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Economic News Release
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Table 2. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018

Table 2. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thou-
sands)
Percent of workers with access to:
Paid leave(1) Unpaid leave(1) Paid or unpaid leave(1,2)
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 66.0 32.9 1.1 78.3 13.2 8.5 93.1 4.9 2.0

15 to 24 years

21,296 35.4 62.0 2.6 84.3 10.8 4.9 91.4 5.8 2.8

25 to 34 years

33,682 70.3 29.1 0.6 77.2 13.9 8.9 92.6 5.4 2.1

35 to 44 years

30,159 71.7 27.4 0.9 78.0 12.8 9.1 93.9 4.2 1.9

45 to 54 years

29,484 74.4 24.4 1.2 77.5 12.5 10.1 94.2 3.8 2.0

55 to 64 years

22,514 74.2 24.9 0.9 76.5 14.7 8.8 93.9 5.0 1.1

65 years and over

7,160 51.7 48.2 0.1 76.1 16.3 7.6 89.3 7.8 2.9

Sex

Men

74,830 66.8 32.3 0.9 78.0 14.0 8.0 92.9 5.3 1.7

Women

69,465 65.0 33.6 1.3 78.6 12.3 9.1 93.2 4.5 2.3

Race(3)

White

115,129 66.3 32.6 1.1 78.6 12.8 8.6 93.5 4.4 2.1

Black or African American

17,924 62.6 36.3 1.2 77.6 14.7 7.8 90.1 7.9 2.0

Asian

7,849 71.5 27.9 0.6 74.7 16.9 8.5 92.0 6.7 1.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(4)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 49.9 48.4 1.7 77.0 15.6 7.4 88.0 8.6 3.4

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 69.2 29.8 1.0 78.6 12.7 8.8 94.1 4.2 1.7

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 38.9 57.8 3.3 73.7 19.6 6.7 81.1 13.7 5.3

High school graduates, no college

31,425 64.0 35.2 0.8 80.5 14.1 5.4 91.5 6.4 2.1

Some college or associate degree

29,407 71.8 27.4 0.8 78.6 13.4 8.1 94.9 3.8 1.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 79.0 20.4 0.6 75.2 12.7 12.1 95.1 3.3 1.6

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 70.2 28.9 1.0 77.3 14.1 8.7 93.1 4.9 2.0

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 70.4 29.1 0.5 75.5 14.2 10.3 93.1 5.8 1.1

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 70.1 28.8 1.1 77.7 14.0 8.2 93.1 4.7 2.2

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 63.9 34.9 1.2 78.8 12.8 8.5 93.0 4.9 2.0

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 81.5 17.8 0.7 76.8 13.1 10.1 95.9 3.0 1.1

Professional and related

40,284 75.8 23.6 0.5 74.7 13.5 11.8 93.9 4.1 2.1

Services

23,548 43.2 54.3 2.5 82.1 13.1 4.8 90.6 6.8 2.6

Sales and related

11,290 55.7 41.6 2.7 80.9 10.1 9.0 92.8 4.5 2.7

Office and administrative support

18,967 71.1 28.3 0.6 78.5 13.0 8.5 94.0 4.1 1.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 35.8 64.0 0.3 82.3 13.3 4.4 89.9 8.3 1.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 79.2 19.6 1.2 79.8 10.6 9.6 94.1 3.4 2.4

Production

8,560 70.2 28.9 0.9 77.1 18.1 4.7 90.0 8.0 2.0

Transportation and material moving

7,859 55.7 43.3 0.9 81.6 13.8 4.7 92.2 6.5 1.2

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 44.9 53.5 1.6 81.3 10.4 8.3 86.8 8.8 4.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 43.3 56.2 0.5 83.1 12.2 4.7 91.6 7.4 1.0

Manufacturing

16,185 79.8 19.7 0.5 76.7 15.2 8.1 94.8 3.7 1.5

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 61.3 36.7 2.0 84.9 9.7 5.4 94.2 4.1 1.7

Transportation and utilities

7,357 73.2 26.3 0.5 77.4 16.0 6.7 94.6 4.5 0.9

Information

2,685 80.1 19.9 z 70.8 12.8 16.4 94.8 4.9 0.4

Financial activities

10,370 78.8 20.0 1.1 75.9 12.8 11.3 93.2 4.9 1.9

Professional and business services

16,778 70.0 29.0 1.1 75.8 13.5 10.6 93.7 4.1 2.3

Education and health services

37,294 69.5 29.6 0.9 74.7 14.8 10.5 92.4 5.4 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 33.4 64.0 2.6 85.0 10.2 4.8 89.1 6.8 4.0

Other services

5,475 44.8 54.6 0.7 84.2 9.4 6.4 91.3 5.7 3.0

Public administration

7,552 88.0 11.3 0.6 75.1 15.6 9.2 96.8 2.5 0.7

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 63.1 35.7 1.2 79.1 12.8 8.0 92.8 5.2 2.0

Private, for profit

107,072 62.6 36.1 1.3 79.5 12.6 7.9 92.8 5.2 2.0

Private, not for profit

11,800 68.2 31.4 0.4 76.1 14.7 9.2 92.8 5.2 2.0

Public sector

25,423 79.2 20.2 0.6 74.3 14.9 10.8 94.1 3.7 2.2

Federal government

4,595 91.3 8.7 z 81.0 10.8 8.2 98.7 0.4 0.9

State government

8,807 74.6 24.5 0.9 72.4 16.2 11.4 91.8 4.4 3.7

Local government

12,022 78.0 21.4 0.6 73.2 15.6 11.2 94.1 4.4 1.5

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(5)

Full-time workers

106,369 77.0 22.2 0.8 76.6 13.7 9.7 94.2 4.0 1.8

Part-time workers

25,882 23.3 74.1 2.5 84.3 11.0 4.6 88.4 8.4 3.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 56.5 42.1 1.3 80.0 13.7 6.3 90.6 6.3 3.0

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 80.0 19.2 0.8 76.5 14.9 8.5 95.1 3.7 1.2

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 83.9 15.5 0.6 75.9 12.6 11.5 94.7 3.2 2.0

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 86.0 13.5 0.6 74.2 13.6 12.2 96.0 2.9 1.2

Work schedule flexibility(6)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 65.5 33.4 1.1 80.6 11.2 8.3 94.1 4.1 1.8

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 66.6 32.3 1.1 75.3 15.8 8.9 91.7 5.9 2.3

Workplace flexibility(7)

Could work at home

41,571 80.9 18.4 0.7 76.4 11.4 12.2 95.4 2.8 1.7

Could not work at home

102,338 60.0 38.9 1.1 79.2 13.9 6.9 92.2 5.8 2.0

(1) The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
(2) Some workers have access to both paid and unpaid leave.
(3) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(4) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(5) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(6) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(7) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.

Table of Contents

Last Modified Date: August 29, 2019