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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, December 1, 2022 			            USDL-22-2235

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- OCTOBER 2022


Unemployment rates were lower in October than a year earlier in 264 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, higher in 94 areas, and unchanged in 31 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. A total of 135 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas
had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in
95 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 294 areas. The national unemployment
rate in October was 3.4 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 4.3 percent a year 
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the 
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside.
The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the 
establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical 
methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.


 ________________________________________________________________________________________
|											 |
|                             Hurricanes Ian and Fiona				         |
|											 |
| Hurricane Ian had no discernible effect on household or establishment survey data	 |
| collection for October. In the establishment survey, employees who are paid for any 	 |
| part of the pay period, even 1 hour, that includes the 12th of the month are counted 	 |
| as employed. In the household survey, persons with a job are counted as employed 	 |
| even if they miss work for the entire survey reference week (the week including the	 |
| 12th of the month), regardless of whether or not they are paid. For a general 	 |
| discussion of how unusually severe weather can affect the estimates, see question 8	 |
| in the Frequently Asked Questions section of the Employment Situation news release	 |
| at www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.faq.htm.						 |
|											 |
| Due to Hurricane Fiona, Puerto Rico was not able to conduct normal data collection	 |
| for its household survey for September 2022. Data collection resumed in October, and	 |
| response rates were within normal ranges. BLS is resuming publication of the not	 |
| seasonally adjusted data beginning with this news release. Publication of seasonally	 |
| adjusted data for Puerto Rico will resume at a later time, pending further research. 	 |
| Establishment survey data collection rates for both months were within normal ranges.  |
| National estimates do not include Puerto Rico.					 |
|________________________________________________________________________________________|


Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, Mankato-North Mankato, MN, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.3 percent. The next
lowest rates were in Fargo, ND-MN, and Rochester, MN, 1.4 percent each. Yuma, AZ, had the highest 
rate, 17.9 percent. A total of 197 areas had October jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.4 
percent, 174 areas had rates above it, and 18 areas had rates equal to that of the nation.
(See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in October occurred in Atlantic City-Hammonton,
NJ (-3.4 percentage points). Rates fell over the year by at least 2.0 percentage points in an
additional 17 areas. Yuma, AZ, had the largest over-the-year rate increase in October (+5.2 
percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Minneapolis-St.
Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest jobless rate in October, 1.7 percent. Las Vegas-Henderson-
Paradise, NV, had the highest rate, 5.6 percent. Forty-three large areas had over-the-year 
unemployment rate decreases, four had increases, and four had no change. The largest rate decline
occurred in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-2.5 percentage points). The largest jobless rate
increase was in Oklahoma City, OK (+0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which 
are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In October, Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall,
FL, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 1.7 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA,
had the highest rate among the divisions, 4.5 percent, followed by Chicago-Naperville-Arlington
Heights, IL, 4.4 percent. (See table 2.)

In October, 37 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases. The largest
rate decline occurred in Philadelphia, PA (-2.7 percentage points), followed by Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Glendale, CA (-2.6 points). The only unemployment rate increase relative to October 2021 was
marginal (+0.1 percentage point in Gary, IN).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 95 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in 294 areas. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in New
York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+405,100), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+274,200), and
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+255,000). The largest over-the-year percentage gain in employment
occurred in Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (+7.9 percent), followed by Charleston-North Charleston,
SC, and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+6.5 percent each). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 46 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population
of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 5 areas. The largest over-the-
year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Dallas-Fort
Worth-Arlington, TX (+6.5 percent), Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+6.2 percent), and
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN (+5.9 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In October, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 23 metropolitan divisions and
was essentially unchanged in 15 divisions. The largest over-the-year increases in employment among
the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+324,700), Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+196,600), and Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+193,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX 
(+6.9 percent), Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+6.2 percent), and San Francisco-Redwood City-South
San Francisco, CA (+6.0 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be released
on Friday, December 16, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and
Unemployment news release for November is scheduled to be released on Thursday, December 29,
2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). 


 _____________________________________________________________________________________________
|											      |
|            Update to the 2022 North American Industry Classification System		      |
|											      |
| With the release of January 2023 data on March 13, 2023, the Current Employment Statistics  |
| (CES) State and Area division will revise the basis for industry classification from the    |
| 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to NAICS 2022. The conversion    |
| to NAICS 2022 will result in revisions reflecting content and coding changes within the     |
| mining and logging, manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail trade, information, financial    |
| activities, and other services sectors. The majority of the changes associated with the     |
| NAICS 2022 update impact levels of detail not published by CES State and Area. Details of   |
| updated titles and new, discontinued, and collapsed industries resulting from the NAICS     |
| 2022 update, as well as changes due to the annual benchmarking process, will be available   |
| on March 13, 2023. For more information on NAICS 2022, visit www.census.gov/naics.	      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) September October September October
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

Alabama

2,237,571 2,291,928 2,248,488 2,301,932 66,831 59,889 64,341 62,419 3.0 2.6 2.9 2.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,843 46,465 45,714 46,503 1,683 1,394 1,669 1,454 3.7 3.0 3.7 3.1

Auburn-Opelika

76,780 79,159 76,921 79,049 1,939 1,807 1,840 1,906 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4

Birmingham-Hoover

551,016 571,587 555,459 569,781 14,992 13,435 14,563 14,010 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

99,516 99,788 99,521 100,564 2,527 2,382 2,342 2,421 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4

Decatur

73,168 74,869 73,162 74,920 1,710 1,586 1,563 1,629 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2

Dothan

64,700 65,936 64,900 66,453 1,818 1,660 1,705 1,785 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,418 66,542 65,535 66,823 1,982 1,810 1,885 1,807 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.7

Gadsden

38,796 39,535 38,886 39,528 1,394 1,196 1,330 1,232 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.1

Huntsville

237,815 244,104 238,410 243,977 5,424 5,227 5,107 5,353 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2

Mobile

191,646 190,725 191,276 192,030 7,619 6,538 7,489 6,763 4.0 3.4 3.9 3.5

Montgomery

173,185 176,672 173,272 176,301 6,300 5,258 6,100 5,560 3.6 3.0 3.5 3.2

Tuscaloosa

114,681 116,932 114,197 117,021 3,679 3,069 3,568 3,230 3.2 2.6 3.1 2.8

Alaska

357,563 359,245 358,653 359,168 18,562 12,567 18,777 13,624 5.2 3.5 5.2 3.8

Anchorage

199,438 201,151 202,185 204,791 9,819 6,353 9,774 6,886 4.9 3.2 4.8 3.4

Fairbanks

45,311 45,313 45,976 46,327 1,922 1,314 1,999 1,532 4.2 2.9 4.3 3.3

Arizona

3,539,478 3,641,738 3,531,512 3,637,020 148,115 151,694 129,003 150,035 4.2 4.2 3.7 4.1

Flagstaff

74,855 77,689 74,522 76,996 3,683 3,597 3,261 3,679 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.8

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,971 89,995 87,532 89,402 4,277 4,393 3,799 4,308 4.9 4.9 4.3 4.8

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,512,594 2,587,946 2,512,309 2,588,667 93,024 91,575 80,737 89,659 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.5

Prescott

106,516 110,311 105,509 109,147 3,617 3,920 3,131 3,679 3.4 3.6 3.0 3.4

Sierra Vista-Douglas

48,947 49,783 48,778 49,304 2,095 2,244 1,855 2,223 4.3 4.5 3.8 4.5

Tucson

484,663 490,384 480,045 488,553 20,072 19,909 17,456 19,360 4.1 4.1 3.6 4.0

Yuma

96,660 105,512 96,696 105,913 13,941 18,020 12,271 19,007 14.4 17.1 12.7 17.9

Arkansas

1,331,155 1,354,680 1,330,477 1,351,979 42,900 48,904 35,800 38,916 3.2 3.6 2.7 2.9

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

286,585 296,817 288,371 298,520 6,700 7,604 5,526 5,845 2.3 2.6 1.9 2.0

Fort Smith

115,406 117,091 115,756 117,293 3,605 4,205 3,163 3,589 3.1 3.6 2.7 3.1

Hot Springs

40,271 40,645 40,277 40,404 1,586 1,749 1,342 1,443 3.9 4.3 3.3 3.6

Jonesboro

65,226 66,042 65,694 66,215 1,731 2,050 1,418 1,590 2.7 3.1 2.2 2.4

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

347,263 354,092 347,610 353,950 11,643 12,527 9,786 10,082 3.4 3.5 2.8 2.8

Pine Bluff

32,371 32,817 32,401 32,530 1,614 1,827 1,422 1,587 5.0 5.6 4.4 4.9

California

19,040,914 19,285,852 19,083,729 19,213,495 1,166,742 719,106 1,109,420 726,345 6.1 3.7 5.8 3.8

