Sources and footnotes for tables
Last Modified Date: June 04, 2020
SOURCES: Output data are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Census Bureau of
the U.S. Department of Commerce; the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor;
and the Federal Reserve Board. Hours and compensation data are from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
RELIABILITY: Productivity and cost measures are regularly revised as more complete
information becomes available. The measures are first published within 40 days of the close of
the reference period; revisions appear 30 days later, and second revisions after an additional 60
days. In the business sector, the third publication (second revision) of a quarterly index of output
per hour of all persons has differed from the initial value by between -1.4 and 1.4 index points
approximately 95 percent of the time. This interval is based on the performance of this measure
between the fourth quarter of 1995 and the fourth quarter of 2019.
(1) Wages and salaries of employees plus employers' contributions for social insurance and
private benefit plans. Except for nonfinancial corporations, where there are no self-employed,
data also include an estimate of wages, salaries, and supplemental payments for the self-
(2) The change for recent quarters is based on the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers
(CPI-U). The trend from 1978-2019 is based on the Consumer Price Index research series (CPI-
(3) Unit nonlabor payments include profits, consumption of fixed capital, taxes on production
and imports less subsidies, net interest and miscellaneous payments, business current transfer
payments, rental income of persons, and the current surplus of government enterprises.
(4) Current dollar output divided by the output index.
(5) Quarterly changes: Percent change compounded at annual rate is calculated using index
numbers to three decimal places. Indexes published in the news release are rounded to one
decimal place for convenience. Annual changes: Percent change is calculated using annual
indexes to three decimal places.
(6) Unit nonlabor costs include consumption of fixed capital, taxes on production and imports
less subsidies, net interest and miscellaneous payments, and business current transfer payments.
(7) Total unit costs are the sum of unit labor and nonlabor costs.
(8) Unit profits include corporate profits before tax with inventory valuation and capital