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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, April 7, 2021 			    USDL-21-0621

Technical information: 
 Employment:		sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: 		lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: 	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


         METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- FEBRUARY 2021


Unemployment rates were higher in February than a year earlier in 383 of the 389
metropolitan areas, lower in 4 areas, and unchanged in 2 areas, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 18 areas had jobless rates of at 
least 10.0 percent and 48 areas had rates of less than 4.0 percent. Nonfarm
payroll employment decreased over the year in 206 metropolitan areas, increased
in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 182 areas. The national unemployment 
rate in February was 6.6 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.8 percent
a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions
as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain
to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment
survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These
data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by
these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 15.9 percent,
while Logan, UT-ID, had the lowest rate, 2.6 percent. A total of 247 areas had 
February jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 6.6 percent, 140 areas had rates
above it, and 2 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in February occurred in 
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+10.6 percentage points). Rates rose over the year
by at least 5.0 percentage points in an additional 14 areas. The largest over-
the-year jobless rate decrease occurred in El Centro, CA (-2.2 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA,
had the highest unemployment rates in February, 9.9 percent and 9.8 percent,
respectively. Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest 
jobless rates among the large areas, 3.5 percent and 3.6 percent, respectively.
Fifty large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the largest
of which was in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+6.0 percentage points).
The only rate decrease from a year earlier occurred in Cleveland-Elyria, OH 
(-0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers.
In February, the highest unemployment rates among the divisions were in Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, 10.9 percent, and New York-Jersey City-White 
Plains, NY-NJ, 10.8 percent. Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate, 3.5
percent, closely followed by Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI, 3.6 percent.
(See table 2.)

Thirty-seven metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases in February, while one area had no change. The largest over-the-year
rate increase was in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+7.1 percentage
points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, 206 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm
payroll employment, 1 had an increase, and 182 were essentially unchanged.
The largest over-the-year employment decreases occurred in New York-Newark-
Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,113,600), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 
(-738,400), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-394,300). The largest 
over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (-26.2 percent), Odessa, TX (-17.9 percent), and Midland, TX 
(-17.5 percent). The over-the-year increase in employment occurred in Ocean
City, NJ (+4,100, or +11.9 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in 50 metropolitan areas with a
2010 Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially
unchanged in 1 area. The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in 
employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-
Paradise, NV (-13.8 percent), Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (-12.5 percent), 
and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-11.7 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in 35 metropolitan divisions
and was essentially unchanged in 3 divisions over the year. The largest over-
the-year decrease in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in 
New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-861,300), followed by Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-557,200), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights,
IL (-330,200). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in 
San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (-13.3 percent), Los 
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-12.1 percent), and New York-Jersey City-
White Plains, NY-NJ (-11.9 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for March is
scheduled to be released on Friday, April 16, 2021, at 10:00 a.m.
(ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release
for March is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, April 28, 2021,
at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 ________________________________________________________________________________________
|											 |
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on February 2021                 |
|                        Establishment and Household Survey Data			 |
|											 |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the	 |
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the	 |
| application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and	 |
| deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. 	 |
| Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account	 |
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and	 |
| deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births 	 |
| and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not 	 |
| included in estimation. For the January final and February preliminary estimates,	 |
| CES included a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to	 |
| the birth-death model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey 		 |
| included a portion of the reports that returned to reporting positive employment	 |
| from reporting zero employment. For more information, see 				 |
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.							 |
|											 |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any	 |
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even	 |
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently	 |
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if	 |
| they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period does vary	 |
| across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a	 |
| weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-	 |
| monthly, and a small amount monthly.							 |
|											 |
| For the February 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the	 |
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement 	 |
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state	 |
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both	 |
| the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS	 |
| models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims 		 |
| covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level shifts	 |
| preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have	 |
| discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other	 |
| points in the time series.								 |
|											 |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						 |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-february-2021.htm extensively	 |
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national	 |
| estimates for February 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative	 |
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically,	 |
| with BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some	 |
| extent. However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are	 |
| accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to	 |
| reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed and	 |
| unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were affected	 |
| to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official 	 |
| LAUS estimates for February 2021. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the 	 |
| household survey from March 2020 through January 2021 (see 				 |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-	 |
| situation-news-release.htm#summaries).						 |
|											 |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment	 |
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary February and	 |
| revised January estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers,	 |
| where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate	 |
| area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in	 |
| proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based	 |
| control areas.									 |
|											 |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly  |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department  |
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 	 |
| similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which 	 |
| has affected the local area data proportionally.					 |
|________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
January February Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) January February January February
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,225,417 2,228,910 2,236,698 2,228,507 69,939 90,217 62,212 83,471 3.1 4.0 2.8 3.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,916 46,147 46,095 46,012 1,677 2,089 1,509 1,924 3.7 4.5 3.3 4.2

Auburn-Opelika

76,083 75,918 76,548 76,305 2,132 2,445 1,820 2,229 2.8 3.2 2.4 2.9

Birmingham-Hoover

549,165 551,505 550,554 551,227 15,552 20,678 13,581 19,031 2.8 3.7 2.5 3.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

95,485 95,635 96,660 95,654 2,870 3,387 2,447 3,125 3.0 3.5 2.5 3.3

Decatur

72,815 73,691 72,991 73,558 2,020 2,174 1,748 1,960 2.8 3.0 2.4 2.7

Dothan

63,655 64,019 64,177 63,961 2,013 2,433 1,745 2,229 3.2 3.8 2.7 3.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,259 64,867 65,514 65,406 2,352 2,337 2,082 2,147 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.3

Gadsden

41,692 39,751 41,742 39,634 1,722 1,835 1,625 1,700 4.1 4.6 3.9 4.3

Huntsville

231,619 234,867 232,549 235,267 6,074 6,883 5,276 6,324 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.7

Mobile

188,287 189,440 188,985 188,422 7,218 11,402 6,854 10,764 3.8 6.0 3.6 5.7

Montgomery

171,633 172,674 172,059 171,658 5,387 9,212 4,855 8,638 3.1 5.3 2.8 5.0

Tuscaloosa

119,156 115,048 119,480 115,409 3,368 5,116 2,922 4,687 2.8 4.4 2.4 4.1

Alaska

348,829 349,096 350,406 346,580 18,985 24,097 18,227 24,526 5.4 6.9 5.2 7.1

Anchorage

198,850 197,674 197,489 197,767 9,268 12,948 8,763 13,285 4.7 6.6 4.4 6.7

Fairbanks

45,199 44,019 45,017 43,567 2,145 2,466 1,962 2,124 4.7 5.6 4.4 4.9

Arizona

3,587,269 3,572,898 3,597,043 3,587,824 173,912 246,905 162,885 251,359 4.8 6.9 4.5 7.0

Flagstaff

76,940 73,803 76,899 73,888 5,089 6,502 4,634 6,584 6.6 8.8 6.0 8.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,203 87,431 88,057 87,879 5,432 6,658 5,030 6,814 6.2 7.6 5.7 7.8

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,531,058 2,533,189 2,538,917 2,547,006 107,504 167,076 102,011 169,551 4.2 6.6 4.0 6.7

Prescott

107,161 107,130 106,946 107,969 4,989 6,406 4,703 6,531 4.7 6.0 4.4 6.0

Sierra Vista-Douglas

51,646 51,637 51,765 51,754 3,046 3,046 2,832 3,346 5.9 5.9 5.5 6.5

Tucson

498,831 495,480 503,706 495,938 23,305 35,361 22,004 35,892 4.7 7.1 4.4 7.2

Yuma

101,528 94,563 99,384 93,264 14,270 10,620 12,187 11,011 14.1 11.2 12.3 11.8

Arkansas

1,356,254 1,349,496 1,371,586 1,352,184 56,515 68,919 55,507 71,863 4.2 5.1 4.0 5.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

282,773 286,327 287,952 288,686 8,259 10,454 7,962 11,007 2.9 3.7 2.8 3.8

Fort Smith

117,725 118,886 118,333 119,140 4,856 5,991 4,681 6,576 4.1 5.0 4.0 5.5

Hot Springs

40,686 41,242 41,513 41,424 1,716 2,693 1,721 2,808 4.2 6.5 4.1 6.8

Jonesboro

66,086 65,557 66,619 65,699 2,315 2,822 2,190 2,957 3.5 4.3 3.3 4.5

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

356,700 352,286 359,884 351,939 13,306 18,706 13,380 19,164 3.7 5.3 3.7 5.4

Pine Bluff

34,149 34,577 34,512 34,589 2,101 2,499 2,062 2,588 6.2 7.2 6.0 7.5

California

19,438,620 18,621,937 19,514,077 19,022,842 873,455 1,720,196 844,212 1,599,510 4.5 9.2 4.3 8.4

