Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, November 6, 2018			USDL-18-1786

Technical information:
 Employment:	(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


 	METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- SEPTEMBER 2018


Unemployment rates were lower in September than a year earlier in 308 of the 388
metropolitan areas, higher in 58 areas, and unchanged in 22 areas, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 109 areas had jobless rates of less
than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll
employment increased over the year in 58 metropolitan areas, decreased in 1 area,
and was essentially unchanged in 329 areas. The national unemployment rate in
September was 3.6 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 4.1 percent a year
earlier.

 _____________________________________________________________________________
|									      |
|			   Hurricane Florence				      |
|									      |
|  Hurricane Florence affected parts of the East Coast during the September   |
|  reference periods for the establishment and household surveys. Response    |
|  rates for the two surveys were within normal ranges both nationally and    |
|  for the affected areas. For information on how unusually severe weather    |
|  can affect the employment and hours estimates, see the Frequently Asked    |
|  Questions section of the Employment Situation news release at	      |
|  www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.faq.htm.				      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________|


Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.4 percent. El Centro,
CA, and Yuma, AZ, had the highest unemployment rates, 19.3 percent and 19.1 percent,
respectively. A total of 201 areas had September jobless rates below the U.S. rate
of 3.6 percent, 169 areas had rates above it, and 18 areas had rates equal to that
of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease occurred in Brunswick, GA
(-3.2 percentage points). Eighty-one additional areas had rate declines of at least
1.0 percentage point. Texarkana, TX-AR, had the largest over-the-year rate increase
in September (+0.9 percentage point).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest unemployment rate in
September, 2.2 percent. New Orleans-Metairie, LA, had the highest jobless rate among
the large areas, 4.8 percent, closely followed by Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV,
4.7 percent. Thirty-eight large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases,
seven had increases, and six had no change. The largest rate decreases occurred in
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY, and Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC (-1.2
percentage points each). The largest over-the-year rate increase was in Louisville/
Jefferson County, KY-IN (+0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
September, San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, and San Rafael, CA,
had the lowest unemployment rates among the divisions, 2.2 percent each. Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA, and Philadelphia, PA, had the highest division rates, 4.8
percent each. (See table 2.)

In September, 34 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases,
1 had an increase, and 3 had no change. The largest rate declines occurred in Chicago-
Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL, and Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-1.3 percentage
points each). The lone over-the-year rate increase was marginal (+0.2 percentage point
in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, 58 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll
employment, 1 had a decrease, and 329 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-
the-year employment increases occurred in Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 
(+128,700), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+109,400), and New York-Newark-Jersey
City, NY-NJ-PA (+108,500). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment
occurred in Midland, TX (+9.0 percent), and Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ, and Cape
Coral-Fort Myers, FL (+7.0 percent each). Employment fell in Wilmington, NC (-4,500,
or -3.6 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 34 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged
in 17 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large
metropolitan areas occurred in Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+5.9 percent), 
Jacksonville, FL (+4.4 percent), and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+4.3 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In September, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 17 of the 38 metropolitan
divisions over the year and was essentially unchanged in 21 divisions. The largest over-
the-year increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-
Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+93,000), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+85,900),
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+66,300). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increase in employment occurred in Miami-Miami
Beach-Kendall, FL (+4.4 percent), followed by Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield
Beach, FL (+4.3 percent), and San Rafael, CA, and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+3.9
percent each). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for October is scheduled to be
released on Friday, November 16, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The Metropolitan Area
Employment and Unemployment news release for October is scheduled to be released
on Thursday, November 29, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 388
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Beginning with the release of January 2018 preliminary estimates, payroll employment
data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available estimates including
those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors. Concurrent
sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate
real-time estimates. Previously, the sample-based seasonal factors were forecasted
once annually at the beginning of the year and applied to the sample-based estimates
for the 12 months of the year. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on July 15, 2015. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) August September August September
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

Alabama

2,158,653 2,203,700 2,166,431 2,206,663 93,099 91,801 79,571 84,262 4.3 4.2 3.7 3.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,386 46,354 45,006 46,458 2,203 2,261 1,880 2,098 4.9 4.9 4.2 4.5

Auburn-Opelika

72,707 73,830 73,324 73,996 2,885 2,886 2,368 2,635 4.0 3.9 3.2 3.6

Birmingham-Hoover

532,228 543,210 533,105 541,841 20,989 20,441 17,880 18,886 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

92,994 96,201 91,543 94,579 3,543 3,524 3,067 3,230 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.4

Decatur

68,176 70,054 68,226 69,680 2,838 2,684 2,447 2,457 4.2 3.8 3.6 3.5

Dothan

62,149 62,733 62,201 62,948 2,658 2,727 2,315 2,520 4.3 4.3 3.7 4.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,407 65,318 64,697 65,280 3,065 3,067 2,618 2,745 4.8 4.7 4.0 4.2

Gadsden

42,412 42,944 42,614 43,267 1,888 1,865 1,636 1,699 4.5 4.3 3.8 3.9

Huntsville

214,894 224,494 215,770 224,111 8,157 8,176 7,022 7,540 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.4

Mobile

184,692 187,395 185,281 188,024 9,385 9,275 8,025 8,592 5.1 4.9 4.3 4.6

Montgomery

171,016 173,925 171,062 174,615 7,051 7,224 6,098 6,603 4.1 4.2 3.6 3.8

Tuscaloosa

112,561 114,313 113,731 114,939 4,761 4,577 3,917 4,085 4.2 4.0 3.4 3.6

Alaska

368,916 360,594 363,815 355,303 23,546 19,358 24,193 19,813 6.4 5.4 6.6 5.6

Anchorage

200,222 196,066 201,042 196,416 12,234 10,029 12,849 10,353 6.1 5.1 6.4 5.3

Fairbanks

47,118 46,453 46,885 46,012 2,611 2,065 2,747 2,232 5.5 4.4 5.9 4.9

Arizona

3,314,163 3,361,702 3,351,088 3,435,301 171,931 177,926 162,539 168,423 5.2 5.3 4.9 4.9

Flagstaff

75,699 77,338 77,751 80,436 4,187 4,367 3,855 4,035 5.5 5.6 5.0 5.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

83,271 84,672 83,096 85,322 4,953 5,075 4,761 4,949 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,307,376 2,347,659 2,329,510 2,397,273 101,233 106,078 97,359 101,375 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.2

Prescott

102,252 103,205 103,317 104,951 4,664 4,905 4,514 4,836 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas

48,701 47,935 49,340 49,200 2,863 2,901 2,806 2,831 5.9 6.1 5.7 5.8

Tucson

470,143 474,524 480,619 488,609 21,874 22,684 21,117 21,841 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.5

Yuma

97,508 96,970 96,421 97,295 21,836 21,467 18,271 18,583 22.4 22.1 18.9 19.1

Arkansas

1,360,376 1,345,054 1,363,077 1,347,541 51,805 45,192 48,345 44,870 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

274,404 274,153 275,700 274,888 8,087 6,988 7,557 6,877 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.5

Fort Smith

120,596 118,078 120,369 117,798 5,213 4,286 4,936 4,135 4.3 3.6 4.1 3.5

Hot Springs

40,994 40,057 40,391 39,509 1,678 1,479 1,603 1,494 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.8

Jonesboro

64,719 64,659 64,763 64,502 2,191 1,853 1,966 1,814 3.4 2.9 3.0 2.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

359,772 356,915 358,361 355,914 12,131 10,851 11,537 10,839 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.0

Pine Bluff

35,457 34,522 35,572 34,489 1,846 1,627 1,680 1,615 5.2 4.7 4.7 4.7

California

19,376,487 19,368,395 19,462,033 19,552,490 959,037 826,550 841,531 768,865 4.9 4.3 4.3 3.9

Bakersfield

388,255 385,975 389,308 388,224 33,385 27,968 29,056 25,660 8.6 7.2 7.5 6.6

Chico

102,231 103,121 104,353 105,689 5,959 4,762 4,961 4,320 5.8 4.6 4.8 4.1

El Centro

74,218 73,941 74,003 74,459 16,342 15,104 14,957 14,388 22.0 20.4 20.2 19.3

Fresno

451,731 451,589 452,568 455,430 34,686 29,310 30,572 26,816 7.7 6.5 6.8 5.9

Hanford-Corcoran

58,349 57,458 57,805 57,546 4,466 3,796 3,920 3,475 7.7 6.6 6.8 6.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,757,630 6,745,932 6,804,412 6,796,085 324,482 311,830 290,348 293,383 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.3

