 1,756 1,704 1,835 1,797

18 to 19 years

3,050 3,510 3,056 3,299 3,294 3,398 3,559 3,360 3,321

20 years and over

151,315 152,256 153,553 150,961 151,747 151,857 152,050 152,694 153,109

20 to 24 years

13,910 14,337 14,203 14,022 14,303 14,291 14,233 14,057 14,297

25 years and over

137,405 137,918 139,350 136,887 137,369 137,547 137,837 138,508 138,742

25 to 54 years

100,763 100,626 101,621 100,333 100,636 100,665 100,373 101,042 101,151

25 to 34 years

35,658 35,806 36,073 35,511 35,616 35,708 35,486 35,937 35,910

35 to 44 years

32,661 33,062 33,581 32,501 32,961 32,973 33,044 33,149 33,377

45 to 54 years

32,444 31,759 31,967 32,320 32,059 31,985 31,842 31,956 31,864

55 years and over

36,642 37,292 37,729 36,554 36,733 36,882 37,464 37,467 37,592

Men, 16 years and over

82,814 84,077 83,862 82,686 83,192 83,293 83,584 83,600 83,732

16 to 19 years

2,356 2,804 2,514 2,435 2,426 2,575 2,603 2,561 2,597

16 to 17 years

799 1,029 916 779 841 896 855 894 895

18 to 19 years

1,557 1,775 1,598 1,640 1,590 1,681 1,762 1,657 1,679

20 years and over

80,458 81,272 81,348 80,251 80,766 80,718 80,981 81,039 81,135

20 to 24 years

7,107 7,332 7,167 7,162 7,285 7,279 7,228 7,099 7,218

25 years and over

73,351 73,941 74,181 73,021 73,477 73,430 73,761 73,827 73,871

25 to 54 years

53,808 53,774 54,061 53,575 53,727 53,630 53,688 53,749 53,843

25 to 34 years

19,199 19,213 19,256 19,123 19,181 19,009 19,088 19,194 19,182

35 to 44 years

17,594 17,805 18,012 17,512 17,753 17,792 17,790 17,764 17,926

45 to 54 years

17,015 16,756 16,792 16,941 16,793 16,829 16,810 16,791 16,735

55 years and over

19,542 20,167 20,121 19,445 19,750 19,800 20,073 20,078 20,028

Women, 16 years and over

73,378 73,740 74,616 73,383 73,566 73,712 73,705 74,278 74,537

16 to 19 years

2,520 2,756 2,412 2,674 2,585 2,573 2,636 2,623 2,563

16 to 17 years

1,027 1,021 954 986 863 860 849 941 901

18 to 19 years

1,493 1,735 1,458 1,659 1,704 1,718 1,797 1,703 1,641

20 years and over

70,858 70,983 72,204 70,710 70,981 71,139 71,069 71,655 71,974

20 to 24 years

6,803 7,006 7,036 6,860 7,018 7,012 7,005 6,958 7,079

25 years and over

64,055 63,978 65,168 63,866 63,891 64,117 64,076 64,682 64,871

25 to 54 years

46,954 46,852 47,561 46,757 46,908 47,035 46,685 47,293 47,308

25 to 34 years

16,459 16,593 16,817 16,388 16,434 16,698 16,398 16,743 16,728

35 to 44 years

15,067 15,257 15,568 14,989 15,208 15,181 15,254 15,385 15,451

45 to 54 years

15,428 15,003 15,175 15,379 15,266 15,156 15,032 15,165 15,129

55 years and over

17,100 17,125 17,608 17,109 16,983 17,082 17,392 17,389 17,563

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,205 46,259 46,256 45,972 45,789 45,681 46,005 46,215 46,009

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,090 35,829 36,477 36,041 35,971 36,013 36,110 36,366 36,432

Women who maintain families(2)

9,887 9,822 10,006 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,466 132,156 131,704 128,958 129,695 130,148 130,429 130,789 131,094

Part-time workers(4)

26,726 25,660 26,774 27,120 26,981 26,807 26,861 26,974 27,095

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,670 8,038 8,331 7,717 7,855 8,156 8,389 8,373 8,357

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.1 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,840 6,149 6,227 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,776 9,681 9,669 9,770 9,401 9,544 9,724 9,681 9,612

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,986 6,044 5,769 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

16 to 19 years

735 747 735 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.5

16 to 17 years

281 273 271 13.8 14.1 14.6 15.5 12.9 13.1

18 to 19 years

453 459 461 12.1 11.9 11.5 10.9 12.0 12.2

20 years and over

5,251 5,297 5,034 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,036 1,065 963 6.9 7.0 6.3 6.8 7.0 6.3

25 years and over

4,225 4,207 4,057 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

3,158 3,210 3,127 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,298 1,348 1,326 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6

35 to 44 years

970 944 891 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6

45 to 54 years

889 917 910 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8

55 years and over

1,059 1,018 925 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.4

Men, 16 years and over

3,226 3,233 3,107 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6

16 to 19 years

373 403 413 13.3 13.9 13.5 13.5 13.6 13.7

16 to 17 years

133 150 135 14.6 15.5 14.0 15.3 14.4 13.1

18 to 19 years

242 254 275 12.9 12.8 12.9 11.8 13.3 14.1

20 years and over

2,853 2,830 2,694 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2

20 to 24 years

576 607 561 7.4 8.3 7.4 7.6 7.9 7.2

25 years and over

2,289 2,199 2,142 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,712 1,709 1,674 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