Bakersfield

393,050 380,003 389,747 380,745 34,528 41,192 35,563 41,081 8.8 10.8 9.1 10.8

Chico

96,273 91,283 96,992 92,449 5,436 7,383 5,193 7,149 5.6 8.1 5.4 7.7

El Centro

72,747 65,235 71,965 66,225 14,451 10,758 13,046 10,518 19.9 16.5 18.1 15.9

Fresno

451,090 441,770 453,583 444,289 37,269 44,740 38,065 44,203 8.3 10.1 8.4 9.9

Hanford-Corcoran

57,665 55,165 58,063 55,364 5,562 5,999 5,672 5,949 9.6 10.9 9.8 10.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,819,700 6,436,244 6,835,541 6,672,605 300,858 737,199 290,924 661,406 4.4 11.5 4.3 9.9

Madera

63,280 62,645 64,246 63,323 5,203 6,108 5,067 6,006 8.2 9.8 7.9 9.5

Merced

115,790 113,923 116,772 115,470 11,498 13,182 11,899 13,248 9.9 11.6 10.2 11.5

Modesto

240,700 237,319 242,289 241,151 16,349 22,346 15,799 21,692 6.8 9.4 6.5 9.0

Napa

70,489 66,891 72,503 68,680 2,574 5,913 2,322 4,890 3.7 8.8 3.2 7.1

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

419,789 402,587 423,480 409,716 16,702 29,953 15,545 27,728 4.0 7.4 3.7 6.8

Redding

73,626 73,402 72,868 73,684 4,079 5,803 3,955 5,755 5.5 7.9 5.4 7.8

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,097,727 2,075,817 2,101,506 2,108,356 86,345 178,195 81,841 170,479 4.1 8.6 3.9 8.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,099,845 1,086,887 1,104,262 1,100,728 43,599 82,176 41,110 78,810 4.0 7.6 3.7 7.2

Salinas

209,703 203,073 212,684 205,496 21,170 23,319 21,547 22,459 10.1 11.5 10.1 10.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,577,148 1,518,715 1,585,590 1,551,572 53,959 121,725 50,564 112,129 3.4 8.0 3.2 7.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,571,019 2,422,846 2,583,420 2,446,770 71,759 162,154 68,045 153,169 2.8 6.7 2.6 6.3

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,082,418 1,034,875 1,087,720 1,048,957 30,106 59,790 28,764 57,041 2.8 5.8 2.6 5.4

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

138,446 130,694 139,965 131,000 4,473 8,878 4,214 8,193 3.2 6.8 3.0 6.3

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

138,391 128,453 139,667 130,371 8,773 11,220 8,938 10,926 6.3 8.7 6.4 8.4

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,246 210,930 221,977 214,597 10,194 16,362 9,754 15,291 4.6 7.8 4.4 7.1

Santa Rosa

254,136 235,834 256,046 239,584 7,719 16,787 7,224 15,309 3.0 7.1 2.8 6.4

Stockton-Lodi

329,406 329,776 330,931 333,995 22,283 32,980 21,422 31,797 6.8 10.0 6.5 9.5

Vallejo-Fairfield

206,403 201,154 207,480 203,531 8,594 17,329 8,080 16,553 4.2 8.6 3.9 8.1

Visalia-Porterville

204,502 195,456 205,976 197,795 22,814 22,387 23,326 22,454 11.2 11.5 11.3 11.4

Yuba City

75,428 72,146 76,221 73,443 6,346 7,425 6,229 7,425 8.4 10.3 8.2 10.1

Colorado

3,144,882 3,171,425 3,163,054 3,184,146 90,641 219,461 91,030 217,363 2.9 6.9 2.9 6.8

Boulder

195,246 193,636 198,994 196,017 4,642 11,551 4,705 11,267 2.4 6.0 2.4 5.7

Colorado Springs

356,510 361,723 358,726 363,365 11,750 25,843 11,932 25,965 3.3 7.1 3.3 7.1

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,679,189 1,690,824 1,685,611 1,706,397 46,148 118,948 46,224 117,375 2.7 7.0 2.7 6.9

Fort Collins

204,578 207,051 206,916 208,485 5,326 13,183 5,397 12,902 2.6 6.4 2.6 6.2

Grand Junction

75,811 76,403 76,322 76,002 3,100 6,125 3,071 5,950 4.1 8.0 4.0 7.8

Greeley

169,082 169,322 170,316 169,265 4,772 12,117 4,828 12,146 2.8 7.2 2.8 7.2

Pueblo

77,202 78,782 77,437 79,095 3,221 7,306 3,185 7,322 4.2 9.3 4.1 9.3

Connecticut

1,916,553 1,822,982 1,912,972 1,688,949 81,459 154,163 76,856 143,119 4.3 8.5 4.0 8.5

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

465,781 438,228 463,290 404,914 19,943 38,119 18,966 35,133 4.3 8.7 4.1 8.7

Danbury

107,215 100,842 106,406 92,635 4,151 7,744 3,904 7,141 3.9 7.7 3.7 7.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

633,480 605,419 633,051 561,033 26,720 50,305 25,100 46,873 4.2 8.3 4.0 8.4

New Haven

332,231 320,980 332,669 299,512 13,360 25,412 12,444 23,384 4.0 7.9 3.7 7.8

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,471 131,738 140,161 123,322 6,187 12,489 5,798 11,794 4.4 9.5 4.1 9.6

Waterbury

111,827 108,274 111,617 100,469 5,876 10,778 5,615 10,139 5.3 10.0 5.0 10.1

Delaware

492,355 487,574 495,454 489,655 22,838 31,291 22,248 32,678 4.6 6.4 4.5 6.7

Dover

81,339 79,997 81,298 79,678 4,059 5,678 3,953 6,010 5.0 7.1 4.9 7.5

Salisbury(1)

190,944 187,793 190,842 187,824 11,895 13,857 10,949 13,607 6.2 7.4 5.7 7.2

District of Columbia

421,801 407,077 425,308 408,029 21,026 32,208 20,714 31,204 5.0 7.9 4.9 7.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,507,291 3,304,214 3,528,641 3,316,299 105,375 198,648 99,283 189,742 3.0 6.0 2.8 5.7

Florida

10,455,017 10,103,656 10,501,385 10,218,694 354,946 536,837 321,065 515,854 3.4 5.3 3.1 5.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

357,358 346,109 360,138 349,112 12,641 15,212 11,422 14,314 3.5 4.4 3.2 4.1

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

127,673 128,540 128,744 129,488 4,205 4,497 3,701 3,987 3.3 3.5 2.9 3.1

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

304,554 296,769 306,708 299,343 12,290 14,557 11,130 13,896 4.0 4.9 3.6 4.6

Gainesville

147,688 144,352 148,854 146,603 4,965 5,412 4,259 4,752 3.4 3.7 2.9 3.2

Homosassa Springs

47,453 46,413 47,461 47,238 2,665 2,592 2,419 2,414 5.6 5.6 5.1 5.1

Jacksonville

792,355 783,820 794,643 786,054 28,040 31,891 25,173 29,272 3.5 4.1 3.2 3.7

Lakeland-Winter Haven

312,919 317,588 314,135 321,713 13,006 17,865 11,555 17,574 4.2 5.6 3.7 5.5

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,185,425 3,032,268 3,193,195 3,067,411 87,878 198,896 81,523 193,926 2.8 6.6 2.6 6.3

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

188,532 185,331 188,866 186,411 6,339 6,891 5,657 6,264 3.4 3.7 3.0 3.4

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

373,319 364,297 375,484 368,887 13,315 14,750 11,959 13,647 3.6 4.0 3.2 3.7

Ocala

140,636 140,660 141,333 141,717 6,116 6,672 5,500 6,285 4.3 4.7 3.9 4.4

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,372,128 1,255,350 1,380,309 1,276,473 47,198 81,767 42,161 82,653 3.4 6.5 3.1 6.5