Madera

61,396 61,251 62,410 62,166 4,479 3,766 3,811 3,372 7.3 6.1 6.1 5.4

Merced

116,155 117,196 119,164 120,223 9,494 8,101 8,004 7,151 8.2 6.9 6.7 5.9

Modesto

247,382 244,961 244,722 246,045 17,024 14,310 14,649 12,924 6.9 5.8 6.0 5.3

Napa

74,909 73,915 75,875 75,085 2,644 2,039 2,285 1,914 3.5 2.8 3.0 2.5

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

423,454 421,802 426,819 426,417 20,394 16,505 18,308 15,581 4.8 3.9 4.3 3.7

Redding

74,687 74,851 74,745 75,741 4,149 3,479 3,637 3,246 5.6 4.6 4.9 4.3

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,020,970 2,037,103 2,034,805 2,057,249 112,544 90,817 98,697 84,276 5.6 4.5 4.9 4.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,088,671 1,083,462 1,089,470 1,088,688 50,763 40,547 44,109 37,457 4.7 3.7 4.0 3.4

Salinas

228,608 228,480 227,600 230,529 11,769 9,751 10,044 8,924 5.1 4.3 4.4 3.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,588,585 1,584,465 1,591,530 1,601,806 68,291 54,315 59,208 50,478 4.3 3.4 3.7 3.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,583,154 2,580,195 2,591,894 2,614,051 92,821 71,869 79,111 66,465 3.6 2.8 3.1 2.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,077,690 1,088,627 1,076,774 1,098,405 37,479 29,074 32,345 27,070 3.5 2.7 3.0 2.5

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

138,914 138,368 142,279 142,353 5,494 4,204 4,664 3,892 4.0 3.0 3.3 2.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

144,915 145,045 143,406 145,131 6,892 5,637 5,862 5,048 4.8 3.9 4.1 3.5

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

217,573 215,381 218,556 217,334 9,300 7,690 8,139 7,112 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.3

Santa Rosa

264,707 265,854 267,197 271,176 9,189 7,164 7,724 6,569 3.5 2.7 2.9 2.4

Stockton-Lodi

327,057 327,562 327,730 332,441 21,723 18,037 19,162 16,744 6.6 5.5 5.8 5.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,090 207,555 210,823 211,625 10,260 8,023 8,858 7,455 4.9 3.9 4.2 3.5

Visalia-Porterville

205,251 207,699 204,865 207,976 20,432 17,988 18,113 16,438 10.0 8.7 8.8 7.9

Yuba City

76,484 75,127 75,151 74,578 5,273 4,369 4,564 4,068 6.9 5.8 6.1 5.5

Colorado

3,018,153 3,100,958 3,035,955 3,113,894 83,673 105,974 82,092 95,998 2.8 3.4 2.7 3.1

Boulder

187,198 191,643 190,292 193,577 4,542 6,005 4,429 5,367 2.4 3.1 2.3 2.8

Colorado Springs

341,375 356,116 344,965 358,216 10,991 14,446 10,879 13,064 3.2 4.1 3.2 3.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,606,170 1,648,081 1,614,214 1,643,726 43,415 54,612 42,899 49,696 2.7 3.3 2.7 3.0

Fort Collins

197,196 203,190 199,979 205,311 4,670 6,089 4,566 5,446 2.4 3.0 2.3 2.7

Grand Junction

74,442 75,486 75,625 76,282 2,766 3,017 2,627 2,729 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.6

Greeley

158,212 164,305 160,498 166,549 4,130 5,182 3,979 4,641 2.6 3.2 2.5 2.8

Pueblo

73,992 74,498 75,355 75,217 3,320 3,792 3,152 3,503 4.5 5.1 4.2 4.7

Connecticut

1,920,059 1,905,341 1,903,588 1,904,836 89,647 76,961 80,486 73,287 4.7 4.0 4.2 3.8

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

472,780 468,682 465,839 466,294 21,783 18,696 19,787 18,040 4.6 4.0 4.2 3.9

Danbury

108,555 108,285 106,889 107,562 4,146 3,632 3,632 3,404 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.2

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

624,740 621,677 623,441 625,073 29,819 25,569 26,511 24,175 4.8 4.1 4.3 3.9

New Haven

328,463 324,561 327,334 325,367 15,416 13,139 13,903 12,535 4.7 4.0 4.2 3.9

Norwich-New London-Westerly

146,934 146,144 143,883 144,833 6,412 5,448 5,914 5,189 4.4 3.7 4.1 3.6

Waterbury

112,291 110,609 111,101 110,303 6,460 5,670 5,694 5,325 5.8 5.1 5.1 4.8

Delaware

480,786 488,882 474,481 481,892 22,830 20,810 21,221 19,795 4.7 4.3 4.5 4.1

Dover

76,803 79,216 77,121 78,770 4,243 3,859 3,732 3,516 5.5 4.9 4.8 4.5

Salisbury(1)

200,033 196,224 191,533 189,058 9,033 8,649 8,658 8,423 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5

District of Columbia

400,601 401,298 399,944 399,996 25,560 24,564 25,089 23,832 6.4 6.1 6.3 6.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,392,976 3,406,778 3,396,035 3,395,276 130,626 118,294 123,220 111,312 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.3

Florida

10,105,593 10,190,015 10,202,985 10,263,364 439,388 382,965 411,122 311,027 4.3 3.8 4.0 3.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

333,807 334,369 328,669 338,706 13,833 12,262 13,464 9,835 4.1 3.7 4.1 2.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

127,988 131,954 128,497 130,654 4,393 3,825 4,059 3,074 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.4

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

298,367 302,642 301,788 301,483 13,481 11,673 12,441 9,452 4.5 3.9 4.1 3.1

Gainesville

140,050 141,487 146,689 146,839 5,447 4,807 5,152 3,903 3.9 3.4 3.5 2.7

Homosassa Springs

48,145 48,062 48,524 48,624 2,846 2,606 2,616 2,083 5.9 5.4 5.4 4.3

Jacksonville

768,587 782,243 779,374 787,532 32,042 27,573 28,821 21,849 4.2 3.5 3.7 2.8

Lakeland-Winter Haven

293,900 298,072 297,649 300,938 14,417 12,810 13,394 10,318 4.9 4.3 4.5 3.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,129,204 3,118,765 3,149,447 3,136,835 142,970 120,634 134,972 100,990 4.6 3.9 4.3 3.2

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

169,344 167,577 163,836 168,706 7,904 7,051 7,564 5,517 4.7 4.2 4.6 3.3

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

359,869 364,575 362,400 368,713 14,649 13,025 13,558 10,478 4.1 3.6 3.7 2.8

Ocala

133,670 135,421 135,340 136,261 6,810 6,095 6,297 4,853 5.1 4.5 4.7 3.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,308,075 1,348,125 1,329,031 1,361,525 51,224 45,662 47,741 36,569 3.9 3.4 3.6 2.7

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

270,875 272,242 271,905 274,198 11,823 10,050 10,974 8,079 4.4 3.7 4.0 2.9

Panama City

96,990 98,121 97,418 97,433 3,898 3,303 3,527 2,627 4.0 3.4 3.6 2.7

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

224,442 226,435 229,745 227,630 9,232 8,077 8,476 6,517 4.1 3.6 3.7 2.9

Port St. Lucie

210,865 211,770 211,535 212,990 10,516 9,357 9,848 7,460 5.0 4.4 4.7 3.5

Punta Gorda

69,768 70,340 69,607 70,608 3,410 3,048 3,206 2,461 4.9 4.3 4.6 3.5

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,018 63,290 63,208 63,314 3,450 3,081 3,196 2,443 5.5 4.9 5.1 3.9

Sebring

35,995 35,167 35,827 36,038 2,164 1,894 2,039 1,503 6.0 5.4 5.7 4.2

Tallahassee

187,965 190,269 196,281 194,302 7,867 6,996 7,294 5,664 4.2 3.7 3.7 2.9

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,513,659 1,535,621 1,535,406 1,543,915 61,553 55,435 57,207 44,470 4.1 3.6 3.7 2.9

The Villages

30,497 30,596 30,692 30,842 1,926 1,676 1,697 1,314 6.3 5.5 5.5 4.3

Georgia

5,060,417 5,123,370 5,099,501 5,118,621 248,105 192,371 227,050 166,285 4.9 3.8 4.5 3.2

Albany

67,629 67,891 68,180 68,094 3,935 3,171 3,603 2,727 5.8 4.7 5.3 4.0

Athens-Clarke County

100,737 103,255 102,356 104,109 4,692 3,575 4,299 3,136 4.7 3.5 4.2 3.0

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,038,498 3,082,703 3,064,470 3,081,028 143,397 110,812 129,956 95,800 4.7 3.6 4.2 3.1

