Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, August 28, 2019						USDL-19-1541

Technical information:
 Employment:	(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- JULY 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in July than a year earlier in 217 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, higher in 141 areas, and unchanged in 31 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. A total of 61 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 3 areas
had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in
51 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in the remaining 338 areas. The national
unemployment rate in July was 4.0 percent, not seasonally adjusted, little changed from a
year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside.
The employment data come from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment,
hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where
the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, Burlington-South Burlington, VT, and Portland-South Portland, ME, had the lowest
unemployment rates, 1.8 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively. Yuma, AZ, and El Centro,
CA, had the highest unemployment rates, 22.1 percent and 20.7 percent, respectively. A total
of 197 areas had July jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 4.0 percent, 172 areas had rates
above it, and 20 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL, and Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ, had the largest over-the-year
unemployment rate decreases in July (-1.6 percentage points each). Eighteen other areas had
rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. The largest over-the-year rate increase
occurred in Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ (+1.2 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Birmingham-Hoover,
AL; Boston-Cambridge-Nashua, MA-NH; and Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO, had the lowest unemployment
rates in July, 2.7 percent each. Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI, had the highest jobless rate among
the large areas, 5.3 percent. Thirty-three large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate
decreases, 12 had increases, and 6 had no change. The largest rate decline occurred in
Birmingham-Hoover, AL (-1.1 percentage points). The largest jobless rate increases
were in Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, and Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+0.5 percentage
point each).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which
are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In July, San Francisco-Redwood
City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest unemployment rate among the divisions, 2.4 percent.
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the highest division rate, 6.5 percent. (See table 2.)

In July, 29 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 3 had increases,
and 6 had no change. The largest rate declines occurred in Camden, NJ (-1.2 percentage points),
and Newark, NJ-PA (-1.1 points). The largest over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred in
Tacoma-Lakewood, WA (+0.7 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, 51 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment
and 338 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred
in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+145,600), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+129,300),
and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+93,600). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in
employment occurred in Reno, NV (+5.9 percent), Ocean City, NJ (+5.8 percent), and
Ogden-Clearfield, UT (+4.7 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 34 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 17 areas. The
largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas
occurred in Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+3.8 percent), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX
(+3.5 percent), and Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA (+3.4 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 15 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the
year and was essentially unchanged in 23 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in
employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains,
NY-NJ (+115,300), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+103,100), and Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Glendale, CA (+63,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX
(+3.9 percent), Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+3.6 percent), and San Francisco-Redwood City-South
San Francisco, CA (+3.5 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for August is scheduled to be released on Friday,
September 20, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news
release for August is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 2, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates, including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
June July Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) June July June July
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,220,074 2,262,553 2,213,762 2,265,772 103,827 78,406 94,863 69,168 4.7 3.5 4.3 3.1

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,571 46,667 46,255 46,569 2,589 1,906 2,358 1,647 5.6 4.1 5.1 3.5

Auburn-Opelika

74,254 75,311 74,369 75,253 3,344 2,463 2,956 2,092 4.5 3.3 4.0 2.8

Birmingham-Hoover

548,867 560,330 547,843 561,581 23,138 17,456 20,721 15,221 4.2 3.1 3.8 2.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,478 100,588 97,234 100,581 3,988 2,928 3,544 2,474 4.1 2.9 3.6 2.5

Decatur

70,864 73,452 70,694 73,439 3,077 2,289 2,726 1,992 4.3 3.1 3.9 2.7

Dothan

63,471 64,336 63,565 64,438 3,007 2,279 2,751 1,951 4.7 3.5 4.3 3.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,888 66,293 65,812 66,557 3,412 2,730 3,210 2,459 5.2 4.1 4.9 3.7

Gadsden

43,384 44,488 43,291 44,192 2,103 1,706 1,898 1,472 4.8 3.8 4.4 3.3

Huntsville

222,948 229,543 222,981 230,716 9,267 6,929 8,494 5,990 4.2 3.0 3.8 2.6

Mobile

188,827 191,372 188,117 191,222 10,227 8,061 9,817 7,315 5.4 4.2 5.2 3.8

Montgomery

174,513 176,393 173,683 176,822 7,913 5,894 7,298 5,221 4.5 3.3 4.2 3.0

Tuscaloosa

114,555 118,403 114,985 118,553 5,566 4,163 5,091 3,698 4.9 3.5 4.4 3.1

Alaska

363,950 357,246 367,529 361,483 24,225 22,118 22,002 19,975 6.7 6.2 6.0 5.5

Anchorage

200,753 197,963 199,947 197,397 12,423 11,248 11,348 10,159 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.1

Fairbanks

45,959 44,543 46,374 45,823 2,729 2,423 2,447 2,212 5.9 5.4 5.3 4.8

Arizona

3,427,161 3,566,295 3,439,400 3,578,877 173,103 188,571 174,013 201,758 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.6

Flagstaff

77,759 79,554 77,166 79,745 4,329 4,840 4,524 5,163 5.6 6.1 5.9 6.5

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,243 89,269 86,610 90,009 5,121 5,582 4,927 5,875 5.9 6.3 5.7 6.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,397,485 2,506,366 2,410,267 2,514,828 104,533 114,986 103,729 121,439 4.4 4.6 4.3 4.8

Prescott

106,462 109,568 107,007 110,110 4,868 5,409 4,726 5,668 4.6 4.9 4.4 5.1

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,998 50,455 49,464 50,035 2,830 3,190 2,769 3,379 5.7 6.3 5.6 6.8

Tucson

482,483 500,761 484,067 503,015 22,543 25,152 22,371 26,705 4.7 5.0 4.6 5.3

Yuma

95,742 97,604 98,124 100,735 18,850 19,113 20,557 22,288 19.7 19.6 21.0 22.1

Arkansas

1,368,251 1,382,212 1,368,932 1,380,474 54,666 49,644 55,349 54,555 4.0 3.6 4.0 4.0

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

276,128 283,378 279,072 286,583 8,219 7,224 8,538 8,092 3.0 2.5 3.1 2.8

Fort Smith

120,445 120,528 120,665 120,301 4,864 4,506 4,748 4,680 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.9

Hot Springs

41,548 42,364 42,159 42,906 1,804 1,599 1,789 1,757 4.3 3.8 4.2 4.1

Jonesboro

64,925 65,744 65,603 66,593 2,306 2,021 2,345 2,220 3.6 3.1 3.6 3.3

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,423 363,068 363,778 366,439 12,776 11,525 12,906 13,183 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.6

Pine Bluff

35,596 35,706 36,275 35,822 1,979 1,925 2,038 2,071 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.8

California

19,395,567 19,297,350 19,498,176 19,453,554 850,141 803,476 876,833 864,476 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.4

Bakersfield

389,870 390,168 389,200 390,903 32,752 31,199 32,117 32,849 8.4 8.0 8.3 8.4

Chico

101,854 101,450 102,913 102,260 5,320 5,238 5,339 5,518 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.4

El Centro

71,995 70,234 70,083 68,861 12,950 13,118 14,093 14,221 18.0 18.7 20.1 20.7

Fresno

452,279 452,804 450,715 456,365 33,481 31,854 33,204 33,190 7.4 7.0 7.4 7.3

Hanford-Corcoran

57,342 57,626 58,002 58,391 4,620 4,553 4,411 4,560 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,731,693 6,682,387 6,784,545 6,741,852 298,117 282,716 320,935 308,618 4.4 4.2 4.7 4.6

Madera

61,701 61,478 60,776 60,699 4,382 4,292 4,352 4,497 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.4

Merced

116,325 115,388 113,432 113,457 9,849 9,349 9,525 9,526 8.5 8.1 8.4 8.4

Modesto

243,820 239,810 245,284 244,299 16,941 15,472 16,837 16,008 6.9 6.5 6.9 6.6

Napa

76,031 75,080 76,176 75,745 2,214 2,084 2,226 2,269 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

425,462 419,030 425,204 418,970 16,355 15,241 16,809 16,500 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.9

Redding

74,827 73,690 74,218 73,396 3,685 3,410 3,727 3,594 4.9 4.6 5.0 4.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,047,408 2,039,983 2,056,730 2,056,068 92,973 87,192 96,047 95,189 4.5 4.3 4.7 4.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,096,598 1,090,079 1,105,507 1,103,807 43,002 40,875 43,319 44,028 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.0