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

287,002 284,096 287,136 285,796 10,499 12,401 9,363 11,979 3.7 4.4 3.3 4.2

Panama City

88,450 87,725 89,049 89,584 3,451 3,702 2,905 3,314 3.9 4.2 3.3 3.7

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

230,018 229,667 231,621 232,608 8,507 9,311 7,505 8,331 3.7 4.1 3.2 3.6

Port St. Lucie

223,566 218,185 224,839 220,686 9,136 10,134 8,313 9,516 4.1 4.6 3.7 4.3

Punta Gorda

73,397 71,603 73,944 72,460 3,025 3,114 2,765 2,947 4.1 4.3 3.7 4.1

Sebastian-Vero Beach

67,227 64,602 67,256 65,229 2,808 3,012 2,510 2,838 4.2 4.7 3.7 4.4

Sebring

35,864 35,197 35,870 35,323 1,886 2,073 1,711 1,790 5.3 5.9 4.8 5.1

Tallahassee

196,450 191,580 197,039 193,907 7,126 8,284 6,151 7,377 3.6 4.3 3.1 3.8

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,576,571 1,556,875 1,587,473 1,577,328 56,564 69,873 51,396 66,117 3.6 4.5 3.2 4.2

The Villages

33,545 31,661 33,751 32,014 1,784 1,569 1,648 1,449 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.5

Georgia

5,212,231 5,111,532 5,236,253 5,152,527 186,424 255,937 177,360 227,557 3.6 5.0 3.4 4.4

Albany

68,110 65,986 68,207 66,380 2,955 4,327 2,784 3,837 4.3 6.6 4.1 5.8

Athens-Clarke County

101,933 97,860 102,314 98,483 3,366 4,103 3,228 3,680 3.3 4.2 3.2 3.7

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,138,667 3,062,125 3,156,234 3,090,675 106,285 156,331 102,643 139,324 3.4 5.1 3.3 4.5

Augusta-Richmond County

272,597 268,644 273,204 272,150 10,506 12,892 9,639 12,082 3.9 4.8 3.5 4.4

Brunswick

52,616 51,790 52,760 52,358 1,896 2,459 1,759 2,235 3.6 4.7 3.3 4.3

Columbus

124,891 122,060 125,739 122,586 5,079 6,713 4,760 5,950 4.1 5.5 3.8 4.9

Dalton

60,336 59,387 60,015 59,871 3,471 3,294 2,503 2,603 5.8 5.5 4.2 4.3

Gainesville

104,592 103,127 105,092 103,672 3,002 3,397 2,771 3,137 2.9 3.3 2.6 3.0

Hinesville

34,659 34,401 34,891 34,594 1,351 1,617 1,283 1,443 3.9 4.7 3.7 4.2

Macon-Bibb County

104,402 103,026 104,946 104,348 4,008 5,942 3,951 5,189 3.8 5.8 3.8 5.0

Rome

44,370 43,876 44,477 44,462 1,798 2,083 1,632 1,828 4.1 4.7 3.7 4.1

Savannah

193,813 194,294 195,338 197,086 6,416 9,957 6,163 8,863 3.3 5.1 3.2 4.5

Valdosta

65,750 65,677 65,675 66,162 2,476 3,271 2,374 2,858 3.8 5.0 3.6 4.3

Warner Robins

88,410 87,498 89,034 88,483 3,073 3,894 2,977 3,432 3.5 4.5 3.3 3.9

Hawaii

677,385 655,563 675,724 658,036 13,926 64,829 11,645 56,160 2.1 9.9 1.7 8.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

88,151 81,659 87,474 81,151 1,785 11,287 1,515 9,973 2.0 13.8 1.7 12.3

Urban Honolulu

460,501 450,631 459,784 453,606 9,020 39,971 7,457 34,383 2.0 8.9 1.6 7.6

Idaho

885,293 898,423 889,882 896,134 29,056 39,891 26,414 39,414 3.3 4.4 3.0 4.4

Boise City

380,362 384,586 383,273 383,552 11,342 16,651 10,039 16,130 3.0 4.3 2.6 4.2

Coeur d'Alene

79,843 81,383 79,964 81,222 3,524 4,626 3,200 4,521 4.4 5.7 4.0 5.6

Idaho Falls

73,030 75,273 72,696 75,027 2,040 2,649 1,820 2,747 2.8 3.5 2.5 3.7

Lewiston

31,504 30,855 31,535 30,794 1,186 1,245 1,071 1,255 3.8 4.0 3.4 4.1

Pocatello

41,996 43,223 42,767 43,880 1,368 1,829 1,271 1,812 3.3 4.2 3.0 4.1

Twin Falls

53,158 53,298 53,412 53,332 1,740 2,291 1,561 2,288 3.3 4.3 2.9 4.3

Illinois

6,333,145 6,091,031 6,359,497 6,097,663 254,485 514,563 237,430 475,637 4.0 8.4 3.7 7.8

Bloomington

93,800 89,548 94,425 89,066 3,009 5,632 2,679 4,574 3.2 6.3 2.8 5.1

Carbondale-Marion

58,470 56,514 59,249 57,196 2,158 3,902 1,905 3,393 3.7 6.9 3.2 5.9

Champaign-Urbana

125,055 118,861 125,539 123,641 3,892 7,518 3,407 6,236 3.1 6.3 2.7 5.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,783,174 4,608,048 4,817,627 4,628,887 188,060 399,894 183,479 383,138 3.9 8.7 3.8 8.3

Danville

32,537 31,977 32,279 31,805 1,499 2,560 1,338 2,194 4.6 8.0 4.1 6.9

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

191,460 181,489 190,632 180,949 8,713 12,621 7,863 11,043 4.6 7.0 4.1 6.1

Decatur

47,418 46,075 47,125 45,213 2,297 4,594 2,084 3,793 4.8 10.0 4.4 8.4

Kankakee

55,753 51,920 55,126 51,434 2,864 4,504 2,564 3,851 5.1 8.7 4.7 7.5

Peoria

172,808 165,201 172,082 161,987 8,128 13,457 7,238 11,319 4.7 8.1 4.2 7.0

Rockford

163,663 155,990 161,349 152,856 12,379 17,360 7,869 14,819 7.6 11.1 4.9 9.7

Springfield

105,019 100,249 104,312 99,901 3,875 7,622 3,492 6,160 3.7 7.6 3.3 6.2

Indiana

3,364,647 3,336,057 3,360,761 3,300,855 119,356 156,607 114,552 156,087 3.5 4.7 3.4 4.7

Bloomington

81,085 76,435 81,903 77,653 2,845 3,210 2,718 3,302 3.5 4.2 3.3 4.3

Columbus

45,223 44,088 44,930 43,454 1,237 1,661 1,135 1,707 2.7 3.8 2.5 3.9

Elkhart-Goshen

111,240 114,363 111,096 113,176 3,328 4,052 3,096 3,950 3.0 3.5 2.8 3.5

Evansville

160,421 154,750 159,840 154,585 5,365 6,907 5,124 6,917 3.3 4.5 3.2 4.5

Fort Wayne

219,082 219,709 218,106 217,989 7,249 9,835 7,400 9,629 3.3 4.5 3.4 4.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,076,683 1,081,129 1,074,863 1,063,680 33,843 50,414 31,948 48,041 3.1 4.7 3.0 4.5

Kokomo

36,341 35,080 35,880 35,894 1,519 2,135 1,424 3,067 4.2 6.1 4.0 8.5

Lafayette-West Lafayette

111,510 109,230 113,992 110,044 3,630 4,539 3,461 4,583 3.3 4.2 3.0 4.2

Michigan City-La Porte

47,263 47,429 47,028 46,900 2,222 3,247 2,242 3,228 4.7 6.8 4.8 6.9

Muncie

53,978 53,296 53,993 52,439 2,202 2,666 2,163 2,720 4.1 5.0 4.0 5.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

160,746 156,751 160,154 155,116 6,384 8,925 5,937 8,431 4.0 5.7 3.7 5.4

Terre Haute

73,080 71,385 72,887 70,228 3,394 3,925 3,304 3,886 4.6 5.5 4.5 5.5

Iowa

1,729,632 1,627,688 1,736,013 1,644,709 61,834 78,445 55,416 75,639 3.6 4.8 3.2 4.6