Augusta-Richmond County

265,932 268,085 266,940 268,161 13,995 11,452 12,469 9,710 5.3 4.3 4.7 3.6

Brunswick

53,597 53,802 53,019 53,844 2,644 1,969 3,341 1,676 4.9 3.7 6.3 3.1

Columbus

124,078 125,728 125,069 125,500 7,090 5,755 6,334 4,994 5.7 4.6 5.1 4.0

Dalton

60,889 61,577 61,543 61,556 3,362 2,577 3,314 2,473 5.5 4.2 5.4 4.0

Gainesville

100,441 103,816 101,344 103,592 4,121 3,064 3,731 2,691 4.1 3.0 3.7 2.6

Hinesville

33,770 33,972 33,786 33,826 1,767 1,373 1,657 1,163 5.2 4.0 4.9 3.4

Macon-Bibb County

105,593 105,625 106,026 105,140 5,700 4,300 5,265 3,696 5.4 4.1 5.0 3.5

Rome

44,203 44,543 44,653 44,218 2,372 1,865 2,144 1,604 5.4 4.2 4.8 3.6

Savannah

186,191 185,134 184,998 184,622 8,504 6,640 7,731 5,751 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.1

Valdosta

64,318 65,727 64,693 65,172 3,191 2,558 2,937 2,208 5.0 3.9 4.5 3.4

Warner Robins

85,132 85,273 85,529 84,972 4,277 3,307 3,930 2,898 5.0 3.9 4.6 3.4

Hawaii

682,136 684,111 679,436 680,982 14,814 14,930 15,297 16,883 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,384 87,840 85,406 86,089 1,964 1,829 2,012 2,120 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.5

Urban Honolulu

466,330 468,035 467,674 467,621 9,845 9,746 10,189 11,001 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.4

Idaho

839,691 854,684 839,287 852,550 24,036 19,685 22,497 18,115 2.9 2.3 2.7 2.1

Boise City

348,211 356,910 347,148 355,147 10,098 8,192 9,419 7,561 2.9 2.3 2.7 2.1

Coeur d'Alene

77,050 78,393 75,666 77,472 2,539 2,045 2,407 1,923 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.5

Idaho Falls

68,373 69,215 67,682 68,635 1,674 1,359 1,637 1,274 2.4 2.0 2.4 1.9

Lewiston

31,479 31,646 31,478 31,972 924 818 916 823 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.6

Pocatello

40,739 41,543 41,233 41,860 1,133 943 1,072 865 2.8 2.3 2.6 2.1

Illinois

6,504,014 6,458,387 6,496,827 6,463,340 344,193 268,814 299,985 245,991 5.3 4.2 4.6 3.8

Bloomington

95,060 95,456 96,433 97,968 4,012 3,916 3,459 3,522 4.2 4.1 3.6 3.6

Carbondale-Marion

58,704 58,348 59,754 60,336 2,959 2,884 2,600 2,557 5.0 4.9 4.4 4.2

Champaign-Urbana

114,320 116,340 121,185 124,209 5,142 5,187 4,443 4,660 4.5 4.5 3.7 3.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,933,346 4,882,816 4,921,065 4,847,187 265,755 193,688 230,308 177,478 5.4 4.0 4.7 3.7

Danville

33,948 33,844 34,004 34,485 2,306 2,006 1,968 1,747 6.8 5.9 5.8 5.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

190,939 192,729 189,440 193,161 8,242 7,451 7,783 7,191 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.7

Decatur

49,320 49,668 49,297 50,253 2,895 2,740 2,478 2,386 5.9 5.5 5.0 4.7

Kankakee

55,790 58,431 55,880 59,381 2,858 2,774 2,532 2,493 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.2

Peoria

177,528 177,635 175,926 178,486 9,514 8,765 8,326 7,826 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.4

Rockford

164,391 166,237 163,699 167,454 9,222 8,761 8,157 7,658 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.6

Springfield

112,188 112,376 109,556 110,915 4,786 4,698 4,278 4,126 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.7

Indiana

3,332,392 3,409,790 3,326,645 3,384,737 131,017 127,377 109,414 102,351 3.9 3.7 3.3 3.0

Bloomington

75,092 75,021 77,343 76,918 3,365 3,344 2,564 2,461 4.5 4.5 3.3 3.2

Columbus

44,499 46,334 44,445 46,006 1,383 1,305 1,107 994 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.2

Elkhart-Goshen

112,937 119,299 112,532 117,439 3,245 3,501 2,533 2,771 2.9 2.9 2.3 2.4

Evansville

161,135 165,147 162,602 164,119 5,970 5,804 4,991 4,786 3.7 3.5 3.1 2.9

Fort Wayne

212,461 220,231 212,799 218,716 7,755 7,532 6,609 5,833 3.7 3.4 3.1 2.7

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,050,100 1,080,386 1,044,339 1,066,673 39,046 37,858 32,878 30,736 3.7 3.5 3.1 2.9

Kokomo

37,950 40,177 38,135 40,082 1,558 1,468 1,279 1,197 4.1 3.7 3.4 3.0

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,550 111,819 110,200 114,652 4,136 3,977 3,202 2,927 3.7 3.6 2.9 2.6

Michigan City-La Porte

47,716 47,513 47,378 47,398 2,200 2,116 1,852 1,783 4.6 4.5 3.9 3.8

Muncie

55,321 55,218 55,333 55,720 2,648 2,384 2,161 1,855 4.8 4.3 3.9 3.3

South Bend-Mishawaka

155,113 156,880 159,280 160,050 6,491 6,294 5,471 5,196 4.2 4.0 3.4 3.2

Terre Haute

75,824 77,565 76,509 76,850 3,564 3,758 3,002 3,106 4.7 4.8 3.9 4.0

Iowa

1,679,665 1,681,524 1,677,793 1,683,554 52,490 40,271 46,234 35,892 3.1 2.4 2.8 2.1

Ames

55,564 56,665 59,039 59,644 1,309 934 1,107 851 2.4 1.6 1.9 1.4

Cedar Rapids

142,483 142,566 142,013 142,496 4,861 3,755 4,378 3,408 3.4 2.6 3.1 2.4

Des Moines-West Des Moines

348,785 358,603 345,131 353,325 10,109 8,016 9,150 7,323 2.9 2.2 2.7 2.1

Dubuque

53,975 53,897 54,274 53,928 1,596 1,187 1,369 1,049 3.0 2.2 2.5 1.9

Iowa City

97,680 97,602 97,959 98,596 2,719 1,923 2,312 1,727 2.8 2.0 2.4 1.8

Sioux City

90,045 90,065 90,256 90,501 2,852 2,151 2,495 1,936 3.2 2.4 2.8 2.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

87,123 86,761 88,490 87,450 3,127 2,294 2,700 1,985 3.6 2.6 3.1 2.3

Kansas

1,477,378 1,477,034 1,476,680 1,483,368 59,507 51,230 48,648 43,628 4.0 3.5 3.3 2.9

Lawrence

62,776 65,111 65,838 66,051 2,278 2,051 1,876 1,732 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.6

Manhattan

44,536 47,254 47,967 48,358 1,534 1,385 1,290 1,149 3.4 2.9 2.7 2.4

Topeka

120,566 119,250 118,661 118,007 4,738 4,227 3,863 3,601 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.1

Wichita

307,996 307,734 304,857 307,346 14,293 11,726 11,825 10,234 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.3

Kentucky

2,047,213 2,058,681 2,056,757 2,070,045 98,105 84,493 88,035 88,048 4.8 4.1 4.3 4.3

Bowling Green

81,165 83,507 83,070 83,946 3,587 3,062 3,499 2,931 4.4 3.7 4.2 3.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

66,904 67,628 66,495 67,542 3,050 2,673 2,780 2,902 4.6 4.0 4.2 4.3

Lexington-Fayette

269,021 272,041 270,372 272,958 10,119 9,032 9,017 8,933 3.8 3.3 3.3 3.3

Louisville/Jefferson County

664,469 670,650 664,758 671,988 28,144 25,446 24,483 27,894 4.2 3.8 3.7 4.2

Owensboro

55,851 56,235 55,840 56,575 2,479 2,155 2,191 2,127 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.8

Louisiana

2,118,448 2,116,152 2,120,750 2,098,287 118,483 117,218 105,383 105,069 5.6 5.5 5.0 5.0

Alexandria

64,929 64,319 64,939 63,610 4,050 3,911 3,543 3,469 6.2 6.1 5.5 5.5

Baton Rouge

420,920 423,582 422,442 420,752 20,757 21,232 18,288 18,929 4.9 5.0 4.3 4.5

Hammond

55,545 55,791 55,663 55,474 3,466 3,411 3,032 3,030 6.2 6.1 5.4 5.5

Houma-Thibodaux

89,279 88,244 89,128 87,235 5,071 4,789 4,594 4,411 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.1

