Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until           USDL-18-0683
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 4, 2018.

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:      (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 164,000 in April, and the unemployment
rate edged down to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Job gains occurred in professional and business services, manufacturing, health care,
and mining.

Household Survey Data

In April, the unemployment rate edged down to 3.9 percent, following 6 months at 4.1
percent. The number of unemployed persons, at 6.3 million, also edged down over the
month. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult women decreased to
3.5 percent in April. The jobless rates for adult men (3.7 percent), teenagers
(12.9 percent), Whites (3.6 percent), Blacks (6.6 percent), Asians (2.8 percent),
and Hispanics (4.8 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of job losers and persons who completed temporary
jobs declined by 188,000 in April to 3.0 million. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed at 1.3 million in April and accounted for 20.0 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed was down by 340,000. (See
table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.8 percent, and the employment-
population ratio, at 60.3 percent, changed little in April. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred
to as involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged at 5.0 million in
April. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were
working part time because their hours had been reduced or because they were unable
to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In April, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down
by 172,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as
unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 408,000 discouraged workers in April,
little changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons 
marginally attached to the labor force in April had not searched for work for
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 164,000 in April, compared with an
average monthly gain of 191,000 over the prior 12 months. In April, job gains
occurred in professional and business services, manufacturing, health care, and
mining. (See table B-1.)

In April, employment in professional and business services increased by 54,000. Over
the past 12 months, the industry has added 518,000 jobs.

Employment in manufacturing increased by 24,000 in April. Most of the gain was in
the durable goods component, with machinery adding 8,000 jobs and employment in
fabricated metal products continuing to trend up (+4,000). Manufacturing employment
has risen by 245,000 over the year, with about three-fourths of the growth in durable
goods industries.

Health care added 24,000 jobs in April and 305,000 jobs over the year. In April,
employment rose in ambulatory health care services (+17,000) and hospitals (+8,000).

In April, employment in mining increased by 8,000, with most of the gain occurring
in support activities for mining (+7,000). Since a recent low in October 2016,
employment in mining has risen by 86,000.

Employment changed little over the month in other major industries, including
construction, wholesale trade, retail trade, transportation and warehousing,
information, financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and government.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.5 hours in April. In manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.2 hour to 41.1
hours, while overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.7 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by
0.1 hour to 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 4 cents to $26.84. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by
67 cents, or 2.6 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 5 cents to $22.51 in April. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised down from
+326,000 to +324,000, and the change for March was revised up from +103,000 to
+135,000. With these revisions, employment gains in February and March combined were
30,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job
gains have averaged 208,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 1, 2018,
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Change from:
Mar.
2018-
Apr.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,588 256,934 257,097 257,272 175

Civilian labor force

160,181 161,921 161,763 161,527 -236

Participation rate

62.9 63.0 62.9 62.8 -0.1

Employed

153,161 155,215 155,178 155,181 3

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.4 60.3 -0.1

Unemployed

7,021 6,706 6,585 6,346 -239

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.1 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Not in labor force

94,407 95,012 95,335 95,745 410

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.4 4.1 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.7 14.4 13.5 12.9 -0.6

White

3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6 0.0

Black or African American

7.9 6.9 6.9 6.6 -0.3

Asian

3.2 2.9 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.2 4.9 5.1 4.8 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

6.5 5.7 5.5 5.9 0.4

High school graduates, no college

4.6 4.4 4.3 4.3 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,538 3,279 3,146 2,958 -188

Job leavers

785 780 864 815 -49

Reentrants

2,044 1,948 1,967 2,009 42

New entrants

707 704 625 623 -2

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,300 2,508 2,287 2,115 -172

5 to 14 weeks

2,140 1,906 2,009 2,017 8

15 to 26 weeks

1,087 934 880 1,036 156

27 weeks and over

1,633 1,397 1,322 1,293 -29

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,309 5,160 5,019 4,985 -34

Slack work or business conditions

3,183 3,302 3,005 2,994 -11

Could only find part-time work

1,787 1,541 1,625 1,586 -39

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,406 21,061 21,399 21,258 -141

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,534 1,602 1,454 1,362 -

Discouraged workers

455 373 450 408 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

175 324 135 164

Total private

174 321 135 168

Goods-producing

16 107 20 49

Mining and logging

11 9 8 8

Construction

-5 67 -10 17

Manufacturing

10 31 22 24

Durable goods(1)

4 26 21 18

Motor vehicles and parts

-0.2 4.4 0.5 -0.9

Nondurable goods

6 5 1 6

Private service-providing

158 214 115 119

Wholesale trade

5.6 3.4 10.3 -9.8

Retail trade

-4.2 46.0 6.2 1.8

Transportation and warehousing

3.0 17.8 15.7 0.4

Utilities

-0.6 1.4 -0.3 1.0

Information

-11 -1 6 7

Financial activities

13 29 4 2

Professional and business services(1)

50 61 39 54

Temporary help services

5.5 22.2 -2.1 10.3

Education and health services(1)

46 32 24 31

Health care and social assistance

44.0 43.8 32.0 29.3

Leisure and hospitality

49 18 8 18

Other services

7 7 2 14

Government

1 3 0 -4

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

149 225 212 208

Total private

149 228 215 208

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.1 48.2 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.17 $26.74 $26.80 $26.84

Average weekly earnings

$900.25 $922.53 $924.60 $925.98

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

106.9 108.9 109.1 109.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.6 0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

133.8 139.3 139.7 140.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.7 0.7 0.3 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

60.5 70.2 64.1 57.6

Manufacturing (76 industries)

54.6 72.4 64.5 53.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,588 257,097 257,272 254,588 256,109 256,780 256,934 257,097 257,272

Civilian labor force

159,817 161,548 161,280 160,181 160,597 161,115 161,921 161,763 161,527

Participation rate

62.8 62.8 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.9 62.8

Employed

153,262 154,877 155,348 153,161 154,021 154,430 155,215 155,178 155,181

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.2 60.4 60.2 60.1 60.1 60.4 60.4 60.3

Unemployed

6,555 6,671 5,932 7,021 6,576 6,684 6,706 6,585 6,346

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 3.7 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

94,771 95,549 95,992 94,407 95,512 95,665 95,012 95,335 95,745

Persons who currently want a job

5,560 4,793 5,010 5,665 5,308 5,171 5,131 5,096 5,115

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,032 124,331 124,418 123,032 123,786 124,173 124,250 124,331 124,418

Civilian labor force

84,851 85,924 85,965 85,124 85,354 85,931 86,267 86,169 86,152

Participation rate

69.0 69.1 69.1 69.2 69.0 69.2 69.4 69.3 69.2

Employed

81,341 82,151 82,610 81,406 81,821 82,274 82,685 82,630 82,611

Employment-population ratio

66.1 66.1 66.4 66.2 66.1 66.3 66.5 66.5 66.4

Unemployed

3,509 3,773 3,355 3,718 3,533 3,658 3,582 3,539 3,541

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.4 3.9 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1

Not in labor force

38,181 38,407 38,453 37,907 38,432 38,242 37,983 38,162 38,266

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,538 115,832 115,921 114,538 115,292 115,669 115,748 115,832 115,921

Civilian labor force

82,019 83,162 83,225 82,054 82,548 82,928 83,309 83,200 83,199

Participation rate

71.6 71.8 71.8 71.6 71.6 71.7 72.0 71.8 71.8

Employed

78,922 79,810 80,242 78,839 79,431 79,705 80,213 80,113 80,111

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.9 69.2 68.8 68.9 68.9 69.3 69.2 69.1

Unemployed

3,096 3,352 2,983 3,215 3,117 3,223 3,096 3,087 3,088

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

32,519 32,670 32,697 32,484 32,745 32,741 32,440 32,632 32,723

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,556 132,766 132,853 131,556 132,323 132,607 132,684 132,766 132,853

Civilian labor force

74,967 75,624 75,314 75,057 75,243 75,183 75,654 75,594 75,375

Participation rate

57.0 57.0 56.7 57.1 56.9 56.7 57.0 56.9 56.7

Employed

71,921 72,726 72,738 71,754 72,200 72,157 72,530 72,548 72,569

Employment-population ratio

54.7 54.8 54.8 54.5 54.6 54.4 54.7 54.6 54.6

Unemployed

3,046 2,898 2,576 3,303 3,043 3,027 3,124 3,046 2,805

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 3.4 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

56,590 57,142 57,539 56,499 57,080 57,423 57,030 57,172 57,479

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,296 124,491 124,579 123,296 124,057 124,328 124,407 124,491 124,579

Civilian labor force

72,181 72,780 72,573 72,144 72,293 72,210 72,565 72,610 72,498

Participation rate

58.5 58.5 58.3 58.5 58.3 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.2

Employed

69,474 70,178 70,266 69,218 69,614 69,583 69,828 69,916 69,992

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.4 56.4 56.1 56.1 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.2