704 734 760 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8

35 to 44 years

541 470 434 3.0 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4

45 to 54 years

468 506 481 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.8

55 years and over

576 490 468 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3

Women, 16 years and over

2,760 2,812 2,662 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4

16 to 19 years

362 344 322 11.9 11.5 12.0 12.1 11.6 11.2

16 to 17 years

148 123 137 13.1 12.6 15.2 15.7 11.6 13.2

18 to 19 years

211 205 185 11.3 11.0 10.1 10.1 10.8 10.1

20 years and over

2,398 2,468 2,340 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1

20 to 24 years

461 458 402 6.3 5.6 5.2 5.9 6.2 5.4

25 years and over

1,937 2,007 1,915 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,445 1,501 1,453 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

595 615 566 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.3

35 to 44 years

429 475 457 2.8 2.7 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.9

45 to 54 years

422 411 430 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8

55 years and over

501 503 475 2.8 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

912 839 815 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7

Married women, spouse present(1)

787 831 824 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

529 523 492 5.1 4.7 5.1 6.0 5.1 4.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,684 4,742 4,640 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,276 1,251 1,098 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,474 2,906 2,227 2,796 2,664 2,736 2,798 2,876 2,572

On temporary layoff

507 863 428 812 869 801 836 817 731

Not on temporary layoff

1,967 2,042 1,799 1,984 1,795 1,935 1,963 2,059 1,841

Permanent job losers

1,238 1,389 1,269 1,257 1,289 1,358 1,361 1,397 1,308

Persons who completed temporary jobs

729 653 530 727 506 577 602 661 532

Job leavers

794 865 897 739 803 888 833 781 840

Reentrants

1,939 1,801 1,691 1,889 1,870 1,868 1,810 1,801 1,669

New entrants

559 631 650 588 599 541 595 574 677

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

42.9 46.8 40.7 46.5 44.9 45.3 46.4 47.7 44.7

On temporary layoff

8.8 13.9 7.8 13.5 14.6 13.3 13.8 13.6 12.7

Not on temporary layoff

34.1 32.9 32.9 33.0 30.2 32.1 32.5 34.1 32.0

Job leavers

13.8 13.9 16.4 12.3 13.5 14.7 13.8 12.9 14.6

Reentrants

33.6 29.0 30.9 31.4 31.5 31.0 30.0 29.9 29.0

New entrants

9.7 10.2 11.9 9.8 10.1 9.0 9.9 9.5 11.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.5 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,043 2,216 1,820 2,065 2,147 1,961 2,201 2,207 1,868

5 to 14 weeks

1,566 2,009 1,588 1,751 1,559 1,830 1,797 1,757 1,781

15 weeks and over

2,157 1,978 2,057 2,240 2,097 2,182 2,071 2,078 2,132

15 to 26 weeks

790 708 737 861 799 769 905 835 819

27 weeks and over

1,366 1,270 1,320 1,379 1,298 1,414 1,166 1,243 1,314

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.7 21.7 23.0 24.1 24.1 22.2 19.6 22.1 22.0

Median duration, in weeks

9.4 8.6 9.8 9.3 9.1 9.6 8.9 8.9 9.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

35.4 35.7 33.3 34.1 37.0 32.8 36.3 36.5 32.3

5 to 14 weeks

27.2 32.4 29.1 28.9 26.9 30.6 29.6 29.1 30.8

15 weeks and over

37.4 31.9 37.6 37.0 36.1 36.5 34.1 34.4 36.9

15 to 26 weeks

13.7 11.4 13.5 14.2 13.8 12.9 14.9 13.8 14.2

27 weeks and over

23.7 20.5 24.1 22.8 22.4 23.7 19.2 20.6 22.7

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,191 158,478 5,766 5,465 3.6 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,181 64,343 1,299 1,235 2.0 1.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,068 27,218 554 450 2.1 1.6

Professional and related occupations

36,112 37,124 745 786 2.0 2.1

Service occupations

26,606 27,303 1,207 1,068 4.3 3.8

Sales and office occupations

33,510 33,675 1,257 1,158 3.6 3.3

Sales and related occupations

15,609 15,733 656 581 4.0 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,901 17,942 600 577 3.2 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,855 14,534 582 489 3.8 3.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,180 1,149 52 63 4.2 5.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8,570 8,347 434 314 4.8 3.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,105 5,037 95 111 1.8 2.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,039 18,624 847 846 4.3 4.3

Production occupations

8,639 8,502 346 379 3.9 4.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,400 10,123 501 467 4.6 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,766 5,465 3.6 3.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,468 4,099 3.5 3.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

13 13 1.7 1.7

Construction

412 319 4.1 3.2

Manufacturing

547 530 3.5 3.4

Durable goods

305 266 3.1 2.7

Nondurable goods

242 263 4.3 4.5

Wholesale and retail trade

810 666 4.0 3.4

Transportation and utilities

189 235 2.6 3.2

Information

62 109 2.3 4.4

Financial activities

271 192 2.7 1.9

Professional and business services

557 585 3.2 3.2

Education and health services

666 557 2.8 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

722 678 5.4 4.8

Other services

219 215 3.3 3.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

71 68 4.1 4.0

Government workers

416 389 2.0 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

251 259 2.5 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.6 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.8 4.1 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.5 4.7 4.1 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.3

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.1 7.3 6.5 7.5 7.1 7.2 7.0 7.2 6.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,332 95,694 39,113 38,855 57,220 56,840

Persons who currently want a job

5,070 4,637 2,381 2,146 2,689 2,492

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,577 1,299 832 629 745 670

Discouraged workers(2)

383 321 223 171 160 151

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,194 978 608 458 585 519

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,670 8,331 3,736 3,901 3,934 4,430

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.3 4.5 4.7 5.4 5.9

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,200 4,787 2,253 2,353 1,946 2,435