Lafayette

214,533 212,664 213,673 209,964 12,558 11,672 11,147 10,581 5.9 5.5 5.2 5.0

Lake Charles

115,055 115,999 114,995 115,287 4,820 4,863 4,537 4,419 4.2 4.2 3.9 3.8

Monroe

79,848 79,898 80,103 79,235 4,529 4,687 4,114 4,283 5.7 5.9 5.1 5.4

New Orleans-Metairie

597,884 599,319 598,673 594,282 32,218 31,943 28,479 28,612 5.4 5.3 4.8 4.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

189,149 187,688 189,049 185,321 11,324 11,123 9,974 9,864 6.0 5.9 5.3 5.3

Maine

718,153 722,720 702,255 702,678 20,058 20,740 19,418 21,005 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.0

Bangor

70,289 70,180 71,099 70,314 2,152 2,179 2,043 2,189 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.1

Lewiston-Auburn

56,065 56,308 55,820 55,915 1,599 1,705 1,526 1,711 2.9 3.0 2.7 3.1

Portland-South Portland

214,051 217,755 210,004 212,161 4,942 5,282 4,828 5,342 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5

Maryland

3,238,148 3,237,650 3,229,574 3,210,020 136,940 134,934 124,509 124,534 4.2 4.2 3.9 3.9

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,512,546 1,514,411 1,506,404 1,498,571 67,464 66,109 60,103 59,409 4.5 4.4 4.0 4.0

California-Lexington Park

55,392 55,338 55,245 54,607 2,402 2,414 2,014 2,031 4.3 4.4 3.6 3.7

Cumberland

43,966 43,976 44,685 44,003 2,443 2,526 2,154 2,217 5.6 5.7 4.8 5.0

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,632 131,903 130,515 131,642 5,803 5,453 5,110 5,256 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0

Massachusetts

3,693,503 3,866,768 3,639,953 3,814,947 134,706 136,825 126,627 120,334 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.2

Barnstable Town

139,278 143,706 126,734 132,363 4,579 4,554 4,378 4,127 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,712,518 2,844,757 2,681,308 2,810,737 92,115 93,547 86,831 82,161 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9

Leominster-Gardner

78,212 81,488 77,765 80,977 3,360 3,403 3,042 2,881 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.6

New Bedford

85,137 88,104 83,826 87,401 4,479 4,539 4,314 4,008 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.6

Pittsfield

44,902 45,667 43,018 44,259 1,760 1,715 1,719 1,586 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.6

Springfield

367,668 380,803 366,735 379,622 16,770 16,777 15,265 14,681 4.6 4.4 4.2 3.9

Worcester

351,506 366,584 350,037 366,957 13,925 14,042 12,883 12,420 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.4

Michigan

4,924,856 4,875,350 4,914,046 4,884,730 251,002 185,535 221,097 169,217 5.1 3.8 4.5 3.5

Ann Arbor

192,543 192,912 195,564 195,053 8,230 5,818 7,666 5,533 4.3 3.0 3.9 2.8

Battle Creek

64,084 62,905 63,017 62,483 3,540 2,381 3,056 2,233 5.5 3.8 4.8 3.6

Bay City

51,119 50,391 50,832 50,025 3,067 2,026 2,474 1,835 6.0 4.0 4.9 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,140,596 2,114,224 2,140,148 2,126,435 108,502 88,804 98,430 79,175 5.1 4.2 4.6 3.7

Flint

184,871 181,016 182,317 179,453 11,331 7,850 9,893 7,270 6.1 4.3 5.4 4.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

573,418 575,960 570,129 576,303 23,383 15,729 20,030 15,049 4.1 2.7 3.5 2.6

Jackson

74,389 73,098 74,088 72,911 3,860 2,603 3,291 2,444 5.2 3.6 4.4 3.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,482 166,383 167,774 166,084 8,372 5,533 7,181 5,271 5.0 3.3 4.3 3.2

Lansing-East Lansing

243,869 243,223 249,042 248,616 12,071 7,640 10,344 7,292 4.9 3.1 4.2 2.9

Midland

40,795 40,199 40,219 39,844 2,037 1,378 1,739 1,293 5.0 3.4 4.3 3.2

Monroe

76,139 76,335 77,123 76,043 4,332 3,459 4,218 2,702 5.7 4.5 5.5 3.6

Muskegon

79,371 78,069 77,948 76,871 4,813 3,166 4,045 2,970 6.1 4.1 5.2 3.9

Niles-Benton Harbor

74,994 73,591 73,657 73,009 3,966 2,786 3,326 2,598 5.3 3.8 4.5 3.6

Saginaw

87,828 86,531 87,431 86,978 5,210 3,624 4,445 3,395 5.9 4.2 5.1 3.9

Minnesota

3,083,928 3,086,829 3,071,191 3,072,947 104,234 78,085 87,539 68,323 3.4 2.5 2.9 2.2

Duluth

143,810 143,272 144,968 143,224 6,437 4,675 5,152 3,904 4.5 3.3 3.6 2.7

Mankato-North Mankato

59,474 60,893 61,133 62,325 1,662 1,280 1,430 1,219 2.8 2.1 2.3 2.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,017,087 2,022,398 2,009,183 2,005,655 65,761 49,854 56,297 44,151 3.3 2.5 2.8 2.2

Rochester

123,571 121,576 121,291 120,760 3,395 2,627 2,882 2,308 2.7 2.2 2.4 1.9

St. Cloud

111,486 111,692 111,472 111,858 3,544 2,770 3,028 2,453 3.2 2.5 2.7 2.2

Mississippi

1,269,033 1,281,201 1,276,196 1,280,522 63,102 60,750 59,527 58,104 5.0 4.7 4.7 4.5

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,028 164,943 163,118 162,834 8,182 8,048 7,964 7,806 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8

Hattiesburg

67,520 68,246 68,185 68,920 2,975 2,896 2,788 2,735 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0

Jackson

269,038 273,890 270,314 271,700 11,571 11,143 11,106 10,863 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0

Missouri

3,049,843 3,040,796 3,052,192 3,056,519 129,606 104,810 99,677 80,773 4.2 3.4 3.3 2.6

Cape Girardeau

47,466 47,890 47,801 48,395 1,921 1,542 1,569 1,219 4.0 3.2 3.3 2.5

Columbia

95,956 95,789 98,483 98,789 2,905 2,503 2,314 1,898 3.0 2.6 2.3 1.9

Jefferson City

74,641 73,768 74,231 73,957 2,869 2,226 2,079 1,610 3.8 3.0 2.8 2.2

Joplin

83,252 83,032 84,342 84,313 3,262 2,725 2,592 2,030 3.9 3.3 3.1 2.4

Kansas City

1,139,926 1,144,217 1,129,613 1,141,535 50,113 40,304 37,014 32,197 4.4 3.5 3.3 2.8

St. Joseph

64,862 65,224 64,767 65,224 2,440 2,004 1,931 1,527 3.8 3.1 3.0 2.3

St. Louis(2)

1,464,670 1,465,692 1,459,184 1,468,112 60,528 52,849 49,769 42,735 4.1 3.6 3.4 2.9

Springfield

226,934 226,978 230,575 231,181 8,276 6,845 6,650 5,385 3.6 3.0 2.9 2.3

Montana

532,953 530,329 525,710 522,678 19,171 16,800 18,235 16,487 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.2

Billings

88,000 86,970 87,345 86,318 3,005 2,603 2,830 2,600 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.0

Great Falls

37,523 37,287 37,944 37,501 1,340 1,230 1,321 1,246 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.3

Missoula

61,856 61,503 62,777 62,121 2,029 1,699 1,935 1,727 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.8

Nebraska

1,010,044 1,018,279 1,000,098 1,012,378 29,345 27,800 27,212 25,826 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.6

Grand Island

43,384 43,519 43,388 43,956 1,248 1,226 1,142 1,141 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.6

Lincoln

178,727 182,094 177,875 181,267 4,815 4,701 4,523 4,361 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4

Omaha-Council Bluffs

480,003 490,745 476,787 486,777 14,580 13,499 13,455 12,596 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.6

Nevada

1,467,506 1,512,046 1,473,917 1,519,413 72,887 70,385 72,059 66,986 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.4

Carson City

25,761 26,394 25,785 26,359 1,160 1,147 1,169 1,097 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.2

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,075,167 1,110,829 1,079,780 1,114,300 56,448 54,380 55,862 52,149 5.3 4.9 5.2 4.7

Reno

242,845 250,682 245,136 252,958 9,621 9,354 9,457 8,621 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.4

New Hampshire

754,645 771,267 743,350 758,415 19,652 20,287 18,490 17,457 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.3

Dover-Durham

83,928 86,651 83,905 85,955 1,983 2,096 1,902 1,805 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.1

Manchester

116,420 118,773 115,748 118,129 3,077 3,011 2,890 2,685 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.3