Unemployed

2,707 2,602 2,307 2,927 2,679 2,627 2,737 2,695 2,506

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.2 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

51,116 51,711 52,006 51,152 51,764 52,118 51,842 51,880 52,081

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,754 16,774 16,771 16,754 16,760 16,783 16,778 16,774 16,771

Civilian labor force

5,618 5,606 5,482 5,983 5,757 5,977 6,048 5,952 5,831

Participation rate

33.5 33.4 32.7 35.7 34.4 35.6 36.0 35.5 34.8

Employed

4,866 4,889 4,840 5,104 4,977 5,143 5,174 5,149 5,078

Employment-population ratio

29.0 29.1 28.9 30.5 29.7 30.6 30.8 30.7 30.3

Unemployed

752 717 642 879 780 834 874 803 752

Unemployment rate

13.4 12.8 11.7 14.7 13.6 13.9 14.4 13.5 12.9

Not in labor force

11,136 11,169 11,290 10,771 11,003 10,806 10,731 10,822 10,941

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,685 199,871 199,950 198,685 199,458 199,738 199,799 199,871 199,950

Civilian labor force

124,676 125,508 125,488 124,972 125,200 125,334 125,930 125,714 125,731

Participation rate

62.8 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.7 63.0 62.9 62.9

Employed

120,214 120,946 121,358 120,141 120,551 120,886 121,274 121,236 121,233

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.5 60.7 60.5 60.4 60.5 60.7 60.7 60.6

Unemployed

4,462 4,562 4,130 4,831 4,649 4,447 4,656 4,478 4,498

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.6 3.3 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

74,009 74,363 74,462 73,713 74,258 74,405 73,869 74,157 74,219

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,263 65,889 65,988 65,299 65,511 65,732 65,948 65,928 65,982

Participation rate

71.9 72.0 72.1 71.9 71.8 71.9 72.1 72.1 72.1

Employed

63,103 63,507 63,848 63,047 63,307 63,510 63,683 63,734 63,746

Employment-population ratio

69.5 69.4 69.8 69.4 69.4 69.5 69.6 69.7 69.7

Unemployed

2,160 2,382 2,140 2,252 2,204 2,222 2,265 2,194 2,235

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,066 55,271 55,210 55,034 55,161 54,896 55,243 55,176 55,179

Participation rate

57.6 57.5 57.4 57.6 57.5 57.2 57.5 57.4 57.4

Employed

53,269 53,543 53,641 53,060 53,275 53,255 53,448 53,385 53,429

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.7 55.8 55.5 55.5 55.5 55.7 55.6 55.6

Unemployed

1,798 1,727 1,568 1,974 1,886 1,641 1,795 1,791 1,750

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 2.8 3.6 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,346 4,348 4,290 4,638 4,528 4,705 4,738 4,610 4,570

Participation rate

35.2 35.3 34.8 37.6 36.7 38.1 38.4 37.4 37.1

Employed

3,842 3,895 3,868 4,034 3,970 4,121 4,143 4,117 4,057

Employment-population ratio

31.1 31.6 31.4 32.7 32.2 33.4 33.6 33.4 32.9

Unemployed

504 453 421 605 559 584 595 492 512

Unemployment rate

11.6 10.4 9.8 13.0 12.3 12.4 12.6 10.7 11.2

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,161 32,638 32,672 32,161 32,436 32,575 32,607 32,638 32,672

Civilian labor force

20,046 20,347 20,172 20,097 20,153 20,211 20,495 20,466 20,220

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 61.7 62.5 62.1 62.0 62.9 62.7 61.9

Employed

18,577 18,955 18,953 18,507 18,790 18,663 19,087 19,051 18,892

Employment-population ratio

57.8 58.1 58.0 57.5 57.9 57.3 58.5 58.4 57.8

Unemployed

1,469 1,392 1,219 1,590 1,362 1,548 1,408 1,415 1,328

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.8 6.0 7.9 6.8 7.7 6.9 6.9 6.6

Not in labor force

12,116 12,291 12,500 12,064 12,283 12,364 12,112 12,172 12,452

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,135 9,258 9,248 9,153 9,178 9,254 9,438 9,314 9,257

Participation rate

68.1 67.8 67.6 68.2 67.7 67.9 69.2 68.2 67.7

Employed

8,505 8,670 8,681 8,485 8,576 8,564 8,880 8,749 8,663

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.5 63.5 63.2 63.2 62.9 65.1 64.1 63.3

Unemployed

630 588 567 668 601 690 558 564 594

Unemployment rate

6.9 6.4 6.1 7.3 6.6 7.5 5.9 6.1 6.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,185 10,335 10,239 10,166 10,252 10,197 10,254 10,337 10,229

Participation rate

62.8 62.7 62.1 62.6 62.6 62.0 62.3 62.7 62.0

Employed

9,530 9,720 9,764 9,467 9,657 9,524 9,622 9,713 9,707

Employment-population ratio

58.7 59.0 59.2 58.3 59.0 57.9 58.5 59.0 58.9

Unemployed

655 616 475 699 595 673 632 624 522

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.0 4.6 6.9 5.8 6.6 6.2 6.0 5.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

726 754 685 778 723 759 803 816 734

Participation rate

28.9 30.1 27.4 31.0 28.8 30.3 32.0 32.6 29.3

Employed

542 566 508 555 557 575 584 588 521

Employment-population ratio

21.6 22.6 20.3 22.1 22.2 22.9 23.3 23.5 20.8

Unemployed

184 189 177 224 166 185 219 227 213

Unemployment rate

25.3 25.0 25.8 28.7 22.9 24.3 27.2 27.9 29.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,389 15,983 15,933 15,389 15,610 15,731 15,792 15,983 15,933

Civilian labor force

9,749 10,138 10,034 9,756 9,782 9,885 9,908 10,092 10,034

Participation rate

63.4 63.4 63.0 63.4 62.7 62.8 62.7 63.1 63.0

Employed

9,448 9,833 9,765 9,444 9,536 9,584 9,617 9,780 9,755

Employment-population ratio

61.4 61.5 61.3 61.4 61.1 60.9 60.9 61.2 61.2

Unemployed

301 305 269 311 246 300 291 313 280

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.0 2.7 3.2 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.8

Not in labor force

5,640 5,845 5,898 5,633 5,829 5,846 5,884 5,891 5,898

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,162 42,419 42,507 41,162 41,831 42,249 42,335 42,419 42,507

Civilian labor force

27,155 27,926 28,193 27,229 27,498 27,826 28,021 27,922 28,229

Participation rate

66.0 65.8 66.3 66.2 65.7 65.9 66.2 65.8 66.4

Employed

25,897 26,463 26,970 25,824 26,141 26,432 26,646 26,500 26,860

Employment-population ratio

62.9 62.4 63.4 62.7 62.5 62.6 62.9 62.5 63.2

Unemployed

1,258 1,463 1,223 1,405 1,356 1,393 1,375 1,421 1,368

Unemployment rate

4.6 5.2 4.3 5.2 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.1 4.8

Not in labor force

14,007 14,493 14,314 13,933 14,334 14,423 14,315 14,497 14,278

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,890 15,369 15,517 14,924 15,084 15,320 15,319 15,370 15,535

Participation rate

80.3 80.3 80.9 80.5 80.1 80.4 80.2 80.3 81.0

Employed

14,331 14,624 14,949 14,296 14,507 14,659 14,723 14,688 14,901

Employment-population ratio

77.3 76.4 77.9 77.1 77.0 76.9 77.1 76.7 77.7

Unemployed

559 744 568 628 577 661 595 682 635

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.8 3.7 4.2 3.8 4.3 3.9 4.4 4.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,098 11,270 11,437 11,072 11,189 11,257 11,410 11,230 11,398

Participation rate

59.0 58.2 59.0 58.9 58.5 58.4 59.1 58.0 58.8

Employed

10,538 10,711 10,929 10,479 10,598 10,737 10,815 10,677 10,856

Employment-population ratio

56.1 55.3 56.3 55.7 55.4 55.7 56.0 55.2 56.0

Unemployed

561 559 508 593 591 520 595 553 541

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.0 4.4 5.4 5.3 4.6 5.2 4.9 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,166 1,287 1,239 1,233 1,225 1,249 1,292 1,321 1,296

Participation rate

30.4 32.9 31.6 32.2 31.6 32.0 33.0 33.7 33.0

Employed

1,028 1,128 1,091 1,049 1,037 1,036 1,108 1,135 1,103

Employment-population ratio

26.8 28.8 27.8 27.4 26.8 26.5 28.3 29.0 28.1

Unemployed

138 159 148 184 188 213 184 186 192

Unemployment rate

11.9 12.4 11.9 14.9 15.4 17.0 14.2 14.1 14.8

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,249 10,180 10,438 10,074 10,148 10,274 10,258 10,234 10,285