Ames

59,418 52,839 60,633 54,109 1,258 1,686 1,008 1,599 2.1 3.2 1.7 3.0

Cedar Rapids

148,442 137,162 147,883 138,849 5,461 7,469 5,063 7,261 3.7 5.4 3.4 5.2

Des Moines-West Des Moines

366,880 347,156 367,312 350,623 12,333 16,607 11,039 16,132 3.4 4.8 3.0 4.6

Dubuque

57,415 53,475 57,144 53,973 2,268 2,799 1,985 2,730 4.0 5.2 3.5 5.1

Iowa City

99,064 91,729 100,024 92,803 2,448 3,767 2,111 3,506 2.5 4.1 2.1 3.8

Sioux City

93,698 88,530 94,011 89,158 3,291 3,846 3,052 3,678 3.5 4.3 3.2 4.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

90,541 83,528 91,011 85,318 3,649 4,117 3,060 3,875 4.0 4.9 3.4 4.5

Kansas

1,493,578 1,515,813 1,505,032 1,512,427 48,671 80,758 49,549 69,759 3.3 5.3 3.3 4.6

Lawrence

65,276 64,498 66,832 64,871 2,043 3,927 1,996 2,904 3.1 6.1 3.0 4.5

Manhattan

47,107 45,275 48,736 46,292 1,363 2,642 1,336 1,766 2.9 5.8 2.7 3.8

Topeka

119,672 124,217 120,509 122,927 4,258 7,591 4,297 5,465 3.6 6.1 3.6 4.4

Wichita

320,611 320,940 322,815 320,816 11,459 21,505 12,250 20,545 3.6 6.7 3.8 6.4

Kentucky

2,067,955 1,967,353 2,073,203 1,973,763 93,839 104,532 90,378 99,467 4.5 5.3 4.4 5.0

Bowling Green

83,611 79,340 84,773 80,945 3,592 3,641 3,367 4,114 4.3 4.6 4.0 5.1

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

66,864 62,654 66,980 62,878 3,033 3,410 2,947 3,090 4.5 5.4 4.4 4.9

Lexington-Fayette

274,703 262,089 274,481 262,147 9,575 11,470 8,929 11,260 3.5 4.4 3.3 4.3

Louisville/Jefferson County

672,392 647,787 674,303 647,935 25,347 33,537 23,971 29,766 3.8 5.2 3.6 4.6

Owensboro

55,281 52,064 54,983 52,059 2,339 2,581 2,218 2,521 4.2 5.0 4.0 4.8

Louisiana

2,133,698 2,049,594 2,138,252 2,042,105 110,789 155,458 90,410 144,344 5.2 7.6 4.2 7.1

Alexandria

64,255 63,257 64,102 62,565 3,584 3,307 2,852 2,967 5.6 5.2 4.4 4.7

Baton Rouge

422,518 416,463 426,316 416,477 20,024 27,753 16,282 25,696 4.7 6.7 3.8 6.2

Hammond

56,385 56,135 56,190 55,893 3,355 4,865 2,603 4,462 6.0 8.7 4.6 8.0

Houma-Thibodaux

89,131 86,819 89,352 86,367 4,393 5,794 3,475 5,364 4.9 6.7 3.9 6.2

Lafayette

216,042 207,360 216,421 206,661 11,078 14,472 9,066 13,494 5.1 7.0 4.2 6.5

Lake Charles

109,931 95,356 109,462 95,560 5,253 7,735 4,317 7,001 4.8 8.1 3.9 7.3

Monroe

80,271 78,277 80,333 77,321 4,683 5,186 3,933 4,824 5.8 6.6 4.9 6.2

New Orleans-Metairie

614,274 584,299 615,016 582,880 28,802 53,424 23,451 50,299 4.7 9.1 3.8 8.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,684 181,224 188,395 180,259 10,321 13,287 8,457 12,250 5.5 7.3 4.5 6.8

Maine

689,271 664,349 692,530 666,927 22,849 42,274 23,859 37,430 3.3 6.4 3.4 5.6

Bangor

70,695 67,746 71,805 68,437 2,321 4,021 2,393 3,404 3.3 5.9 3.3 5.0

Lewiston-Auburn

56,069 54,345 55,735 53,946 1,646 3,256 1,758 2,879 2.9 6.0 3.2 5.3

Portland-South Portland

208,434 198,754 207,798 199,362 5,294 11,281 5,569 9,875 2.5 5.7 2.7 5.0

Maryland

3,284,785 3,078,925 3,296,282 3,082,330 119,220 195,821 113,812 187,080 3.6 6.4 3.5 6.1

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,532,953 1,444,167 1,535,255 1,443,711 55,348 88,225 52,729 83,862 3.6 6.1 3.4 5.8

California-Lexington Park

59,189 56,408 59,420 56,662 1,915 2,510 1,862 2,505 3.2 4.4 3.1 4.4

Cumberland

44,326 41,830 44,709 42,216 2,594 3,023 2,471 2,945 5.9 7.2 5.5 7.0

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

134,700 128,361 133,785 126,799 5,170 7,147 5,091 6,892 3.8 5.6 3.8 5.4

Massachusetts

3,755,504 3,693,899 3,758,153 3,705,760 127,991 276,677 117,212 268,182 3.4 7.5 3.1 7.2

Barnstable Town

117,860 118,231 117,336 119,042 6,611 11,277 6,186 11,333 5.6 9.5 5.3 9.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,802,740 2,750,016 2,802,059 2,755,941 84,054 187,240 76,862 178,477 3.0 6.8 2.7 6.5

Leominster-Gardner

79,628 78,636 79,615 79,075 3,292 6,774 3,065 6,623 4.1 8.6 3.8 8.4

New Bedford

85,776 84,221 85,636 84,731 4,673 8,104 4,339 8,051 5.4 9.6 5.1 9.5

Pittsfield

41,245 40,499 41,000 40,648 1,910 3,761 1,761 3,739 4.6 9.3 4.3 9.2

Springfield

371,025 359,774 373,024 357,556 15,308 30,560 14,150 29,537 4.1 8.5 3.8 8.3

Worcester

359,514 353,449 359,447 349,298 13,175 26,328 12,183 25,533 3.7 7.4 3.4 7.3

Michigan

4,909,663 4,712,994 4,919,562 4,644,159 206,791 288,713 185,581 238,660 4.2 6.1 3.8 5.1

Ann Arbor

197,975 189,554 201,577 189,856 4,611 9,045 4,439 7,971 2.3 4.8 2.2 4.2

Battle Creek

61,441 60,702 62,071 59,916 2,378 4,676 2,277 3,875 3.9 7.7 3.7 6.5

Bay City

50,190 48,808 50,086 48,319 2,537 3,790 2,314 3,174 5.1 7.8 4.6 6.6

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,151,704 2,028,993 2,141,857 1,978,878 98,336 108,280 85,710 84,741 4.6 5.3 4.0 4.3

Flint

180,521 177,361 181,229 175,355 8,536 15,078 7,594 12,876 4.7 8.5 4.2 7.3

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

582,502 565,398 587,605 564,178 15,817 31,152 14,620 26,690 2.7 5.5 2.5 4.7

Jackson

74,785 72,333 75,272 71,547 2,696 5,070 2,557 4,401 3.6 7.0 3.4 6.2

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,837 163,080 170,494 161,369 5,721 10,294 5,339 8,727 3.4 6.3 3.1 5.4

Lansing-East Lansing

249,476 236,281 253,024 236,244 7,407 13,516 7,042 11,552 3.0 5.7 2.8 4.9

Midland

39,799 39,268 39,708 38,588 1,607 2,375 1,488 2,029 4.0 6.0 3.7 5.3

Monroe

75,009 72,423 75,613 71,717 2,807 4,779 2,422 4,253 3.7 6.6 3.2 5.9

Muskegon

76,365 75,318 76,755 74,424 3,170 6,708 2,947 5,646 4.2 8.9 3.8 7.6

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,824 71,150 73,065 70,407 3,067 5,128 2,779 4,226 4.2 7.2 3.8 6.0

Saginaw

86,001 84,073 85,924 82,941 4,084 6,830 3,844 5,787 4.7 8.1 4.5 7.0

Minnesota

3,102,006 2,983,514 3,118,067 2,996,045 117,779 149,830 112,407 139,024 3.8 5.0 3.6 4.6