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,050 2,114 736 725 1,315 1,389

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

331 279 201 211 130 67

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,044 1,115 519 593 525 522

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Change from:
Aug.2019 - Sept.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

149,793 151,169 151,587 151,949 149,575 151,418 151,586 151,722 136

Total private

127,333 129,883 129,930 129,312 127,081 128,845 128,967 129,081 114

Goods-producing

21,060 21,438 21,451 21,327 20,832 21,100 21,101 21,106 5

Mining and logging

754 762 760 754 745 751 746 746 0

Logging

48.7 48.7 50.3 49.9 47.4 47.4 48.6 48.4 -0.2

Mining

704.8 713.3 710.1 703.8 697.7 703.7 697.4 697.3 -0.1

Oil and gas extraction

146.0 161.6 164.0 161.4 145.8 159.3 161.0 161.3 0.3

Mining, except oil and gas

196.2 197.2 197.1 196.2 193.6 193.4 193.0 193.8 0.8

Coal mining

51.8 51.9 53.1 53.4 51.8 52.1 53.1 53.3 0.2

Metal ore mining

41.6 42.1 41.4 40.9 41.6 41.3 40.9 40.8 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

102.8 103.2 102.6 101.9 100.3 100.0 99.0 99.7 0.7

Support activities for mining

362.6 354.5 349.0 346.2 358.3 351.0 343.4 342.2 -1.2

Construction

7,534 7,751 7,756 7,689 7,354 7,499 7,503 7,510 7

Construction of buildings

1,663.8 1,699.6 1,707.5 1,687.8 1,640.9 1,658.8 1,667.2 1,666.1 -1.1

Residential building

822.4 856.3 864.2 853.6 810.8 836.8 843.9 844.4 0.5

Nonresidential building

841.4 843.3 843.3 834.2 830.1 822.0 823.3 821.7 -1.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,128.9 1,135.6 1,141.3 1,141.7 1,067.0 1,074.9 1,075.9 1,078.3 2.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,741.6 4,915.7 4,907.3 4,859.7 4,645.7 4,765.3 4,759.9 4,765.8 5.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,076.9 2,142.8 2,132.6 2,104.5 2,041.6 2,072.4 2,065.4 2,068.3 2.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,664.7 2,772.9 2,774.7 2,755.2 2,604.1 2,692.9 2,694.5 2,697.5 3.0

Manufacturing

12,772 12,925 12,935 12,884 12,733 12,850 12,852 12,850 -2

Durable goods

7,987 8,095 8,100 8,063 7,987 8,069 8,069 8,065 -4

Wood products

409.7 413.3 411.9 412.6 408.4 409.8 409.9 411.1 1.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

420.2 422.5 423.5 420.7 416.4 416.0 416.3 416.3 0.0

Primary metals

377.9 379.4 379.2 376.9 378.7 379.6 379.1 377.9 -1.2

Fabricated metal products

1,475.7 1,491.8 1,487.5 1,477.3 1,476.7 1,483.3 1,481.4 1,478.4 -3.0

Machinery

1,125.1 1,144.4 1,139.6 1,130.2 1,127.2 1,137.6 1,136.0 1,133.3 -2.7

Computer and electronic products

1,056.8 1,092.9 1,094.0 1,091.8 1,058.4 1,086.1 1,089.4 1,093.2 3.8

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.8 162.4 164.1 164.1 156.6 161.7 162.7 163.8 1.1

Communications equipment

84.9 86.2 86.6 86.0 85.0 85.8 86.5 86.2 -0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

369.1 382.9 381.4 380.0 369.9 379.8 380.0 380.9 0.9

Electronic instruments

411.9 427.9 427.9 426.8 413.1 425.3 426.4 427.9 1.5

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.1 33.5 34.0 34.9 33.8 33.6 33.8 34.4 0.6

Electrical equipment and appliances

403.0 407.1 405.4 403.4 402.4 403.8 403.6 402.6 -1.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,716.5 1,728.0 1,742.0 1,738.3 1,715.3 1,741.6 1,740.2 1,738.5 -1.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

998.8 976.3 992.3 987.6 998.7 994.0 992.7 988.6 -4.1

Furniture and related products

394.0 395.5 395.6 393.7 394.7 393.3 393.3 394.2 0.9

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

607.8 620.2 620.9 618.0 609.2 617.8 619.5 619.7 0.2

Nondurable goods

4,785 4,830 4,835 4,821 4,746 4,781 4,783 4,785 2

Food manufacturing

1,649.3 1,662.3 1,668.5 1,666.9 1,622.0 1,634.9 1,635.1 1,639.3 4.2

Textile mills

113.1 111.8 112.1 110.6 113.0 111.7 111.6 110.7 -0.9

Textile product mills

116.6 114.5 114.3 112.8 116.1 113.9 113.3 112.5 -0.8

Apparel

110.1 106.7 106.6 106.3 109.8 107.4 107.1 106.2 -0.9

Paper and paper products

368.9 371.7 370.9 369.1 369.1 370.3 369.9 369.3 -0.6

Printing and related support activities

430.3 422.0 421.6 419.8 429.9 420.4 420.1 419.2 -0.9

Petroleum and coal products

119.1 119.0 118.2 117.9 115.9 115.6 114.9 114.9 0.0

Chemicals

840.8 862.9 859.9 858.4 841.6 858.4 858.0 860.0 2.0

Plastics and rubber products

729.9 741.2 744.0 739.3 730.6 738.8 741.2 740.1 -1.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

306.5 317.7 319.1 319.8 298.4 309.8 311.7 312.3 0.6

Private service-providing

106,273 108,445 108,479 107,985 106,249 107,745 107,866 107,975 109

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,578 27,801 27,752 27,680 27,692 27,817 27,806 27,811 5