Participation rate

45.6 45.5 46.6 44.8 44.8 44.8 46.8 45.7 45.9

Employed

9,594 9,519 9,836 9,417 9,507 9,715 9,673 9,666 9,683

Employment-population ratio

42.7 42.5 43.9 41.9 42.0 42.3 44.1 43.2 43.3

Unemployed

656 661 603 657 641 559 584 568 602

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.5 5.8 6.5 6.3 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,186 35,969 35,538 36,079 35,927 35,735 36,092 35,863 35,468

Participation rate

58.0 57.3 57.0 57.8 57.8 57.5 57.5 57.1 56.9

Employed

34,603 34,290 34,086 34,417 34,425 34,134 34,487 34,305 33,940

Employment-population ratio

55.4 54.6 54.7 55.1 55.4 54.9 55.0 54.6 54.5

Unemployed

1,583 1,679 1,451 1,662 1,503 1,601 1,604 1,559 1,528

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.7 4.1 4.6 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,854 37,550 38,056 37,844 37,906 37,863 37,573 37,589 37,944

Participation rate

65.8 65.5 65.6 65.8 66.2 66.0 65.5 65.6 65.5

Employed

36,532 36,175 36,818 36,445 36,534 36,566 36,248 36,241 36,629

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.1 63.5 63.4 63.8 63.7 63.2 63.2 63.2

Unemployed

1,321 1,375 1,238 1,399 1,372 1,297 1,325 1,348 1,315

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

54,821 57,097 56,823 54,832 55,852 55,922 56,669 56,785 56,794

Participation rate

74.1 74.6 74.2 74.1 73.5 73.4 73.7 74.2 74.2

Employed

53,585 55,846 55,735 53,500 54,653 54,720 55,386 55,534 55,616

Employment-population ratio

72.4 73.0 72.8 72.3 71.9 71.8 72.0 72.6 72.6

Unemployed

1,236 1,251 1,088 1,331 1,200 1,202 1,283 1,252 1,178

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.2 1.9 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,615 19,280 18,589 17,418 2,026 1,862

Civilian labor force

10,344 9,582 9,154 8,446 1,190 1,136

Participation rate

50.2 49.7 49.2 48.5 58.8 61.0

Employed

9,964 9,231 8,817 8,117 1,147 1,114

Employment-population ratio

48.3 47.9 47.4 46.6 56.6 59.8

Unemployed

380 351 337 329 43 22

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.6 1.9

Not in labor force

10,271 9,698 9,435 8,972 836 726

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,104 4,070 3,379 3,378 725 692

Civilian labor force

3,274 3,356 2,781 2,849 493 507

Participation rate

79.8 82.5 82.3 84.3 68.0 73.3

Employed

3,145 3,193 2,676 2,702 468 491

Employment-population ratio

76.6 78.5 79.2 80.0 64.6 70.9

Unemployed

129 163 104 147 25 16

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.9 3.8 5.2 5.0 3.2

Not in labor force

830 714 598 529 232 185

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,314 3,134 2,815 2,638 499 496

Civilian labor force

2,643 2,441 2,262 2,085 381 355

Participation rate

79.7 77.9 80.4 79.0 76.3 71.6

Employed

2,544 2,397 2,176 2,044 368 353

Employment-population ratio

76.8 76.5 77.3 77.5 73.7 71.2

Unemployed

99 43 86 41 13 2

Unemployment rate

3.7 1.8 3.8 2.0 3.3 0.6

Not in labor force

671 694 553 553 119 141

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,134 7,714 7,840 7,452 294 262

Civilian labor force

1,972 1,628 1,915 1,569 57 60

Participation rate

24.2 21.1 24.4 21.0 19.3 22.7

Employed

1,900 1,576 1,843 1,516 57 60

Employment-population ratio

23.4 20.4 23.5 20.3 19.3 22.7

Unemployed

72 52 72 52 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.2 3.7 3.3 - -

Not in labor force

6,162 6,086 5,925 5,883 237 202

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,063 4,362 4,555 3,950 508 412

Civilian labor force

2,456 2,158 2,196 1,944 260 214

Participation rate

48.5 49.5 48.2 49.2 51.2 52.0

Employed

2,376 2,065 2,122 1,854 254 211

Employment-population ratio

46.9 47.3 46.6 46.9 50.0 51.2

Unemployed

80 93 74 89 6 3

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.3 3.4 4.6 2.3 1.5

Not in labor force

2,607 2,204 2,359 2,006 248 198

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,046 229,048 99,978 102,525 125,068 126,524

Civilian labor force

147,418 149,781 74,682 76,583 72,736 73,198

Participation rate

65.5 65.4 74.7 74.7 58.2 57.9

Employed

141,599 144,475 71,671 73,719 69,928 70,756

Employment-population ratio

62.9 63.1 71.7 71.9 55.9 55.9

Unemployed

5,819 5,306 3,011 2,864 2,808 2,442

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.3

Not in labor force

77,628 79,267 25,296 25,942 52,332 53,326

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,612 30,307 223,976 226,965

Civilian labor force

6,166 6,337 153,652 154,942

Participation rate

20.1 20.9 68.6 68.3

Employed

5,509 5,828 147,754 149,520

Employment-population ratio

18.0 19.2 66.0 65.9

Unemployed

657 509 5,898 5,423

Unemployment rate

10.7 8.0 3.8 3.5

Not in labor force

24,447 23,970 70,324 72,022

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,700 2,746 76,784 77,722

Participation rate

34.3 36.6 82.4 82.6

Employed

2,352 2,474 73,794 74,799

Employment-population ratio

29.8 33.0 79.2 79.5

Unemployed

348 272 2,989 2,923

Unemployment rate

12.9 9.9 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

5,181 4,746 16,350 16,384

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,411 2,451 68,236 68,401

Participation rate

29.8 30.7 70.9 70.7

Employed

2,157 2,256 65,627 66,123

Employment-population ratio

26.6 28.2 68.2 68.3

Unemployed

254 194 2,610 2,279

Unemployment rate

10.5 7.9 3.8 3.3

Not in labor force

5,691 5,538 27,994 28,377

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,055 1,141 8,632 8,819

Participation rate

7.2 7.7 24.9 24.4

Employed

999 1,098 8,333 8,598

Employment-population ratio

6.8 7.4 24.1 23.8

Unemployed

55 43 299 222

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.8 3.5 2.5

Not in labor force

13,574 13,685 25,979 27,261

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,567 43,164 20,238 21,041 21,329 22,123

Civilian labor force

27,402 28,266 15,816 16,398 11,586 11,868

Participation rate

65.9 65.5 78.2 77.9 54.3 53.6

Employed

26,354 27,300 15,300 15,961 11,054 11,338

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.2 75.6 75.9 51.8 51.2

Unemployed

1,049 967 516 437 532 530

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.4 3.3 2.7 4.6 4.5

Not in labor force

14,165 14,898 4,422 4,643 9,743 10,255

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,021 214,107 102,794 103,377 110,227 110,730

Civilian labor force

132,415 133,014 69,035 69,568 63,380 63,446

Participation rate

62.2 62.1 67.2 67.3 57.5 57.3

Employed

126,908 128,049 66,042 66,649 60,867 61,400

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.8 64.2 64.5 55.2 55.5

Unemployed

5,507 4,965 2,993 2,919 2,514 2,046

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.7 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.2

Not in labor force

80,606 81,094 33,759 33,810 46,847 47,284

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,587 2,266 2,230 2,631 2,552 2,513 2,474 2,314 2,294

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,663 1,409 1,438 1,727 1,717 1,712 1,679 1,495 1,517

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

900 840 759 871 793 781 768 803 745

Unpaid family workers

24 17 33 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

150,676 152,611 153,119 150,515 151,478 151,894 152,713 152,747 152,889

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,061 143,601 144,009 141,882 142,505 142,828 143,656 143,688 143,785

Government

20,901 21,368 21,453 20,723 20,642 20,815 20,986 20,957 21,222

Private industries

121,160 122,233 122,556 121,254 121,900 122,022 122,693 122,761 122,616

Private households

680 781 780 - - - - - -

Other industries

120,480 121,452 121,776 120,591 121,206 121,349 121,957 121,977 121,858

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,563 8,959 9,039 8,532 8,970 8,991 8,944 8,990 8,995

Unpaid family workers

53 50 70 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,058 5,080 4,734 5,309 4,915 4,989 5,160 5,019 4,985

Slack work or business conditions

3,059 3,023 2,867 3,183 3,097 3,009 3,302 3,005 2,994

Could only find part-time work

1,767 1,738 1,573 1,787 1,570 1,663 1,541 1,625 1,586

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,257 21,817 22,132 20,406 21,122 20,867 21,061 21,399 21,258

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,990 4,975 4,631 5,243 4,856 4,926 5,091 4,944 4,898

Slack work or business conditions

3,019 2,966 2,799 3,129 3,049 2,965 3,258 2,940 2,923

Could only find part-time work

1,750 1,726 1,559 1,772 1,563 1,659 1,533 1,619 1,575

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,849 21,382 21,763 20,010 20,703 20,434 20,641 20,999 20,891