Duluth

142,869 137,590 144,852 140,245 6,855 7,563 6,747 7,427 4.8 5.5 4.7 5.3

Mankato-North Mankato

61,563 59,918 62,373 59,940 1,802 2,583 1,807 2,360 2.9 4.3 2.9 3.9

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,035,520 1,941,588 2,046,625 1,952,089 64,081 92,378 63,178 86,220 3.1 4.8 3.1 4.4

Rochester

125,399 122,968 125,785 124,166 4,033 5,454 3,976 5,185 3.2 4.4 3.2 4.2

St. Cloud

112,758 109,935 113,578 110,917 5,003 6,092 4,671 5,730 4.4 5.5 4.1 5.2

Mississippi

1,269,573 1,260,796 1,277,395 1,268,337 70,055 78,368 68,048 77,540 5.5 6.2 5.3 6.1

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,412 165,589 165,553 166,083 9,160 10,695 8,993 10,852 5.6 6.5 5.4 6.5

Hattiesburg

67,938 69,790 68,493 69,996 3,329 3,923 3,292 3,822 4.9 5.6 4.8 5.5

Jackson

265,976 262,394 267,257 263,732 12,609 14,862 12,704 14,652 4.7 5.7 4.8 5.6

Missouri

3,077,693 3,042,652 3,092,673 3,051,484 121,737 153,990 118,969 151,752 4.0 5.1 3.8 5.0

Cape Girardeau

48,059 47,456 48,323 48,205 1,705 2,166 1,726 2,035 3.5 4.6 3.6 4.2

Columbia

96,467 95,125 99,376 97,573 2,842 3,574 2,596 3,239 2.9 3.8 2.6 3.3

Jefferson City

74,929 75,637 75,132 75,243 2,455 2,905 2,396 2,902 3.3 3.8 3.2 3.9

Joplin

82,694 84,141 82,976 84,213 2,996 3,841 2,844 3,511 3.6 4.6 3.4 4.2

Kansas City

1,143,202 1,152,348 1,145,645 1,147,761 39,562 58,974 39,807 56,346 3.5 5.1 3.5 4.9

St. Joseph

62,710 62,076 63,131 62,557 2,246 2,678 2,330 2,680 3.6 4.3 3.7 4.3

St. Louis(2)

1,477,439 1,438,596 1,480,848 1,440,725 54,483 78,441 50,317 73,732 3.7 5.5 3.4 5.1

Springfield

235,559 236,672 237,639 238,393 8,317 9,904 7,887 9,234 3.5 4.2 3.3 3.9

Montana

538,957 525,782 542,851 528,872 24,873 26,492 22,794 25,813 4.6 5.0 4.2 4.9

Billings

88,956 85,452 89,587 86,031 3,605 3,857 3,313 3,998 4.1 4.5 3.7 4.6

Great Falls

38,452 36,768 38,493 36,806 1,699 1,784 1,443 1,785 4.4 4.9 3.7 4.8

Missoula

64,652 61,416 65,224 62,065 2,779 3,209 2,606 3,021 4.3 5.2 4.0 4.9

Nebraska

1,037,068 1,012,653 1,044,596 1,017,570 33,639 32,188 31,919 35,334 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.5

Grand Island

44,527 43,078 44,332 43,399 2,218 1,544 1,571 1,692 5.0 3.6 3.5 3.9

Lincoln

186,619 180,191 188,801 183,722 5,246 5,910 5,069 6,538 2.8 3.3 2.7 3.6

Omaha-Council Bluffs

495,288 481,490 499,652 484,105 16,424 17,552 15,792 19,031 3.3 3.6 3.2 3.9

Nevada

1,595,413 1,529,355 1,611,382 1,553,244 62,083 128,680 57,476 125,509 3.9 8.4 3.6 8.1

Carson City

26,771 26,782 27,058 27,620 1,134 1,480 1,055 1,503 4.2 5.5 3.9 5.4

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,173,861 1,106,751 1,185,697 1,120,978 46,406 108,184 43,266 104,268 4.0 9.8 3.6 9.3

Reno

264,032 267,058 267,724 272,953 9,187 12,835 8,206 13,318 3.5 4.8 3.1 4.9

New Hampshire

774,595 755,494 773,709 753,805 23,709 30,588 22,946 24,714 3.1 4.0 3.0 3.3

Dover-Durham

85,327 83,546 87,036 85,055 2,332 3,594 2,315 2,999 2.7 4.3 2.7 3.5

Manchester

123,132 120,720 123,554 119,522 3,509 4,836 3,366 3,872 2.8 4.0 2.7 3.2

Portsmouth

77,481 75,689 77,108 75,314 2,092 3,225 1,980 2,688 2.7 4.3 2.6 3.6

New Jersey

4,568,369 4,373,251 4,596,012 4,398,989 186,718 349,321 181,355 357,837 4.1 8.0 3.9 8.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

120,865 115,264 122,716 116,595 7,630 14,446 7,305 14,274 6.3 12.5 6.0 12.2

Ocean City

40,734 44,278 41,003 44,540 5,310 5,702 4,809 5,847 13.0 12.9 11.7 13.1

Trenton

206,907 202,497 208,602 202,801 7,401 12,951 7,091 13,102 3.6 6.4 3.4 6.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,349 64,393 66,545 64,529 4,442 6,300 4,269 6,446 6.7 9.8 6.4 10.0

New Mexico

962,250 952,128 966,815 954,775 49,768 86,334 49,236 78,354 5.2 9.1 5.1 8.2

Albuquerque

440,332 437,375 442,706 438,646 20,902 37,793 20,575 33,912 4.7 8.6 4.6 7.7

Farmington

51,643 50,363 51,736 49,958 3,304 5,521 3,285 4,994 6.4 11.0 6.3 10.0

Las Cruces

98,031 97,634 99,621 98,394 6,193 8,463 6,270 7,780 6.3 8.7 6.3 7.9

Santa Fe

74,062 70,527 74,509 70,700 3,153 6,083 3,099 5,618 4.3 8.6 4.2 7.9

New York

9,529,605 9,184,419 9,524,311 9,207,718 394,915 862,734 394,346 883,346 4.1 9.4 4.1 9.6

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

448,433 447,139 446,051 446,831 17,583 26,687 17,700 27,957 3.9 6.0 4.0 6.3

Binghamton

104,453 103,113 104,576 102,628 5,712 7,509 5,750 7,675 5.5 7.3 5.5 7.5

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

541,299 535,508 537,290 531,788 26,844 42,208 26,845 42,395 5.0 7.9 5.0 8.0

Elmira

35,821 35,055 35,230 34,730 1,693 2,549 1,687 2,603 4.7 7.3 4.8 7.5

Glens Falls

58,281 58,598 57,513 58,357 3,122 3,978 3,024 4,200 5.4 6.8 5.3 7.2

Ithaca

47,958 47,751 49,853 47,728 1,788 2,524 1,800 2,553 3.7 5.3 3.6 5.3

Kingston

87,123 85,160 86,748 84,661 3,576 5,702 3,645 5,767 4.1 6.7 4.2 6.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,022,874 9,540,870 10,054,969 9,594,966 385,669 916,430 381,885 939,983 3.8 9.6 3.8 9.8

Rochester

520,232 518,693 517,136 519,469 23,692 36,147 23,814 36,688 4.6 7.0 4.6 7.1

Syracuse

305,850 301,192 303,457 299,357 14,616 21,608 14,720 21,846 4.8 7.2 4.9 7.3

Utica-Rome

128,753 127,507 127,814 126,936 6,421 9,689 6,298 9,854 5.0 7.6 4.9 7.8

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,103 42,980 42,713 42,669 3,163 3,088 3,098 3,365 7.3 7.2 7.3 7.9

North Carolina

5,072,275 4,972,173 5,112,398 5,004,228 184,959 296,491 174,325 281,902 3.6 6.0 3.4 5.6

Asheville

235,285 227,198 237,499 228,686 7,119 12,553 6,793 11,756 3.0 5.5 2.9 5.1

Burlington

82,499 81,119 83,244 82,230 2,877 4,776 2,737 4,610 3.5 5.9 3.3 5.6

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,374,554 1,355,040 1,384,308 1,362,856 46,619 78,839 44,364 74,829 3.4 5.8 3.2 5.5