Bakersfield

388,638 392,062 391,172 391,630 32,738 24,229 31,463 24,534 8.4 6.2 8.0 6.3

Chico

92,581 93,146 93,191 93,394 5,124 3,508 4,957 3,586 5.5 3.8 5.3 3.8

El Centro

69,903 70,527 70,184 70,714 12,324 11,411 11,842 11,477 17.6 16.2 16.9 16.2

Fresno

447,058 454,462 443,871 448,702 33,791 24,863 33,351 25,893 7.6 5.5 7.5 5.8

Hanford-Corcoran

55,773 56,341 55,819 56,114 4,362 3,253 4,314 3,420 7.8 5.8 7.7 6.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,580,001 6,546,960 6,570,413 6,503,822 459,838 265,168 428,409 262,917 7.0 4.1 6.5 4.0

Madera

62,289 63,094 61,245 61,659 4,445 3,268 4,392 3,398 7.1 5.2 7.2 5.5

Merced

118,340 118,877 117,400 117,743 9,501 7,190 9,278 7,307 8.0 6.0 7.9 6.2

Modesto

240,941 241,570 238,845 239,048 16,686 11,542 16,326 11,833 6.9 4.8 6.8 5.0

Napa

70,288 70,680 70,076 69,989 3,156 1,864 3,078 1,915 4.5 2.6 4.4 2.7

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

406,543 414,007 406,054 413,969 21,179 13,608 20,283 13,822 5.2 3.3 5.0 3.3

Redding

72,628 73,993 73,520 74,559 4,065 2,799 3,958 2,878 5.6 3.8 5.4 3.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,116,978 2,186,836 2,138,782 2,193,815 135,754 85,665 130,372 86,634 6.4 3.9 6.1 3.9

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,103,279 1,121,232 1,105,323 1,117,579 59,614 36,727 57,408 37,645 5.4 3.3 5.2 3.4

Salinas

220,470 219,546 216,864 214,055 12,216 8,886 12,010 9,339 5.5 4.0 5.5 4.4

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,553,455 1,584,222 1,570,003 1,578,885 84,055 48,783 80,779 49,829 5.4 3.1 5.1 3.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,480,671 2,549,885 2,491,593 2,547,281 113,842 65,171 108,464 66,195 4.6 2.6 4.4 2.6

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,050,882 1,091,620 1,058,505 1,093,261 40,729 23,810 38,823 24,250 3.9 2.2 3.7 2.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

136,590 137,436 138,226 136,349 5,785 3,386 5,501 3,427 4.2 2.5 4.0 2.5

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

135,046 137,339 135,807 136,710 6,853 4,733 6,693 4,950 5.1 3.4 4.9 3.6

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

220,911 226,559 222,477 227,029 9,838 6,076 9,537 6,270 4.5 2.7 4.3 2.8

Santa Rosa

247,217 250,800 246,272 249,825 10,836 6,400 10,326 6,506 4.4 2.6 4.2 2.6

Stockton-Lodi

335,583 338,517 333,944 336,409 24,451 16,495 23,742 16,837 7.3 4.9 7.1 5.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

200,291 201,649 200,645 201,530 12,584 7,727 12,121 7,866 6.3 3.8 6.0 3.9

Visalia-Porterville

201,623 205,462 201,500 203,459 18,340 15,479 18,000 16,024 9.1 7.5 8.9 7.9

Yuba City

76,996 76,957 76,727 76,249 5,355 3,966 5,213 4,079 7.0 5.2 6.8 5.3

Colorado

3,183,730 3,263,445 3,191,726 3,260,677 145,004 104,471 141,397 114,087 4.6 3.2 4.4 3.5

Boulder

198,704 206,151 198,396 204,609 6,976 5,112 6,808 5,657 3.5 2.5 3.4 2.8

Colorado Springs

367,069 375,711 365,718 373,887 17,621 13,182 17,068 14,224 4.8 3.5 4.7 3.8

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,699,445 1,747,663 1,698,027 1,747,684 80,152 56,594 77,710 61,480 4.7 3.2 4.6 3.5

Fort Collins

210,069 215,582 210,743 215,669 7,898 5,787 7,725 6,314 3.8 2.7 3.7 2.9

Grand Junction

77,959 79,509 78,120 78,921 3,629 2,720 3,551 2,974 4.7 3.4 4.5 3.8

Greeley

166,554 169,846 169,238 171,232 8,171 5,807 7,853 6,282 4.9 3.4 4.6 3.7

Pueblo

77,922 79,496 78,583 79,345 5,563 4,027 5,450 4,368 7.1 5.1 6.9 5.5

Connecticut

1,859,340 1,901,721 1,865,062 1,894,363 99,259 74,116 94,896 75,194 5.3 3.9 5.1 4.0

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

452,250 465,086 455,971 462,626 24,744 18,761 23,748 19,135 5.5 4.0 5.2 4.1

Danbury

103,373 106,049 103,836 105,201 4,507 3,459 4,392 3,501 4.4 3.3 4.2 3.3

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

609,989 620,942 610,857 619,043 32,501 23,860 30,969 24,085 5.3 3.8 5.1 3.9

New Haven

326,547 335,699 328,005 335,841 16,559 12,353 15,783 12,579 5.1 3.7 4.8 3.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

136,072 137,622 135,026 136,405 7,909 5,665 7,489 5,784 5.8 4.1 5.5 4.2

Waterbury

109,061 110,617 108,686 110,325 7,223 5,461 6,903 5,558 6.6 4.9 6.4 5.0

Delaware

491,594 495,867 495,803 497,781 23,877 18,645 22,769 20,494 4.9 3.8 4.6 4.1

Dover

80,091 80,304 80,891 80,902 4,440 3,539 4,196 3,891 5.5 4.4 5.2 4.8

Salisbury(1)

198,455 198,132 196,197 195,983 9,974 7,769 9,659 8,833 5.0 3.9 4.9 4.5

District of Columbia

383,024 376,477 384,506 371,734 25,051 17,189 23,819 17,229 6.5 4.6 6.2 4.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,343,964 3,354,075 3,364,318 3,372,771 147,875 103,315 137,192 110,782 4.4 3.1 4.1 3.3

Florida

10,430,159 10,816,062 10,465,889 10,830,199 413,389 276,648 380,578 287,306 4.0 2.6 3.6 2.7

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

359,830 373,546 362,686 377,591 13,332 9,673 12,392 14,624 3.7 2.6 3.4 3.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

133,774 138,739 133,384 137,402 3,918 3,046 3,691 3,114 2.9 2.2 2.8 2.3

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

307,628 320,376 307,860 319,589 12,364 9,045 11,601 9,547 4.0 2.8 3.8 3.0

Gainesville

148,664 153,904 148,724 153,241 4,697 3,729 4,535 3,924 3.2 2.4 3.0 2.6

Homosassa Springs

47,532 47,712 47,400 47,436 2,360 1,919 2,172 1,920 5.0 4.0 4.6 4.0

Jacksonville

806,497 847,604 809,023 845,177 28,249 20,957 26,582 21,480 3.5 2.5 3.3 2.5

Lakeland-Winter Haven

332,134 343,058 333,637 341,695 15,628 10,877 14,594 11,361 4.7 3.2 4.4 3.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,094,196 3,170,012 3,111,499 3,193,087 131,097 73,855 117,069 71,851 4.2 2.3 3.8 2.3

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

179,067 188,545 181,447 188,908 6,025 4,889 5,536 5,480 3.4 2.6 3.1 2.9

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

377,412 393,018 380,829 393,949 12,882 9,940 11,937 10,446 3.4 2.5 3.1 2.7

Ocala

142,811 145,820 142,630 145,359 6,275 4,694 5,825 4,742 4.4 3.2 4.1 3.3

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,363,928 1,423,876 1,367,793 1,422,405 58,932 38,188 55,012 39,869 4.3 2.7 4.0 2.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

292,707 303,624 291,203 301,299 10,332 7,605 9,571 7,854 3.5 2.5 3.3 2.6

Panama City

92,166 96,168 91,912 95,642 2,960 2,180 2,810 2,224 3.2 2.3 3.1 2.3

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

233,303 242,985 234,703 240,939 8,398 6,135 7,899 6,325 3.6 2.5 3.4 2.6

Port St. Lucie

225,193 235,188 224,797 234,829 8,913 6,722 8,270 6,813 4.0 2.9 3.7 2.9

Punta Gorda

73,269 76,669 73,937 77,507 2,895 2,287 2,660 3,107 4.0 3.0 3.6 4.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,455 67,899 65,968 67,920 2,792 2,125 2,546 2,104 4.3 3.1 3.9 3.1

Sebring

34,935 34,365 34,725 34,314 1,896 1,422 1,690 1,465 5.4 4.1 4.9 4.3

Tallahassee

198,717 206,206 199,435 206,817 7,286 5,377 7,002 5,683 3.7 2.6 3.5 2.7

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,595,527 1,669,677 1,595,728 1,668,982 58,923 42,109 54,908 43,386 3.7 2.5 3.4 2.6

The Villages

35,061 36,431 34,985 36,235 1,694 1,432 1,517 1,381 4.8 3.9 4.3 3.8

Georgia

5,183,850 5,254,530 5,208,580 5,271,098 172,482 138,269 171,411 160,589 3.3 2.6 3.3 3.0