Salinas

234,862 233,651 233,159 234,240 11,640 11,055 11,148 11,047 5.0 4.7 4.8 4.7

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,591,447 1,582,336 1,602,680 1,598,876 56,646 52,856 57,537 57,078 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,577,572 2,584,087 2,604,376 2,614,523 75,862 70,983 76,031 76,189 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.9

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,083,769 1,083,556 1,091,572 1,095,635 31,227 29,196 30,981 31,109 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,012 141,735 140,552 140,874 4,511 4,225 4,524 4,561 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.2

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

145,365 145,080 144,910 145,205 6,465 6,138 6,300 6,293 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.3

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,871 219,091 218,007 219,219 8,340 7,545 8,351 8,085 3.8 3.4 3.8 3.7

Santa Rosa

262,810 261,151 264,051 261,975 7,742 7,262 7,692 7,774 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0

Stockton-Lodi

326,253 320,549 327,088 321,801 19,990 19,035 20,038 20,358 6.1 5.9 6.1 6.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,583 206,376 211,282 207,344 8,528 8,093 8,705 8,663 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.2

Visalia-Porterville

208,410 206,701 202,500 202,695 19,797 18,908 19,986 20,199 9.5 9.1 9.9 10.0

Yuba City

76,113 75,312 75,858 76,194 5,242 5,018 5,073 5,085 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.7

Colorado

3,115,771 3,186,284 3,126,894 3,188,759 106,593 94,919 104,258 88,082 3.4 3.0 3.3 2.8

Boulder

194,000 199,403 192,683 198,353 5,895 5,290 5,655 4,721 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.4

Colorado Springs

351,134 361,540 351,002 359,887 14,515 12,771 14,626 12,299 4.1 3.5 4.2 3.4

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,660,942 1,692,792 1,662,251 1,687,034 54,670 48,806 53,326 45,341 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.7

Fort Collins

202,826 207,395 203,243 206,695 5,974 5,367 5,626 4,684 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.3

Grand Junction

76,105 78,147 75,901 77,713 3,135 2,842 3,196 2,745 4.1 3.6 4.2 3.5

Greeley

165,177 168,965 165,527 169,472 5,190 4,778 5,100 4,428 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.6

Pueblo

76,314 76,726 75,523 75,953 3,870 3,355 3,947 3,373 5.1 4.4 5.2 4.4

Connecticut

1,921,741 1,923,951 1,942,125 1,941,408 83,598 74,055 83,401 69,996 4.4 3.8 4.3 3.6

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

471,821 472,380 478,017 478,963 20,597 18,468 20,320 17,076 4.4 3.9 4.3 3.6

Danbury

107,564 107,888 109,441 109,206 3,999 3,501 3,978 3,290 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.0

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

629,003 629,468 634,922 633,911 27,393 24,257 27,510 23,305 4.4 3.9 4.3 3.7

New Haven

328,737 330,449 330,063 332,287 14,315 12,518 14,295 11,871 4.4 3.8 4.3 3.6

Norwich-New London-Westerly

145,195 143,871 147,608 145,778 6,059 5,329 5,990 5,069 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.5

Waterbury

113,050 112,794 114,070 113,265 5,895 5,205 6,045 5,015 5.2 4.6 5.3 4.4

Delaware

487,434 492,168 488,284 493,639 20,059 17,808 19,543 18,490 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.7

Dover

78,556 79,678 77,705 79,197 3,757 3,351 3,635 3,576 4.8 4.2 4.7 4.5

Salisbury(1)

201,767 200,736 203,995 205,482 9,028 8,192 8,481 8,143 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.0

District of Columbia

408,862 415,985 411,058 418,922 24,600 24,367 24,586 24,910 6.0 5.9 6.0 5.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,425,318 3,476,751 3,446,576 3,512,865 124,453 116,945 119,547 117,089 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3

Florida

10,259,091 10,417,225 10,295,785 10,470,763 394,785 362,822 389,018 363,073 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.5

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

340,379 348,814 340,776 350,078 12,763 12,121 12,403 11,799 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

131,317 132,570 132,233 132,700 4,132 3,822 3,906 3,717 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.8

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

301,833 305,095 303,802 306,545 12,226 11,672 11,925 11,419 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.7

Gainesville

141,871 142,575 143,409 144,655 5,248 4,924 5,007 4,999 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5

Homosassa Springs

48,358 48,654 47,226 47,781 2,709 2,511 2,603 2,467 5.6 5.2 5.5 5.2

Jacksonville

782,593 792,401 785,522 798,260 29,185 27,409 29,071 27,592 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.5

Lakeland-Winter Haven

298,906 303,431 300,481 303,230 13,267 12,362 13,210 12,508 4.4 4.1 4.4 4.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,146,253 3,201,412 3,162,534 3,224,952 121,623 106,951 120,246 108,389 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.4

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

174,198 177,254 173,508 177,521 6,482 5,985 6,725 6,248 3.7 3.4 3.9 3.5

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

367,765 369,288 366,770 369,684 13,515 12,647 13,071 12,382 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.3

Ocala

136,607 139,105 136,715 139,720 6,371 5,860 6,214 5,687 4.7 4.2 4.5 4.1

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,344,108 1,381,006 1,353,145 1,388,052 47,820 44,764 47,154 44,719 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.2

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,288 285,202 281,202 286,753 10,503 9,961 10,313 9,805 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.4

Panama City

98,708 95,783 99,102 96,232 3,541 3,704 3,428 3,507 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.6

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,744 228,937 229,895 230,807 8,571 7,971 8,377 7,961 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4

Port St. Lucie

216,952 220,919 216,680 221,270 9,689 8,931 9,605 8,945 4.5 4.0 4.4 4.0

Punta Gorda

71,062 72,173 70,215 71,899 3,069 2,851 3,008 2,771 4.3 4.0 4.3 3.9

Sebastian-Vero Beach

64,795 66,351 64,758 66,384 3,067 2,763 3,111 2,801 4.7 4.2 4.8 4.2

Sebring

35,789 35,299 35,124 34,869 1,899 1,802 1,936 1,814 5.3 5.1 5.5 5.2

Tallahassee

192,275 195,161 193,095 196,405 7,426 6,906 7,248 7,086 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,538,594 1,553,229 1,544,339 1,562,853 57,789 53,950 56,531 53,395 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.4

The Villages

31,230 32,017 31,172 31,908 1,741 1,664 1,643 1,544 5.6 5.2 5.3 4.8

Georgia

5,122,210 5,124,710 5,137,689 5,130,878 221,443 198,004 217,611 190,687 4.3 3.9 4.2 3.7

Albany

67,162 66,278 66,956 66,124 3,595 3,109 3,539 2,922 5.4 4.7 5.3 4.4

Athens-Clarke County

102,031 100,789 101,656 100,837 4,385 3,802 4,062 3,503 4.3 3.8 4.0 3.5

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,079,649 3,091,919 3,095,801 3,098,854 127,938 114,444 124,005 108,013 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.5

Augusta-Richmond County

269,136 270,542 268,234 269,930 12,186 11,332 12,386 10,919 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.0

Brunswick

54,789 54,478 54,464 54,680 2,260 2,004 2,140 1,903 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.5

Columbus

126,224 124,347 125,504 123,646 6,463 5,654 6,219 5,390 5.1 4.5 5.0 4.4

Dalton

61,374 61,411 62,024 61,499 3,025 2,739 3,257 2,802 4.9 4.5 5.3 4.6

Gainesville

102,058 104,177 102,598 104,478 3,696 3,254 3,474 3,079 3.6 3.1 3.4 2.9

Hinesville

33,569 33,602 33,648 33,849 1,542 1,496 1,503 1,437 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.2

Macon-Bibb County

104,999 104,416 104,944 104,146 4,885 4,422 4,737 4,218 4.7 4.2 4.5 4.1

Rome

44,285 44,499 44,580 44,746 2,100 1,811 2,195 2,037 4.7 4.1 4.9 4.6

Savannah

189,661 190,196 190,867 189,137 7,650 6,849 7,276 6,485 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.4