Durham-Chapel Hill

311,778 303,654 314,605 306,895 9,625 15,007 9,230 14,282 3.1 4.9 2.9 4.7

Fayetteville

148,938 145,470 149,365 147,120 7,131 11,947 6,745 11,416 4.8 8.2 4.5 7.8

Goldsboro

52,512 50,694 52,787 50,717 2,014 3,170 1,877 2,954 3.8 6.3 3.6 5.8

Greensboro-High Point

369,588 360,239 372,485 361,183 14,084 24,003 13,216 22,971 3.8 6.7 3.5 6.4

Greenville

89,975 90,229 90,886 90,571 3,426 5,308 3,195 5,031 3.8 5.9 3.5 5.6

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,260 173,069 175,303 173,714 5,892 10,055 5,556 9,425 3.4 5.8 3.2 5.4

Jacksonville

64,830 64,473 65,517 65,680 2,754 4,032 2,556 3,814 4.2 6.3 3.9 5.8

New Bern

51,315 50,580 51,747 50,770 1,885 2,916 1,750 2,793 3.7 5.8 3.4 5.5

Raleigh

733,043 722,101 738,830 726,788 23,230 36,329 21,986 34,517 3.2 5.0 3.0 4.7

Rocky Mount

64,352 63,727 64,473 64,024 3,016 5,174 2,833 4,929 4.7 8.1 4.4 7.7

Wilmington

152,129 149,399 154,504 150,929 5,252 8,145 4,959 7,656 3.5 5.5 3.2 5.1

Winston-Salem

331,148 322,634 333,215 324,457 11,466 18,776 10,761 17,758 3.5 5.8 3.2 5.5

North Dakota

402,870 397,376 405,223 400,257 11,895 19,972 11,444 21,373 3.0 5.0 2.8 5.3

Bismarck

67,799 69,671 68,219 70,337 2,224 3,193 2,175 3,520 3.3 4.6 3.2 5.0

Fargo

139,586 140,185 141,172 141,795 4,072 5,580 3,649 6,034 2.9 4.0 2.6 4.3

Grand Forks

52,869 51,776 53,501 52,568 1,646 2,380 1,636 2,451 3.1 4.6 3.1 4.7

Ohio

5,846,906 5,690,274 5,882,748 5,706,385 304,717 343,463 292,656 318,301 5.2 6.0 5.0 5.6

Akron

361,983 350,669 364,277 355,022 19,495 21,405 18,396 21,325 5.4 6.1 5.1 6.0

Canton-Massillon

200,073 195,561 200,610 196,900 11,979 11,716 11,258 12,017 6.0 6.0 5.6 6.1

Cincinnati

1,134,193 1,100,700 1,137,424 1,106,621 49,881 58,097 46,605 55,933 4.4 5.3 4.1 5.1

Cleveland-Elyria

1,056,664 1,007,929 1,065,483 976,386 52,752 73,403 57,479 47,958 5.0 7.3 5.4 4.9

Columbus

1,111,690 1,107,948 1,116,248 1,116,010 48,240 58,577 44,675 60,060 4.3 5.3 4.0 5.4

Dayton

392,573 385,743 394,174 389,739 19,066 22,256 17,772 22,440 4.9 5.8 4.5 5.8

Lima

48,187 48,416 48,403 49,021 2,592 2,820 2,457 3,308 5.4 5.8 5.1 6.7

Mansfield

52,668 51,909 52,925 52,434 3,076 3,298 2,867 3,246 5.8 6.4 5.4 6.2

Springfield

63,370 62,325 63,697 62,910 3,704 3,591 3,339 3,569 5.8 5.8 5.2 5.7

Toledo

304,648 292,994 307,087 294,804 16,646 18,850 15,274 18,462 5.5 6.4 5.0 6.3

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,641 49,727 51,256 50,228 3,493 3,969 3,370 3,801 6.9 8.0 6.6 7.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,067 229,310 238,908 230,886 16,704 18,033 15,834 18,090 7.0 7.9 6.6 7.8

Oklahoma

1,847,668 1,864,127 1,851,114 1,863,135 60,105 94,797 57,949 95,741 3.3 5.1 3.1 5.1

Enid

26,797 26,914 26,724 26,827 857 1,309 829 1,260 3.2 4.9 3.1 4.7

Lawton

51,065 51,296 51,050 51,201 1,651 2,539 1,571 2,413 3.2 4.9 3.1 4.7

Oklahoma City

689,439 693,503 692,692 692,884 20,159 33,187 19,353 34,388 2.9 4.8 2.8 5.0

Tulsa

482,498 484,586 483,913 481,740 15,546 26,402 15,131 26,203 3.2 5.4 3.1 5.4

Oregon

2,090,607 2,125,111 2,106,874 2,135,655 77,971 150,147 75,501 142,346 3.7 7.1 3.6 6.7

Albany

58,407 59,576 58,710 59,624 2,503 4,520 2,401 4,154 4.3 7.6 4.1 7.0

Bend-Redmond

96,633 100,731 97,069 100,425 3,973 8,004 3,768 7,448 4.1 7.9 3.9 7.4

Corvallis

47,334 46,841 48,084 47,260 1,233 2,427 1,315 2,399 2.6 5.2 2.7 5.1

Eugene

180,472 179,497 182,468 179,664 6,896 13,169 6,752 12,443 3.8 7.3 3.7 6.9

Grants Pass

35,394 37,287 35,570 37,282 1,826 2,972 1,729 2,745 5.2 8.0 4.9 7.4

Medford

103,119 107,594 104,010 107,796 4,441 7,791 4,381 7,335 4.3 7.2 4.2 6.8

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,331,265 1,317,787 1,340,313 1,325,658 45,875 88,387 45,629 84,962 3.4 6.7 3.4 6.4

Salem

199,178 205,826 201,416 207,851 7,945 13,875 7,668 13,206 4.0 6.7 3.8 6.4

Pennsylvania

6,505,710 6,242,716 6,528,280 6,333,338 325,704 499,400 328,362 512,248 5.0 8.0 5.0 8.1

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

446,171 432,697 446,791 436,538 21,714 33,532 21,765 34,871 4.9 7.7 4.9 8.0

Altoona

59,674 58,669 59,529 58,861 3,123 4,634 3,145 4,615 5.2 7.9 5.3 7.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,677 41,832 43,348 42,529 2,385 3,056 2,239 3,084 5.6 7.3 5.2 7.3

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,822 75,560 78,137 75,645 3,422 4,809 3,647 4,961 4.4 6.4 4.7 6.6

East Stroudsburg

84,069 79,538 84,009 79,928 5,194 7,352 5,177 7,589 6.2 9.2 6.2 9.5

Erie

129,271 124,871 130,076 126,512 7,310 12,127 7,352 12,559 5.7 9.7 5.7 9.9

Gettysburg

55,121 53,482 55,990 54,490 2,083 3,032 2,066 3,084 3.8 5.7 3.7 5.7

Harrisburg-Carlisle

301,902 294,157 302,102 297,528 12,390 19,812 12,583 20,116 4.1 6.7 4.2 6.8

Johnstown

57,371 54,470 57,708 55,486 3,684 4,867 3,673 5,011 6.4 8.9 6.4 9.0

Lancaster

284,109 274,689 286,859 277,787 11,062 17,237 11,048 17,524 3.9 6.3 3.9 6.3

Lebanon

71,753 70,330 72,749 71,101 3,195 4,941 3,279 5,017 4.5 7.0 4.5 7.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,162,432 3,032,628 3,178,323 3,076,696 141,723 234,539 141,212 241,159 4.5 7.7 4.4 7.8

Pittsburgh

1,209,116 1,156,325 1,213,091 1,172,959 62,186 95,784 62,874 97,665 5.1 8.3 5.2 8.3