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,262 154,877 155,348 153,161 154,021 154,430 155,215 155,178 155,181

16 to 19 years

4,866 4,889 4,840 5,104 4,977 5,143 5,174 5,149 5,078

16 to 17 years

1,699 1,701 1,642 1,882 1,907 1,915 1,915 1,892 1,838

18 to 19 years

3,167 3,188 3,198 3,237 3,075 3,221 3,293 3,261 3,257

20 years and over

148,396 149,988 150,508 148,057 149,045 149,287 150,041 150,028 150,102

20 to 24 years

14,082 14,158 14,034 14,223 13,936 14,153 14,213 14,334 14,172

25 years and over

134,314 135,830 136,475 133,792 135,083 135,129 135,856 135,779 135,906

25 to 54 years

98,920 100,015 100,206 98,693 99,535 99,674 100,120 100,051 99,965

25 to 34 years

34,455 35,105 35,157 34,405 34,606 34,768 34,975 35,106 35,083

35 to 44 years

31,833 32,410 32,670 31,794 32,304 32,380 32,503 32,462 32,614

45 to 54 years

32,633 32,500 32,379 32,494 32,625 32,526 32,642 32,484 32,268

55 years and over

35,394 35,814 36,269 35,099 35,548 35,455 35,735 35,728 35,941

Men, 16 years and over

81,341 82,151 82,610 81,406 81,821 82,274 82,685 82,630 82,611

16 to 19 years

2,419 2,341 2,368 2,567 2,391 2,569 2,472 2,517 2,500

16 to 17 years

853 771 774 947 848 920 872 891 858

18 to 19 years

1,566 1,570 1,594 1,631 1,540 1,638 1,617 1,639 1,651

20 years and over

78,922 79,810 80,242 78,839 79,431 79,705 80,213 80,113 80,111

20 to 24 years

7,214 7,325 7,204 7,301 7,203 7,339 7,392 7,445 7,291

25 years and over

71,708 72,485 73,038 71,535 72,226 72,388 72,822 72,707 72,840

25 to 54 years

52,800 53,460 53,721 52,770 53,308 53,441 53,764 53,647 53,686

25 to 34 years

18,415 18,900 18,944 18,430 18,612 18,773 18,925 18,942 18,946

35 to 44 years

17,234 17,492 17,667 17,223 17,450 17,447 17,592 17,576 17,644

45 to 54 years

17,151 17,069 17,110 17,117 17,246 17,221 17,247 17,130 17,096

55 years and over

18,908 19,025 19,317 18,765 18,918 18,947 19,058 19,060 19,154

Women, 16 years and over

71,921 72,726 72,738 71,754 72,200 72,157 72,530 72,548 72,569

16 to 19 years

2,447 2,548 2,472 2,537 2,586 2,574 2,702 2,632 2,578

16 to 17 years

846 930 868 935 1,059 995 1,044 1,001 980

18 to 19 years

1,601 1,618 1,603 1,606 1,535 1,583 1,676 1,622 1,606

20 years and over

69,474 70,178 70,266 69,218 69,614 69,583 69,828 69,916 69,992

20 to 24 years

6,868 6,834 6,829 6,922 6,733 6,814 6,821 6,889 6,882

25 years and over

62,606 63,344 63,437 62,257 62,857 62,742 63,033 63,071 63,067

25 to 54 years

46,120 46,555 46,485 45,923 46,227 46,233 46,356 46,404 46,280

25 to 34 years

16,039 16,206 16,213 15,975 15,994 15,995 16,050 16,164 16,137

35 to 44 years

14,599 14,918 15,003 14,571 14,853 14,933 14,911 14,886 14,970

45 to 54 years

15,481 15,431 15,269 15,377 15,380 15,305 15,395 15,354 15,172

55 years and over

16,486 16,789 16,952 16,334 16,630 16,508 16,677 16,667 16,787

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,135 45,870 46,195 46,001 45,439 45,714 45,863 45,865 45,995

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,079 35,912 36,386 35,878 35,813 35,768 35,632 35,564 36,140

Women who maintain families(2)

9,654 9,595 9,492 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

125,532 126,424 127,340 125,963 126,723 127,016 127,745 127,434 127,753

Part-time workers(4)

27,731 28,453 28,008 27,204 27,257 27,271 27,548 27,858 27,508

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,609 7,771 7,637 7,635 7,647 7,845 7,864 7,609 7,667

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,861 5,891 5,787 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,463 9,799 9,798 9,403 9,763 9,773 9,713 9,793 9,741

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,021 6,585 6,346 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9

16 to 19 years

879 803 752 14.7 13.6 13.9 14.4 13.5 12.9

16 to 17 years

374 332 294 16.6 15.2 15.0 15.5 14.9 13.8

18 to 19 years

493 469 473 13.2 13.2 13.3 13.7 12.6 12.7

20 years and over

6,141 5,782 5,594 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6

20 to 24 years

1,122 1,018 1,018 7.3 7.1 7.4 6.8 6.6 6.7

25 years and over

5,030 4,769 4,613 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3

25 to 54 years

3,910 3,591 3,543 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

25 to 34 years

1,594 1,541 1,627 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,182 1,065 995 3.6 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0

45 to 54 years

1,135 985 921 3.4 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8

55 years and over

1,157 1,176 1,105 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.0

Men, 16 years and over

3,718 3,539 3,541 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1

16 to 19 years

503 452 453 16.4 14.8 14.5 16.4 15.2 15.3

16 to 17 years

178 171 178 15.9 15.7 13.0 17.1 16.1 17.2

18 to 19 years

324 277 283 16.6 15.0 14.9 16.1 14.5 14.6

20 years and over

3,215 3,087 3,088 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7

20 to 24 years

669 600 605 8.4 7.9 8.2 7.6 7.5 7.7

25 years and over

2,555 2,483 2,506 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,938 1,863 1,869 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4

25 to 34 years

838 811 911 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.6

35 to 44 years

601 538 482 3.4 2.6 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.7

45 to 54 years

499 514 476 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7

55 years and over

617 620 637 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.2

Women, 16 years and over

3,303 3,046 2,805 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.7

16 to 19 years

376 351 299 12.9 12.3 13.4 12.5 11.8 10.4

16 to 17 years

195 161 116 17.3 14.7 16.7 14.0 13.8 10.6

18 to 19 years

169 192 191 9.5 11.3 11.7 11.4 10.6 10.6

20 years and over

2,927 2,695 2,506 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

453 419 413 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.0 5.7 5.7

25 years and over

2,475 2,286 2,107 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2

25 to 54 years

1,972 1,729 1,673 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5

25 to 34 years

755 731 716 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.2

35 to 44 years

581 527 513 3.8 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.3

45 to 54 years

636 471 445 4.0 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8

55 years and over

546 542 483 3.2 3.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 2.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,134 1,006 997 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,017 957 903 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.4

Women who maintain families(2)

615 569 548 6.0 5.3 6.5 6.2 5.6 5.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,628 5,271 5,193 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,417 1,303 1,200 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,369 3,375 2,805 3,538 3,254 3,273 3,279 3,146 2,958

On temporary layoff

794 1,007 713 946 915 912 878 865 862

Not on temporary layoff

2,576 2,368 2,092 2,592 2,339 2,361 2,401 2,281 2,096

Permanent job losers

1,795 1,696 1,415 1,798 1,636 1,652 1,709 1,645 1,418

Persons who completed temporary jobs

781 672 677 794 703 709 692 637 678

Job leavers

726 850 761 785 715 716 780 864 815

Reentrants

1,858 1,912 1,836 2,044 2,003 1,958 1,948 1,967 2,009

New entrants

602 534 530 707 581 645 704 625 623

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

51.4 50.6 47.3 50.0 49.7 49.6 48.9 47.7 46.2

On temporary layoff

12.1 15.1 12.0 13.4 14.0 13.8 13.1 13.1 13.5

Not on temporary layoff

39.3 35.5 35.3 36.6 35.7 35.8 35.8 34.6 32.7

Job leavers

11.1 12.7 12.8 11.1 10.9 10.9 11.6 13.1 12.7

Reentrants

28.4 28.7 31.0 28.9 30.6 29.7 29.0 29.8 31.4

New entrants

9.2 8.0 8.9 10.0 8.9 9.8 10.5 9.5 9.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.1 2.1 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,953 1,994 1,782 2,300 2,235 2,280 2,508 2,287 2,115

5 to 14 weeks

1,735 2,203 1,666 2,140 1,994 1,943 1,906 2,009 2,017

15 weeks and over

2,868 2,475 2,483 2,719 2,397 2,402 2,330 2,202 2,329

15 to 26 weeks

1,206 1,059 1,158 1,087 882 981 934 880 1,036

27 weeks and over

1,662 1,416 1,325 1,633 1,515 1,421 1,397 1,322 1,293

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.7 24.8 24.2 24.3 23.6 24.1 22.9 24.1 23.1