Valdosta

64,377 64,471 64,189 64,392 2,969 2,557 2,849 2,416 4.6 4.0 4.4 3.8

Warner Robins

86,522 86,945 86,272 86,386 3,820 3,382 3,634 3,178 4.4 3.9 4.2 3.7

Hawaii

682,688 662,563 682,940 662,155 20,585 21,375 17,181 17,790 3.0 3.2 2.5 2.7

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,122 84,847 88,190 85,168 2,606 2,613 2,174 2,179 3.0 3.1 2.5 2.6

Urban Honolulu

466,535 454,451 464,729 453,480 13,361 13,965 10,829 11,351 2.9 3.1 2.3 2.5

Idaho

866,461 888,777 869,908 895,170 21,944 23,097 21,625 24,796 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.8

Boise City

363,766 376,033 366,182 379,651 9,104 9,779 9,089 10,507 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.8

Coeur d'Alene

79,042 81,158 79,813 81,265 2,235 2,322 2,186 2,431 2.8 2.9 2.7 3.0

Idaho Falls

71,340 73,907 71,598 73,988 1,498 1,542 1,449 1,631 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2

Lewiston

31,246 31,525 31,045 31,497 962 945 917 1,066 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.4

Pocatello

41,575 42,265 41,201 42,824 1,032 1,084 1,035 1,396 2.5 2.6 2.5 3.3

Twin Falls

53,048 53,668 53,340 54,094 1,336 1,378 1,336 1,449 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.7

Illinois

6,557,489 6,576,829 6,556,104 6,592,403 306,543 265,341 292,489 278,431 4.7 4.0 4.5 4.2

Bloomington

94,342 93,867 94,426 94,302 4,480 3,515 4,366 3,863 4.7 3.7 4.6 4.1

Carbondale-Marion

58,177 58,880 59,997 60,773 3,158 2,341 3,129 2,582 5.4 4.0 5.2 4.2

Champaign-Urbana

118,289 118,344 118,475 119,393 5,939 4,523 5,810 5,022 5.0 3.8 4.9 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,953,621 4,977,840 4,955,354 4,979,118 221,806 199,394 208,679 204,179 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.1

Danville

33,971 33,327 33,442 33,541 2,181 1,561 2,205 1,824 6.4 4.7 6.6 5.4

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

194,245 197,189 194,535 198,058 8,102 7,489 7,589 7,737 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.9

Decatur

50,741 50,458 50,717 50,971 3,061 2,520 3,037 2,776 6.0 5.0 6.0 5.4

Kankakee

56,384 56,086 56,499 56,316 3,027 2,388 2,978 2,600 5.4 4.3 5.3 4.6

Peoria

181,239 182,165 183,671 183,023 9,578 7,573 9,452 8,277 5.3 4.2 5.1 4.5

Rockford

169,236 170,768 169,002 174,349 9,264 8,951 9,126 11,408 5.5 5.2 5.4 6.5

Springfield

112,393 113,209 112,667 113,696 5,025 4,081 4,858 4,418 4.5 3.6 4.3 3.9

Indiana

3,436,719 3,410,149 3,425,660 3,419,895 128,041 113,126 121,655 122,223 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6

Bloomington

76,489 74,940 75,313 74,662 3,324 2,871 3,161 2,965 4.3 3.8 4.2 4.0

Columbus

46,225 45,796 45,957 45,607 1,335 1,162 1,230 1,197 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.6

Elkhart-Goshen

119,058 118,786 118,195 118,293 3,335 3,554 3,187 4,234 2.8 3.0 2.7 3.6

Evansville

166,192 166,905 166,889 167,919 5,938 5,389 5,549 5,693 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.4

Fort Wayne

220,330 221,521 219,873 222,578 7,508 6,794 7,149 7,586 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,080,719 1,072,249 1,079,598 1,076,720 38,285 33,217 36,490 35,423 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.3

Kokomo

38,282 37,818 38,027 38,024 1,652 1,354 1,395 1,471 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.9

Lafayette-West Lafayette

113,537 106,221 111,639 106,930 4,051 3,441 3,802 3,624 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.4

Michigan City-La Porte

49,420 48,141 48,965 48,029 2,163 1,987 2,034 2,085 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Muncie

53,298 53,297 53,332 53,249 2,413 2,149 2,254 2,267 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.3

South Bend-Mishawaka

162,231 163,512 160,957 162,221 6,329 6,313 6,172 6,850 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.2

Terre Haute

78,429 76,467 77,674 76,725 3,753 3,171 3,800 3,382 4.8 4.1 4.9 4.4

Iowa

1,703,561 1,741,626 1,708,108 1,759,771 43,531 45,322 40,696 46,770 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.7

Ames

54,569 56,972 55,014 57,463 1,122 1,293 995 1,246 2.1 2.3 1.8 2.2

Cedar Rapids

145,903 146,476 145,034 148,463 4,021 4,062 3,770 4,277 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.9

Des Moines-West Des Moines

357,222 374,085 360,336 379,871 8,901 9,645 8,332 9,693 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.6

Dubuque

55,571 56,901 55,317 57,806 1,276 1,276 1,192 1,390 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.4

Iowa City

96,878 97,788 97,457 99,654 2,162 2,174 1,987 2,257 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.3

Sioux City

92,386 96,207 93,510 96,799 2,496 2,613 2,347 2,660 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,805 90,809 89,379 92,224 2,444 2,485 2,265 3,033 2.8 2.7 2.5 3.3

Kansas

1,498,096 1,490,656 1,503,990 1,502,401 54,814 48,647 57,800 57,097 3.7 3.3 3.8 3.8

Lawrence

62,272 61,483 63,405 62,401 2,251 1,957 2,336 2,282 3.6 3.2 3.7 3.7

Manhattan

45,035 44,673 45,435 45,371 1,545 1,361 1,595 1,611 3.4 3.0 3.5 3.6

Topeka

121,784 122,379 123,266 124,451 4,455 3,916 4,732 4,580 3.7 3.2 3.8 3.7

Wichita

311,991 313,033 315,819 317,776 12,666 11,103 13,236 12,717 4.1 3.5 4.2 4.0

Kentucky

2,098,389 2,095,169 2,082,225 2,085,821 101,985 102,184 98,463 106,508 4.9 4.9 4.7 5.1

Bowling Green

84,882 85,423 82,775 83,239 3,801 3,967 3,555 3,991 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

68,830 69,080 69,018 69,357 3,246 3,261 3,206 3,434 4.7 4.7 4.6 5.0

Lexington-Fayette

275,525 279,020 272,357 276,813 10,984 10,995 10,240 11,115 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.0

Louisville/Jefferson County

682,387 681,356 685,111 685,457 28,838 28,959 29,324 31,424 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.6

Owensboro

57,590 56,456 57,353 56,888 2,595 2,510 2,409 2,543 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.5

Louisiana

2,138,528 2,127,442 2,135,050 2,119,110 130,667 113,154 121,375 110,294 6.1 5.3 5.7 5.2

Alexandria

64,584 63,709 64,381 63,599 4,261 3,623 3,982 3,605 6.6 5.7 6.2 5.7

Baton Rouge

425,602 421,995 423,635 419,049 23,379 20,763 22,000 20,200 5.5 4.9 5.2 4.8

Hammond

55,229 55,033 55,077 55,032 3,857 3,411 3,577 3,333 7.0 6.2 6.5 6.1

Houma-Thibodaux

90,313 86,810 90,841 87,227 5,466 4,508 4,997 4,301 6.1 5.2 5.5 4.9

Lafayette

216,302 216,731 217,182 216,392 13,199 11,226 12,198 10,825 6.1 5.2 5.6 5.0

Lake Charles

115,605 115,676 115,908 115,658 5,530 5,004 5,102 4,885 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.2

Monroe

80,577 80,057 80,554 79,679 5,092 4,648 4,786 4,502 6.3 5.8 5.9 5.7

New Orleans-Metairie

601,891 609,329 602,588 606,717 35,146 30,197 32,931 29,338 5.8 5.0 5.5 4.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

191,501 187,652 191,934 187,811 12,458 10,708 11,353 10,371 6.5 5.7 5.9 5.5

Maine

710,735 702,161 717,755 707,668 23,286 19,622 23,272 16,779 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.4