Portsmouth

78,094 79,983 76,297 78,127 1,782 1,827 1,756 1,676 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.1

New Jersey

4,545,577 4,526,294 4,505,265 4,460,097 226,022 199,646 210,108 182,602 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

123,098 126,833 121,591 125,791 8,677 6,887 8,035 6,400 7.0 5.4 6.6 5.1

Ocean City

57,049 55,583 49,997 50,269 3,048 2,568 2,974 2,481 5.3 4.6 5.9 4.9

Trenton

199,976 202,683 198,396 199,613 9,147 8,120 8,304 7,261 4.6 4.0 4.2 3.6

Vineland-Bridgeton

65,171 64,780 66,292 65,074 4,862 4,262 4,414 3,909 7.5 6.6 6.7 6.0

New Mexico

927,597 936,540 930,215 942,680 58,085 45,020 55,508 43,437 6.3 4.8 6.0 4.6

Albuquerque

423,798 431,142 426,549 435,120 25,299 20,023 24,342 19,338 6.0 4.6 5.7 4.4

Farmington

51,682 52,028 53,192 53,430 3,730 2,784 3,496 2,651 7.2 5.4 6.6 5.0

Las Cruces

93,567 91,392 93,241 93,279 6,293 4,927 6,023 4,851 6.7 5.4 6.5 5.2

Santa Fe

73,653 75,054 73,038 73,925 3,876 3,030 3,764 2,895 5.3 4.0 5.2 3.9

New York

9,767,149 9,755,035 9,743,446 9,741,673 481,791 401,572 446,739 366,697 4.9 4.1 4.6 3.8

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

453,601 449,373 453,697 453,269 19,689 16,606 19,300 15,399 4.3 3.7 4.3 3.4

Binghamton

107,882 106,932 108,884 108,095 5,677 4,876 5,576 4,370 5.3 4.6 5.1 4.0

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

555,548 556,234 553,287 556,118 29,811 24,092 27,806 21,174 5.4 4.3 5.0 3.8

Elmira

36,148 35,183 35,760 35,340 1,946 1,599 1,934 1,476 5.4 4.5 5.4 4.2

Glens Falls

63,109 63,413 60,660 61,112 2,707 2,205 2,671 2,060 4.3 3.5 4.4 3.4

Ithaca

48,540 49,798 51,224 51,965 2,249 1,840 2,302 1,713 4.6 3.7 4.5 3.3

Kingston

89,236 89,996 89,247 90,103 4,197 3,544 3,934 3,090 4.7 3.9 4.4 3.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,174,407 10,144,623 10,126,576 10,069,995 496,741 424,060 455,826 389,277 4.9 4.2 4.5 3.9

Rochester

523,109 524,476 525,232 529,618 26,242 21,849 25,327 19,556 5.0 4.2 4.8 3.7

Syracuse

308,152 307,839 309,071 309,702 15,420 12,532 15,345 11,434 5.0 4.1 5.0 3.7

Utica-Rome

131,875 131,243 129,710 129,656 6,569 5,424 6,386 4,988 5.0 4.1 4.9 3.8

Watertown-Fort Drum

46,875 46,385 45,544 45,506 2,633 2,126 2,514 1,904 5.6 4.6 5.5 4.2

North Carolina

4,938,611 4,959,841 4,989,623 4,954,803 238,077 194,581 211,307 152,408 4.8 3.9 4.2 3.1

Asheville

228,378 229,141 232,164 229,762 8,990 7,314 7,977 5,680 3.9 3.2 3.4 2.5

Burlington

79,405 79,279 80,485 79,301 3,739 3,019 3,226 2,300 4.7 3.8 4.0 2.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,316,137 1,330,477 1,329,873 1,331,596 60,157 48,772 54,002 39,193 4.6 3.7 4.1 2.9

Durham-Chapel Hill

295,875 299,126 298,524 299,052 12,917 10,474 11,309 8,052 4.4 3.5 3.8 2.7

Fayetteville

145,942 145,293 148,031 145,482 8,928 7,651 8,062 6,024 6.1 5.3 5.4 4.1

Goldsboro

52,720 51,869 53,549 51,897 2,846 2,314 2,518 1,810 5.4 4.5 4.7 3.5

Greensboro-High Point

367,298 366,951 371,335 368,039 18,951 15,294 16,676 11,756 5.2 4.2 4.5 3.2

Greenville

88,722 88,901 90,489 89,225 4,828 3,930 4,113 2,954 5.4 4.4 4.5 3.3

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

172,434 173,398 174,671 174,235 7,777 6,262 6,868 4,832 4.5 3.6 3.9 2.8

Jacksonville

64,344 64,082 64,655 62,332 3,432 2,729 3,145 2,415 5.3 4.3 4.9 3.9

New Bern

51,737 51,840 51,835 50,540 2,591 2,181 2,342 1,720 5.0 4.2 4.5 3.4

Raleigh

701,431 713,057 705,010 711,242 30,050 24,492 26,506 18,982 4.3 3.4 3.8 2.7

Rocky Mount

64,297 62,794 65,595 62,720 4,545 3,648 4,068 2,885 7.1 5.8 6.2 4.6

Wilmington

147,496 146,785 147,947 140,875 6,613 5,417 5,778 4,494 4.5 3.7 3.9 3.2

Winston-Salem

322,693 322,367 327,583 325,419 14,994 12,396 13,257 9,560 4.6 3.8 4.0 2.9

North Dakota

421,299 408,365 414,703 401,330 9,870 10,329 8,221 9,026 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.2

Bismarck

70,328 68,699 68,454 67,158 1,649 1,798 1,418 1,576 2.3 2.6 2.1 2.3

Fargo

139,105 137,277 137,947 135,299 2,952 3,081 2,646 2,778 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.1

Grand Forks

55,353 54,244 55,984 54,728 1,611 1,478 1,212 1,205 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.2

Ohio

5,830,467 5,753,687 5,800,421 5,728,521 297,563 256,699 270,887 233,529 5.1 4.5 4.7 4.1

Akron

361,546 359,415 362,526 359,653 18,478 15,719 16,912 14,524 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.0

Canton-Massillon

201,475 197,979 200,401 196,881 10,467 8,996 9,556 8,504 5.2 4.5 4.8 4.3

Cincinnati

1,120,907 1,114,639 1,113,959 1,107,204 50,363 43,486 45,036 40,821 4.5 3.9 4.0 3.7

Cleveland-Elyria

1,038,865 1,041,911 1,037,329 1,040,595 61,189 54,290 53,335 46,090 5.9 5.2 5.1 4.4

Columbus

1,091,197 1,076,178 1,080,394 1,069,482 46,093 40,780 41,845 38,002 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.6

Dayton

392,421 386,422 389,125 386,342 19,103 16,394 17,165 15,374 4.9 4.2 4.4 4.0

Lima

49,183 48,036 48,649 47,036 2,475 2,040 2,246 1,868 5.0 4.2 4.6 4.0

Mansfield

53,450 52,859 53,109 52,483 2,866 2,346 2,670 2,179 5.4 4.4 5.0 4.2

Springfield

64,284 63,213 63,659 62,872 3,148 2,797 2,825 2,576 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.1

Toledo

304,613 298,685 305,985 299,410 18,368 14,723 16,414 13,440 6.0 4.9 5.4 4.5

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,177 50,213 51,052 50,002 3,342 2,913 3,010 2,639 6.5 5.8 5.9 5.3

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

245,903 239,030 247,403 235,862 15,861 13,493 17,789 12,300 6.5 5.6 7.2 5.2

Oklahoma

1,830,593 1,856,395 1,846,157 1,855,633 78,942 64,395 75,274 55,615 4.3 3.5 4.1 3.0

Enid

27,718 27,871 27,714 27,539 1,077 877 1,062 752 3.9 3.1 3.8 2.7

Lawton

51,796 52,082 51,837 51,574 2,376 2,170 2,306 1,825 4.6 4.2 4.4 3.5

Oklahoma City

670,542 685,813 677,643 685,199 26,222 22,076 25,003 19,206 3.9 3.2 3.7 2.8

Tulsa

476,200 486,861 479,487 486,119 21,492 17,035 20,489 14,692 4.5 3.5 4.3 3.0

Oregon

2,134,652 2,124,482 2,134,310 2,118,955 95,441 84,421 85,082 77,114 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.6

Albany

58,283 58,365 58,123 58,264 3,038 2,691 2,714 2,453 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.2

Bend-Redmond

96,343 97,084 95,503 96,909 3,994 3,508 3,663 3,326 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.4