Median duration, in weeks

12.1 10.2 11.9 10.3 9.1 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.8

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.8 29.9 30.1 32.1 33.7 34.4 37.2 35.2 32.7

5 to 14 weeks

26.5 33.0 28.1 29.9 30.1 29.3 28.3 30.9 31.2

15 weeks and over

43.7 37.1 41.9 38.0 36.2 36.3 34.6 33.9 36.0

15 to 26 weeks

18.4 15.9 19.5 15.2 13.3 14.8 13.8 13.5 16.0

27 weeks and over

25.4 21.2 22.3 22.8 22.9 21.5 20.7 20.3 20.0

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

153,262 155,348 6,555 5,932 4.1 3.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,317 62,561 1,254 1,134 2.0 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,455 25,742 581 460 2.2 1.8

Professional and related occupations

35,862 36,819 673 675 1.8 1.8

Service occupations

26,370 27,105 1,426 1,238 5.1 4.4

Sales and office occupations

33,529 33,170 1,337 1,242 3.8 3.6

Sales and related occupations

15,838 15,573 688 659 4.2 4.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,692 17,597 650 583 3.5 3.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,174 14,036 925 926 6.1 6.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,225 969 120 127 8.9 11.6

Construction and extraction occupations

7,930 8,014 657 662 7.6 7.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,019 5,052 149 138 2.9 2.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,871 18,476 994 841 5.3 4.4

Production occupations

8,491 8,434 432 384 4.8 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,380 10,042 562 457 5.7 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,555 5,932 4.1 3.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,121 4,533 4.1 3.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

36 39 4.7 4.7

Construction

585 623 6.3 6.5

Manufacturing

620 521 3.9 3.3

Durable goods

389 308 3.9 3.1

Nondurable goods

230 212 3.8 3.5

Wholesale and retail trade

844 843 4.2 4.2

Transportation and utilities

216 207 3.5 3.0

Information

107 62 4.1 2.3

Financial activities

229 155 2.3 1.6

Professional and business services

819 596 4.9 3.5

Education and health services

612 555 2.6 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

819 719 5.9 5.2

Other services

234 212 3.4 3.1

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

118 137 6.9 9.0

Government workers

379 433 1.8 2.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

335 300 3.4 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 2.1 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 4.1 3.7 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.4 4.4 3.9 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.0 5.0 4.5 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.1 8.1 7.4 8.6 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,771 95,992 38,181 38,453 56,590 57,539

Persons who currently want a job

5,560 5,010 2,605 2,294 2,955 2,716

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,534 1,362 855 706 680 657

Discouraged workers(2)

455 408 319 242 135 165

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,080 955 535 463 544 491

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,609 7,637 3,782 3,841 3,827 3,797

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.9 4.6 4.6 5.3 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,184 4,237 2,285 2,337 1,900 1,900

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,027 2,040 707 756 1,319 1,284

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

304 273 185 163 119 111

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,043 1,053 582 572 461 480

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Change from:
Mar.2018 - Apr.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

146,101 146,674 147,369 148,367 146,144 148,125 148,260 148,424 164

Total private

123,388 124,042 124,675 125,663 123,829 125,803 125,938 126,106 168

Goods-producing

19,825 20,037 20,173 20,396 19,998 20,490 20,510 20,559 49

Mining and logging

660 702 711 719 671 714 722 730 8

Logging

47.6 49.7 48.6 47.4 50.6 50.4 50.2 50.3 0.1

Mining

612.3 652.6 662.3 671.7 620.0 663.4 671.4 679.4 8.0

Oil and gas extraction

143.8 145.8 148.8 149.3 145.7 147.7 149.7 150.9 1.2

Mining, except oil and gas

184.8 180.3 182.0 185.2 185.5 186.5 186.6 186.4 -0.2

Coal mining

51.5 51.9 51.9 52.7 51.8 52.2 52.3 53.0 0.7

Metal ore mining

38.6 38.5 38.5 38.2 39.0 38.6 38.7 38.6 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.7 89.9 91.6 94.3 94.6 95.6 95.5 94.8 -0.7

Support activities for mining

283.7 326.5 331.5 337.2 288.8 329.2 335.1 342.1 7.0

Construction

6,816 6,799 6,886 7,078 6,917 7,167 7,157 7,174 17

Construction of buildings

1,506.8 1,530.1 1,545.4 1,573.6 1,532.0 1,582.1 1,585.9 1,594.7 8.8

Residential building

734.3 752.5 757.9 775.2 747.0 780.0 781.3 785.0 3.7

Nonresidential building

772.5 777.6 787.5 798.4 785.0 802.1 804.6 809.7 5.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

973.8 902.9 930.7 985.4 987.4 1,007.0 1,002.3 998.9 -3.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,335.2 4,365.8 4,410.3 4,518.8 4,397.2 4,578.0 4,569.1 4,580.2 11.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,900.9 1,920.0 1,939.8 1,989.5 1,928.2 2,021.8 2,011.9 2,015.7 3.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,434.3 2,445.8 2,470.5 2,529.3 2,469.0 2,556.2 2,557.2 2,564.5 7.3

Manufacturing

12,349 12,536 12,576 12,599 12,410 12,609 12,631 12,655 24

Durable goods

7,688 7,833 7,869 7,885 7,712 7,864 7,885 7,903 18

Wood products

395.2 398.5 401.6 402.3 397.4 403.1 404.0 403.3 -0.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

408.7 406.4 413.4 419.7 411.5 419.7 421.0 422.0 1.0

Primary metals

368.9 380.6 380.0 380.3 369.4 380.4 379.9 380.2 0.3

Fabricated metal products

1,415.3 1,462.9 1,472.5 1,477.2 1,418.7 1,466.8 1,475.2 1,479.1 3.9

Machinery

1,069.0 1,104.7 1,104.7 1,111.9 1,072.7 1,104.7 1,106.7 1,115.1 8.4

Computer and electronic products

1,035.2 1,053.9 1,059.2 1,058.7 1,038.9 1,057.5 1,061.0 1,061.9 0.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.2 167.0 168.9 169.1 157.1 168.0 169.2 169.7 0.5

Communications equipment

86.6 85.9 86.2 85.0 86.8 86.4 86.4 85.2 -1.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

360.0 365.8 367.5 368.5 361.1 367.1 368.3 369.6 1.3

Electronic instruments

398.5 402.8 404.4 404.5 399.7 403.6 404.8 405.7 0.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.9 32.4 32.2 31.6 34.2 32.5 32.3 31.9 -0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

383.3 396.7 398.6 400.1 384.7 398.2 399.7 401.5 1.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,628.4 1,645.9 1,654.1 1,649.6 1,630.8 1,647.2 1,649.6 1,651.4 1.8

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

955.0 960.8 966.9 960.4 955.6 961.0 961.5 960.6 -0.9

Furniture and related products

393.9 391.2 391.5 389.8 394.8 391.9 391.8 390.7 -1.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

590.1 592.4 593.5 595.6 592.8 594.9 596.1 597.5 1.4

Nondurable goods

4,661 4,703 4,707 4,714 4,698 4,745 4,746 4,752 6

Food manufacturing

1,575.3 1,608.5 1,606.8 1,605.5 1,599.9 1,626.7 1,630.2 1,630.7 0.5

Textile mills

111.8 111.5 111.2 111.3 112.0 111.3 111.3 111.5 0.2

Textile product mills

115.4 110.9 111.5 110.4 116.0 112.1 111.9 110.9 -1.0

Apparel

121.0 116.6 116.9 117.9 121.7 116.6 117.2 118.3 1.1

Paper and paper products

369.3 372.9 373.1 373.1 370.0 372.6 373.1 372.8 -0.3

Printing and related support activities

440.4 434.8 434.9 433.1 441.2 437.7 435.6 434.1 -1.5

Petroleum and coal products

113.3 112.8 111.4 113.9 114.8 116.7 114.7 115.4 0.7

Chemicals

819.0 823.8 823.2 825.8 820.2 826.9 824.5 827.3 2.8

Plastics and rubber products

712.6 722.7 724.5 725.7 712.9 724.9 725.2 726.7 1.5

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

282.9 288.9 293.4 297.6 289.6 299.7 302.5 304.5 2.0

Private service-providing

103,563 104,005 104,502 105,267 103,831 105,313 105,428 105,547 119

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,192 27,330 27,420 27,484 27,431 27,695 27,727 27,720 -7

Wholesale trade

5,874.8 5,915.7 5,941.3 5,939.0 5,887.3 5,952.2 5,962.5 5,952.7 -9.8

Durable goods

2,949.4 2,991.5 3,000.3 3,002.6 2,955.7 3,004.7 3,007.4 3,008.2 0.8

Nondurable goods

2,041.6 2,030.5 2,043.1 2,042.6 2,045.0 2,050.2 2,054.5 2,047.3 -7.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