Bangor

71,317 70,498 71,295 69,865 2,413 1,982 2,766 1,747 3.4 2.8 3.9 2.5

Lewiston-Auburn

56,092 55,663 55,757 55,213 1,851 1,579 1,874 1,411 3.3 2.8 3.4 2.6

Portland-South Portland

213,141 211,182 214,028 212,294 5,967 4,924 5,771 4,102 2.8 2.3 2.7 1.9

Maryland

3,228,147 3,271,812 3,250,426 3,308,838 137,580 129,037 134,674 131,839 4.3 3.9 4.1 4.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,508,439 1,535,396 1,515,008 1,547,427 65,482 61,495 64,794 63,421 4.3 4.0 4.3 4.1

California-Lexington Park

55,843 56,425 56,333 56,992 2,339 2,095 2,490 2,375 4.2 3.7 4.4 4.2

Cumberland

44,184 45,222 44,587 45,845 2,605 2,653 2,545 2,725 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.9

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

132,494 134,948 132,927 136,102 5,936 5,315 5,649 5,167 4.5 3.9 4.2 3.8

Massachusetts

3,859,080 3,878,396 3,874,598 3,873,413 143,693 121,924 140,813 112,615 3.7 3.1 3.6 2.9

Barnstable Town

137,768 138,672 145,130 144,680 5,007 4,394 4,675 3,905 3.6 3.2 3.2 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,845,354 2,861,933 2,851,503 2,856,626 97,516 82,511 95,876 77,201 3.4 2.9 3.4 2.7

Leominster-Gardner

82,431 83,164 82,287 82,306 3,468 2,961 3,474 2,784 4.2 3.6 4.2 3.4

New Bedford

86,930 87,420 87,613 86,927 4,637 3,989 4,572 3,637 5.3 4.6 5.2 4.2

Pittsfield

45,063 44,958 45,857 45,469 1,869 1,631 1,752 1,421 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.1

Springfield

382,488 388,875 381,313 385,406 17,781 15,310 17,551 14,361 4.6 3.9 4.6 3.7

Worcester

365,788 362,402 364,105 359,698 14,608 12,738 14,476 11,850 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.3

Michigan

4,960,063 5,006,733 4,962,680 5,024,806 215,529 218,409 237,393 254,490 4.3 4.4 4.8 5.1

Ann Arbor

194,325 196,635 193,469 194,552 6,916 6,875 7,705 8,250 3.6 3.5 4.0 4.2

Battle Creek

63,973 64,265 63,201 63,082 2,852 2,925 3,052 3,306 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.2

Bay City

51,154 51,197 50,921 50,756 2,577 2,572 2,709 2,778 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,236 2,158,390 2,158,138 2,202,240 96,171 97,808 107,383 116,083 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.3

Flint

184,903 188,551 183,665 185,748 9,374 10,323 11,343 11,366 5.1 5.5 6.2 6.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

590,161 595,407 582,799 588,195 19,264 19,721 20,990 22,986 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.9

Jackson

75,501 76,468 73,775 74,689 3,274 3,184 3,426 3,676 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.9

Kalamazoo-Portage

170,545 171,715 169,088 170,057 6,877 6,758 7,284 7,804 4.0 3.9 4.3 4.6

Lansing-East Lansing

246,293 248,803 244,967 247,232 9,576 9,580 10,889 11,430 3.9 3.9 4.4 4.6

Midland

41,538 41,408 40,818 40,847 1,726 1,670 1,786 1,841 4.2 4.0 4.4 4.5

Monroe

76,643 77,376 75,908 76,825 3,373 3,153 3,742 4,368 4.4 4.1 4.9 5.7

Muskegon

80,902 81,170 80,212 80,532 4,049 3,699 4,269 4,369 5.0 4.6 5.3 5.4

Niles-Benton Harbor

75,498 76,225 75,236 75,503 3,489 3,515 3,562 3,776 4.6 4.6 4.7 5.0

Saginaw

87,858 88,683 87,809 87,984 4,367 4,518 5,006 5,037 5.0 5.1 5.7 5.7

Minnesota

3,090,901 3,132,805 3,100,442 3,155,615 90,189 106,050 83,134 104,238 2.9 3.4 2.7 3.3

Duluth

143,135 143,857 142,570 145,134 5,515 5,984 4,992 5,934 3.9 4.2 3.5 4.1

Mankato-North Mankato

60,586 61,730 59,578 61,086 1,595 1,903 1,364 1,788 2.6 3.1 2.3 2.9

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,010,763 2,033,390 2,023,707 2,051,095 56,732 66,287 52,419 64,471 2.8 3.3 2.6 3.1

Rochester

124,518 127,784 125,861 129,424 3,126 3,793 2,750 3,623 2.5 3.0 2.2 2.8

St. Cloud

110,961 113,528 111,348 114,515 3,215 3,686 2,829 3,473 2.9 3.2 2.5 3.0

Mississippi

1,293,422 1,298,941 1,289,979 1,307,532 74,549 77,882 68,579 79,423 5.8 6.0 5.3 6.1

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

167,355 166,684 167,985 169,554 9,768 9,778 8,910 9,993 5.8 5.9 5.3 5.9

Hattiesburg

68,323 70,375 68,599 70,764 3,472 3,688 3,257 3,822 5.1 5.2 4.7 5.4

Jackson

273,129 275,101 272,426 277,081 13,771 14,567 12,567 14,768 5.0 5.3 4.6 5.3

Missouri

3,091,884 3,114,443 3,091,337 3,136,686 106,756 107,731 112,187 116,522 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7

Cape Girardeau

48,175 48,660 47,293 47,835 1,683 1,726 1,722 1,764 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7

Columbia

95,061 94,946 96,549 97,185 2,421 2,602 2,682 2,831 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9

Jefferson City

74,179 74,117 74,878 75,317 2,116 2,242 2,287 2,399 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2

Joplin

84,085 84,600 84,410 85,904 2,668 2,855 2,887 3,215 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.7

Kansas City

1,150,426 1,163,488 1,164,373 1,181,337 40,280 38,220 44,570 46,718 3.5 3.3 3.8 4.0

St. Joseph

63,810 63,812 64,183 64,814 2,040 2,086 2,157 2,272 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

St. Louis(2)

1,477,719 1,499,290 1,485,387 1,513,288 54,905 51,668 56,451 54,454 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.6

Springfield

231,210 233,566 232,885 236,520 6,803 6,796 6,994 7,076 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

Montana

535,803 540,568 538,836 544,272 19,576 17,256 17,957 14,952 3.7 3.2 3.3 2.7

Billings

88,144 88,348 87,659 88,405 3,128 2,855 2,959 2,469 3.5 3.2 3.4 2.8

Great Falls

38,447 38,870 37,582 37,742 1,370 1,239 1,257 1,073 3.6 3.2 3.3 2.8

Missoula

63,370 64,953 62,383 63,853 2,022 1,815 1,847 1,597 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.5

Nebraska

1,033,056 1,051,621 1,037,738 1,056,287 31,124 35,430 31,493 35,047 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.3

Grand Island

44,337 44,995 44,266 44,688 1,326 1,518 1,340 1,505 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.4

Lincoln

181,235 185,030 183,853 186,503 5,157 5,995 5,142 5,693 2.8 3.2 2.8 3.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

489,461 506,788 493,402 511,954 15,010 16,544 15,098 16,622 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.2

Nevada

1,500,499 1,544,514 1,508,509 1,552,470 70,709 69,336 70,448 69,224 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.5

Carson City

25,967 26,904 25,877 26,940 1,180 1,152 1,170 1,115 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.1

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,095,479 1,123,095 1,104,915 1,131,254 55,013 53,654 54,675 53,486 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.7

Reno

251,482 266,532 252,399 266,936 9,135 9,144 9,161 9,187 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4

New Hampshire

770,590 779,924 775,808 784,452 19,468 18,801 19,270 19,294 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.5

Dover-Durham

84,956 85,707 85,625 86,056 2,090 1,919 2,062 1,964 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.3

Manchester

121,327 122,858 120,904 122,059 2,933 2,876 2,844 2,872 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

Portsmouth

79,006 79,985 79,968 80,754 1,878 1,702 1,817 1,660 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.1

New Jersey

4,476,647 4,481,379 4,495,703 4,537,577 196,748 133,618 208,417 158,434 4.4 3.0 4.6 3.5