Wholesale trade

5,871.7 5,969.5 5,960.9 5,940.2 5,870.8 5,939.3 5,939.3 5,941.7 2.4

Durable goods

3,167.4 3,232.6 3,235.8 3,220.4 3,167.3 3,217.7 3,220.8 3,221.6 0.8

Nondurable goods

2,152.6 2,183.4 2,173.6 2,166.6 2,152.2 2,170.8 2,169.0 2,167.8 -1.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

551.7 553.5 551.5 553.2 551.3 550.8 549.5 552.3 2.8

Retail trade

15,680.6 15,785.9 15,749.5 15,611.3 15,804.3 15,760.8 15,754.8 15,743.4 -11.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,032.4 2,065.9 2,070.2 2,071.4 2,026.0 2,051.2 2,058.0 2,062.9 4.9

Automobile dealers

1,305.7 1,314.5 1,314.1 1,314.9 1,302.3 1,309.9 1,309.6 1,311.2 1.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

160.7 167.0 164.4 163.5 159.1 158.6 158.3 161.3 3.0

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

566.0 584.4 591.7 593.0 564.6 582.8 590.0 590.4 0.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.9 479.1 478.5 476.1 481.6 485.4 484.6 484.0 -0.6

Electronics and appliance stores

479.6 458.3 454.4 457.6 486.4 463.8 461.1 462.1 1.0

Building material and garden supply stores

1,277.8 1,342.5 1,316.5 1,293.5 1,301.6 1,307.6 1,315.9 1,316.2 0.3

Food and beverage stores

3,074.1 3,145.1 3,133.6 3,114.5 3,084.4 3,121.9 3,119.1 3,128.1 9.0

Health and personal care stores

1,051.0 1,037.0 1,035.0 1,030.9 1,061.0 1,043.3 1,043.1 1,041.2 -1.9

Gasoline stations

938.2 965.9 965.9 958.4 934.5 954.0 954.7 955.7 1.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,326.3 1,318.0 1,321.6 1,269.1 1,360.2 1,321.0 1,319.9 1,306.1 -13.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

555.8 546.2 558.6 550.2 565.8 558.4 562.4 558.2 -4.2

General merchandise stores

3,064.5 3,010.8 3,007.4 3,000.0 3,098.0 3,047.0 3,034.2 3,033.8 -0.4

Department stores

1,118.6 1,087.9 1,085.8 1,069.4 1,145.5 1,110.7 1,102.5 1,096.3 -6.2

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,945.9 1,922.9 1,921.6 1,930.6 1,952.5 1,936.3 1,931.7 1,937.5 5.8

Miscellaneous store retailers

833.2 844.7 835.7 823.2 828.5 831.2 827.4 823.7 -3.7

Nonstore retailers

572.8 572.4 572.1 566.4 576.3 576.0 574.4 571.4 -3.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,474.2 5,487.0 5,486.8 5,579.7 5,464.2 5,562.9 5,558.8 5,574.5 15.7

Air transportation

503.9 523.9 520.1 517.6 503.2 519.5 517.3 517.6 0.3

Rail transportation

215.8 205.1 203.0 203.0 215.4 205.1 202.9 202.9 0.0

Water transportation

65.8 67.5 68.0 65.9 64.7 64.6 65.1 64.8 -0.3

Truck transportation

1,518.9 1,538.8 1,537.5 1,527.5 1,500.9 1,520.6 1,515.5 1,511.3 -4.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

501.4 421.7 423.7 510.8 488.2 483.4 485.4 495.9 10.5

Pipeline transportation

48.6 48.4 47.8 47.7 48.5 48.0 47.7 47.6 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

39.5 45.9 45.2 40.3 33.3 34.6 34.6 34.3 -0.3

Support activities for transportation

714.1 724.1 721.4 722.9 713.9 723.3 720.5 723.3 2.8

Couriers and messengers

709.6 727.7 734.9 748.0 735.8 769.6 773.9 777.5 3.6

Warehousing and storage

1,156.6 1,183.9 1,185.2 1,196.0 1,160.3 1,194.2 1,195.9 1,199.3 3.4

Utilities

551.6 558.6 554.7 549.2 553.1 553.8 552.9 551.1 -1.8

Information

2,815 2,845 2,854 2,837 2,822 2,826 2,828 2,837 9

Publishing industries, except Internet

736.0 746.8 747.3 746.7 733.3 742.6 742.8 743.8 1.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

427.5 442.0 443.3 431.2 437.0 431.3 429.1 435.4 6.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

272.0 266.7 266.8 268.8 270.2 268.4 267.7 267.5 -0.2

Telecommunications

740.4 712.1 713.9 712.6 739.6 711.6 712.5 711.4 -1.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

329.3 338.1 339.0 336.9 330.3 336.0 336.8 337.3 0.5

Other information services

310.1 339.0 343.3 340.5 311.5 336.4 339.5 341.7 2.2

Financial activities

8,599 8,761 8,762 8,699 8,597 8,678 8,693 8,696 3

Finance and insurance

6,313.7 6,388.2 6,386.8 6,357.2 6,323.2 6,353.7 6,361.2 6,365.0 3.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.5 19.7 19.6 19.4 19.7 19.4 19.5 19.5 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,644.6 2,649.3 2,650.7 2,639.4 2,649.1 2,633.5 2,638.5 2,641.6 3.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,708.2 1,721.2 1,720.1 1,709.7 1,715.2 1,711.0 1,713.9 1,716.2 2.3