Albany

65,401 65,477 65,467 65,748 2,864 2,265 2,853 2,511 4.4 3.5 4.4 3.8

Athens-Clarke County

101,306 103,726 101,958 104,518 2,792 2,404 2,878 2,997 2.8 2.3 2.8 2.9

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,137,860 3,205,469 3,152,309 3,214,265 104,657 81,252 102,353 93,389 3.3 2.5 3.2 2.9

Augusta-Richmond County

265,228 263,834 266,030 264,073 9,118 8,436 8,974 9,638 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.6

Brunswick

52,563 53,094 52,632 53,028 1,631 1,341 1,621 1,648 3.1 2.5 3.1 3.1

Columbus

121,219 121,933 121,561 122,078 4,795 4,029 4,601 4,540 4.0 3.3 3.8 3.7

Dalton

58,617 58,223 58,862 58,248 1,999 1,773 1,921 2,498 3.4 3.0 3.3 4.3

Gainesville

104,519 106,072 105,407 106,773 2,359 2,135 2,433 2,625 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.5

Hinesville

34,308 34,348 34,520 34,389 1,146 968 1,134 1,117 3.3 2.8 3.3 3.2

Macon-Bibb County

102,688 102,423 103,537 102,386 3,781 3,082 3,822 3,559 3.7 3.0 3.7 3.5

Rome

43,659 43,769 43,915 43,888 1,414 1,102 1,427 1,386 3.2 2.5 3.2 3.2

Savannah

197,092 198,951 197,288 200,081 6,522 4,933 6,356 5,732 3.3 2.5 3.2 2.9

Valdosta

63,459 63,044 64,208 63,136 2,081 1,689 2,084 2,063 3.3 2.7 3.2 3.3

Warner Robins

87,035 86,828 88,126 87,161 2,648 2,402 3,228 2,814 3.0 2.8 3.7 3.2

Hawaii

671,623 675,247 672,805 676,952 35,495 22,890 34,394 24,030 5.3 3.4 5.1 3.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

88,163 87,633 87,803 87,526 5,571 3,256 5,487 3,427 6.3 3.7 6.2 3.9

Urban Honolulu

452,080 456,938 454,042 458,694 22,700 14,867 21,960 15,679 5.0 3.3 4.8 3.4

Idaho

920,309 962,710 924,053 964,661 26,019 24,518 24,986 25,051 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.6

Boise City

396,029 412,926 394,489 411,989 11,277 10,499 10,800 10,659 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.6

Coeur d'Alene

82,332 85,583 82,404 85,338 2,744 2,517 2,625 2,610 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.1

Idaho Falls

76,429 79,968 77,072 80,479 1,791 1,792 1,739 1,843 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3

Lewiston

31,330 32,066 31,629 32,396 917 827 856 881 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7

Pocatello

43,153 45,022 43,366 45,263 1,220 1,205 1,180 1,208 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7

Twin Falls

54,422 57,597 54,889 57,851 1,538 1,453 1,461 1,468 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.5

Illinois

6,321,229 6,412,757 6,359,118 6,401,123 320,836 283,304 306,608 277,140 5.1 4.4 4.8 4.3

Bloomington

94,627 95,694 94,626 95,671 3,701 3,210 3,378 3,313 3.9 3.4 3.6 3.5

Carbondale-Marion

58,339 58,880 58,954 58,765 2,883 2,325 2,593 2,384 4.9 3.9 4.4 4.1

Champaign-Urbana

125,717 125,005 127,036 125,027 5,245 4,439 4,689 4,567 4.2 3.6 3.7 3.7

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,790,371 4,888,248 4,835,640 4,888,666 243,644 217,347 236,209 210,425 5.1 4.4 4.9 4.3

Danville

31,708 31,692 31,613 31,508 1,850 1,578 1,671 1,618 5.8 5.0 5.3 5.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

186,712 193,680 187,253 194,322 8,216 6,574 7,926 6,816 4.4 3.4 4.2 3.5

Decatur

46,918 46,753 46,542 46,333 3,262 2,671 2,874 2,659 7.0 5.7 6.2 5.7

Kankakee

52,263 52,721 51,926 52,377 2,970 2,707 2,706 2,769 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.3

Peoria

170,033 170,160 168,391 169,335 8,752 7,449 7,965 7,668 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.5

Rockford

158,040 159,782 156,274 158,874 12,167 9,505 11,195 9,452 7.7 5.9 7.2 5.9

Springfield

104,396 105,455 104,364 104,667 4,972 4,051 4,457 4,123 4.8 3.8 4.3 3.9

Indiana

3,300,707 3,370,756 3,307,033 3,392,900 95,516 75,665 83,343 96,657 2.9 2.2 2.5 2.8

Bloomington

79,713 82,842 80,248 83,786 1,772 1,611 1,695 2,400 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.9

Columbus

42,434 43,180 42,449 43,289 980 773 857 1,039 2.3 1.8 2.0 2.4

Elkhart-Goshen

115,775 118,389 116,372 118,882 2,321 2,376 2,056 3,141 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.6

Evansville

155,968 158,560 155,515 159,163 4,652 3,592 4,116 4,528 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.8

Fort Wayne

213,628 218,402 214,182 219,961 6,068 4,474 5,218 5,904 2.8 2.0 2.4 2.7

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,075,960 1,104,400 1,078,332 1,111,641 30,612 23,113 26,450 29,253 2.8 2.1 2.5 2.6

Kokomo

34,001 33,541 33,511 33,730 2,003 1,359 1,514 1,620 5.9 4.1 4.5 4.8

Lafayette-West Lafayette

107,762 110,397 108,701 111,457 2,785 2,203 2,531 3,121 2.6 2.0 2.3 2.8

Michigan City-La Porte

45,781 46,046 45,831 46,251 1,805 1,327 1,565 1,597 3.9 2.9 3.4 3.5

Muncie

51,714 53,298 51,620 53,882 1,645 1,255 1,464 1,700 3.2 2.4 2.8 3.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

152,118 157,720 152,303 158,252 5,360 4,339 4,607 5,233 3.5 2.8 3.0 3.3

Terre Haute

70,845 71,654 71,172 71,868 2,359 1,888 2,106 2,401 3.3 2.6 3.0 3.3

Iowa

1,672,970 1,713,022 1,682,867 1,725,693 57,248 40,654 55,581 44,868 3.4 2.4 3.3 2.6

Ames

58,833 60,643 59,162 61,308 1,421 1,094 1,437 1,226 2.4 1.8 2.4 2.0

Cedar Rapids

141,137 143,893 141,055 144,248 5,885 4,186 5,471 4,336 4.2 2.9 3.9 3.0

Des Moines-West Des Moines

362,517 372,184 365,067 374,721 12,410 8,473 11,910 9,406 3.4 2.3 3.3 2.5

Dubuque

54,485 55,567 54,817 56,473 1,879 1,465 2,001 1,689 3.4 2.6 3.7 3.0

Iowa City

96,592 100,400 97,220 101,574 2,954 2,004 2,865 2,307 3.1 2.0 2.9 2.3

Sioux City

91,343 93,066 91,926 93,969 2,752 1,994 2,715 2,237 3.0 2.1 3.0 2.4

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

87,701 89,465 88,242 90,301 3,026 2,164 2,935 2,384 3.5 2.4 3.3 2.6

Kansas

1,493,223 1,496,633 1,497,372 1,508,765 40,409 37,251 37,258 40,134 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.7

Lawrence

65,624 65,261 66,307 65,988 1,650 1,583 1,533 1,701 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.6

Manhattan

47,538 47,845 47,998 47,318 1,063 1,131 982 1,225 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.6

Topeka

119,565 119,413 118,577 120,157 3,058 2,988 2,867 3,267 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.7

Wichita

316,824 318,550 317,817 322,267 11,153 9,142 10,542 9,657 3.5 2.9 3.3 3.0

Kentucky

2,040,806 2,056,120 2,047,911 2,055,306 89,926 69,264 88,149 80,166 4.4 3.4 4.3 3.9

Bowling Green

83,393 84,368 83,748 84,595 3,369 2,743 3,337 3,231 4.0 3.3 4.0 3.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

64,158 64,920 64,316 65,088 2,973 2,344 2,925 2,711 4.6 3.6 4.5 4.2

Lexington-Fayette

272,348 275,077 273,955 274,956 10,166 7,689 10,000 9,065 3.7 2.8 3.7 3.3

Louisville/Jefferson County

663,349 682,408 663,971 680,971 24,890 18,554 24,146 21,921 3.8 2.7 3.6 3.2

Owensboro

54,193 54,765 54,372 54,656 2,231 2,084 2,180 2,276 4.1 3.8 4.0 4.2

Louisiana

2,064,521 2,092,643 2,063,998 2,089,775 104,415 73,778 88,817 63,803 5.1 3.5 4.3 3.1