Atlantic City-Hammonton

122,364 123,166 125,005 126,097 7,063 4,923 7,186 5,671 5.8 4.0 5.7 4.5

Ocean City

53,217 55,442 56,899 59,588 3,113 2,051 2,800 2,091 5.8 3.7 4.9 3.5

Trenton

199,377 201,851 199,910 203,071 7,840 5,503 8,641 6,668 3.9 2.7 4.3 3.3

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,324 65,286 63,018 64,356 4,158 2,830 4,339 3,402 6.5 4.3 6.9 5.3

New Mexico

944,787 970,505 944,247 973,041 51,501 53,440 50,437 54,904 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.6

Albuquerque

430,671 443,006 431,183 444,188 22,418 23,360 22,080 23,936 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.4

Farmington

52,960 53,729 51,575 52,883 3,430 3,388 3,336 3,496 6.5 6.3 6.5 6.6

Las Cruces

96,346 98,903 95,712 98,124 5,959 6,265 5,699 6,310 6.2 6.3 6.0 6.4

Santa Fe

75,067 76,310 75,701 77,144 3,356 3,440 3,321 3,551 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.6

New York

9,660,027 9,563,221 9,712,136 9,581,857 396,906 360,370 403,152 398,313 4.1 3.8 4.2 4.2

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

456,575 449,689 455,099 444,702 17,329 14,444 16,677 16,046 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.6

Binghamton

109,155 107,017 107,944 105,773 5,078 4,298 4,947 4,765 4.7 4.0 4.6 4.5

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

548,854 543,130 550,873 543,163 24,117 20,059 24,335 23,430 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.3

Elmira

36,155 35,133 35,491 34,709 1,691 1,340 1,607 1,444 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.2

Glens Falls

62,355 61,272 63,222 61,787 2,324 2,003 2,162 2,143 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.5

Ithaca

49,034 49,353 49,405 49,446 2,041 1,668 1,933 1,908 4.2 3.4 3.9 3.9

Kingston

90,338 90,220 90,233 89,584 3,502 2,948 3,469 3,353 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.7

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,022,978 9,951,762 10,081,153 10,018,291 413,386 350,793 431,176 393,755 4.1 3.5 4.3 3.9

Rochester

527,484 521,650 525,927 519,509 22,043 18,638 21,667 21,118 4.2 3.6 4.1 4.1

Syracuse

308,674 308,797 309,638 306,894 13,367 11,210 12,868 12,511 4.3 3.6 4.2 4.1

Utica-Rome

131,633 129,439 131,987 129,051 5,668 5,198 5,559 5,363 4.3 4.0 4.2 4.2

Watertown-Fort Drum

46,024 45,423 46,420 45,678 2,168 1,886 2,156 2,133 4.7 4.2 4.6 4.7

North Carolina

5,016,188 5,149,413 5,035,639 5,180,308 209,356 229,125 207,423 226,720 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.4

Asheville

234,620 246,007 234,922 247,229 7,798 8,898 7,684 8,548 3.3 3.6 3.3 3.5

Burlington

80,406 82,069 80,782 82,791 3,327 3,654 3,264 3,665 4.1 4.5 4.0 4.4

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,340,339 1,390,072 1,345,593 1,396,751 52,504 56,524 51,912 55,796 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0

Durham-Chapel Hill

297,522 305,896 300,397 309,049 11,333 12,426 11,151 12,170 3.8 4.1 3.7 3.9

Fayetteville

149,200 152,860 147,303 151,990 8,089 8,793 8,227 8,801 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.8

Goldsboro

52,999 53,308 53,233 53,734 2,405 2,561 2,372 2,526 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.7

Greensboro-High Point

367,981 372,951 367,853 375,008 16,421 17,747 16,286 17,758 4.5 4.8 4.4 4.7

Greenville

91,056 91,592 90,218 91,827 4,377 4,752 4,286 4,766 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.2

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,362 176,940 174,486 177,272 6,672 7,660 6,553 7,478 3.8 4.3 3.8 4.2

Jacksonville

64,962 65,781 63,097 64,099 3,102 3,463 3,045 3,369 4.8 5.3 4.8 5.3

New Bern

51,994 52,727 52,182 53,060 2,205 2,483 2,217 2,429 4.2 4.7 4.2 4.6

Raleigh

716,640 736,691 722,492 746,404 26,383 29,113 26,100 28,769 3.7 4.0 3.6 3.9

Rocky Mount

64,741 64,975 65,541 65,560 4,013 3,949 3,967 3,948 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0

Wilmington

151,165 155,334 152,707 156,640 5,779 6,399 5,801 6,280 3.8 4.1 3.8 4.0

Winston-Salem

327,559 337,767 327,377 338,744 13,236 14,438 13,026 14,202 4.0 4.3 4.0 4.2

North Dakota

413,423 412,607 412,149 411,578 11,791 10,994 9,813 9,294 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.3

Bismarck

68,909 69,100 69,413 69,405 1,992 1,857 1,660 1,529 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.2

Fargo

137,432 138,143 138,045 139,257 3,645 3,431 2,988 3,059 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.2

Grand Forks

55,192 54,914 54,312 54,175 1,727 1,768 1,539 1,577 3.1 3.2 2.8 2.9

Ohio

5,825,104 5,869,085 5,830,734 5,927,571 291,972 249,178 275,579 272,580 5.0 4.2 4.7 4.6

Akron

358,779 362,009 359,827 365,803 17,745 15,518 16,583 16,694 4.9 4.3 4.6 4.6

Canton-Massillon

201,199 202,395 200,406 204,141 10,265 8,729 9,529 9,362 5.1 4.3 4.8 4.6

Cincinnati

1,133,649 1,154,267 1,133,128 1,163,033 50,597 45,384 47,286 48,447 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.2

Cleveland-Elyria

1,050,730 1,050,459 1,061,677 1,070,053 61,061 49,425 56,804 54,730 5.8 4.7 5.4 5.1

Columbus

1,093,426 1,104,723 1,095,046 1,116,318 47,068 40,603 43,564 43,909 4.3 3.7 4.0 3.9

Dayton

389,299 389,574 390,875 392,737 18,833 16,346 17,832 17,630 4.8 4.2 4.6 4.5

Lima

48,214 48,965 48,573 49,416 2,352 2,018 2,543 2,331 4.9 4.1 5.2 4.7

Mansfield

53,465 54,399 53,550 54,906 2,739 2,317 2,704 2,629 5.1 4.3 5.0 4.8

Springfield

63,667 64,299 62,860 64,192 3,196 2,703 3,265 3,166 5.0 4.2 5.2 4.9

Toledo

303,261 304,904 302,586 306,836 16,330 13,047 15,453 14,271 5.4 4.3 5.1 4.7

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,080 50,768 51,028 50,921 3,321 2,820 3,159 2,937 6.5 5.6 6.2 5.8

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

245,170 242,581 243,663 243,977 14,147 13,558 14,434 14,765 5.8 5.6 5.9 6.1

Oklahoma

1,858,945 1,858,722 1,849,373 1,866,885 69,197 63,909 61,432 63,449 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.4

Enid

27,839 27,232 27,749 27,606 920 851 817 853 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.1

Lawton

52,451 52,130 51,614 52,186 2,186 1,955 2,025 1,997 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.8

Oklahoma City

687,525 693,561 688,224 700,071 23,668 21,930 20,929 21,711 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.1

Tulsa

486,349 481,867 485,240 487,239 18,194 16,456 16,167 16,250 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.3

Oregon

2,112,449 2,118,160 2,125,001 2,135,330 87,921 83,833 89,375 89,909 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.2

Albany

58,919 58,984 58,524 58,597 2,751 2,671 2,862 2,906 4.7 4.5 4.9 5.0

Bend-Redmond

95,791 96,447 96,624 97,935 3,831 3,752 3,785 3,827 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9

Corvallis

49,274 49,299 46,525 46,811 1,705 1,640 1,719 1,793 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.8

Eugene

182,329 181,341 181,002 179,837 8,288 7,906 8,463 8,340 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.6

Grants Pass

36,160 36,509 35,993 36,344 1,921 1,833 2,012 1,915 5.3 5.0 5.6 5.3

Medford

104,872 105,721 104,249 105,991 5,051 4,824 5,198 5,565 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.3

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,306,256 1,319,700 1,319,780 1,336,280 51,886 51,257 52,366 53,914 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0