Commercial banking

1,312.4 1,315.9 1,314.1 1,305.2 1,318.3 1,308.4 1,310.2 1,310.8 0.6

Nondepository credit intermediation

627.8 621.9 624.8 625.5 624.8 618.0 619.3 620.8 1.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

308.6 306.2 305.8 304.2 309.1 304.5 305.3 304.6 -0.7

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

959.4 988.7 984.2 971.4 960.3 977.7 974.7 973.5 -1.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,690.2 2,730.5 2,732.3 2,727.0 2,694.1 2,723.1 2,728.5 2,730.4 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,285.0 2,373.0 2,375.3 2,342.1 2,273.8 2,324.4 2,331.8 2,330.9 -0.9

Real estate

1,675.2 1,736.3 1,741.1 1,716.5 1,672.9 1,710.5 1,716.8 1,714.1 -2.7

Rental and leasing services

586.5 613.3 610.6 602.4 577.5 591.0 591.9 593.6 1.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.3 23.4 23.6 23.2 23.4 22.9 23.1 23.2 0.1

Professional and business services

21,193 21,604 21,673 21,639 21,128 21,488 21,531 21,565 34

Professional and technical services

9,270.9 9,634.9 9,626.1 9,556.2 9,355.6 9,614.8 9,629.7 9,642.5 12.8

Legal services

1,136.3 1,154.8 1,148.3 1,141.8 1,142.3 1,144.5 1,148.1 1,147.2 -0.9

Accounting and bookkeeping services

956.3 1,006.4 1,003.0 995.3 1,019.9 1,060.3 1,057.5 1,059.4 1.9

Architectural and engineering services

1,485.0 1,544.1 1,540.2 1,526.1 1,483.0 1,520.2 1,521.2 1,524.2 3.0

Specialized design services

145.7 148.9 148.7 150.4 145.7 149.3 149.2 150.3 1.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,123.5 2,236.4 2,240.4 2,216.0 2,134.6 2,220.7 2,228.7 2,228.6 -0.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,494.5 1,541.4 1,547.7 1,544.8 1,496.1 1,534.7 1,540.1 1,545.7 5.6

Scientific research and development services

695.8 741.4 739.4 732.3 699.3 730.3 733.1 736.0 2.9

Advertising and related services

489.4 492.9 491.2 488.0 490.3 490.2 489.1 489.3 0.2

Other professional and technical services

744.4 768.6 767.2 761.5 744.4 764.6 762.7 761.8 -0.9

Management of companies and enterprises

2,382.0 2,440.1 2,438.6 2,430.1 2,387.5 2,421.0 2,428.7 2,434.3 5.6

Administrative and waste services

9,540.1 9,528.9 9,608.2 9,652.3 9,384.8 9,452.0 9,472.8 9,488.3 15.5

Administrative and support services

9,095.3 9,063.0 9,140.0 9,186.3 8,942.5 8,994.3 9,011.1 9,025.2 14.1

Office administrative services

516.9 533.7 533.3 531.1 517.8 531.4 531.6 531.7 0.1

Facilities support services

155.5 156.8 159.0 158.3 154.1 157.0 157.5 156.9 -0.6

Employment services(1)

3,771.2 3,652.3 3,733.5 3,805.9 3,701.2 3,704.5 3,718.9 3,730.7 11.8

Temporary help services

3,091.7 2,965.9 3,040.0 3,109.2 3,030.7 3,018.9 3,033.4 3,043.6 10.2

Business support services

899.5 879.3 876.9 881.6 900.3 893.1 887.5 883.1 -4.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

220.8 218.4 219.9 216.8 219.9 215.3 217.0 215.5 -1.5

Investigation and security services

958.2 954.7 960.6 962.4 949.0 953.9 954.7 953.8 -0.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,239.8 2,328.7 2,316.4 2,283.5 2,168.5 2,201.0 2,204.7 2,210.3 5.6

Other support services

333.4 339.1 340.4 346.7 331.8 338.1 339.3 343.1 3.8

Waste management and remediation services

444.8 465.9 468.2 466.0 442.3 457.7 461.7 463.1 1.4

Education and health services

23,696 23,950 24,065 24,322 23,779 24,300 24,356 24,396 40

Educational services

3,706.4 3,495.3 3,524.2 3,783.5 3,749.1 3,817.0 3,821.3 3,820.0 -1.3

Health care and social assistance

19,989.9 20,455.1 20,540.5 20,538.5 20,029.9 20,483.4 20,534.8 20,576.2 41.4

Health care(3)

16,052.7 16,432.2 16,479.4 16,476.9 16,069.7 16,416.3 16,453.5 16,492.3 38.8

Ambulatory health care services

7,522.6 7,771.1 7,800.9 7,808.3 7,536.7 7,773.5 7,794.7 7,823.4 28.7

Offices of physicians

2,622.1 2,690.0 2,693.7 2,692.0 2,627.2 2,688.2 2,693.2 2,698.4 5.2

Offices of dentists

957.9 984.4 991.2 985.2 959.5 985.2 987.9 988.8 0.9

Offices of other health practitioners

931.7 972.2 976.1 978.3 937.0 973.1 973.8 983.3 9.5

Outpatient care centers

937.2 973.3 974.9 977.4 939.7 973.5 975.9 980.7 4.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

282.0 292.4 293.5 295.1 281.5 291.9 293.8 294.5 0.7

Home health care services

1,483.2 1,545.9 1,557.9 1,562.5 1,482.7 1,548.7 1,555.7 1,561.4 5.7

Other ambulatory health care services

308.5 312.9 313.6 317.8 309.1 312.9 314.4 316.3 1.9

Hospitals

5,165.3 5,248.7 5,262.1 5,268.1 5,165.5 5,244.9 5,258.9 5,267.0 8.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,364.8 3,412.4 3,416.4 3,400.5 3,367.5 3,397.9 3,399.9 3,401.9 2.0