Alexandria

64,518 65,165 63,839 65,116 2,269 1,894 2,053 1,655 3.5 2.9 3.2 2.5

Baton Rouge

421,705 421,649 419,857 420,794 18,151 13,317 15,735 11,485 4.3 3.2 3.7 2.7

Hammond

55,727 56,705 55,387 56,482 3,514 2,441 2,857 2,092 6.3 4.3 5.2 3.7

Houma-Thibodaux

83,078 84,952 83,033 84,610 5,145 2,862 4,022 2,475 6.2 3.4 4.8 2.9

Lafayette

213,638 216,900 212,346 216,358 9,250 6,907 8,114 6,049 4.3 3.2 3.8 2.8

Lake Charles

101,966 102,003 101,620 101,524 4,709 3,299 4,113 2,835 4.6 3.2 4.0 2.8

Monroe

78,878 78,385 78,318 78,594 3,380 2,681 2,991 2,349 4.3 3.4 3.8 3.0

New Orleans-Metairie

570,201 598,866 581,315 598,757 36,043 22,808 29,401 19,522 6.3 3.8 5.1 3.3

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,092 186,659 183,951 186,388 8,609 6,730 7,657 5,830 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.1

Maine

681,128 671,668 681,954 673,425 25,971 21,526 25,568 23,061 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.4

Bangor

69,688 69,247 70,539 69,971 2,545 2,139 2,555 2,339 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.3

Lewiston-Auburn

54,425 53,388 54,912 53,923 2,329 1,775 2,242 1,915 4.3 3.3 4.1 3.6

Portland-South Portland

206,607 206,689 207,029 208,069 6,943 5,704 6,944 6,133 3.4 2.8 3.4 2.9

Maryland

3,175,784 3,190,989 3,195,375 3,200,540 172,357 119,221 165,324 129,241 5.4 3.7 5.2 4.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,481,402 1,503,314 1,492,105 1,505,036 77,616 55,242 74,873 59,951 5.2 3.7 5.0 4.0

California-Lexington Park

57,335 57,166 57,447 57,525 2,593 1,968 2,442 2,126 4.5 3.4 4.3 3.7

Cumberland

42,974 42,076 43,160 42,596 2,222 1,733 2,139 1,917 5.2 4.1 5.0 4.5

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

132,306 133,551 133,395 133,787 5,374 4,217 5,076 4,575 4.1 3.2 3.8 3.4

Massachusetts

3,731,317 3,698,042 3,751,520 3,735,475 187,736 114,896 172,656 112,934 5.0 3.1 4.6 3.0

Barnstable Town

126,011 121,397 122,170 120,395 6,600 4,088 6,118 4,076 5.2 3.4 5.0 3.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,763,171 2,766,580 2,783,516 2,797,842 128,827 79,162 118,108 79,015 4.7 2.9 4.2 2.8

Leominster-Gardner

78,713 77,573 79,107 78,579 4,536 2,809 4,153 2,718 5.8 3.6 5.2 3.5

New Bedford

84,521 82,253 84,575 82,541 5,419 3,705 5,033 3,563 6.4 4.5 6.0 4.3

Pittsfield

40,886 38,726 40,862 39,038 2,434 1,477 2,262 1,436 6.0 3.8 5.5 3.7

Springfield

371,395 367,170 374,081 370,576 21,375 13,683 19,716 13,266 5.8 3.7 5.3 3.6

Worcester

354,579 349,052 357,092 352,158 18,175 11,578 16,868 11,352 5.1 3.3 4.7 3.2

Michigan

4,788,645 4,867,403 4,792,896 4,832,807 248,178 179,272 214,642 178,126 5.2 3.7 4.5 3.7

Ann Arbor

188,995 196,854 190,298 195,700 7,236 6,574 6,087 6,415 3.8 3.3 3.2 3.3

Battle Creek

58,587 59,934 58,819 59,003 3,294 2,812 2,957 2,671 5.6 4.7 5.0 4.5

Bay City

47,565 48,732 47,455 48,052 2,335 2,194 2,082 2,169 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,135,687 2,124,087 2,142,711 2,125,126 121,417 69,017 107,032 70,187 5.7 3.2 5.0 3.3

Flint

172,504 176,161 171,770 174,142 11,882 9,720 10,177 9,488 6.9 5.5 5.9 5.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

560,364 582,948 562,511 577,080 21,607 18,728 18,622 18,112 3.9 3.2 3.3 3.1

Jackson

71,151 72,714 71,245 72,057 3,489 2,937 3,043 2,891 4.9 4.0 4.3 4.0

Kalamazoo-Portage

161,125 166,491 161,995 164,887 7,157 6,390 6,224 6,251 4.4 3.8 3.8 3.8

Lansing-East Lansing

233,209 244,066 233,322 243,481 12,662 9,101 8,992 8,821 5.4 3.7 3.9 3.6

Midland

37,956 38,806 37,978 38,214 1,544 1,513 1,371 1,481 4.1 3.9 3.6 3.9

Monroe

71,803 73,498 71,852 73,095 3,997 3,177 3,106 3,192 5.6 4.3 4.3 4.4

Muskegon

74,603 77,108 74,603 75,843 4,800 4,025 4,277 3,918 6.4 5.2 5.7 5.2

Niles-Benton Harbor

69,255 71,099 69,087 70,136 3,400 2,961 2,972 2,886 4.9 4.2 4.3 4.1

Saginaw

80,512 82,229 80,326 81,451 5,092 4,353 4,413 4,249 6.3 5.3 5.5 5.2

Minnesota

3,025,144 3,069,624 3,025,056 3,064,698 84,171 55,262 70,928 51,958 2.8 1.8 2.3 1.7

Duluth

138,759 140,013 138,224 139,214 4,197 3,387 3,690 3,097 3.0 2.4 2.7 2.2

Mankato-North Mankato

59,064 60,018 60,507 60,255 1,424 808 1,171 789 2.4 1.3 1.9 1.3

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,984,541 2,030,889 1,978,426 2,025,464 57,716 37,844 48,324 35,411 2.9 1.9 2.4 1.7

Rochester

124,888 126,940 124,326 126,642 2,887 1,899 2,422 1,772 2.3 1.5 1.9 1.4

St. Cloud

109,405 111,001 110,212 110,881 3,108 1,913 2,662 1,838 2.8 1.7 2.4 1.7

Mississippi

1,251,041 1,257,501 1,247,904 1,249,773 58,538 47,014 51,926 42,805 4.7 3.7 4.2 3.4

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

165,299 166,936 165,214 165,880 7,979 6,288 7,135 5,712 4.8 3.8 4.3 3.4

Hattiesburg

69,189 69,291 69,304 69,127 2,887 2,249 2,557 2,069 4.2 3.2 3.7 3.0

Jackson

260,227 258,033 260,391 257,403 11,054 8,808 9,844 7,927 4.2 3.4 3.8 3.1

Missouri

3,054,408 3,058,421 3,067,595 3,068,965 106,630 56,292 101,955 73,325 3.5 1.8 3.3 2.4

Cape Girardeau

47,203 47,267 47,584 47,390 1,374 883 1,488 1,113 2.9 1.9 3.1 2.3

Columbia

99,660 100,743 100,339 101,138 2,204 1,416 2,516 1,912 2.2 1.4 2.5 1.9

Jefferson City

73,339 73,583 73,679 73,700 1,722 1,070 1,949 1,455 2.3 1.5 2.6 2.0

Joplin

83,416 84,499 84,194 84,318 2,318 1,474 2,560 1,916 2.8 1.7 3.0 2.3

Kansas City

1,139,880 1,139,330 1,137,664 1,146,489 42,673 24,874 34,848 30,396 3.7 2.2 3.1 2.7

St. Joseph

60,816 60,694 61,496 60,968 1,658 1,032 1,724 1,324 2.7 1.7 2.8 2.2

St. Louis(2)

1,455,313 1,457,175 1,462,032 1,466,551 55,410 33,123 52,251 38,964 3.8 2.3 3.6 2.7

Springfield

237,280 239,129 239,176 240,959 5,959 3,715 6,621 4,934 2.5 1.6 2.8 2.0

Montana

550,682 568,128 552,748 568,053 13,115 13,035 14,099 14,774 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.6

Billings

90,150 94,524 90,725 94,333 2,081 2,062 2,208 2,296 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.4

Great Falls

37,766 38,825 37,961 38,843 908 933 966 1,038 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7

Missoula

65,240 67,096 65,707 67,159 1,549 1,496 1,649 1,704 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.5

Nebraska

1,045,632 1,057,870 1,054,701 1,062,345 20,990 21,222 21,156 22,637 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1

Grand Island

44,864 44,412 44,995 44,426 918 882 957 930 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1

Lincoln

188,466 191,043 190,026 192,045 3,583 3,613 3,623 3,866 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0

Omaha-Council Bluffs

498,207 509,423 503,471 512,469 12,151 11,290 11,965 12,101 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.4