Corvallis

46,735 46,107 47,937 47,078 1,830 1,589 1,618 1,460 3.9 3.4 3.4 3.1

Eugene

181,109 182,029 183,160 183,604 9,010 8,015 8,020 7,360 5.0 4.4 4.4 4.0

Grants Pass

35,952 35,930 36,332 36,054 2,070 1,926 1,813 1,696 5.8 5.4 5.0 4.7

Medford

105,321 105,645 106,149 105,514 5,528 4,938 4,660 4,342 5.2 4.7 4.4 4.1

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,321,872 1,317,308 1,323,059 1,315,911 56,185 49,827 50,979 45,789 4.3 3.8 3.9 3.5

Salem

206,908 204,625 205,685 203,046 9,788 8,664 8,517 7,714 4.7 4.2 4.1 3.8

Pennsylvania

6,449,859 6,438,316 6,421,837 6,419,854 341,711 286,093 283,990 249,584 5.3 4.4 4.4 3.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

435,103 437,000 435,476 434,103 23,436 20,537 19,551 18,196 5.4 4.7 4.5 4.2

Altoona

61,119 60,769 60,194 59,584 3,139 2,627 2,522 2,210 5.1 4.3 4.2 3.7

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,698 42,291 42,959 42,519 2,203 1,878 1,819 1,644 5.2 4.4 4.2 3.9

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,090 77,847 76,196 76,914 3,672 2,847 2,946 2,598 4.8 3.7 3.9 3.4

East Stroudsburg

82,876 82,401 81,615 81,253 5,119 4,504 4,394 3,976 6.2 5.5 5.4 4.9

Erie

130,067 128,866 130,995 129,683 7,754 5,770 6,435 5,130 6.0 4.5 4.9 4.0

Gettysburg

55,727 56,399 55,542 56,450 2,274 1,865 1,780 1,695 4.1 3.3 3.2 3.0

Harrisburg-Carlisle

300,520 300,217 296,175 296,580 13,779 11,368 11,456 10,027 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.4

Johnstown

59,296 59,521 59,236 58,741 4,003 3,246 3,074 2,589 6.8 5.5 5.2 4.4

Lancaster

284,252 285,329 279,976 282,945 12,178 10,012 9,723 8,689 4.3 3.5 3.5 3.1

Lebanon

71,344 70,961 70,558 70,630 3,283 2,853 2,631 2,436 4.6 4.0 3.7 3.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,093,827 3,104,388 3,088,445 3,095,370 162,377 141,391 142,234 125,938 5.2 4.6 4.6 4.1

Pittsburgh

1,210,564 1,200,101 1,206,030 1,199,083 64,872 52,465 52,987 44,889 5.4 4.4 4.4 3.7

Reading

212,771 213,375 211,882 214,307 10,623 9,245 8,944 8,208 5.0 4.3 4.2 3.8

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,044 281,096 279,103 280,013 16,650 14,783 13,782 12,564 6.0 5.3 4.9 4.5

State College

77,858 77,247 79,305 78,604 3,055 2,534 2,602 2,413 3.9 3.3 3.3 3.1

Williamsport

57,647 55,842 57,533 56,084 3,206 2,640 2,818 2,411 5.6 4.7 4.9 4.3

York-Hanover

235,676 236,612 233,995 234,487 11,617 9,564 9,406 8,290 4.9 4.0 4.0 3.5

Rhode Island

560,123 565,725 555,698 558,952 25,123 21,748 22,433 19,462 4.5 3.8 4.0 3.5

Providence-Warwick

688,504 700,409 683,653 692,899 30,537 27,506 27,427 24,386 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.5

South Carolina

2,330,276 2,314,155 2,317,579 2,296,892 111,007 85,401 98,002 76,436 4.8 3.7 4.2 3.3

Charleston-North Charleston

380,677 378,716 378,085 374,336 15,325 11,859 13,765 10,594 4.0 3.1 3.6 2.8

Columbia

402,625 399,842 401,664 398,579 19,334 14,239 17,140 12,672 4.8 3.6 4.3 3.2

Florence

95,528 94,194 95,385 94,120 5,121 4,002 4,519 3,614 5.4 4.2 4.7 3.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

425,345 421,564 425,634 422,014 18,048 14,118 16,007 12,675 4.2 3.3 3.8 3.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,699 88,561 85,706 85,582 3,833 3,000 3,451 2,592 4.3 3.4 4.0 3.0

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

202,022 203,543 196,327 192,932 10,068 8,407 9,275 7,552 5.0 4.1 4.7 3.9

Spartanburg

158,915 157,152 159,669 157,276 7,370 5,600 6,345 4,826 4.6 3.6 4.0 3.1

Sumter

44,477 43,628 44,084 43,455 2,678 1,900 2,300 1,701 6.0 4.4 5.2 3.9

South Dakota

459,844 461,853 454,086 456,227 15,202 12,854 13,828 11,773 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.6

Rapid City

77,253 77,853 74,078 74,815 2,499 2,154 2,331 2,036 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.7

Sioux Falls

150,122 152,356 148,662 149,919 4,128 3,537 3,816 3,256 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.2

Tennessee

3,201,982 3,239,844 3,222,941 3,234,420 118,047 123,722 105,030 119,810 3.7 3.8 3.3 3.7

Chattanooga

266,230 273,456 268,908 273,663 10,596 10,194 9,430 9,425 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.4

Clarksville

111,891 112,858 112,398 113,133 5,242 5,211 4,645 5,032 4.7 4.6 4.1 4.4

Cleveland

57,391 57,991 57,806 57,971 2,189 2,334 1,901 2,222 3.8 4.0 3.3 3.8

Jackson

64,036 64,897 64,025 64,633 2,503 2,673 2,228 2,585 3.9 4.1 3.5 4.0

Johnson City

89,647 89,743 90,869 90,323 3,754 3,783 3,297 3,686 4.2 4.2 3.6 4.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,492 138,791 138,292 138,735 5,600 5,298 5,108 5,060 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.6

Knoxville

418,195 419,686 422,077 418,846 14,720 15,140 12,972 14,580 3.5 3.6 3.1 3.5

Memphis

627,921 641,128 630,288 638,742 26,558 28,124 24,268 27,447 4.2 4.4 3.9 4.3

Morristown

50,852 51,716 51,421 51,619 2,058 2,090 1,831 2,027 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.9

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,014,341 1,027,539 1,023,563 1,028,650 29,748 31,510 26,294 30,703 2.9 3.1 2.6 3.0

Texas

13,522,840 13,750,098 13,619,456 13,802,300 601,021 539,403 548,848 516,604 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.7

Abilene

75,175 75,779 75,972 76,381 2,987 2,624 2,616 2,526 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.3

Amarillo

129,744 132,247 130,910 132,367 4,047 3,745 3,605 3,598 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.7

Austin-Round Rock

1,151,425 1,179,861 1,161,052 1,189,588 37,898 35,840 33,831 34,570 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.9

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,271 170,903 175,159 170,693 12,150 10,731 14,349 10,064 7.1 6.3 8.2 5.9

Brownsville-Harlingen

166,593 165,810 165,654 165,693 12,057 10,192 10,564 9,448 7.2 6.1 6.4 5.7

College Station-Bryan

123,463 127,386 131,926 133,788 4,474 4,161 3,860 3,872 3.6 3.3 2.9 2.9

Corpus Christi

206,972 205,395 207,672 205,590 11,994 10,245 12,552 9,877 5.8 5.0 6.0 4.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,805,982 3,892,802 3,835,897 3,902,639 146,513 138,640 129,572 132,962 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

El Paso

351,998 357,436 357,207 360,448 16,953 15,590 15,288 15,178 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.2

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,321,027 3,392,775 3,338,453 3,408,002 170,033 146,577 161,658 140,718 5.1 4.3 4.8 4.1

Killeen-Temple

175,049 177,524 175,863 177,189 7,523 7,379 6,906 7,127 4.3 4.2 3.9 4.0

Laredo

114,649 114,342 115,156 114,488 4,896 4,316 4,165 4,162 4.3 3.8 3.6 3.6

Longview

97,090 96,045 97,469 96,902 4,954 4,046 4,418 3,909 5.1 4.2 4.5 4.0

Lubbock

161,452 164,663 161,882 164,652 5,756 5,203 4,700 4,908 3.6 3.2 2.9 3.0

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

337,787 339,717 339,158 341,014 26,375 22,517 23,041 21,134 7.8 6.6 6.8 6.2

Midland

93,340 100,445 94,345 100,730 2,762 2,250 2,455 2,178 3.0 2.2 2.6 2.2

Odessa

78,693 80,029 80,082 80,291 3,102 2,321 2,730 2,192 3.9 2.9 3.4 2.7

San Angelo

54,649 54,988 55,004 55,385 2,023 1,811 1,795 1,772 3.7 3.3 3.3 3.2

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,167,801 1,173,380 1,179,014 1,177,207 42,998 40,514 38,083 38,755 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.3