883.8 893.7 897.9 893.8 886.6 897.3 900.6 897.2 -3.4

Retail trade

15,688.0 15,659.0 15,699.1 15,763.7 15,855.2 15,919.0 15,925.2 15,927.0 1.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,002.3 2,008.1 2,016.7 2,021.8 2,003.7 2,025.5 2,025.0 2,024.0 -1.0

Automobile dealers

1,290.7 1,301.1 1,302.8 1,302.3 1,293.7 1,307.1 1,305.8 1,305.3 -0.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

156.2 149.0 153.1 157.1 155.2 157.1 156.9 156.5 -0.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

555.4 558.0 560.8 562.4 554.7 561.2 562.4 562.2 -0.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

469.6 479.8 477.7 474.9 476.0 480.3 482.2 481.3 -0.9

Electronics and appliance stores

502.8 494.6 494.9 492.7 512.0 497.0 498.3 499.1 0.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,312.5 1,269.9 1,323.0 1,360.2 1,266.3 1,314.9 1,316.6 1,311.8 -4.8

Food and beverage stores

3,061.8 3,070.2 3,062.8 3,068.5 3,091.3 3,097.7 3,095.2 3,097.5 2.3

Health and personal care stores

1,060.5 1,051.5 1,055.3 1,050.2 1,067.4 1,056.0 1,059.4 1,057.7 -1.7

Gasoline stations

921.7 923.8 927.6 929.0 929.1 936.5 937.6 936.7 -0.9

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,339.8 1,325.0 1,321.6 1,316.6 1,389.1 1,372.1 1,368.0 1,362.7 -5.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

581.1 576.0 569.9 573.0 602.8 592.3 593.7 595.4 1.7

General merchandise stores

3,063.7 3,072.4 3,058.2 3,072.6 3,118.9 3,134.5 3,126.8 3,134.6 7.8

Department stores

1,138.9 1,146.9 1,130.8 1,131.0 1,173.7 1,176.4 1,168.9 1,167.8 -1.1

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,924.8 1,925.5 1,927.4 1,941.6 1,945.2 1,958.2 1,957.9 1,966.8 8.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

816.3 805.7 806.5 819.0 831.3 824.5 829.7 831.7 2.0

Nonstore retailers

555.9 582.0 584.9 585.2 567.3 587.7 592.7 594.5 1.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,074.9 5,204.1 5,226.8 5,227.8 5,132.6 5,269.3 5,285.0 5,285.4 0.4

Air transportation

488.7 497.9 499.1 501.1 489.2 502.6 501.4 502.0 0.6

Rail transportation

217.2 210.9 211.3 211.3 217.1 212.3 211.8 211.0 -0.8

Water transportation

64.2 61.6 62.3 64.2 64.8 64.4 64.3 64.8 0.5

Truck transportation

1,441.9 1,444.3 1,453.7 1,458.6 1,453.9 1,469.1 1,476.3 1,470.8 -5.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

498.2 508.9 509.4 508.7 483.7 497.2 495.7 494.9 -0.8

Pipeline transportation

48.8 47.2 47.5 48.2 49.0 47.5 47.7 48.2 0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

30.9 26.9 29.2 31.1 34.9 36.4 36.9 35.3 -1.6

Support activities for transportation

686.4 702.7 705.7 702.6 687.8 705.9 707.7 702.9 -4.8

Couriers and messengers

625.9 696.1 700.2 687.7 668.6 717.3 723.7 730.0 6.3

Warehousing and storage

972.7 1,007.6 1,008.4 1,014.3 983.6 1,016.6 1,019.5 1,025.5 6.0

Utilities

553.8 551.4 552.6 553.9 555.4 554.6 554.3 555.3 1.0

Information

2,793 2,753 2,755 2,768 2,798 2,759 2,765 2,772 7

Publishing industries, except Internet

722.4 712.7 712.7 710.7 725.1 714.7 714.6 713.4 -1.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

432.1 397.8 400.8 417.8 428.8 399.8 406.7 413.4 6.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

266.2 261.8 263.7 265.0 266.4 262.8 263.2 264.9 1.7

Telecommunications

780.9 771.4 766.4 762.0 783.4 770.4 766.9 765.0 -1.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

313.7 324.4 326.6 326.7 314.7 325.5 327.6 327.6 0.0

Other information services

277.8 284.6 285.0 285.8 279.4 286.1 286.2 287.5 1.3

Financial activities

8,382 8,487 8,502 8,507 8,423 8,543 8,547 8,549 2

Finance and insurance

6,230.2 6,300.7 6,297.8 6,291.3 6,249.8 6,312.5 6,310.3 6,310.2 -0.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 19.0 18.9 19.0 19.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,635.9 2,658.4 2,655.0 2,655.3 2,642.7 2,663.8 2,660.6 2,661.9 1.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,709.4 1,714.2 1,716.6 1,718.0 1,711.8 1,717.3 1,718.1 1,720.3 2.2

Commercial banking

1,322.0 1,321.5 1,322.5 1,323.9 1,322.9 1,322.0 1,322.9 1,325.3 2.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

618.3 627.0 623.2 624.9 622.0 628.8 626.7 628.5 1.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

308.2 317.2 315.2 312.4 308.9 317.7 315.7 313.1 -2.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

929.9 956.8 957.4 959.5 935.3 960.2 961.9 964.3 2.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,645.5 2,666.6 2,666.5 2,657.6 2,652.8 2,669.6 2,668.8 2,665.0 -3.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,152.0 2,186.2 2,203.8 2,215.4 2,173.5 2,230.4 2,236.6 2,238.6 2.0

Real estate

1,579.4 1,594.9 1,605.7 1,611.8 1,590.2 1,618.4 1,623.0 1,623.6 0.6

Rental and leasing services

548.7 567.1 573.0 578.7 559.1 587.4 588.4 590.0 1.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.9 24.2 25.1 24.9 24.2 24.6 25.2 25.0 -0.2

Professional and business services

20,300 20,466 20,571 20,819 20,351 20,776 20,815 20,869 54

Professional and technical services

9,021.3 9,171.5 9,169.9 9,223.4 8,963.7 9,121.2 9,138.8 9,164.6 25.8

Legal services

1,129.9 1,128.7 1,130.4 1,132.2 1,133.8 1,135.5 1,135.5 1,136.3 0.8

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,081.5 1,087.3 1,087.8 1,080.6 988.7 975.5 985.7 988.8 3.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,418.0 1,444.0 1,443.4 1,456.7 1,428.0 1,465.3 1,461.6 1,466.8 5.2

Specialized design services

139.2 135.3 135.7 137.0 139.1 137.1 137.1 137.0 -0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,025.8 2,079.1 2,066.9 2,086.6 2,032.4 2,078.3 2,084.6 2,091.3 6.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,383.2 1,421.9 1,418.8 1,429.9 1,391.1 1,436.1 1,435.1 1,438.0 2.9

Scientific research and development services

652.6 665.3 667.2 670.5 655.1 669.4 670.8 673.4 2.6

Advertising and related services

492.5 490.6 495.1 498.2 494.7 494.5 497.5 499.6 2.1

Other professional and technical services

698.6 719.3 724.6 731.7 700.8 729.5 730.8 733.4 2.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,275.5 2,301.6 2,308.0 2,305.5 2,285.6 2,311.6 2,315.2 2,315.6 0.4

Administrative and waste services

9,003.5 8,992.9 9,093.5 9,290.1 9,101.3 9,343.3 9,361.4 9,389.0 27.6

Administrative and support services

8,596.2 8,579.4 8,676.5 8,868.0 8,689.9 8,922.0 8,938.1 8,963.7 25.6

Office administrative services

503.7 518.1 518.2 523.2 504.3 520.3 520.4 524.0 3.6

Facilities support services

149.6 154.4 156.0 155.3 149.5 155.5 155.6 155.4 -0.2

Employment services(1)

3,491.3 3,555.6 3,584.0 3,630.3 3,568.8 3,700.7 3,700.8 3,713.1 12.3

Temporary help services

2,844.6 2,889.9 2,913.8 2,953.8 2,912.9 3,018.6 3,016.5 3,026.8 10.3

Business support services

897.9 912.5 908.5 900.7 905.7 910.6 911.2 908.7 -2.5

Travel arrangement and reservation services

217.3 214.2 215.5 216.8 217.0 217.0 216.5 216.4 -0.1

Investigation and security services

909.7 924.2 927.8 933.1 913.7 933.5 934.3 936.5 2.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,106.7 1,972.8 2,030.8 2,169.5 2,110.9 2,151.8 2,162.2 2,170.8 8.6

Other support services

320.0 327.6 335.7 339.1 320.0 332.6 337.0 338.8 1.8

Waste management and remediation services

407.3 413.5 417.0 422.1 411.4 421.3 423.3 425.3 2.0

Education and health services

23,260 23,598 23,629 23,684 23,086 23,462 23,486 23,517 31

Educational services

3,831.5 3,869.2 3,867.7 3,875.8 3,649.3 3,703.3 3,695.8 3,696.9 1.1

Health care and social assistance

19,428.4 19,728.7 19,761.7 19,808.5 19,436.8 19,758.3 19,790.3 19,819.6 29.3

Health care(3)