Nevada

1,495,936 1,570,738 1,494,382 1,560,314 85,860 75,021 75,745 80,489 5.7 4.8 5.1 5.2

Carson City

25,067 26,054 25,004 25,886 892 879 819 994 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,100,572 1,156,865 1,098,809 1,150,375 72,777 61,371 63,836 64,966 6.6 5.3 5.8 5.6

Reno

251,011 263,975 251,357 260,649 8,075 8,127 7,267 9,197 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.5

New Hampshire

751,696 769,865 750,408 771,880 22,071 18,148 19,863 20,236 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.6

Dover-Durham

83,634 85,015 84,039 85,765 2,305 1,962 2,050 2,156 2.8 2.3 2.4 2.5

Manchester

117,769 122,026 117,841 122,919 3,314 2,761 2,984 3,092 2.8 2.3 2.5 2.5

Portsmouth

76,716 76,599 76,565 76,549 2,008 1,722 1,857 1,911 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.5

New Jersey

4,629,616 4,691,164 4,643,268 4,755,344 263,017 129,496 231,421 137,344 5.7 2.8 5.0 2.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

123,966 129,053 123,205 128,609 10,163 4,834 9,011 5,048 8.2 3.7 7.3 3.9

Ocean City

50,323 50,974 45,194 46,123 3,084 1,714 2,976 2,036 6.1 3.4 6.6 4.4

Trenton

210,918 212,100 212,257 215,561 9,845 4,928 8,625 5,249 4.7 2.3 4.1 2.4

Vineland-Bridgeton

68,909 68,533 68,451 69,927 4,761 2,570 4,174 2,718 6.9 3.8 6.1 3.9

New Mexico

940,252 943,167 946,687 941,334 57,936 42,537 55,280 37,685 6.2 4.5 5.8 4.0

Albuquerque

435,808 436,211 442,306 436,973 25,270 18,342 24,165 16,278 5.8 4.2 5.5 3.7

Farmington

49,764 49,034 50,274 48,563 3,596 2,579 3,413 2,293 7.2 5.3 6.8 4.7

Las Cruces

98,160 99,778 98,973 99,346 5,864 4,772 5,585 4,192 6.0 4.8 5.6 4.2

Santa Fe

72,464 72,615 72,810 72,010 3,973 2,811 3,808 2,540 5.5 3.9 5.2 3.5

New York

9,405,294 9,504,179 9,389,814 9,534,240 538,989 366,569 501,954 342,122 5.7 3.9 5.3 3.6

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

447,863 455,734 447,637 458,304 15,932 12,540 14,666 10,073 3.6 2.8 3.3 2.2

Binghamton

102,987 106,366 102,622 106,847 4,196 3,327 3,966 2,737 4.1 3.1 3.9 2.6

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

529,347 545,399 527,444 546,030 23,312 18,190 21,997 14,801 4.4 3.3 4.2 2.7

Elmira

34,503 34,984 34,234 34,906 1,487 1,192 1,377 957 4.3 3.4 4.0 2.7

Glens Falls

58,870 59,258 57,850 58,573 2,172 1,587 1,988 1,312 3.7 2.7 3.4 2.2

Ithaca

48,987 49,899 48,983 50,266 1,526 1,284 1,466 1,054 3.1 2.6 3.0 2.1

Kingston

86,678 88,844 86,400 89,480 3,308 2,449 3,038 1,972 3.8 2.8 3.5 2.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,948,781 10,026,240 9,962,374 10,112,931 620,028 371,715 567,134 370,046 6.2 3.7 5.7 3.7

Rochester

515,474 527,520 516,082 525,320 20,805 16,211 19,195 13,050 4.0 3.1 3.7 2.5

Syracuse

303,688 311,137 302,185 312,431 12,205 9,647 11,358 7,726 4.0 3.1 3.8 2.5

Utica-Rome

127,229 129,797 126,447 129,284 5,313 4,158 4,916 3,348 4.2 3.2 3.9 2.6

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,011 45,102 43,604 44,536 1,715 1,454 1,613 1,186 3.9 3.2 3.7 2.7

North Carolina

4,981,958 5,120,269 5,021,732 5,150,515 205,402 169,814 209,577 202,689 4.1 3.3 4.2 3.9

Asheville

229,613 235,700 231,718 236,815 7,730 6,326 7,918 7,814 3.4 2.7 3.4 3.3

Burlington

81,377 83,099 81,893 83,321 3,339 2,766 3,391 3,254 4.1 3.3 4.1 3.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,362,926 1,419,625 1,373,736 1,428,770 54,292 44,639 55,317 52,877 4.0 3.1 4.0 3.7

Durham-Chapel Hill

311,112 322,201 314,920 322,554 10,382 8,787 10,570 10,735 3.3 2.7 3.4 3.3

Fayetteville

145,469 148,846 146,696 148,935 8,814 7,231 9,012 8,436 6.1 4.9 6.1 5.7

Goldsboro

50,283 51,040 50,760 51,421 2,216 1,799 2,254 2,158 4.4 3.5 4.4 4.2

Greensboro-High Point

359,279 365,126 362,853 367,361 16,883 13,450 17,174 15,916 4.7 3.7 4.7 4.3

Greenville

88,060 88,545 89,011 88,989 3,866 3,258 3,918 3,743 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.2

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

168,187 171,709 169,389 172,412 6,733 5,322 6,708 6,523 4.0 3.1 4.0 3.8

Jacksonville

65,566 66,726 65,838 67,211 2,831 2,587 2,901 3,111 4.3 3.9 4.4 4.6

New Bern

50,276 50,573 50,702 50,849 1,942 1,668 2,004 2,049 3.9 3.3 4.0 4.0

Raleigh

733,168 765,732 739,630 768,396 25,074 21,454 25,730 25,649 3.4 2.8 3.5 3.3

Rocky Mount

62,478 61,340 62,917 61,986 4,094 3,370 4,178 3,838 6.6 5.5 6.6 6.2

Wilmington

153,440 158,140 154,678 158,568 5,373 4,681 5,500 5,649 3.5 3.0 3.6 3.6

Winston-Salem

321,571 326,343 324,608 330,001 13,133 10,607 13,197 12,703 4.1 3.3 4.1 3.8

North Dakota

407,354 408,551 406,864 407,396 10,655 6,806 9,723 6,798 2.6 1.7 2.4 1.7

Bismarck

70,497 70,582 70,124 70,148 1,665 1,127 1,481 1,109 2.4 1.6 2.1 1.6

Fargo

144,358 144,904 144,329 143,719 2,955 1,971 2,595 1,962 2.0 1.4 1.8 1.4

Grand Forks

52,732 52,291 54,155 52,820 1,273 822 1,127 797 2.4 1.6 2.1 1.5

Ohio

5,717,793 5,736,733 5,743,675 5,737,765 247,440 218,370 226,908 232,718 4.3 3.8 4.0 4.1

Akron

345,893 345,648 347,711 346,057 15,155 12,959 13,827 13,815 4.4 3.7 4.0 4.0

Canton-Massillon

192,996 192,252 193,201 192,761 8,288 7,207 7,625 7,709 4.3 3.7 3.9 4.0

Cincinnati

1,126,373 1,118,236 1,125,935 1,120,233 43,869 36,862 40,607 40,297 3.9 3.3 3.6 3.6

Cleveland-Elyria

1,011,535 1,032,348 1,020,547 1,032,673 50,607 46,681 46,454 49,893 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.8

Columbus

1,111,333 1,118,983 1,118,886 1,119,631 42,405 36,672 38,778 39,206 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.5

Dayton

381,382 379,940 382,975 380,975 16,475 14,300 15,289 15,261 4.3 3.8 4.0 4.0

Lima

47,058 46,684 46,869 46,478 2,638 1,902 2,029 2,071 5.6 4.1 4.3 4.5

Mansfield

51,067 50,929 51,288 51,101 2,447 2,103 2,214 2,266 4.8 4.1 4.3 4.4

Springfield

62,016 61,458 62,770 61,696 2,802 2,369 3,126 2,504 4.5 3.9 5.0 4.1

Toledo

294,533 298,359 295,694 300,503 13,902 12,197 12,554 12,667 4.7 4.1 4.2 4.2

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,064 49,835 50,119 49,721 2,552 2,407 2,363 2,459 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.9

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

228,802 226,079 229,093 226,120 12,250 10,073 11,369 10,419 5.4 4.5 5.0 4.6

Oklahoma

1,849,513 1,875,540 1,855,586 1,887,392 51,315 62,795 50,269 65,554 2.8 3.3 2.7 3.5

Enid

26,523 26,460 26,720 26,792 654 837 645 925 2.5 3.2 2.4 3.5

Lawton

49,901 50,187 49,967 50,349 1,555 2,050 1,508 2,104 3.1 4.1 3.0 4.2

Oklahoma City

697,476 712,729 698,651 711,995 18,197 22,115 17,547 23,294 2.6 3.1 2.5 3.3

Tulsa

480,706 492,313 479,859 490,096 13,910 16,796 14,023 17,356 2.9 3.4 2.9 3.5

Oregon

2,152,254 2,199,354 2,158,592 2,203,685 91,620 87,926 82,840 89,019 4.3 4.0 3.8 4.0