Nursing care facilities

1,605.9 1,613.4 1,616.1 1,610.4 1,605.4 1,608.8 1,608.6 1,609.7 1.1

Residential mental health facilities

644.9 657.2 656.2 652.6 646.4 654.2 654.1 654.0 -0.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

947.2 970.5 972.6 966.0 948.8 965.5 967.2 966.9 -0.3

Other residential care facilities

166.8 171.3 171.5 171.5 166.9 169.4 170.0 171.3 1.3

Social assistance

3,937.2 4,022.9 4,061.1 4,061.6 3,960.2 4,067.1 4,081.3 4,083.9 2.6

Individual and family services

2,466.2 2,572.7 2,586.8 2,566.8 2,485.1 2,566.9 2,583.7 2,584.7 1.0

Emergency and other relief services

175.2 178.6 178.0 178.1 176.0 178.5 178.1 178.6 0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

329.6 332.2 329.8 327.1 330.6 326.5 326.1 327.9 1.8

Child day care services

966.2 939.4 966.5 989.6 968.4 995.2 993.4 992.6 -0.8

Leisure and hospitality

16,546 17,463 17,380 16,872 16,371 16,690 16,699 16,720 21

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,451.4 2,821.5 2,745.2 2,521.5 2,405.9 2,452.6 2,454.2 2,474.3 20.1

Performing arts and spectator sports

522.8 542.2 540.2 536.6 512.6 515.2 516.9 523.4 6.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

173.1 193.3 187.7 177.3 170.8 174.7 175.1 175.3 0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,755.5 2,086.0 2,017.3 1,807.6 1,722.5 1,762.7 1,762.2 1,775.6 13.4

Accommodation and food services

14,094.9 14,641.7 14,635.1 14,350.7 13,964.6 14,237.5 14,244.5 14,245.5 1.0

Accommodation

2,077.0 2,212.1 2,196.5 2,093.3 2,034.6 2,051.7 2,052.9 2,052.4 -0.5

Food services and drinking places

12,017.9 12,429.6 12,438.6 12,257.4 11,930.0 12,185.8 12,191.6 12,193.1 1.5

Other services

5,846 6,021 5,993 5,936 5,860 5,946 5,953 5,950 -3

Repair and maintenance

1,333.2 1,372.2 1,370.4 1,366.8 1,334.1 1,364.8 1,367.1 1,366.6 -0.5

Personal and laundry services

1,517.0 1,542.8 1,539.8 1,535.5 1,518.2 1,533.0 1,534.1 1,536.5 2.4

Membership associations and organizations

2,995.9 3,106.1 3,082.7 3,033.4 3,007.2 3,048.6 3,051.6 3,046.8 -4.8

Government

22,460 21,286 21,657 22,637 22,494 22,573 22,619 22,641 22

Federal

2,801.0 2,836.0 2,859.0 2,846.0 2,797.0 2,817.0 2,845.0 2,843.0 -2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,196.7 2,228.2 2,253.8 2,243.1 2,190.9 2,209.8 2,238.0 2,236.2 -1.8

U.S. Postal Service

604.6 607.3 604.7 603.3 605.6 607.5 607.2 606.3 -0.9

State government

5,250.0 4,843.0 4,923.0 5,271.0 5,204.0 5,182.0 5,193.0 5,203.0 10.0

State government education

2,553.1 2,123.8 2,198.8 2,557.2 2,508.4 2,479.5 2,486.7 2,491.7 5.0

State government, excluding education

2,696.5 2,718.9 2,724.0 2,713.7 2,695.2 2,702.1 2,706.1 2,710.8 4.7

Local government

14,409.0 13,607.0 13,875.0 14,520.0 14,493.0 14,574.0 14,581.0 14,595.0 14.0

Local government education

7,899.9 6,792.6 7,130.0 7,960.0 7,976.4 8,007.5 8,018.8 8,025.2 6.4

Local government, excluding education

6,509.5 6,814.7 6,745.0 6,559.7 6,517.0 6,566.7 6,561.9 6,569.5 7.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.4 40.2 40.3 40.5

Mining and logging

46.0 46.3 46.3 46.2

Construction

39.1 39.1 39.4 39.8

Manufacturing

40.9 40.4 40.5 40.5

Durable goods

41.3 40.9 41.0 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.3 39.6 39.8 39.8

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.1 34.1 34.2

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

30.9 30.6 30.6 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.3 38.3 38.4

Utilities

42.2 42.0 42.4 42.1

Information

36.3 36.0 36.4 36.5

Financial activities

37.5 37.5 37.7 37.4

Professional and business services

36.1 36.1 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 33.0 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 25.8 25.9 25.9

Other services

31.8 31.8 31.8 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.3 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

3.5 3.3 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

Total private

$27.30 $27.99 $28.10 $28.09 $941.85 $960.06 $966.64 $966.30

Goods-producing

28.40 29.05 29.12 29.15 1,147.36 1,167.81 1,173.54 1,180.58

Mining and logging

32.94 34.23 34.02 34.17 1,515.24 1,584.85 1,575.13 1,578.65

Construction

30.15 30.71 30.82 30.81 1,178.87 1,200.76 1,214.31 1,226.24

Manufacturing

27.14 27.77 27.84 27.86 1,110.03 1,121.91 1,127.52 1,128.33

Durable goods

28.55 29.21 29.28 29.30 1,179.12 1,194.69 1,200.48 1,198.37

Nondurable goods

24.70 25.25 25.32 25.36 995.41 999.90 1,007.74 1,009.33

Private service-providing

27.03 27.74 27.86 27.84 900.10 920.97 924.95 924.29

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.51 24.29 24.38 24.38 808.74 828.29 831.36 833.80