15,628.0 15,885.1 15,898.3 15,930.8 15,659.1 15,919.0 15,940.1 15,964.5 24.4

Ambulatory health care services

7,239.6 7,401.2 7,412.0 7,441.5 7,251.6 7,420.5 7,436.6 7,453.5 16.9

Offices of physicians

2,566.9 2,615.9 2,620.4 2,628.6 2,573.1 2,621.6 2,627.2 2,634.3 7.1

Offices of dentists

928.3 934.3 935.8 938.2 930.4 936.2 940.0 940.8 0.8

Offices of other health practitioners

880.6 911.2 912.8 922.6 881.8 915.3 917.1 923.0 5.9

Outpatient care centers

887.7 919.3 923.2 923.9 888.3 920.1 923.1 924.7 1.6

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

267.8 276.0 276.9 276.0 267.8 276.2 276.9 276.2 -0.7

Home health care services

1,404.5 1,435.6 1,436.4 1,444.6 1,406.2 1,442.0 1,443.3 1,446.2 2.9

Other ambulatory health care services

303.8 308.9 306.5 307.6 304.0 309.2 308.9 308.3 -0.6

Hospitals

5,053.8 5,139.1 5,149.0 5,148.6 5,065.3 5,144.6 5,151.8 5,159.8 8.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,334.6 3,344.8 3,337.3 3,340.7 3,342.2 3,353.9 3,351.7 3,351.2 -0.5

Nursing care facilities

1,627.2 1,613.7 1,607.2 1,607.3 1,631.4 1,617.3 1,615.4 1,612.7 -2.7

Residential mental health facilities

627.5 633.1 630.2 632.2 627.7 634.5 631.3 632.8 1.5

Community care facilities for the elderly

912.9 927.8 928.8 929.5 915.3 930.9 932.4 933.5 1.1

Other residential care facilities

167.0 170.2 171.1 171.7 167.7 171.2 172.5 172.2 -0.3

Social assistance

3,800.4 3,843.6 3,863.4 3,877.7 3,777.7 3,839.3 3,850.2 3,855.1 4.9

Individual and family services

2,336.9 2,384.5 2,399.2 2,410.3 2,334.2 2,388.3 2,399.3 2,405.2 5.9

Emergency and other relief services

168.2 172.5 172.3 171.0 167.4 171.3 171.3 170.6 -0.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

343.0 343.2 343.6 343.6 344.7 346.6 346.4 345.1 -1.3

Child day care services

952.3 943.4 948.3 952.8 931.4 933.2 933.1 934.2 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

15,888 15,591 15,825 16,158 15,993 16,246 16,254 16,272 18

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,264.6 2,105.3 2,164.9 2,285.6 2,318.9 2,346.2 2,344.7 2,344.5 -0.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

503.0 450.0 466.6 508.2 486.8 494.3 491.2 493.1 1.9

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

160.7 156.7 161.8 169.2 164.4 172.2 172.2 173.1 0.9

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,600.9 1,498.6 1,536.5 1,608.2 1,667.7 1,679.7 1,681.3 1,678.3 -3.0

Accommodation and food services

13,622.9 13,485.9 13,659.8 13,872.8 13,673.6 13,900.2 13,909.0 13,927.9 18.9

Accommodation

1,955.5 1,926.9 1,955.3 1,982.6 2,001.5 2,018.2 2,023.3 2,027.4 4.1

Food services and drinking places

11,667.4 11,559.0 11,704.5 11,890.2 11,672.1 11,882.0 11,885.7 11,900.5 14.8

Other services

5,748 5,780 5,800 5,847 5,749 5,832 5,834 5,848 14

Repair and maintenance

1,309.0 1,306.4 1,313.5 1,321.4 1,303.8 1,312.5 1,314.3 1,316.5 2.2

Personal and laundry services

1,476.5 1,493.8 1,497.1 1,524.7 1,473.0 1,514.6 1,511.6 1,521.0 9.4

Membership associations and organizations

2,962.3 2,979.9 2,989.8 3,000.4 2,972.1 3,005.3 3,008.5 3,010.1 1.6

Government

22,713 22,632 22,694 22,704 22,315 22,322 22,322 22,318 -4

Federal

2,794.0 2,777.0 2,774.0 2,787.0 2,801.0 2,792.0 2,793.0 2,794.0 1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,179.7 2,170.7 2,169.2 2,178.1 2,188.6 2,184.8 2,185.2 2,187.0 1.8

U.S. Postal Service

613.9 606.0 604.9 608.4 612.6 607.6 607.3 606.8 -0.5

State government

5,329.0 5,248.0 5,270.0 5,268.0 5,157.0 5,112.0 5,111.0 5,104.0 -7.0

State government education

2,645.1 2,593.8 2,609.6 2,607.1 2,473.8 2,448.2 2,448.3 2,443.6 -4.7

State government, excluding education

2,683.6 2,654.6 2,660.1 2,660.5 2,682.9 2,663.6 2,663.0 2,660.3 -2.7

Local government

14,590.0 14,607.0 14,650.0 14,649.0 14,357.0 14,418.0 14,418.0 14,420.0 2.0

Local government education

8,227.5 8,249.3 8,272.3 8,248.2 7,912.8 7,938.0 7,935.0 7,937.5 2.5

Local government, excluding education

6,362.7 6,358.1 6,377.5 6,400.7 6,443.8 6,479.8 6,483.0 6,482.4 -0.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.4 40.6 40.5 40.7

Mining and logging

45.4 46.0 45.8 45.6

Construction

39.3 39.4 39.3 39.5

Manufacturing

40.7 41.0 40.9 41.1

Durable goods

41.2 41.5 41.3 41.5

Nondurable goods

40.0 40.3 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.4

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 39.0 38.9

Retail trade

31.1 31.1 31.1 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.9 38.8 38.9

Utilities

42.0 41.9 42.1 42.1

Information

36.3 36.0 36.1 36.1

Financial activities

37.4 37.6 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.2 36.2

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.1 26.1

Other services

31.8 31.7 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.7 3.6 3.7

Durable goods

3.2 3.7 3.6 3.7

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.6 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.17 $26.74 $26.80 $26.84 $900.25 $922.53 $924.60 $925.98

Goods-producing

27.44 27.95 27.97 28.06 1,108.58 1,134.77 1,132.79 1,142.04

Mining and logging

31.86 32.33 32.54 32.54 1,446.44 1,487.18 1,490.33 1,483.82

Construction

28.62 29.51 29.44 29.63 1,124.77 1,162.69 1,156.99 1,170.39

Manufacturing

26.55 26.83 26.87 26.91 1,080.59 1,100.03 1,098.98 1,106.00

Durable goods

27.80 28.10 28.15 28.24 1,145.36 1,166.15 1,162.60 1,171.96

Nondurable goods

24.43 24.65 24.68 24.64 977.20 993.40 992.14 990.53

Private service-providing

25.88 26.45 26.52 26.55 861.80 880.79 883.12 884.12

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.64 23.08 23.12 23.16 778.82 796.26 797.64 796.70

Wholesale trade

29.92 30.26 30.27 30.24 1,166.88 1,180.14 1,180.53 1,176.34

Retail trade

18.06 18.45 18.47 18.57 561.67 573.80 574.42 575.67

Transportation and warehousing

23.63 24.24 24.30 24.26 914.48 942.94 942.84 943.71

Utilities

39.47 39.86 40.23 40.34 1,657.74 1,670.13 1,693.68 1,698.31

Information

38.00 39.05 39.11 39.25 1,379.40 1,405.80 1,411.87 1,416.93

Financial activities

32.87 34.20 34.35 34.20 1,229.34 1,285.92 1,288.13 1,285.92

Professional and business services

31.53 32.03 32.14 32.23 1,138.23 1,159.49 1,163.47 1,166.73

Education and health services

26.19 26.74 26.82 26.80 861.65 882.42 885.06 884.40

Leisure and hospitality

15.39 15.74 15.80 15.83 401.68 410.81 412.38 413.16

Other services

23.70 24.26 24.26 24.33 753.66 769.04 771.47 773.69

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2018 - Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2018 - Apr.
2018(p)

Total private

106.9 108.9 109.1 109.2 0.1 133.8 139.3 139.7 140.1 0.3

Goods-producing

92.0 94.8 94.6 95.3 0.7 114.2 119.7 119.6 120.9 1.1

Mining and logging

95.7 103.2 103.9 104.6 0.7 122.4 134.0 135.8 136.7 0.7

Construction

93.7 97.3 97.0 97.7 0.7 116.5 124.8 124.0 125.8 1.5

Manufacturing

90.9 93.0 92.9 93.6 0.8 112.2 116.0 116.1 117.1 0.9

Durable goods

89.5 91.9 91.7 92.3 0.7 110.4 114.7 114.6 115.8 1.0

Nondurable goods

93.8 95.4 95.2 95.4 0.2 116.3 119.4 119.3 119.2 -0.1

Private service-providing

111.2 112.8 112.9 113.1 0.2 139.9 145.0 145.6 145.9 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.6 103.9 104.0 103.7 -0.3 125.1 129.1 129.5 129.3 -0.2