Salem

203,198 203,531 205,437 205,985 8,759 8,577 9,152 9,382 4.3 4.2 4.5 4.6

Pennsylvania

6,484,141 6,524,148 6,530,022 6,573,980 299,241 262,823 306,077 298,140 4.6 4.0 4.7 4.5

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

440,019 442,447 440,569 445,678 20,859 17,586 21,645 20,027 4.7 4.0 4.9 4.5

Altoona

60,903 61,646 60,991 62,232 2,924 2,575 2,896 2,989 4.8 4.2 4.7 4.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,700 42,962 43,031 43,365 2,080 1,792 2,120 1,985 4.9 4.2 4.9 4.6

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,781 79,396 78,810 79,946 3,131 2,728 3,288 3,234 4.0 3.4 4.2 4.0

East Stroudsburg

82,590 83,198 83,984 84,961 4,565 4,035 4,757 4,571 5.5 4.8 5.7 5.4

Erie

130,184 130,828 131,051 131,821 6,661 5,526 6,532 6,186 5.1 4.2 5.0 4.7

Gettysburg

55,638 56,011 56,001 56,540 2,016 1,732 2,071 2,036 3.6 3.1 3.7 3.6

Harrisburg-Carlisle

301,854 302,013 305,021 305,092 12,292 10,795 12,255 12,127 4.1 3.6 4.0 4.0

Johnstown

58,893 58,707 58,893 59,044 3,557 3,133 3,576 3,400 6.0 5.3 6.1 5.8

Lancaster

287,323 289,293 289,771 292,635 10,957 9,499 11,386 10,978 3.8 3.3 3.9 3.8

Lebanon

72,922 73,692 72,975 73,891 2,964 2,657 3,025 2,932 4.1 3.6 4.1 4.0

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,097,614 3,125,811 3,116,231 3,150,013 139,977 117,314 146,835 135,179 4.5 3.8 4.7 4.3

Pittsburgh

1,212,091 1,218,427 1,222,193 1,223,056 56,027 49,088 55,816 54,448 4.6 4.0 4.6 4.5

Reading

215,171 216,642 216,676 219,062 9,663 8,815 9,809 9,830 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.5

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,319 277,854 279,573 278,783 14,504 13,272 15,430 15,113 5.2 4.8 5.5 5.4

State College

75,962 78,504 77,002 79,782 2,966 2,516 3,005 2,990 3.9 3.2 3.9 3.7

Williamsport

57,407 57,335 57,570 57,695 2,828 2,389 2,779 2,610 4.9 4.2 4.8 4.5

York-Hanover

236,760 236,473 237,777 238,408 10,332 8,827 10,467 9,985 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.2

Rhode Island

558,856 557,106 562,798 564,847 20,559 18,311 23,463 20,949 3.7 3.3 4.2 3.7

Providence-Warwick

694,295 693,595 697,620 699,861 26,402 23,508 29,273 25,679 3.8 3.4 4.2 3.7

South Carolina

2,354,320 2,411,214 2,353,384 2,413,993 87,594 86,535 84,590 77,825 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.2

Charleston-North Charleston

387,689 398,723 388,696 400,303 12,397 12,127 11,914 11,019 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.8

Columbia

400,931 406,578 404,142 407,843 14,604 14,152 14,062 12,610 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.1

Florence

96,693 99,027 96,760 99,082 3,960 3,932 3,917 3,535 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.6

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

428,957 438,014 424,675 438,415 14,845 14,561 14,187 12,878 3.5 3.3 3.3 2.9

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

90,662 94,462 91,107 95,298 3,197 3,158 3,072 2,860 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.0

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

209,988 217,552 211,414 219,013 8,915 9,253 8,655 8,508 4.2 4.3 4.1 3.9

Spartanburg

160,730 165,442 160,228 165,585 5,782 5,762 5,627 5,139 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.1

Sumter

44,383 45,522 44,555 45,364 1,984 1,931 1,916 1,720 4.5 4.2 4.3 3.8

South Dakota

466,018 474,845 466,675 476,187 13,601 13,789 12,677 12,828 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.7

Rapid City

76,732 78,382 77,120 79,167 2,245 2,335 2,018 2,093 2.9 3.0 2.6 2.6

Sioux Falls

152,161 158,922 153,260 160,534 3,667 3,783 3,317 3,344 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.1

Tennessee

3,283,298 3,391,538 3,282,461 3,403,381 135,874 135,993 129,188 146,044 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.3

Chattanooga

275,643 280,160 274,445 282,401 11,396 10,848 10,889 11,433 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0

Clarksville

115,712 119,924 115,712 120,084 5,809 5,818 5,635 6,210 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.2

Cleveland

57,391 59,102 57,389 59,109 2,608 2,588 2,412 2,836 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.8

Jackson

65,203 67,416 65,466 67,851 2,885 2,788 2,722 2,923 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Johnson City

90,451 93,138 90,850 93,660 4,072 4,127 3,888 4,402 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.7

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,179 142,716 137,795 142,839 5,886 5,970 5,615 6,296 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.4

Knoxville

427,383 442,776 427,849 445,237 16,838 17,315 15,804 18,480 3.9 3.9 3.7 4.2

Memphis

643,528 661,709 644,745 664,291 31,828 31,827 29,899 33,376 4.9 4.8 4.6 5.0

Morristown

51,864 53,341 51,592 53,506 2,335 2,408 2,169 2,551 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.8

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,055,475 1,094,654 1,055,479 1,097,192 34,447 34,435 32,536 36,854 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.4

Texas

13,866,660 14,041,604 13,887,986 14,066,138 584,895 500,902 567,385 523,938 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.7

Abilene

77,297 76,965 77,105 76,736 2,819 2,478 2,688 2,561 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.3

Amarillo

132,097 132,368 131,447 131,799 4,082 3,563 3,941 3,745 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.8

Austin-Round Rock

1,201,136 1,217,901 1,204,323 1,217,068 38,577 33,205 37,654 34,963 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.9

Beaumont-Port Arthur

175,942 176,547 175,331 176,125 11,033 9,856 11,057 10,595 6.3 5.6 6.3 6.0

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,028 165,641 167,647 165,945 11,660 9,347 11,145 9,683 7.0 5.6 6.6 5.8

College Station-Bryan

128,185 130,308 129,817 131,273 4,552 4,004 4,328 4,086 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.1

Corpus Christi

209,935 207,658 208,987 206,536 11,235 9,061 10,805 9,329 5.4 4.4 5.2 4.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,901,492 3,984,424 3,918,671 4,005,716 149,840 131,320 146,133 136,966 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.4

El Paso

357,974 360,332 358,856 359,410 16,651 14,199 16,023 14,568 4.7 3.9 4.5 4.1

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,395,531 3,443,733 3,399,317 3,449,159 157,590 130,497 153,080 136,671 4.6 3.8 4.5 4.0

Killeen-Temple

175,141 178,308 175,744 178,821 7,907 6,854 7,635 7,117 4.5 3.8 4.3 4.0

Laredo

116,239 117,878 117,471 117,563 4,993 4,574 4,708 4,669 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.0

Longview

98,209 96,309 97,935 96,847 4,347 3,627 4,176 3,868 4.4 3.8 4.3 4.0

Lubbock

162,674 163,625 162,904 163,828 5,922 5,160 5,751 5,414 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.3

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

349,389 351,690 344,298 349,003 25,082 22,070 24,195 23,340 7.2 6.3 7.0 6.7

Midland

104,751 106,757 107,061 107,530 2,420 2,238 2,300 2,363 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2

Odessa

85,030 86,252 85,929 87,155 2,506 2,284 2,371 2,414 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.8

San Angelo

55,725 55,909 55,671 55,870 1,944 1,760 1,868 1,838 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.3

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,193,915 1,200,824 1,196,269 1,204,937 43,344 38,218 42,226 40,056 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.3

Sherman-Denison

63,366 64,156 64,184 64,422 2,280 1,977 2,166 2,044 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.2

Texarkana

65,359 65,364 64,701 64,720 3,705 2,897 3,601 3,046 5.7 4.4 5.6 4.7

Tyler

107,890 108,409 108,233 108,789 4,273 3,675 4,068 3,815 4.0 3.4 3.8 3.5

Victoria

46,708 46,214 46,689 46,012 1,942 1,598 1,838 1,657 4.2 3.5 3.9 3.6

Waco

126,219 126,169 126,504 126,660 5,234 4,450 5,014 4,647 4.1 3.5 4.0 3.7

Wichita Falls

66,227 65,843 65,926 65,804 2,548 2,212 2,468 2,293 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.5