Wholesale trade

30.70 31.42 31.65 31.53 1,197.30 1,219.10 1,231.19 1,226.52

Retail trade

18.92 19.73 19.78 19.82 584.63 603.74 605.27 608.47

Transportation and warehousing

24.38 25.00 24.98 25.06 950.82 957.50 956.73 962.30

Utilities

41.06 41.62 42.02 41.87 1,732.73 1,748.04 1,781.65 1,762.73

Information

40.50 42.05 42.52 42.00 1,470.15 1,513.80 1,547.73 1,533.00

Financial activities

35.02 35.95 36.17 36.10 1,313.25 1,348.13 1,363.61 1,350.14

Professional and business services

32.82 33.69 33.80 33.86 1,184.80 1,216.21 1,223.56 1,222.35

Education and health services

27.15 27.58 27.65 27.60 893.24 910.14 912.45 908.04

Leisure and hospitality

16.08 16.58 16.62 16.68 418.08 427.76 430.46 432.01

Other services

24.68 25.00 25.08 25.15 784.82 795.00 797.54 797.26

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2019 - Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2019 - Sept.
2019(p)

Total private

110.0 110.9 111.4 111.5 0.1 143.6 148.4 149.6 149.7 0.1

Goods-producing

95.9 96.6 96.9 97.4 0.5 123.1 126.9 127.5 128.3 0.6

Mining and logging

107.7 109.3 108.5 108.3 -0.2 142.4 150.2 148.2 148.6 0.3

Construction

99.1 101.1 101.9 103.0 1.1 129.8 134.9 136.5 137.9 1.0

Manufacturing

93.7 93.4 93.6 93.6 0.0 118.3 120.6 121.2 121.3 0.1

Durable goods

92.9 92.9 93.1 92.9 -0.2 117.8 120.5 121.1 120.8 -0.2

Nondurable goods

95.5 94.5 95.0 95.1 0.1 119.7 121.1 122.1 122.3 0.2

Private service-providing

113.8 115.1 115.2 115.3 0.1 149.5 155.1 156.0 156.0 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.9 103.4 103.4 103.7 0.3 131.6 135.4 135.9 136.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

101.0 101.7 101.9 102.0 0.1 129.7 133.6 134.9 134.5 -0.3

Retail trade

99.2 97.9 97.9 98.1 0.2 124.0 127.7 128.0 128.6 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

121.8 121.8 121.7 122.4 0.6 150.6 154.4 154.2 155.5 0.8

Utilities

101.0 100.6 101.4 100.4 -1.0 137.0 138.4 140.8 138.9 -1.3

Information

93.6 92.9 94.0 94.6 0.6 134.9 139.1 142.3 141.4 -0.6

Financial activities

105.6 106.6 107.3 106.5 -0.7 144.2 149.4 151.4 150.0 -0.9

Professional and business services

119.6 121.6 122.2 122.1 -0.1 158.9 165.9 167.3 167.4 0.1

Education and health services

127.7 130.9 131.2 131.1 -0.1 166.9 173.7 174.6 174.0 -0.3

Leisure and hospitality

121.4 122.9 123.4 123.6 0.2 157.6 164.3 165.5 166.3 0.5

Other services

107.4 109.0 109.1 108.8 -0.3 145.3 149.4 150.0 149.9 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

74,329 75,549 75,666 75,785 49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

61,364 62,505 62,595 62,706 48.3 48.5 48.5 48.6

Goods-producing

4,619 4,727 4,732 4,747 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.5

Mining and logging

93 100 100 102 12.5 13.3 13.4 13.7

Construction

945 976 976 976 12.9 13.0 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,581 3,651 3,656 3,669 28.1 28.4 28.4 28.6

Durable goods

1,900 1,946 1,951 1,956 23.8 24.1 24.2 24.3

Nondurable goods

1,681 1,705 1,705 1,713 35.4 35.7 35.6 35.8

Private service-providing

56,745 57,778 57,863 57,959 53.4 53.6 53.6 53.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,105 11,158 11,152 11,163 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,755.8 1,791.0 1,788.3 1,797.3 29.9 30.2 30.1 30.2

Retail trade

7,858.7 7,814.5 7,805.7 7,800.1 49.7 49.6 49.5 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,361.5 1,418.8 1,424.8 1,433.1 24.9 25.5 25.6 25.7

Utilities

129.1 133.2 132.8 132.2 23.3 24.1 24.0 24.0

Information

1,114 1,127 1,132 1,131 39.5 39.9 40.0 39.9

Financial activities

4,859 4,902 4,904 4,904 56.5 56.5 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,570 9,792 9,816 9,836 45.3 45.6 45.6 45.6

Education and health services

18,346 18,772 18,824 18,861 77.2 77.3 77.3 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,632 8,854 8,857 8,890 52.7 53.0 53.0 53.2

Other services

3,119 3,173 3,178 3,174 53.2 53.4 53.4 53.3

Government

12,965 13,044 13,071 13,079 57.6 57.8 57.8 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

Total private

104,660 106,055 106,146 106,182

Goods-producing

14,950 15,103 15,104 15,098

Mining and logging

552 549 543 539

Construction

5,475 5,586 5,591 5,598

Manufacturing

8,923 8,968 8,970 8,961

Durable goods

5,493 5,546 5,551 5,540

Nondurable goods

3,430 3,422 3,419 3,421

Private service-providing

89,710 90,952 91,042 91,084

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,433 23,535 23,526 23,522

Wholesale trade

4,712.4 4,766.2 4,767.7 4,769.0

Retail trade

13,508.3 13,455.4 13,442.1 13,433.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,768.7 4,869.9 4,872.0 4,876.7