Wholesale trade

100.2 101.3 101.5 101.0 -0.5 125.1 127.9 128.2 127.5 -0.5

Retail trade

100.2 100.6 100.6 100.3 -0.3 119.6 122.7 122.8 123.1 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

113.7 117.3 117.4 117.7 0.3 136.3 144.3 144.7 144.9 0.1

Utilities

100.9 100.5 101.0 101.1 0.1 131.6 132.4 134.2 134.8 0.4

Information

92.8 90.7 91.2 91.4 0.2 125.5 126.1 126.9 127.7 0.6

Financial activities

103.2 105.2 105.0 105.3 0.3 132.3 140.3 140.6 140.4 -0.1

Professional and business services

115.6 118.3 118.5 118.8 0.3 147.6 153.5 154.3 155.1 0.5

Education and health services

124.0 126.4 126.6 126.7 0.1 156.3 162.6 163.3 163.4 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

119.1 121.0 121.0 121.2 0.2 147.9 153.6 154.3 154.8 0.3

Other services

105.4 106.6 107.0 107.2 0.2 136.9 141.7 142.2 143.0 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,390 73,423 73,512 73,627 49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

59,592 60,587 60,674 60,788 48.1 48.2 48.2 48.2

Goods-producing

4,378 4,505 4,523 4,537 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.1

Mining and logging

92 92 93 93 13.7 12.9 12.9 12.7

Construction

870 916 917 918 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,416 3,497 3,513 3,526 27.5 27.7 27.8 27.9

Durable goods

1,806 1,845 1,853 1,860 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,610 1,652 1,660 1,666 34.3 34.8 35.0 35.1

Private service-providing

55,214 56,082 56,151 56,251 53.2 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,060 11,129 11,123 11,135 40.3 40.2 40.1 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,735.3 1,768.4 1,773.9 1,772.7 29.5 29.7 29.8 29.8

Retail trade

7,945.5 7,938.7 7,924.6 7,934.1 50.1 49.9 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,251.8 1,293.5 1,296.7 1,299.2 24.4 24.5 24.5 24.6

Utilities

127.6 127.9 128.1 128.5 23.0 23.1 23.1 23.1

Information

1,117 1,091 1,093 1,096 39.9 39.5 39.5 39.5

Financial activities

4,764 4,816 4,820 4,824 56.6 56.4 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,144 9,386 9,411 9,443 44.9 45.2 45.2 45.2

Education and health services

17,786 18,050 18,087 18,109 77.0 76.9 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,306 8,513 8,523 8,546 51.9 52.4 52.4 52.5

Other services

3,037 3,097 3,094 3,098 52.8 53.1 53.0 53.0

Government

12,798 12,836 12,838 12,839 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

Total private

102,074 103,642 103,747 103,867

Goods-producing

14,403 14,752 14,749 14,782

Mining and logging

484 528 534 539

Construction

5,201 5,370 5,352 5,354

Manufacturing

8,718 8,854 8,863 8,889

Durable goods

5,302 5,407 5,418 5,442

Nondurable goods

3,416 3,447 3,445 3,447

Private service-providing

87,671 88,890 88,998 89,085

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,091 23,399 23,431 23,434

Wholesale trade

4,716.8 4,775.2 4,782.7 4,770.2

Retail trade

13,467.6 13,601.1 13,612.6 13,625.0

Transportation and warehousing

4,458.9 4,577.9 4,590.3 4,593.6

Utilities

447.3 445.2 445.2 445.3

Information

2,258 2,220 2,222 2,232

Financial activities

6,547 6,622 6,627 6,624

Professional and business services

16,650 16,914 16,949 16,984

Education and health services

20,274 20,613 20,637 20,657

Leisure and hospitality

14,090 14,297 14,305 14,316

Other services

4,761 4,825 4,827 4,838

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.7 33.8

Goods-producing

41.3 41.6 41.6 41.8

Mining and logging

46.1 47.0 46.8 46.8

Construction

39.9 40.0 40.0 40.2

Manufacturing

41.9 42.3 42.2 42.4

Durable goods

42.3 42.6 42.5 42.7

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.7 41.7 42.0

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.9 33.9 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

30.2 30.3 30.3 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.5 38.3 38.4

Utilities

42.5 42.7 42.9 42.9

Information

35.9 35.8 35.9 36.1

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.3 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 25.0 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.7 30.7 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.8 4.7 4.8

Durable goods

4.3 4.9 4.8 4.9

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.6 4.5 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)

Total private

$21.94 $22.39 $22.46 $22.51 $739.38 $756.78 $756.90 $760.84

Goods-producing

23.00 23.71 23.72 23.79 949.90 986.34 986.75 994.42

Mining and logging

27.14 27.77 27.82 27.89 1,251.15 1,305.19 1,301.98 1,305.25

Construction

26.45 27.41 27.37 27.49 1,055.36 1,096.40 1,094.80 1,105.10

Manufacturing

20.79 21.32 21.36 21.41 871.10 901.84 901.39 907.78

Durable goods

21.76 22.26 22.29 22.40 920.45 948.28 947.33 956.48

Nondurable goods

19.22 19.81 19.86 19.83 789.94 826.08 828.16 832.86

Private service-providing

21.72 22.10 22.19 22.23 703.73 718.25 718.96 720.25

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.23 19.54 19.66 19.73 649.97 662.41 666.47 666.87

Wholesale trade

24.59 24.82 24.84 24.85 954.09 965.50 966.28 966.67

Retail trade

15.23 15.49 15.66 15.77 459.95 469.35 474.50 476.25

Transportation and warehousing

21.13 21.65 21.72 21.76 811.39 833.53 831.88 835.58

Utilities

36.24 36.38 36.81 36.43 1,540.20 1,553.43 1,579.15 1,562.85

Information

30.59 31.18 31.46 31.27 1,098.18 1,116.24 1,129.41 1,128.85

Financial activities

26.49 26.74 26.84 26.89 980.13 989.38 993.08 994.93

Professional and business services

25.89 26.40 26.49 26.55 916.51 934.56 935.10 937.22

Education and health services

22.96 23.41 23.44 23.45 739.31 756.14 757.11 757.44

Leisure and hospitality

13.31 13.63 13.67 13.72 330.09 340.75 340.38 341.63

Other services

19.93 20.49 20.49 20.54 611.85 629.04 629.04 632.63

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2018 - Apr.
2018(p)
Apr.
2017
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018(p)
Apr.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2018 - Apr.
2018(p)

Total private

114.6 116.7 116.5 117.0 0.4 168.0 174.6 174.8 175.9 0.6

Goods-producing

90.9 93.8 93.8 94.4 0.6 128.0 136.1 136.2 137.5 1.0

Mining and logging

118.6 131.9 132.8 134.0 0.9 187.1 213.0 214.9 217.4 1.2

Construction

103.9 107.6 107.2 107.8 0.6 148.4 159.2 158.4 160.0 1.0

Manufacturing

83.9 86.0 85.9 86.5 0.7 114.0 119.9 119.9 121.1 1.0

Durable goods

84.3 86.6 86.5 87.3 0.9 114.5 120.3 120.4 122.1 1.4

Nondurable goods

82.7 84.7 84.6 85.3 0.8 112.4 118.6 118.8 119.5 0.6

Private service-providing

121.0 123.0 122.8 122.9 0.1 180.2 186.4 186.9 187.4 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108.8 110.6 110.7 110.4 -0.3 149.3 154.1 155.3 155.4 0.1

Wholesale trade

107.8 109.4 109.6 109.3 -0.3 156.1 159.9 160.3 160.0 -0.2

Retail trade

103.0 104.3 104.4 104.2 -0.2 134.4 138.5 140.1 140.8 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

128.9 132.7 132.3 132.8 0.4 172.8 182.2 182.3 183.3 0.5

Utilities

97.2 97.2 97.7 97.7 0.0 147.1 147.6 150.1 148.6 -1.0

Information

92.5 90.7 91.0 92.0 1.1 140.1 140.0 141.8 142.4 0.4

Financial activities

114.0 115.3 115.4 115.4 0.0 185.8 189.8 190.6 190.9 0.2

Professional and business services

132.1 134.2 134.1 134.4 0.2 203.5 210.8 211.4 212.3 0.4

Education and health services

139.2 142.0 142.1 142.3 0.1 210.9 219.3 219.9 220.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

128.0 130.9 130.5 130.6 0.1 193.5 202.7 202.5 203.4 0.4

Other services

102.5 103.9 103.9 104.5 0.6 148.9 155.1 155.2 156.4 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: May 04, 2018