Sherman-Denison

62,196 63,444 62,261 63,382 2,251 2,059 2,007 2,001 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.2

Texarkana

64,097 64,383 64,821 64,814 3,077 3,205 2,758 3,358 4.8 5.0 4.3 5.2

Tyler

105,567 108,554 106,876 109,261 4,286 3,973 4,047 3,790 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.5

Victoria

45,868 44,778 45,946 44,636 2,232 1,784 2,185 1,716 4.9 4.0 4.8 3.8

Waco

125,146 125,340 125,408 125,477 5,363 4,583 4,645 4,319 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.4

Wichita Falls

64,507 64,851 64,725 64,813 2,431 2,229 2,161 2,156 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.3

Utah

1,569,268 1,587,023 1,571,088 1,578,179 53,051 55,290 46,718 47,644 3.4 3.5 3.0 3.0

Logan

67,579 67,897 70,115 70,302 1,977 2,058 1,704 1,785 2.9 3.0 2.4 2.5

Ogden-Clearfield

329,191 330,248 327,540 325,510 11,324 11,826 10,038 10,119 3.4 3.6 3.1 3.1

Provo-Orem

297,996 305,007 301,742 307,087 9,328 9,799 8,255 8,630 3.1 3.2 2.7 2.8

St. George

71,823 73,942 71,671 73,440 2,611 2,940 2,256 2,394 3.6 4.0 3.1 3.3

Salt Lake City

658,367 666,238 655,847 658,570 21,695 22,652 19,079 19,607 3.3 3.4 2.9 3.0

Vermont

348,728 348,446 343,810 342,793 10,244 9,761 9,919 9,564 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8

Burlington-South Burlington

126,039 125,925 125,457 124,647 3,224 3,112 3,118 3,041 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4

Virginia

4,318,478 4,342,516 4,327,531 4,323,527 170,341 132,908 155,426 119,085 3.9 3.1 3.6 2.8

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,196 90,120 91,676 91,003 4,022 2,930 3,584 2,616 4.5 3.3 3.9 2.9

Charlottesville

116,682 120,269 120,990 123,558 4,246 3,461 3,785 2,973 3.6 2.9 3.1 2.4

Harrisonburg

63,620 63,728 66,253 65,973 2,599 1,998 2,364 1,785 4.1 3.1 3.6 2.7

Lynchburg

123,052 124,430 123,157 123,011 5,804 4,375 5,108 3,819 4.7 3.5 4.1 3.1

Richmond

679,463 686,004 680,528 679,908 28,062 22,110 25,824 19,908 4.1 3.2 3.8 2.9

Roanoke

157,051 156,876 157,647 157,484 6,652 4,827 5,842 4,222 4.2 3.1 3.7 2.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,525 59,238 59,185 59,448 2,176 1,692 2,038 1,505 3.7 2.9 3.4 2.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

858,943 859,674 853,478 846,509 37,672 29,044 33,988 26,014 4.4 3.4 4.0 3.1

Winchester

71,234 72,896 71,444 72,422 2,495 2,115 2,276 1,871 3.5 2.9 3.2 2.6

Washington

3,738,990 3,769,712 3,761,882 3,792,764 178,199 153,661 168,840 148,474 4.8 4.1 4.5 3.9

Bellingham

109,957 110,660 109,443 110,125 5,436 4,838 5,163 4,373 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

120,464 120,014 120,467 120,655 5,829 5,125 5,719 4,926 4.8 4.3 4.7 4.1

Kennewick-Richland

140,388 140,047 140,401 139,939 7,091 6,440 6,577 5,746 5.1 4.6 4.7 4.1

Longview

45,749 45,744 45,842 45,959 2,686 2,469 2,554 2,233 5.9 5.4 5.6 4.9

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,036 59,775 59,690 59,535 3,114 2,785 2,937 2,629 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.4

Olympia-Tumwater

133,301 133,890 135,308 135,505 6,575 5,895 6,313 5,535 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.1

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,073,452 2,104,959 2,086,860 2,118,360 90,816 74,955 88,504 77,582 4.4 3.6 4.2 3.7

Spokane-Spokane Valley

260,370 256,843 262,877 259,744 13,753 12,663 12,823 11,551 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.4

Walla Walla

31,464 31,007 31,590 31,418 1,416 1,278 1,357 1,185 4.5 4.1 4.3 3.8

Wenatchee

70,442 70,136 68,207 68,742 3,017 2,755 2,574 2,278 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.3

Yakima

131,298 133,086 135,208 136,866 8,365 7,200 6,215 5,576 6.4 5.4 4.6 4.1

West Virginia

781,215 777,026 785,351 782,678 41,517 37,896 35,865 34,986 5.3 4.9 4.6 4.5

Beckley

46,135 45,329 45,844 45,018 2,622 2,319 2,282 2,138 5.7 5.1 5.0 4.7

Charleston

95,827 94,378 95,724 94,450 5,193 4,644 4,541 4,345 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.6

Huntington-Ashland

147,600 145,047 148,445 146,243 8,474 7,469 7,379 7,066 5.7 5.1 5.0 4.8

Morgantown

65,948 67,438 68,431 69,602 2,878 2,853 2,431 2,675 4.4 4.2 3.6 3.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,626 38,175 38,528 38,175 2,203 1,939 1,875 1,745 5.7 5.1 4.9 4.6

Wheeling

64,973 63,725 64,724 63,607 3,598 3,155 3,167 2,839 5.5 5.0 4.9 4.5

Wisconsin

3,176,657 3,174,685 3,166,604 3,147,406 106,386 98,776 92,134 80,389 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.6

Appleton

133,898 134,702 132,592 132,884 3,927 3,818 3,412 3,072 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.3

Eau Claire

92,954 94,211 93,455 93,031 2,873 2,528 2,495 2,113 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.3

Fond du Lac

57,640 58,289 57,959 57,889 1,749 1,689 1,405 1,228 3.0 2.9 2.4 2.1

Green Bay

177,395 177,753 176,343 176,269 5,195 5,154 4,686 4,130 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.3

Janesville-Beloit

86,743 86,018 85,906 84,301 3,174 2,890 2,764 2,398 3.7 3.4 3.2 2.8

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,544 78,717 78,855 78,704 2,239 2,023 2,031 1,613 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.0

Madison

391,151 391,990 391,551 392,315 9,508 9,098 8,966 7,681 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.0

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

844,752 839,809 837,844 827,357 32,988 30,405 27,892 24,822 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.0

Oshkosh-Neenah

94,774 94,217 94,342 93,633 3,004 2,855 2,571 2,183 3.2 3.0 2.7 2.3

Racine

102,007 100,870 100,560 99,041 4,719 4,028 3,733 3,283 4.6 4.0 3.7 3.3

Sheboygan

64,439 64,971 63,760 64,101 1,757 1,664 1,623 1,364 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.1

Wausau

74,547 76,037 74,118 74,795 2,320 2,086 1,967 1,649 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.2

Wyoming

295,499 286,327 292,678 285,863 10,574 10,452 10,386 10,602 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.7

Casper

39,289 38,135 38,992 37,706 1,785 1,630 1,751 1,697 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.5

Cheyenne

47,739 46,858 47,242 45,974 1,616 1,742 1,602 1,706 3.4 3.7 3.4 3.7

Puerto Rico

1,092,130 1,087,497 1,091,617 1,088,594 127,946 99,385 120,527 93,171 11.7 9.1 11.0 8.6

Aguadilla-Isabela

89,269 86,638 87,712 86,500 13,359 10,138 12,302 9,699 15.0 11.7 14.0 11.2

Arecibo

52,366 51,485 51,919 51,610 6,719 5,488 6,277 5,161 12.8 10.7 12.1 10.0

Guayama

21,684 20,551 21,183 20,542 4,210 2,741 3,558 2,580 19.4 13.3 16.8 12.6

Mayaguez

27,590 26,844 27,449 26,840 4,026 3,021 3,850 2,835 14.6 11.3 14.0 10.6

Ponce

93,785 91,664 93,000 91,611 14,313 10,808 13,324 10,258 15.3 11.8 14.3 11.2

San German

35,665 34,238 35,673 34,306 6,080 4,296 5,953 3,964 17.0 12.5 16.7 11.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

726,376 735,710 730,426 737,186 71,306 57,195 67,703 53,308 9.8 7.8 9.3 7.2

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
August September Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) August September August September
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

California

19,376,487 19,368,395 19,462,033 19,552,490 959,037 826,550 841,531 768,865 4.9 4.3 4.3 3.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,757,630 6,745,932 6,804,412 6,796,085 324,482 311,830 290,348 293,383 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.3

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,619,737 1,604,449 1,632,752 1,627,668 61,979 49,588 53,348 45,632 3.8 3.1 3.3 2.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,137,893 5,141,483 5,171,660 5,168,417 262,503 262,242 237,000 247,751 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.8