Utilities

443.5 443.8 444.0 443.1

Information

2,272 2,279 2,285 2,291

Financial activities

6,659 6,712 6,725 6,717

Professional and business services

17,234 17,480 17,506 17,526

Education and health services

20,883 21,347 21,398 21,422

Leisure and hospitality

14,375 14,677 14,678 14,686

Other services

4,854 4,922 4,924 4,920

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.5 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.4 41.0 41.2 41.2

Mining and logging

46.4 47.3 47.2 47.0

Construction

39.6 39.6 40.0 40.2

Manufacturing

42.1 41.5 41.5 41.5

Durable goods

42.4 41.9 41.9 42.0

Nondurable goods

41.7 40.9 40.9 40.8

Private service-providing

32.4 32.3 32.4 32.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.7 33.8 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.6 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.4 30.2 30.3 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 37.7 37.8 37.9

Utilities

42.7 42.0 42.7 42.1

Information

35.7 35.1 35.2 35.5

Financial activities

37.0 36.7 36.8 36.8

Professional and business services

35.3 35.4 35.6 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 24.6 24.6 24.6

Other services

30.8 30.7 30.8 30.6

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.6 4.2 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.1 4.2 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.86 $23.51 $23.61 $23.65 $770.38 $787.59 $793.30 $794.64

Goods-producing

24.13 24.74 24.82 24.86 998.98 1,014.34 1,022.58 1,024.23

Mining and logging

28.87 29.84 30.24 30.45 1,339.57 1,411.43 1,427.33 1,431.15

Construction

27.94 28.43 28.55 28.58 1,106.42 1,125.83 1,142.00 1,148.92

Manufacturing

21.62 22.19 22.21 22.24 910.20 920.89 921.72 922.96

Durable goods

22.61 23.09 23.09 23.14 958.66 967.47 967.47 971.88

Nondurable goods

20.00 20.69 20.74 20.72 834.00 846.22 848.27 845.38

Private service-providing

22.58 23.25 23.36 23.40 731.59 750.98 756.86 755.82

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.06 20.68 20.80 20.80 680.03 696.92 703.04 705.12

Wholesale trade

25.48 26.07 26.33 26.21 991.17 1,006.30 1,018.97 1,014.33

Retail trade

16.02 16.63 16.72 16.79 487.01 502.23 506.62 510.42

Transportation and warehousing

21.93 22.60 22.60 22.61 839.92 852.02 854.28 856.92

Utilities

37.02 36.78 37.02 36.95 1,580.75 1,544.76 1,580.75 1,555.60

Information

32.27 33.64 34.00 34.16 1,152.04 1,180.76 1,196.80 1,212.68

Financial activities

26.98 27.73 27.81 27.82 998.26 1,017.69 1,023.41 1,023.78

Professional and business services

26.96 27.81 27.94 28.02 951.69 984.47 994.66 991.91

Education and health services

23.75 24.34 24.39 24.45 764.75 783.75 785.36 784.85

Leisure and hospitality

13.99 14.48 14.55 14.61 345.55 356.21 357.93 359.41

Other services

20.89 21.17 21.27 21.31 643.41 649.92 655.12 652.09

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2019 - Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019(p)
Sept.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2019 - Sept.
2019(p)

Total private

117.5 118.4 118.8 118.9 0.1 179.5 186.0 187.5 187.9 0.2

Goods-producing

94.6 94.6 95.1 95.1 0.0 139.7 143.3 144.5 144.7 0.1

Mining and logging

136.1 138.0 136.2 134.6 -1.2 228.5 239.5 239.5 238.4 -0.5

Construction

108.6 110.8 112.0 112.7 0.6 163.8 170.0 172.6 173.9 0.8

Manufacturing

86.2 85.4 85.5 85.4 -0.1 121.9 124.0 124.1 124.2 0.1

Durable goods

87.5 87.3 87.4 87.4 0.0 123.5 125.8 126.0 126.3 0.2

Nondurable goods

84.3 82.5 82.4 82.2 -0.2 119.1 120.6 120.8 120.4 -0.3

Private service-providing

123.8 125.1 125.6 125.3 -0.2 191.7 199.5 201.2 201.1 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.9 110.8 111.0 111.4 0.4 158.9 163.5 164.9 165.4 0.3

Wholesale trade

108.8 109.2 109.5 109.5 0.0 163.6 168.0 170.2 169.4 -0.5

Retail trade

103.9 102.8 103.1 103.3 0.2 142.7 146.5 147.7 148.7 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

137.4 138.1 138.5 139.0 0.4 191.1 197.9 198.5 199.3 0.4

Utilities

96.8 95.3 97.0 95.4 -1.6 149.6 146.3 149.8 147.1 -1.8

Information

92.6 91.3 91.8 92.8 1.1 147.9 152.0 154.5 157.0 1.6

Financial activities

116.0 116.0 116.5 116.4 -0.1 192.5 197.8 199.3 199.2 -0.1

Professional and business services

136.0 138.4 139.3 138.7 -0.4 218.1 228.8 231.5 231.1 -0.2

Education and health services

143.4 146.6 146.9 146.6 -0.2 224.7 235.4 236.5 236.6 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

130.1 132.3 132.3 132.3 0.0 206.6 217.5 218.5 219.6 0.5

Other services

104.8 106.0 106.4 105.6 -0.8 159.6 163.5 164.8 163.9 -0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: October 04, 2019