Albany

60,488 61,241 60,778 61,942 2,852 2,740 2,601 2,754 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.4

Bend-Redmond

103,049 104,832 103,207 104,894 4,164 4,058 3,827 4,103 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.9

Corvallis

47,579 48,336 48,298 49,521 1,590 1,697 1,434 1,759 3.3 3.5 3.0 3.6

Eugene

181,609 184,380 182,687 186,197 8,392 8,217 7,563 8,434 4.6 4.5 4.1 4.5

Grants Pass

36,923 37,421 37,012 37,473 1,867 1,930 1,702 1,978 5.1 5.2 4.6 5.3

Medford

107,880 108,503 108,827 108,538 4,750 4,766 4,242 4,817 4.4 4.4 3.9 4.4

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,343,042 1,386,263 1,356,097 1,396,619 57,132 51,018 51,920 51,692 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.7

Salem

211,558 212,170 210,593 211,060 8,723 8,551 7,856 8,854 4.1 4.0 3.7 4.2

Pennsylvania

6,381,131 6,470,848 6,398,735 6,498,553 352,307 222,503 340,176 217,131 5.5 3.4 5.3 3.3

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

446,062 458,844 452,282 462,264 24,583 15,175 23,781 14,864 5.5 3.3 5.3 3.2

Altoona

58,774 59,746 58,845 59,869 2,982 1,919 2,949 1,887 5.1 3.2 5.0 3.2

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,066 42,161 42,453 42,492 1,956 1,343 1,965 1,352 4.6 3.2 4.6 3.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,579 77,161 76,854 78,245 3,338 2,111 3,250 2,122 4.4 2.7 4.2 2.7

East Stroudsburg

81,282 82,572 81,632 82,544 5,658 4,053 5,411 3,888 7.0 4.9 6.6 4.7

Erie

125,517 127,440 125,718 127,721 7,617 4,890 7,407 4,755 6.1 3.8 5.9 3.7

Gettysburg

54,232 55,170 54,867 55,911 2,018 1,287 1,975 1,266 3.7 2.3 3.6 2.3

Harrisburg-Carlisle

300,299 310,347 301,697 312,835 14,143 8,693 13,703 8,543 4.7 2.8 4.5 2.7

Johnstown

55,303 55,586 55,228 55,869 3,302 2,169 3,204 2,110 6.0 3.9 5.8 3.8

Lancaster

284,490 285,981 285,869 288,039 12,212 7,506 11,827 7,337 4.3 2.6 4.1 2.5

Lebanon

72,261 74,118 72,643 75,186 3,389 2,037 3,251 1,973 4.7 2.7 4.5 2.6

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,140,504 3,197,198 3,154,818 3,218,083 176,567 108,527 166,415 108,638 5.6 3.4 5.3 3.4

Pittsburgh

1,174,900 1,188,280 1,172,082 1,191,679 64,982 40,568 62,103 39,959 5.5 3.4 5.3 3.4

Reading

209,750 211,139 210,470 212,270 12,078 7,299 11,861 7,148 5.8 3.5 5.6 3.4

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

271,487 275,874 273,891 276,617 17,961 11,616 17,325 11,216 6.6 4.2 6.3 4.1

State College

76,947 77,837 77,909 78,694 2,957 2,011 2,922 1,960 3.8 2.6 3.8 2.5

Williamsport

54,705 54,797 54,477 55,007 3,163 1,994 3,067 1,931 5.8 3.6 5.6 3.5

York-Hanover

232,925 239,179 234,272 239,814 10,937 6,804 10,550 6,630 4.7 2.8 4.5 2.8

Rhode Island

573,898 581,608 570,921 577,410 27,325 19,232 23,649 18,909 4.8 3.3 4.1 3.3

Providence-Warwick

707,628 712,732 705,036 709,375 34,647 23,953 30,481 23,444 4.9 3.4 4.3 3.3

South Carolina

2,353,513 2,376,277 2,369,070 2,384,051 78,136 71,892 79,132 84,605 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.5

Charleston-North Charleston

394,940 408,854 397,958 409,868 11,534 10,890 11,872 12,757 2.9 2.7 3.0 3.1

Columbia

396,276 395,998 399,760 396,043 12,358 11,466 12,339 13,497 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.4

Florence

95,541 92,971 95,866 93,159 3,348 2,980 3,328 3,433 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.7

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

430,670 439,707 434,026 442,783 12,415 11,820 12,732 14,076 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.2

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,530 88,821 88,861 88,984 2,421 2,506 2,531 2,938 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.3

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

204,602 207,052 204,478 206,922 8,688 7,620 8,938 9,030 4.2 3.7 4.4 4.4

Spartanburg

166,234 168,060 167,617 168,856 5,738 5,003 5,731 5,997 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.6

Sumter

42,097 40,716 42,179 40,871 1,636 1,499 1,639 1,769 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.3

South Dakota

469,261 476,621 472,696 479,117 11,782 8,659 12,453 10,129 2.5 1.8 2.6 2.1

Rapid City

78,121 79,053 76,980 78,834 2,068 1,520 2,171 1,732 2.6 1.9 2.8 2.2

Sioux Falls

158,762 164,345 159,887 164,219 3,495 2,541 3,657 2,958 2.2 1.5 2.3 1.8

Tennessee

3,320,544 3,337,582 3,338,461 3,334,925 119,452 101,424 111,419 115,497 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.5

Chattanooga

275,090 272,715 277,220 273,322 8,467 7,691 8,386 9,040 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.3

Clarksville

118,256 118,586 119,743 118,103 5,039 4,263 4,804 4,780 4.3 3.6 4.0 4.0

Cleveland

57,032 56,694 57,442 56,587 1,915 1,739 1,841 2,020 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.6

Jackson

64,023 63,221 64,166 63,386 2,312 1,877 2,094 2,210 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.5

Johnson City

92,312 92,404 92,864 92,701 2,936 2,780 2,820 3,199 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.5

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

132,918 132,668 133,585 132,769 4,554 3,991 4,225 4,564 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.4

Knoxville

432,394 441,307 435,897 440,253 12,232 11,711 11,825 13,632 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.1

Memphis

637,045 640,681 638,195 636,296 33,437 26,559 30,746 28,405 5.2 4.1 4.8 4.5

Morristown

52,222 52,736 52,712 52,728 1,766 1,615 1,726 1,910 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.6

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,100,348 1,124,903 1,108,278 1,127,395 33,764 27,222 30,908 30,854 3.1 2.4 2.8 2.7

Texas

14,257,887 14,538,098 14,309,311 14,631,154 721,589 556,395 685,248 549,764 5.1 3.8 4.8 3.8

Abilene

79,216 78,736 79,447 78,802 3,239 2,529 3,138 2,563 4.1 3.2 3.9 3.3

Amarillo

133,201 132,267 134,239 133,410 4,683 3,668 4,487 3,786 3.5 2.8 3.3 2.8

Austin-Round Rock

1,318,975 1,353,993 1,332,740 1,366,158 47,420 38,077 45,278 38,558 3.6 2.8 3.4 2.8

Beaumont-Port Arthur

164,549 164,615 164,505 165,233 14,092 10,360 13,174 9,690 8.6 6.3 8.0 5.9

Brownsville-Harlingen

174,751 174,068 173,622 174,100 12,684 10,089 12,043 9,686 7.3 5.8 6.9 5.6

College Station-Bryan

137,183 138,021 139,251 140,828 5,203 4,234 5,053 4,312 3.8 3.1 3.6 3.1

Corpus Christi

201,609 201,228 201,824 202,583 13,189 9,991 12,446 9,643 6.5 5.0 6.2 4.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,110,367 4,253,726 4,135,168 4,293,893 185,253 144,620 175,399 144,238 4.5 3.4 4.2 3.4

El Paso

366,243 362,425 367,461 364,187 20,135 15,771 19,466 15,707 5.5 4.4 5.3 4.3

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,431,659 3,520,622 3,438,117 3,541,896 196,116 148,352 185,957 144,620 5.7 4.2 5.4 4.1

Killeen-Temple

180,796 181,483 181,944 182,716 9,455 7,702 9,131 7,741 5.2 4.2 5.0 4.2

Laredo

116,630 117,443 116,940 117,803 6,393 4,440 6,171 4,452 5.5 3.8 5.3 3.8

Longview

96,432 95,884 96,252 96,527 5,394 4,094 5,210 4,070 5.6 4.3 5.4 4.2

Lubbock

166,015 167,564 166,546 168,000 6,668 5,227 6,397 5,291 4.0 3.1 3.8 3.1

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

365,552 369,210 364,635 368,521 30,013 24,608 28,072 22,555 8.2 6.7 7.7 6.1

Midland

102,887 103,820 102,899 104,155 5,020 3,119 4,733 3,070 4.9 3.0 4.6 2.9

Odessa

80,564 80,671 80,586 81,006 5,630 3,493 5,328 3,398 7.0 4.3 6.6 4.2

San Angelo

54,564 54,401 54,743 54,523 2,427 1,773 2,314 1,799 4.4 3.3 4.2 3.3

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,213,262 1,231,098 1,216,586 1,242,253 56,668 43,600 53,812 43,796 4.7 3.5 4.4 3.5