Utah

1,578,158 1,606,335 1,577,161 1,620,827 54,798 51,985 50,796 48,899 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

Logan

70,579 71,760 67,135 69,103 2,109 1,925 1,968 1,830 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.6

Ogden-Clearfield

328,630 336,191 329,315 340,899 11,440 10,723 10,709 10,174 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.0

Provo-Orem

302,723 309,285 302,436 310,977 10,162 9,444 9,255 8,998 3.4 3.1 3.1 2.9

St. George

73,044 76,661 73,593 76,754 2,776 2,746 2,537 2,646 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

Salt Lake City

657,757 665,039 660,112 676,038 22,118 21,230 20,669 19,858 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9

Vermont

349,977 353,249 351,583 351,447 9,634 7,918 9,280 7,685 2.8 2.2 2.6 2.2

Burlington-South Burlington

127,512 130,366 128,378 130,174 3,037 2,497 2,954 2,404 2.4 1.9 2.3 1.8

Virginia

4,372,040 4,442,939 4,389,731 4,480,895 141,290 129,817 134,893 128,911 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.9

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

88,025 89,241 88,763 89,674 3,213 2,934 2,988 2,864 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.2

Charlottesville

121,049 123,532 119,000 122,970 3,779 3,469 3,487 3,379 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7

Harrisonburg

64,599 66,532 65,037 66,733 2,287 2,056 2,068 1,973 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.0

Lynchburg

122,742 124,359 123,257 125,527 4,837 4,430 4,595 4,391 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.5

Richmond

679,931 692,496 686,379 703,525 23,233 21,326 22,595 21,429 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0

Roanoke

157,273 158,822 157,281 160,801 5,245 4,794 4,831 4,650 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.9

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,546 61,170 59,708 61,403 1,861 1,656 1,727 1,590 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

862,204 875,028 866,908 885,522 29,987 27,909 29,330 27,884 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.1

Winchester

72,468 74,895 72,810 75,265 2,273 2,111 2,106 2,053 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7

Washington

3,800,402 3,890,598 3,821,752 3,932,146 165,869 169,900 163,247 177,232 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.5

Bellingham

111,727 115,237 111,277 116,509 5,118 6,142 5,018 6,322 4.6 5.3 4.5 5.4

Bremerton-Silverdale

122,262 126,559 122,793 127,267 5,431 6,446 5,263 6,499 4.4 5.1 4.3 5.1

Kennewick-Richland

147,925 151,972 143,579 149,730 7,011 7,944 6,829 8,036 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.4

Longview

45,624 46,738 45,607 47,167 2,628 3,091 2,576 3,091 5.8 6.6 5.6 6.6

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,522 62,546 61,047 63,739 2,975 3,600 2,939 3,651 4.9 5.8 4.8 5.7

Olympia-Tumwater

136,337 140,820 136,121 141,686 6,309 7,337 6,122 7,491 4.6 5.2 4.5 5.3

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,105,426 2,149,230 2,118,269 2,172,151 83,719 73,752 82,290 79,247 4.0 3.4 3.9 3.6

Spokane-Spokane Valley

264,524 273,827 263,641 275,113 13,109 15,225 12,992 15,632 5.0 5.6 4.9 5.7

Walla Walla

31,350 32,627 31,692 32,678 1,367 1,657 1,378 1,726 4.4 5.1 4.3 5.3

Wenatchee

71,428 73,783 79,101 79,626 2,701 3,193 2,540 3,197 3.8 4.3 3.2 4.0

Yakima

137,165 139,922 135,902 140,511 6,868 8,555 6,793 8,533 5.0 6.1 5.0 6.1

West Virginia

795,082 807,953 791,543 805,994 43,196 39,291 40,525 36,986 5.4 4.9 5.1 4.6

Beckley

46,084 47,048 46,080 47,181 2,640 2,353 2,481 2,222 5.7 5.0 5.4 4.7

Charleston

95,007 95,129 93,818 94,338 5,138 4,479 4,861 4,216 5.4 4.7 5.2 4.5

Huntington-Ashland

147,016 146,039 145,720 146,262 8,784 7,944 8,208 7,799 6.0 5.4 5.6 5.3

Morgantown

67,617 67,146 67,872 67,731 3,322 2,854 3,041 2,616 4.9 4.3 4.5 3.9

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,951 39,475 38,606 39,322 2,255 2,040 2,071 1,928 5.8 5.2 5.4 4.9

Wheeling

67,068 69,944 67,344 69,731 3,549 3,323 3,374 3,297 5.3 4.8 5.0 4.7

Wisconsin

3,188,170 3,161,408 3,178,978 3,169,993 111,658 110,831 100,162 108,512 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.4

Appleton

134,072 132,722 133,855 133,345 4,350 4,214 3,911 4,141 3.2 3.2 2.9 3.1

Eau Claire

93,020 92,592 93,200 93,562 3,000 3,148 2,675 3,065 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.3

Fond du Lac

59,031 58,612 58,702 58,398 1,918 1,858 1,731 1,849 3.2 3.2 2.9 3.2

Green Bay

178,409 178,623 177,883 178,780 5,817 5,987 5,242 5,846 3.3 3.4 2.9 3.3

Janesville-Beloit

86,534 86,645 87,417 87,707 3,210 3,386 2,880 3,344 3.7 3.9 3.3 3.8

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,993 77,663 77,363 77,818 2,468 2,556 2,149 2,332 3.2 3.3 2.8 3.0

Madison

392,614 387,318 393,050 389,576 11,216 11,251 9,462 10,178 2.9 2.9 2.4 2.6

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

831,351 830,048 835,370 838,951 32,573 31,983 30,265 32,092 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.8

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,580 93,098 94,185 93,646 3,203 3,077 2,819 2,993 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.2

Racine

101,064 99,896 101,757 101,428 4,170 4,132 4,030 4,428 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.4

Sheboygan

64,982 64,888 64,454 64,620 1,989 1,948 1,682 1,817 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.8

Wausau

75,726 75,166 74,508 74,974 2,379 2,333 2,105 2,274 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.0

Wyoming

294,706 292,616 294,534 293,975 12,069 11,157 11,267 11,184 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.8

Casper

38,991 38,953 39,306 39,377 1,836 1,647 1,724 1,531 4.7 4.2 4.4 3.9

Cheyenne

47,609 47,382 48,313 48,137 1,918 1,786 1,795 1,722 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6

Puerto Rico

1,100,044 1,107,146 1,099,040 1,099,460 100,883 88,701 104,309 86,258 9.2 8.0 9.5 7.8

Aguadilla-Isabela

87,910 87,788 88,024 87,217 10,552 9,377 10,804 8,944 12.0 10.7 12.3 10.3

Arecibo

52,236 52,987 52,357 52,915 5,701 5,107 5,683 4,910 10.9 9.6 10.9 9.3

Guayama

20,420 20,463 20,206 20,147 2,957 2,613 2,869 2,439 14.5 12.8 14.2 12.1

Mayaguez

27,761 28,132 27,753 27,865 3,013 2,744 3,284 2,763 10.9 9.8 11.8 9.9

Ponce

92,504 92,903 92,725 91,849 10,727 10,335 10,982 9,722 11.6 11.1 11.8 10.6

San German

35,473 36,083 35,348 35,857 4,547 3,772 4,676 3,814 12.8 10.5 13.2 10.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

740,229 746,735 740,640 743,131 57,618 49,778 60,366 48,941 7.8 6.7 8.2 6.6

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
June July Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) June July June July
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,395,567 19,297,350 19,498,176 19,453,554 850,141 803,476 876,833 864,476 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,731,693 6,682,387 6,784,545 6,741,852 298,117 282,716 320,935 308,618 4.4 4.2 4.7 4.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,617,096 1,606,336 1,631,912 1,620,230 51,941 47,452 52,574 51,314 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,114,597 5,076,051 5,152,633 5,121,622 246,176 235,264 268,361 257,304 4.8 4.6 5.2 5.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,577,572 2,584,087 2,604,376 2,614,523 75,862 70,983 76,031 76,189 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.9