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,583,154 2,580,195 2,591,894 2,614,051 92,821 71,869 79,111 66,465 3.6 2.8 3.1 2.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,415,528 1,413,023 1,421,076 1,432,149 56,855 44,191 48,612 40,883 4.0 3.1 3.4 2.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,025,796 1,024,735 1,028,948 1,037,236 31,529 24,178 26,752 22,348 3.1 2.4 2.6 2.2

San Rafael

141,830 142,437 141,870 144,666 4,437 3,500 3,747 3,234 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.2

District of Columbia

400,601 401,298 399,944 399,996 25,560 24,564 25,089 23,832 6.4 6.1 6.3 6.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,392,976 3,406,778 3,396,035 3,395,276 130,626 118,294 123,220 111,312 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

691,402 697,705 692,842 694,620 23,053 22,372 22,298 22,517 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,701,574 2,709,073 2,703,193 2,700,656 107,573 95,922 100,922 88,795 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.3

Florida

10,105,593 10,190,015 10,202,985 10,263,364 439,388 382,965 411,122 311,027 4.3 3.8 4.0 3.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,129,204 3,118,765 3,149,447 3,136,835 142,970 120,634 134,972 100,990 4.6 3.9 4.3 3.2

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,028,811 1,033,353 1,035,384 1,044,868 41,156 36,478 38,410 29,295 4.0 3.5 3.7 2.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,377,698 1,362,268 1,387,270 1,363,766 69,890 55,801 67,082 48,994 5.1 4.1 4.8 3.6

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

722,695 723,144 726,793 728,201 31,924 28,355 29,480 22,701 4.4 3.9 4.1 3.1

Illinois

6,504,014 6,458,387 6,496,827 6,463,340 344,193 268,814 299,985 245,991 5.3 4.2 4.6 3.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,933,346 4,882,816 4,921,065 4,847,187 265,755 193,688 230,308 177,478 5.4 4.0 4.7 3.7

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,806,199 3,742,524 3,797,676 3,704,103 213,637 143,440 184,964 133,694 5.6 3.8 4.9 3.6

Elgin

322,064 326,346 321,282 330,749 14,960 14,483 12,932 12,981 4.6 4.4 4.0 3.9

Gary(3)

338,578 344,588 339,134 341,753 17,425 16,514 15,261 14,023 5.1 4.8 4.5 4.1

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

466,505 469,358 462,973 470,582 19,733 19,251 17,151 16,780 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.6

Massachusetts

3,693,503 3,866,768 3,639,953 3,814,947 134,706 136,825 126,627 120,334 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,712,518 2,844,757 2,681,308 2,810,737 92,115 93,547 86,831 82,161 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,613,571 1,699,037 1,594,487 1,677,674 52,277 52,803 49,728 46,896 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.8

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

107,022 112,151 106,178 111,418 4,657 4,756 4,256 4,020 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.6

Framingham

158,150 163,996 155,996 161,836 5,012 5,013 4,672 4,372 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

115,884 120,757 114,124 118,323 3,773 3,898 3,483 3,418 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

97,640 101,853 96,074 100,448 4,690 4,802 4,452 4,258 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.2

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

191,024 200,823 188,437 198,006 7,007 7,102 6,478 6,126 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.1

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

84,826 89,164 83,987 88,232 3,047 3,132 2,917 2,854 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.2

Nashua(2)

168,968 173,945 167,979 173,016 5,123 5,302 4,660 4,419 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.6

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

91,418 94,947 90,751 94,263 3,099 3,223 3,035 2,877 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

84,015 88,084 83,295 87,521 3,430 3,516 3,150 2,921 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.3

Michigan

4,924,856 4,875,350 4,914,046 4,884,730 251,002 185,535 221,097 169,217 5.1 3.8 4.5 3.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,140,596 2,114,224 2,140,148 2,126,435 108,502 88,804 98,430 79,175 5.1 4.2 4.6 3.7

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

801,707 792,793 801,271 795,130 50,286 42,240 46,349 36,050 6.3 5.3 5.8 4.5

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,338,888 1,321,432 1,338,876 1,331,304 58,216 46,565 52,081 43,125 4.3 3.5 3.9 3.2

New York

9,767,149 9,755,035 9,743,446 9,741,673 481,791 401,572 446,739 366,697 4.9 4.1 4.6 3.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,174,407 10,144,623 10,126,576 10,069,995 496,741 424,060 455,826 389,277 4.9 4.2 4.5 3.9

Dutchess County-Putnam County

197,740 197,492 196,341 198,233 8,670 7,262 8,674 6,667 4.4 3.7 4.4 3.4

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,512,090 1,513,983 1,499,055 1,505,628 69,156 57,965 64,841 50,003 4.6 3.8 4.3 3.3

Newark(3)

1,249,661 1,236,854 1,239,437 1,220,501 62,465 55,904 58,440 51,652 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.2

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,214,916 7,196,294 7,191,743 7,145,633 356,450 302,929 323,871 280,955 4.9 4.2 4.5 3.9

Pennsylvania

6,449,859 6,438,316 6,421,837 6,419,854 341,711 286,093 283,990 249,584 5.3 4.4 4.4 3.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,093,827 3,104,388 3,088,445 3,095,370 162,377 141,391 142,234 125,938 5.2 4.6 4.6 4.1

Camden(3)

641,015 642,388 642,430 637,396 32,957 29,716 30,439 26,767 5.1 4.6 4.7 4.2

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,079,544 1,078,448 1,069,928 1,070,647 46,687 39,450 39,392 34,870 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.3

Philadelphia

996,032 999,181 1,001,022 1,006,132 63,736 54,900 55,108 48,316 6.4 5.5 5.5 4.8

Wilmington(3)

377,236 384,371 375,065 381,195 18,997 17,325 17,295 15,985 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.2

Texas

13,522,840 13,750,098 13,619,456 13,802,300 601,021 539,403 548,848 516,604 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,805,982 3,892,802 3,835,897 3,902,639 146,513 138,640 129,572 132,962 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,568,487 2,635,091 2,588,554 2,640,771 98,229 93,625 87,150 90,049 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,237,495 1,257,711 1,247,343 1,261,868 48,284 45,015 42,422 42,913 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.4

Washington

3,738,990 3,769,712 3,761,882 3,792,764 178,199 153,661 168,840 148,474 4.8 4.1 4.5 3.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,073,452 2,104,959 2,086,860 2,118,360 90,816 74,955 88,504 77,582 4.4 3.6 4.2 3.7

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,658,270 1,686,327 1,669,438 1,697,661 68,610 54,798 67,548 59,026 4.1 3.2 4.0 3.5

Tacoma-Lakewood

415,182 418,632 417,422 420,699 22,206 20,157 20,956 18,556 5.3 4.8 5.0 4.4

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area August September Change from
September 2017 to September 2018(p)
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,016.7 2,038.9 2,021.2 2,048.0 26.8 1.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 47.5 46.8 47.9 1.1 2.4

Auburn-Opelika

64.2 64.5 65.0 64.8 -0.2 -0.3

Birmingham-Hoover

530.7 537.3 532.1 537.3 5.2 1.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

77.4 79.9 75.5 78.1 2.6 3.4

Decatur

54.3 55.2 54.0 54.7 0.7 1.3

Dothan

58.3 58.5 58.2 58.5 0.3 0.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.5 56.5 56.5 56.8 0.3 0.5

Gadsden

37.6 37.9 37.8 38.4 0.6 1.6

Huntsville

232.2 240.8 233.4 241.2 7.8 3.3

Mobile

183.8 185.2 184.6 186.0 1.4 0.8

Montgomery

177.4 178.7 177.7 180.3 2.6 1.5

Tuscaloosa

107.8 109.2 109.1 109.7 0.6 0.5


Alaska

350.8 348.0 340.2 336.7 -3.5 -1.0

Anchorage

180.4 179.3 179.6 179.0 -0.6 -0.3

Fairbanks

39.2 39.4 38.9 38.9 0.0 0.0


Arizona

2,757.1 2,843.9 2,794.5 2,879.3 84.8 3.0

Flagstaff

67.5 70.4 69.7 72.6 2.9 4.2

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

50.1 51.9 50.1 51.6 1.5 3.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,025.6 2,101.6 2,049.2 2,127.4 78.2 3.8

Prescott

63.9 65.3 64.4 65.7 1.3 2.0

Sierra Vista-Douglas

32.9 32.9 33.3 33.3 0.0 0.0

Tucson

370.1 379.9 379.9 389.2 9.3 2.4

Yuma

53.1 53.7 53.7 54.0 0.3 0.6


Arkansas

1,230.9 1,240.0 1,248.3 1,259.0 10.7