Sherman-Denison

65,847 66,975 66,014 67,332 2,816 2,293 2,653 2,292 4.3 3.4 4.0 3.4

Texarkana

63,036 63,542 63,173 63,762 2,955 2,729 2,759 2,510 4.7 4.3 4.4 3.9

Tyler

109,737 111,165 110,633 112,009 5,074 3,936 4,823 3,973 4.6 3.5 4.4 3.5

Victoria

44,098 43,679 44,201 43,892 2,544 1,842 2,433 1,829 5.8 4.2 5.5 4.2

Waco

129,771 131,074 130,481 131,506 5,715 4,425 5,453 4,488 4.4 3.4 4.2 3.4

Wichita Falls

63,988 63,865 63,578 64,138 2,956 2,263 2,806 2,303 4.6 3.5 4.4 3.6

Utah

1,687,530 1,746,590 1,694,988 1,753,847 34,707 32,509 33,968 35,708 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0

Logan

77,010 79,628 77,747 80,538 1,181 1,262 1,228 1,412 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.8

Ogden-Clearfield

343,768 354,898 344,906 355,851 6,849 6,501 6,686 7,149 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.0

Provo-Orem

341,296 359,291 344,487 360,398 6,010 6,103 6,052 6,823 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9

St. George

84,524 87,792 84,595 88,088 1,860 1,746 1,795 1,850 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1

Salt Lake City

692,321 709,533 695,530 714,010 14,960 13,574 14,399 14,811 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.1

Vermont

327,455 335,294 328,015 334,772 9,658 6,962 7,088 6,076 2.9 2.1 2.2 1.8

Burlington-South Burlington

120,931 125,739 121,514 126,299 3,157 2,231 2,297 1,959 2.6 1.8 1.9 1.6

Virginia

4,236,658 4,339,420 4,264,078 4,371,251 143,288 111,132 130,088 120,308 3.4 2.6 3.1 2.8

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

91,862 94,407 92,833 94,748 2,675 2,249 2,451 2,578 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.7

Charlottesville

116,698 118,216 118,087 120,007 3,539 2,751 3,182 3,081 3.0 2.3 2.7 2.6

Harrisonburg

65,891 65,939 66,834 67,281 1,898 1,648 1,832 1,863 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.8

Lynchburg

117,246 119,722 117,997 120,755 4,166 3,438 3,927 3,752 3.6 2.9 3.3 3.1

Richmond

662,697 669,410 663,134 673,603 24,583 19,029 22,443 20,150 3.7 2.8 3.4 3.0

Roanoke

151,410 152,428 152,013 153,028 5,118 3,902 5,009 4,247 3.4 2.6 3.3 2.8

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,293 59,231 58,687 59,902 1,794 1,399 1,550 1,514 3.1 2.4 2.6 2.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

824,172 838,890 821,560 839,136 33,081 24,887 30,491 26,426 4.0 3.0 3.7 3.1

Winchester

74,208 75,164 75,341 76,169 1,932 1,631 1,872 1,822 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.4

Washington

3,943,513 4,005,274 3,958,555 4,024,508 180,502 142,631 164,713 147,097 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.7

Bellingham

113,652 114,942 116,079 116,524 5,966 4,530 5,445 4,707 5.2 3.9 4.7 4.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,807 127,860 130,238 130,810 5,668 4,582 5,341 4,827 4.4 3.6 4.1 3.7

Kennewick-Richland

150,336 152,678 150,895 153,050 7,562 6,037 6,919 6,237 5.0 4.0 4.6 4.1

Longview

48,000 48,791 48,890 49,670 2,744 2,288 2,496 2,393 5.7 4.7 5.1 4.8

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,435 62,473 63,153 62,682 3,370 2,542 3,151 2,650 5.4 4.1 5.0 4.2

Olympia-Tumwater

145,572 144,544 147,949 147,152 6,575 5,422 6,172 5,722 4.5 3.8 4.2 3.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,174,649 2,228,198 2,170,086 2,228,514 93,821 72,123 84,073 73,597 4.3 3.2 3.9 3.3

Spokane-Spokane Valley

285,582 288,198 291,459 290,802 13,330 10,927 12,282 11,239 4.7 3.8 4.2 3.9

Walla Walla

34,149 33,383 34,949 34,471 1,327 1,127 1,234 1,143 3.9 3.4 3.5 3.3

Wenatchee

69,098 68,149 68,032 67,856 2,860 2,263 2,704 2,395 4.1 3.3 4.0 3.5

Yakima

138,579 139,081 136,468 137,157 7,194 6,085 6,727 6,403 5.2 4.4 4.9 4.7

West Virginia

793,178 793,334 795,132 795,294 30,377 25,367 28,468 26,512 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.3

Beckley

46,419 46,772 46,440 47,046 1,913 1,523 1,796 1,617 4.1 3.3 3.9 3.4

Charleston

91,475 90,900 91,053 91,057 3,744 2,985 3,457 3,047 4.1 3.3 3.8 3.3

Huntington-Ashland

144,695 143,796 145,582 144,057 6,193 5,142 5,862 5,541 4.3 3.6 4.0 3.8

Morgantown

72,611 74,068 73,364 75,018 2,436 1,969 2,291 2,086 3.4 2.7 3.1 2.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,754 39,374 38,840 39,579 1,552 1,330 1,452 1,394 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.5

Wheeling

61,140 61,601 61,519 61,737 2,756 2,463 2,550 2,540 4.5 4.0 4.1 4.1

Wisconsin

3,140,602 3,089,120 3,140,634 3,067,625 94,729 97,806 84,447 86,430 3.0 3.2 2.7 2.8

Appleton

132,669 131,208 133,118 131,125 3,201 3,503 2,898 3,004 2.4 2.7 2.2 2.3

Eau Claire

94,087 92,027 94,031 91,566 2,390 2,616 2,156 2,256 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.5

Fond du Lac

57,379 56,400 57,607 56,048 1,447 1,554 1,290 1,341 2.5 2.8 2.2 2.4

Green Bay

174,417 172,037 174,751 171,869 4,753 5,058 4,281 4,441 2.7 2.9 2.4 2.6

Janesville-Beloit

86,915 85,426 86,990 84,993 3,335 3,149 2,973 2,874 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.4

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,934 76,864 78,210 76,513 1,802 1,947 1,612 1,673 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.2

Madison

400,611 397,723 401,458 396,109 9,322 10,245 8,425 8,762 2.3 2.6 2.1 2.2

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

826,514 812,856 824,164 806,934 30,879 29,658 27,122 26,788 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.3

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,328 92,008 93,489 91,834 2,418 2,644 2,185 2,296 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.5

Racine

99,074 96,641 98,607 95,652 3,858 3,669 3,355 3,287 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.4

Sheboygan

62,333 61,763 62,404 61,391 1,592 1,718 1,408 1,488 2.6 2.8 2.3 2.4

Wausau

74,385 72,679 74,359 72,295 1,743 1,993 1,564 1,651 2.3 2.7 2.1 2.3

Wyoming

290,526 291,962 290,544 290,043 9,980 8,963 10,124 9,256 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.2

Casper

38,460 38,364 38,953 38,366 1,802 1,436 1,798 1,444 4.7 3.7 4.6 3.8

Cheyenne

49,002 49,426 49,518 49,365 1,579 1,526 1,569 1,556 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2

Puerto Rico

1,191,047 - 1,189,113 1,186,327 94,713 - 84,952 76,981 8.0 - 7.1 6.5

Aguadilla-Isabela

95,103 - 94,744 94,426 9,116 - 8,163 8,315 9.6 - 8.6 8.8

Arecibo

57,986 - 57,817 57,379 4,606 - 4,244 4,275 7.9 - 7.3 7.5

Guayama

21,453 - 21,349 21,280 1,836 - 1,661 1,678 8.6 - 7.8 7.9

Mayaguez

30,065 - 30,006 29,640 2,655 - 2,417 2,171 8.8 - 8.1 7.3

Ponce

101,406 - 100,711 100,570 9,994 - 8,976 8,940 9.9 - 8.9 8.9

San German

38,586 - 38,495 38,114 3,798 - 3,370 3,278 9.8 - 8.8 8.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

799,865 - 799,470 799,587 57,717 - 51,657 44,159 7.2 - 6.5 5.5

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
September October Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) September October September October
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

California

19,040,914 19,285,852 19,083,729 19,213,495 1,166,742 719,106 1,109,420 726,345 6.1 3.7 5.8 3.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,580,001 6,546,960 6,570,413 6,503,822 459,838 265,168 428,409 262,917 7.0 4.1 6.5 4.0