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,410,750 1,407,037 1,422,064 1,421,794 46,602 44,078 46,976 47,621 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,026,003 1,036,710 1,039,538 1,050,064 25,590 23,553 25,384 24,931 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4

San Rafael

140,819 140,340 142,774 142,665 3,670 3,352 3,671 3,637 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.5

District of Columbia

408,862 415,985 411,058 418,922 24,600 24,367 24,586 24,910 6.0 5.9 6.0 5.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,425,318 3,476,751 3,446,576 3,512,865 124,453 116,945 119,547 117,089 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

691,667 700,056 697,132 710,029 25,410 23,814 23,811 23,772 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,733,651 2,776,695 2,749,444 2,802,836 99,043 93,131 95,736 93,317 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3

Florida

10,259,091 10,417,225 10,295,785 10,470,763 394,785 362,822 389,018 363,073 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.5

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,146,253 3,201,412 3,162,534 3,224,952 121,623 106,951 120,246 108,389 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.4

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,040,669 1,051,537 1,044,858 1,056,863 38,076 34,799 37,262 34,548 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.3

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,377,192 1,411,514 1,387,391 1,429,032 55,341 45,800 54,606 47,135 4.0 3.2 3.9 3.3

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

728,392 738,361 730,285 739,057 28,206 26,352 28,378 26,706 3.9 3.6 3.9 3.6

Illinois

6,557,489 6,576,829 6,556,104 6,592,403 306,543 265,341 292,489 278,431 4.7 4.0 4.5 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,953,621 4,977,840 4,955,354 4,979,118 221,806 199,394 208,679 204,179 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,799,503 3,815,258 3,795,792 3,806,970 168,059 154,680 156,420 155,156 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1

Elgin

331,961 334,636 334,692 338,514 16,216 12,837 15,997 14,287 4.9 3.8 4.8 4.2

Gary(3)

347,268 347,400 347,342 349,234 16,660 14,706 15,978 16,162 4.8 4.2 4.6 4.6

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

474,889 480,546 477,528 484,400 20,871 17,171 20,284 18,574 4.4 3.6 4.2 3.8

Massachusetts

3,859,080 3,878,396 3,874,598 3,873,413 143,693 121,924 140,813 112,615 3.7 3.1 3.6 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,845,354 2,861,933 2,851,503 2,856,626 97,516 82,511 95,876 77,201 3.4 2.9 3.4 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,696,895 1,709,957 1,704,717 1,709,411 56,270 47,051 54,789 43,330 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,983 112,168 112,288 112,135 4,699 3,962 4,830 3,796 4.2 3.5 4.3 3.4

Framingham

165,783 165,324 165,899 164,725 5,216 4,328 5,117 4,069 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.5

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

120,837 121,497 120,653 120,994 3,895 3,467 3,926 3,321 3.2 2.9 3.3 2.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

101,428 100,134 101,008 99,136 4,988 4,254 4,786 3,843 4.9 4.2 4.7 3.9

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

200,189 201,096 200,417 200,447 7,274 6,148 7,368 5,899 3.6 3.1 3.7 2.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

88,314 88,505 88,146 88,169 3,301 2,823 3,172 2,615 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.0

Nashua(2)

175,801 178,356 174,639 177,858 4,945 4,624 5,049 4,903 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.8

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

95,750 96,419 95,517 95,859 3,435 2,842 3,299 2,581 3.6 2.9 3.5 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

88,374 88,477 88,219 87,892 3,493 3,012 3,540 2,844 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.2

Michigan

4,960,063 5,006,733 4,962,680 5,024,806 215,529 218,409 237,393 254,490 4.3 4.4 4.8 5.1

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,236 2,158,390 2,158,138 2,202,240 96,171 97,808 107,383 116,083 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

796,972 803,574 804,528 820,369 44,380 43,250 50,788 53,510 5.6 5.4 6.3 6.5

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,344,264 1,354,816 1,353,609 1,381,871 51,791 54,558 56,595 62,573 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.5

New York

9,660,027 9,563,221 9,712,136 9,581,857 396,906 360,370 403,152 398,313 4.1 3.8 4.2 4.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,022,978 9,951,762 10,081,153 10,018,291 413,386 350,793 431,176 393,755 4.1 3.5 4.3 3.9

Dutchess County-Putnam County

197,641 195,636 198,937 196,009 7,548 6,367 7,269 7,052 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,520,952 1,500,984 1,525,519 1,504,390 55,714 46,602 57,085 54,851 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.6

Newark(3)

1,234,031 1,229,740 1,235,689 1,245,581 55,504 37,940 58,536 44,690 4.5 3.1 4.7 3.6

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,070,354 7,025,402 7,121,008 7,072,311 294,620 259,884 308,286 287,162 4.2 3.7 4.3 4.1

Pennsylvania

6,484,141 6,524,148 6,530,022 6,573,980 299,241 262,823 306,077 298,140 4.6 4.0 4.7 4.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,097,614 3,125,811 3,116,231 3,150,013 139,977 117,314 146,835 135,179 4.5 3.8 4.7 4.3

Camden(3)

627,334 628,305 627,095 633,281 28,305 19,493 30,508 23,316 4.5 3.1 4.9 3.7

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,085,344 1,093,513 1,095,370 1,103,594 39,954 34,911 42,145 41,485 3.7 3.2 3.8 3.8

Philadelphia

1,006,113 1,019,395 1,013,194 1,028,443 55,367 48,528 57,736 55,248 5.5 4.8 5.7 5.4

Wilmington(3)

378,823 384,598 380,572 384,695 16,351 14,382 16,446 15,130 4.3 3.7 4.3 3.9

Texas

13,866,660 14,041,604 13,887,986 14,066,138 584,895 500,902 567,385 523,938 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,901,492 3,984,424 3,918,671 4,005,716 149,840 131,320 146,133 136,966 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.4

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,631,426 2,695,984 2,644,534 2,711,569 101,165 88,359 98,762 92,126 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.4

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,270,066 1,288,440 1,274,137 1,294,147 48,675 42,961 47,371 44,840 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.5

Washington

3,800,402 3,890,598 3,821,752 3,932,146 165,869 169,900 163,247 177,232 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,105,426 2,149,230 2,118,269 2,172,151 83,719 73,752 82,290 79,247 4.0 3.4 3.9 3.6

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,686,047 1,715,683 1,696,019 1,733,060 62,682 49,602 61,699 54,825 3.7 2.9 3.6 3.2

Tacoma-Lakewood

419,379 433,547 422,250 439,091 21,037 24,150 20,591 24,422 5.0 5.6 4.9 5.6

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area June July Change from
July 2018 to July 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,050.9 2,082.6 2,037.1 2,077.3 40.2 2.0

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.4 47.4 46.8 47.2 0.4 0.9

Auburn-Opelika

64.1 65.3 64.4 65.0 0.6 0.9

Birmingham-Hoover

541.1 549.2 538.2 548.7 10.5 2.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

80.8 83.4 80.2 82.9 2.7 3.4

Decatur

55.9 57.9 55.4 57.4 2.0 3.6

Dothan

58.9 59.6 58.8 59.3 0.5 0.9

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.7 56.8 56.5 56.8 0.3 0.5

Gadsden

38.3 39.0 38.0 38.6 0.6 1.6

Huntsville

238.1 244.0 236.9 244.2 7.3 3.1

Mobile

186.0 187.5 184.0 186.5 2.5 1.4

Montgomery

178.7 179.9 177.5 179.6 2.1 1.2

Tuscaloosa

108.1 111.4 108.2 111.3 3.1 2.9


Alaska

347.0 353.4 351.3 358.5 7.2 2.0

Anchorage

181.0 184.2 178.6 181.7 3.1 1.7

Fairbanks

38.3 38.3 38.4 39.0 0.6 1.6


Arizona

2,796.7 2,872.9 2,783.3 2,861.5 78.2 2.8

Flagstaff

67.9 68.3 66.6 67.5 0.9 1.4

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

50.7 51.6 50.4 51.7 1.3 2.6

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,061.8 2,126.5 2,056.9 2,117.4 60.5 2.9

Prescott

65.0 65.7 64.5 65.4 0.9 1.4

Sierra Vista-Douglas

33.4 33.2 32.6 32.3 -0.3 -0.9

Tucson