Reading

215,313 205,830 216,029 208,727 10,606 16,593 10,733 17,284 4.9 8.1 5.0 8.3

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

279,014 268,851 279,013 273,003 17,201 25,909 17,111 26,607 6.2 9.6 6.1 9.7

State College

81,051 71,412 81,503 73,534 3,015 4,301 3,081 4,263 3.7 6.0 3.8 5.8

Williamsport

57,156 55,063 57,026 55,143 3,375 4,709 3,427 4,895 5.9 8.6 6.0 8.9

York-Hanover

236,465 230,647 235,990 233,341 10,157 15,429 10,346 15,814 4.3 6.7 4.4 6.8

Rhode Island

559,850 541,026 562,428 537,268 24,384 45,941 24,047 42,696 4.4 8.5 4.3 7.9

Providence-Warwick

693,714 673,968 696,454 670,892 30,418 56,811 29,741 53,497 4.4 8.4 4.3 8.0

South Carolina

2,359,513 2,341,048 2,368,555 2,380,151 73,251 126,343 70,660 123,897 3.1 5.4 3.0 5.2

Charleston-North Charleston

393,632 389,407 395,613 393,977 9,977 19,579 9,830 18,966 2.5 5.0 2.5 4.8

Columbia

401,175 394,016 402,505 404,852 11,308 19,635 10,984 19,464 2.8 5.0 2.7 4.8

Florence

96,767 96,684 96,617 97,359 3,135 5,324 2,976 5,201 3.2 5.5 3.1 5.3

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

431,728 426,940 433,483 434,981 11,903 20,480 11,708 20,126 2.8 4.8 2.7 4.6

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,086 88,460 89,580 88,726 2,480 4,061 2,471 4,190 2.8 4.6 2.8 4.7

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

195,020 192,851 197,231 196,929 9,654 14,217 8,698 14,079 5.0 7.4 4.4 7.1

Spartanburg

167,025 167,547 167,159 171,020 4,741 9,019 4,600 8,705 2.8 5.4 2.8 5.1

Sumter

42,889 43,813 43,204 43,917 1,647 2,683 1,592 2,589 3.8 6.1 3.7 5.9

South Dakota

457,217 461,290 460,964 467,857 14,934 15,102 14,905 15,842 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.4

Rapid City

73,064 73,900 73,699 75,489 2,493 2,489 2,530 2,617 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

Sioux Falls

155,701 157,367 157,239 158,241 4,492 4,716 4,469 4,994 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.2

Tennessee

3,332,953 3,306,225 3,341,965 3,299,505 132,499 177,062 128,090 161,313 4.0 5.4 3.8 4.9

Chattanooga

277,409 272,555 278,265 272,098 10,414 12,661 9,910 11,237 3.8 4.6 3.6 4.1

Clarksville

117,782 116,955 118,517 116,850 5,422 6,638 5,320 6,140 4.6 5.7 4.5 5.3

Cleveland

60,052 60,236 59,820 59,587 2,450 3,130 2,313 2,816 4.1 5.2 3.9 4.7

Jackson

64,589 64,541 64,987 64,283 2,565 3,385 2,518 3,104 4.0 5.2 3.9 4.8

Johnson City

91,646 90,114 93,127 90,636 4,043 4,668 3,897 4,373 4.4 5.2 4.2 4.8

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,751 134,401 137,974 134,143 5,782 7,469 5,468 6,771 4.2 5.6 4.0 5.0

Knoxville

431,905 431,906 434,444 432,835 15,799 19,835 15,518 18,514 3.7 4.6 3.6 4.3

Memphis

639,738 642,572 640,978 639,972 29,316 44,826 28,264 40,522 4.6 7.0 4.4 6.3

Morristown

53,174 52,783 53,669 53,452 2,577 2,777 2,457 2,598 4.8 5.3 4.6 4.9

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,091,003 1,077,029 1,093,819 1,075,106 31,626 46,933 31,210 43,051 2.9 4.4 2.9 4.0

Texas

14,161,146 14,026,650 14,262,779 14,049,170 526,436 1,025,977 501,576 1,059,622 3.7 7.3 3.5 7.5

Abilene

79,571 78,163 80,093 78,624 2,441 4,438 2,338 4,677 3.1 5.7 2.9 5.9

Amarillo

133,053 132,551 133,543 133,440 3,484 6,551 3,348 6,849 2.6 4.9 2.5 5.1

Austin-Round Rock

1,262,235 1,256,476 1,272,971 1,261,065 34,476 67,429 33,307 70,448 2.7 5.4 2.6 5.6

Beaumont-Port Arthur

173,849 172,293 174,829 173,453 10,397 19,903 9,393 20,548 6.0 11.6 5.4 11.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

170,517 169,824 170,264 170,294 10,546 17,841 9,653 18,509 6.2 10.5 5.7 10.9

College Station-Bryan

135,627 132,130 139,798 135,791 3,909 7,316 3,768 7,597 2.9 5.5 2.7 5.6

Corpus Christi

204,208 199,970 205,664 201,740 9,706 18,376 8,910 19,027 4.8 9.2 4.3 9.4

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,022,149 4,026,367 4,047,221 4,015,512 131,534 262,692 127,693 273,592 3.3 6.5 3.2 6.8

El Paso

367,551 368,752 369,581 369,591 14,511 29,584 13,962 30,616 3.9 8.0 3.8 8.3

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,455,439 3,374,454 3,486,370 3,373,272 139,979 277,808 132,926 283,203 4.1 8.2 3.8 8.4

Killeen-Temple

178,638 178,397 179,693 178,921 6,865 12,471 6,694 13,195 3.8 7.0 3.7 7.4

Laredo

119,327 115,840 119,899 116,050 4,841 9,665 4,647 9,929 4.1 8.3 3.9 8.6

Longview

98,636 96,156 98,915 96,056 4,142 7,765 3,948 7,980 4.2 8.1 4.0 8.3

Lubbock

163,410 163,428 164,707 164,236 4,737 9,400 4,499 9,671 2.9 5.8 2.7 5.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

361,679 364,306 362,022 365,291 27,228 43,226 23,920 43,959 7.5 11.9 6.6 12.0

Midland

109,280 97,355 110,101 97,123 2,612 8,028 2,568 8,033 2.4 8.2 2.3 8.3

Odessa

87,266 79,820 87,888 79,658 2,976 9,362 2,898 9,457 3.4 11.7 3.3 11.9

San Angelo

55,491 54,388 55,974 54,861 1,746 3,457 1,623 3,553 3.1 6.4 2.9 6.5

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,208,585 1,207,773 1,216,430 1,212,543 38,904 79,659 37,498 82,711 3.2 6.6 3.1 6.8

Sherman-Denison

64,799 64,839 65,345 65,068 2,111 3,690 2,046 3,908 3.3 5.7 3.1 6.0

Texarkana

64,369 63,560 64,656 63,787 2,826 4,194 2,845 4,447 4.4 6.6 4.4 7.0

Tyler

108,773 109,448 109,545 109,681 3,837 7,266 3,667 7,552 3.5 6.6 3.3 6.9

Victoria

45,250 44,225 45,136 44,062 1,780 3,672 1,714 3,807 3.9 8.3 3.8 8.6

Waco

126,504 128,751 127,389 129,529 4,289 7,875 4,091 8,102 3.4 6.1 3.2 6.3

Wichita Falls

64,955 64,050 65,057 64,082 2,111 4,392 2,006 4,529 3.2 6.9 3.1 7.1

Utah

1,629,243 1,641,309 1,640,139 1,640,927 43,232 56,740 43,633 58,550 2.7 3.5 2.7 3.6

Logan

72,949 72,341 72,715 72,653 1,555 1,863 1,533 1,925 2.1 2.6 2.1 2.6

Ogden-Clearfield

335,639 340,078 337,750 341,128 8,679 11,098 8,917 11,660 2.6 3.3 2.6 3.4

Provo-Orem

319,646 326,292 321,168 325,616 7,726 9,527 7,687 9,927 2.4 2.9 2.4 3.0

St. George

77,118 80,374 78,291 81,171 2,529 3,167 2,513 3,135 3.3 3.9 3.2 3.9

Salt Lake City

677,663 679,423 682,018 676,243 17,026 23,917 17,304 24,622 2.5 3.5 2.5 3.6

Vermont

343,783 311,722 343,087 310,194 10,327 11,471 8,861 10,091 3.0 3.7 2.6 3.3

Burlington-South Burlington

124,970 113,674 126,021 114,312 2,765 3,604 2,409 3,162 2.2 3.2 1.9 2.8

Virginia

4,437,563 4,218,059 4,461,764 4,228,227 123,101 239,627 111,375 227,707 2.8 5.7 2.5 5.4

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,005 85,641 94,349 88,719 2,650 4,142 2,718 3,958 2.9 4.8 2.9 4.5