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,565,101 1,603,817 1,569,849 1,604,026 77,478 43,912 73,329 44,278 5.0 2.7 4.7 2.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,014,900 4,943,143 5,000,564 4,899,796 382,360 221,256 355,080 218,639 7.6 4.5 7.1 4.5

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,480,671 2,549,885 2,491,593 2,547,281 113,842 65,171 108,464 66,195 4.6 2.6 4.4 2.6

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,360,041 1,385,760 1,363,931 1,385,034 70,408 41,110 67,339 41,889 5.2 3.0 4.9 3.0

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

990,490 1,034,054 996,644 1,032,992 38,751 21,231 36,647 21,406 3.9 2.1 3.7 2.1

San Rafael

130,140 130,071 131,018 129,255 4,683 2,830 4,478 2,900 3.6 2.2 3.4 2.2

District of Columbia

383,024 376,477 384,506 371,734 25,051 17,189 23,819 17,229 6.5 4.6 6.2 4.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,343,964 3,354,075 3,364,318 3,372,771 147,875 103,315 137,192 110,782 4.4 3.1 4.1 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

681,424 682,682 685,286 685,320 33,959 23,288 32,126 24,835 5.0 3.4 4.7 3.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,662,540 2,671,393 2,679,032 2,687,451 113,916 80,027 105,066 85,947 4.3 3.0 3.9 3.2

Florida

10,430,159 10,816,062 10,465,889 10,830,199 413,389 276,648 380,578 287,306 4.0 2.6 3.6 2.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,094,196 3,170,012 3,111,499 3,193,087 131,097 73,855 117,069 71,851 4.2 2.3 3.8 2.3

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,038,849 1,083,770 1,047,793 1,085,572 43,766 27,854 40,471 28,390 4.2 2.6 3.9 2.6

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,316,536 1,312,712 1,319,183 1,331,757 58,789 25,576 50,216 22,780 4.5 1.9 3.8 1.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

738,811 773,530 744,523 775,758 28,542 20,425 26,382 20,681 3.9 2.6 3.5 2.7

Illinois

6,321,229 6,412,757 6,359,118 6,401,123 320,836 283,304 306,608 277,140 5.1 4.4 4.8 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,790,371 4,888,248 4,835,640 4,888,666 243,644 217,347 236,209 210,425 5.1 4.4 4.9 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,696,305 3,775,458 3,742,660 3,781,670 195,291 176,768 192,712 167,763 5.3 4.7 5.1 4.4

Elgin

313,825 319,290 313,504 316,031 15,451 12,956 14,047 13,351 4.9 4.1 4.5 4.2

Gary(3)

323,810 330,193 324,493 332,548 13,524 10,854 11,944 12,489 4.2 3.3 3.7 3.8

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

456,431 463,307 454,983 458,417 19,378 16,769 17,506 16,822 4.2 3.6 3.8 3.7

Massachusetts

3,731,317 3,698,042 3,751,520 3,735,475 187,736 114,896 172,656 112,934 5.0 3.1 4.6 3.0

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,763,171 2,766,580 2,783,516 2,797,842 128,827 79,162 118,108 79,015 4.7 2.9 4.2 2.8

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,654,115 1,656,523 1,668,466 1,676,789 75,647 44,907 69,328 44,772 4.6 2.7 4.2 2.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

108,650 107,518 109,072 108,516 6,571 4,057 5,943 3,845 6.0 3.8 5.4 3.5

Framingham

155,514 155,173 156,972 156,653 6,287 3,881 5,803 3,896 4.0 2.5 3.7 2.5

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

116,148 116,308 116,692 117,451 4,808 3,220 4,432 3,361 4.1 2.8 3.8 2.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,308 98,508 99,800 99,343 6,887 4,360 6,319 4,186 6.9 4.4 6.3 4.2

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

194,522 195,334 195,991 198,162 9,172 5,782 8,425 5,769 4.7 3.0 4.3 2.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,188 83,603 85,625 84,461 5,169 3,100 4,722 2,914 6.1 3.7 5.5 3.5

Nashua(2)

173,329 179,971 173,453 180,654 5,283 4,311 4,838 4,798 3.0 2.4 2.8 2.7

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

91,192 89,667 91,757 91,131 4,544 2,711 4,157 2,698 5.0 3.0 4.5 3.0

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

85,205 83,975 85,688 84,682 4,459 2,833 4,141 2,776 5.2 3.4 4.8 3.3

Michigan

4,788,645 4,867,403 4,792,896 4,832,807 248,178 179,272 214,642 178,126 5.2 3.7 4.5 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,135,687 2,124,087 2,142,711 2,125,126 121,417 69,017 107,032 70,187 5.7 3.2 5.0 3.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

803,307 792,005 809,328 794,402 58,915 31,695 52,466 32,918 7.3 4.0 6.5 4.1

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,332,380 1,332,082 1,333,385 1,330,722 62,502 37,322 54,567 37,268 4.7 2.8 4.1 2.8

New York

9,405,294 9,504,179 9,389,814 9,534,240 538,989 366,569 501,954 342,122 5.7 3.9 5.3 3.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,948,781 10,026,240 9,962,374 10,112,931 620,028 371,715 567,134 370,046 6.2 3.7 5.7 3.7

Dutchess County-Putnam County

191,553 197,279 191,647 197,743 7,057 5,473 6,540 4,378 3.7 2.8 3.4 2.2

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,484,092 1,537,613 1,483,452 1,539,538 55,256 41,959 50,854 33,835 3.7 2.7 3.4 2.2

Newark(3)

1,265,650 1,278,332 1,273,212 1,298,489 72,594 36,389 64,078 38,408 5.7 2.8 5.0 3.0

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,007,486 7,013,016 7,014,063 7,077,161 485,121 287,894 445,662 293,425 6.9 4.1 6.4 4.1

Pennsylvania

6,381,131 6,470,848 6,398,735 6,498,553 352,307 222,503 340,176 217,131 5.5 3.4 5.3 3.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,140,504 3,197,198 3,154,818 3,218,083 176,567 108,527 166,415 108,638 5.6 3.4 5.3 3.4

Camden(3)

662,727 681,179 667,294 690,860 36,069 18,652 31,816 19,769 5.4 2.7 4.8 2.9

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,080,658 1,102,482 1,083,417 1,108,147 46,397 29,670 44,979 29,322 4.3 2.7 4.2 2.6

Philadelphia

1,016,798 1,027,815 1,018,310 1,029,880 74,917 46,013 71,346 44,135 7.4 4.5 7.0 4.3

Wilmington(3)

380,321 385,722 385,797 389,196 19,184 14,192 18,274 15,412 5.0 3.7 4.7 4.0

Texas

14,257,887 14,538,098 14,309,311 14,631,154 721,589 556,395 685,248 549,764 5.1 3.8 4.8 3.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,110,367 4,253,726 4,135,168 4,293,893 185,253 144,620 175,399 144,238 4.5 3.4 4.2 3.4

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,785,072 2,894,638 2,801,992 2,918,774 123,970 97,094 117,285 96,992 4.5 3.4 4.2 3.3

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,325,295 1,359,088 1,333,176 1,375,119 61,283 47,526 58,114 47,246 4.6 3.5 4.4 3.4

Washington

3,943,513 4,005,274 3,958,555 4,024,508 180,502 142,631 164,713 147,097 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,174,649 2,228,198 2,170,086 2,228,514 93,821 72,123 84,073 73,597 4.3 3.2 3.9 3.3

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,725,444 1,779,901 1,717,443 1,774,165 69,456 53,150 61,843 53,981 4.0 3.0 3.6 3.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

449,205 448,297 452,643 454,349 24,365 18,973 22,230 19,616 5.4 4.2 4.9 4.3

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area September October October 2021 to October 2022(p)
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) Level change Percent change

Alabama

2,038.3 2,094.2 2,064.7 2,111.3 46.6 2.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.2 47.1 46.4 47.4 1.0 2.2

Auburn-Opelika

67.0 69.2 67.8 69.3 1.5 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

534.6 557.3 544.6 558.9 14.3 2.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

80.9 81.2 81.4 81.9 0.5 0.6

Decatur

56.6 58.1 57.1 58.3 1.2 2.1

Dothan

59.4 60.8 59.9 61.2 1.3 2.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

55.9 57.2 56.4 57.5 1.1 2.0

Gadsden

33.2 34.1 33.6 34.3 0.7 2.1

Huntsville

250.9 257.9 254.1 259.5 5.4 2.1

Mobile

185.6 185.5 187.2 187.7 0.5 0.3

Montgomery

173.5 178.0 175.3 178.7 3.4 1.9

Tuscaloosa

106.6 109.2 107.1 109.7 2.6 2.4


Alaska

320.5 329.3 310.9 318.3 7.4 2.4

Anchorage

172.4 180.3 170.5 178.4 7.9 4.6

Fairbanks

36.5 37.8 36.3 37.5 1.2 3.3


Arizona