Charlottesville

123,650 114,465 124,951 114,922 3,061 5,892 2,678 5,472 2.5 5.1 2.1 4.8

Harrisonburg

68,388 63,680 68,996 64,176 1,723 3,086 1,494 2,905 2.5 4.8 2.2 4.5

Lynchburg

124,149 117,293 124,783 117,415 4,012 6,883 3,651 6,563 3.2 5.9 2.9 5.6

Richmond

694,552 653,124 695,699 652,750 19,917 39,882 17,979 38,498 2.9 6.1 2.6 5.9

Roanoke

159,046 151,792 160,247 152,688 4,553 8,270 4,155 7,852 2.9 5.4 2.6 5.1

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,811 59,254 61,308 58,770 1,542 2,848 1,378 2,687 2.5 4.8 2.2 4.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

863,903 826,704 867,378 830,859 26,294 53,717 23,745 51,409 3.0 6.5 2.7 6.2

Winchester

74,996 72,995 75,596 73,228 2,053 3,217 1,840 3,028 2.7 4.4 2.4 4.1

Washington

3,954,032 3,845,838 3,988,229 3,874,686 180,264 260,249 177,565 247,316 4.6 6.8 4.5 6.4

Bellingham

118,250 109,745 118,345 110,000 6,947 7,787 6,367 7,968 5.9 7.1 5.4 7.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

131,807 123,276 132,110 122,777 6,186 7,257 6,062 7,465 4.7 5.9 4.6 6.1

Kennewick-Richland

144,151 141,800 145,278 142,538 9,754 9,779 9,551 10,138 6.8 6.9 6.6 7.1

Longview

48,857 46,408 49,013 46,725 3,072 3,363 3,116 3,520 6.3 7.2 6.4 7.5

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,235 59,501 63,511 59,568 4,157 4,387 3,914 4,576 6.6 7.4 6.2 7.7

Olympia-Tumwater

146,274 139,754 147,423 140,491 7,497 8,412 7,511 8,571 5.1 6.0 5.1 6.1

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,202,203 2,170,317 2,223,969 2,195,621 71,038 144,985 69,732 128,342 3.2 6.7 3.1 5.8

Spokane-Spokane Valley

286,389 268,486 288,351 270,761 17,712 18,427 18,237 19,145 6.2 6.9 6.3 7.1

Walla Walla

31,759 31,064 32,149 31,278 1,770 1,877 1,693 1,908 5.6 6.0 5.3 6.1

Wenatchee

64,045 61,598 64,398 61,819 4,286 4,295 4,268 4,449 6.7 7.0 6.6 7.2

Yakima

127,095 126,849 129,441 128,075 11,390 10,757 11,201 11,103 9.0 8.5 8.7 8.7

West Virginia

799,650 783,457 805,171 790,365 45,180 55,551 46,326 54,419 5.6 7.1 5.8 6.9

Beckley

46,817 46,000 46,928 46,024 2,836 3,629 2,950 3,548 6.1 7.9 6.3 7.7

Charleston

94,234 91,716 94,633 92,740 5,034 6,835 5,098 6,702 5.3 7.5 5.4 7.2

Huntington-Ashland

148,568 145,309 148,989 146,074 8,406 9,432 8,386 9,250 5.7 6.5 5.6 6.3

Morgantown

71,823 69,578 72,476 71,381 2,820 3,721 2,869 3,623 3.9 5.3 4.0 5.1

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,365 38,295 39,494 38,270 2,465 3,024 2,542 2,917 6.3 7.9 6.4 7.6

Wheeling

63,839 61,998 64,140 62,395 4,817 4,746 4,691 4,600 7.5 7.7 7.3 7.4

Wisconsin

3,057,272 3,032,623 3,070,731 3,056,098 107,294 136,654 107,685 148,095 3.5 4.5 3.5 4.8

Appleton

130,094 129,860 130,074 130,248 3,842 4,663 3,723 5,115 3.0 3.6 2.9 3.9

Eau Claire

90,563 92,538 91,709 93,839 3,463 4,113 3,377 4,537 3.8 4.4 3.7 4.8

Fond du Lac

56,120 56,988 55,876 57,092 1,735 2,180 1,695 2,365 3.1 3.8 3.0 4.1

Green Bay

171,561 170,671 170,853 170,526 5,679 6,859 5,595 7,467 3.3 4.0 3.3 4.4

Janesville-Beloit

84,515 84,149 84,643 84,919 3,626 4,187 3,422 4,678 4.3 5.0 4.0 5.5

La Crosse-Onalaska

74,952 75,100 76,558 76,439 2,465 2,949 2,310 3,160 3.3 3.9 3.0 4.1

Madison

385,092 380,824 389,924 385,439 9,733 13,315 9,397 14,063 2.5 3.5 2.4 3.6

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

804,031 789,252 809,445 796,608 26,959 39,121 26,947 41,432 3.4 5.0 3.3 5.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

90,531 91,282 91,152 91,790 2,615 3,343 2,510 3,601 2.9 3.7 2.8 3.9

Racine

96,263 95,542 96,860 95,966 4,062 5,267 4,211 5,696 4.2 5.5 4.3 5.9

Sheboygan

60,739 61,474 60,490 61,604 1,720 2,179 1,683 2,327 2.8 3.5 2.8 3.8

Wausau

72,264 72,398 72,101 72,629 2,176 2,528 2,089 2,767 3.0 3.5 2.9 3.8

Wyoming

296,026 294,201 297,365 295,046 14,396 18,294 14,440 19,037 4.9 6.2 4.9 6.5

Casper

40,860 40,676 40,892 40,623 2,126 3,397 2,123 3,600 5.2 8.4 5.2 8.9

Cheyenne

50,564 50,766 50,954 50,863 2,235 2,767 2,302 2,806 4.4 5.5 4.5 5.5

Puerto Rico

1,049,920 1,037,203 1,056,845 1,044,854 100,999 93,665 82,583 80,964 9.6 9.0 7.8 7.7

Aguadilla-Isabela

83,987 81,788 83,957 81,603 10,941 8,172 9,383 7,093 13.0 10.0 11.2 8.7

Arecibo

51,974 50,574 52,018 50,647 6,614 4,608 5,508 4,003 12.7 9.1 10.6 7.9

Guayama

19,589 18,977 19,613 19,079 2,844 1,822 2,433 1,595 14.5 9.6 12.4 8.4

Mayaguez

26,070 25,566 25,939 25,746 3,103 2,449 2,384 2,114 11.9 9.6 9.2 8.2

Ponce

89,966 86,707 89,756 87,424 12,332 9,128 10,154 8,076 13.7 10.5 11.3 9.2

San German

33,589 33,327 33,289 33,607 4,600 3,303 3,506 2,880 13.7 9.9 10.5 8.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

702,030 698,512 710,508 705,687 54,796 59,814 44,361 51,187 7.8 8.6 6.2 7.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Data for 2020 in this table have been revised to incorporate updated inputs and adjustment to new state controls. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
January February Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) January February January February
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

19,438,620 18,621,937 19,514,077 19,022,842 873,455 1,720,196 844,212 1,599,510 4.5 9.2 4.3 8.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,819,700 6,436,244 6,835,541 6,672,605 300,858 737,199 290,924 661,406 4.4 11.5 4.3 9.9

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,609,126 1,520,418 1,617,047 1,546,314 47,330 111,317 44,936 104,518 2.9 7.3 2.8 6.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,210,574 4,915,826 5,218,494 5,126,291 253,528 625,882 245,988 556,888 4.9 12.7 4.7 10.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,571,019 2,422,846 2,583,420 2,446,770 71,759 162,154 68,045 153,169 2.8 6.7 2.6 6.3

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,395,516 1,336,937 1,402,171 1,349,585 44,606 98,100 42,082 93,116 3.2 7.3 3.0 6.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,037,700 957,207 1,043,328 966,126 23,728 57,086 22,712 53,465 2.3 6.0 2.2 5.5

San Rafael

137,803 128,702 137,921 131,059 3,425 6,968 3,251 6,588 2.5 5.4 2.4 5.0

District of Columbia

421,801 407,077 425,308 408,029 21,026 32,208 20,714 31,204 5.0 7.9 4.9 7.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,507,291 3,304,214 3,528,641 3,316,299 105,375 198,648 99,283 189,742 3.0