State Unemployment (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 27, 2018                         USDL-18-0297

Technical information:  (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
Media contact:  	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             REGIONAL AND STATE UNEMPLOYMENT -- 2017 ANNUAL AVERAGES


In 2017, annual average unemployment rates decreased in 32 states and were little changed 
or unchanged in 18 states and the District of Columbia, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Employment-population ratios increased in 12 states, decreased in 2 states, 
and were little changed or unchanged in 36 states and the District. The U.S. jobless rate 
declined by 0.5 percentage point from the prior year to 4.4 percent, and the national 
employment-population ratio rose by 0.4 point to 60.1 percent.

Regional Unemployment

All four census regions had unemployment rate decreases from 2016: the Midwest, South, and 
West (-0.6 percentage point each) and the Northeast (-0.3 point). The Midwest had the lowest 
jobless rate, 4.1 percent in 2017. No other region had a rate significantly different from 
that of the U.S. The West recorded the lowest unemployment rate in its series, 4.5 percent. 
(All region, division, and state series begin in 1976. See table 1.)

All nine geographic divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate declines in 2017. The largest 
of these occurred in the East South Central (-0.9 percentage point). The lowest jobless rate 
was in the West North Central, 3.4 percent, followed by the New England and Mountain divisions 
(3.8 percent and 4.1 percent, respectively). The highest rates were in the Middle Atlantic and 
Pacific (4.7 percent each). The remaining four divisions had rates that were not significantly 
different from that of the U.S. The Pacific recorded the lowest unemployment rate in its series, 
4.7 percent.


   _________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                 |
  |            Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data                   |
  |                                                                                 |
  | Effective with this news release, the civilian labor force and unemployment     |
  | data for census regions and divisions, the states and the District of Columbia, |
  | and the modeled substate areas were revised to incorporate updated inputs,      |
  | new population controls, reestimation of models, and adjustment to new control  |
  | totals. In addition, a new procedure for seasonally adjusting the data was      |
  | implemented. While the not seasonally adjusted data were revised from 2013      |
  | forward, the seasonally adjusted data were revised back to 1976. Information    |
  | on the new seasonal adjustment procedure is available at                        |
  | www.bls.gov/lau/ssachanges2018.htm.                                             |
  |_________________________________________________________________________________|


State Unemployment

Thirty-two states had statistically significant unemployment rate decreases in 2017. The largest 
decline occurred in Alabama (-1.5 percentage points), followed by Wyoming (-1.1 points) and 
Tennessee (-1.0 point). The remaining 18 states and the District of Columbia had annual average 
jobless rates in 2017 that were not appreciably different from those of the previous year, though 
some had changes that were at least as large numerically as the significant changes. (See table A.)

Hawaii and North Dakota had the lowest unemployment rates in 2017, 2.4 percent and 2.6 percent, 
respectively. Alaska had the highest jobless rate, 7.2 percent, followed by New Mexico, 6.2 
percent. The District of Columbia had a rate of 6.1 percent. Overall, 20 states had unemployment 
rates significantly lower than the U.S. figure of 4.4 percent, 12 states and the District had 
higher rates, and 18 states had rates that were not appreciably different from that of the nation. 
Seven states recorded the lowest unemployment rates in their series in 2017: Arkansas (3.7 percent), 
California (4.8 percent), Hawaii (2.4 percent), Maine (3.3 percent), North Dakota (2.6 percent), 
Oregon (4.1 percent), and Tennessee (3.7 percent). (See table B.)

Regional Employment-Population Ratios

In 2017, two census regions had statistically significant changes in their employment-population 
ratios--the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over who 
are employed--both of which were increases. These occurred in the West (+0.6 percentage point) and 
South (+0.5 point). The Midwest had the highest ratio, 62.3 percent, while the South, at 58.8 
percent, had the lowest. These two regions had the only ratios that were notably different from 
the national figure of 60.1 percent. (See table 2.)

Four of the 9 geographic divisions had increases in their employment-population ratios from 2016 
to 2017: the East South Central and South Atlantic (+0.7 percentage point each) and the Mountain 
and Pacific (+0.6 point each). The remaining five divisions experienced little or no change in 
their ratios. The division with the highest employment-population ratio in 2017 was the West North 
Central, 65.2 percent, followed by New England, 63.2 percent. These two divisions, along with the 
Mountain and East North Central, at 61.2 percent and 61.1 percent, respectively, had employment-
population ratios significantly above that of the U.S. The East South Central had the lowest 
proportion of employed persons, 55.9 percent. The ratios in the Middle Atlantic (59.0 percent) 
and South Atlantic (59.2 percent) also were appreciably below the national average.

State Employment-Population Ratios

In 2017, the largest employment-population ratio increase among the states occurred in Colorado 
(+1.3 percentage points), followed by Georgia and Tennessee (+1.1 points each). Nine other states 
also had significant increases in their ratios. Two states had over-the-year decreases in their 
employment-population ratios: Nebraska (-0.5 percentage point) and New Hampshire (-0.4 point). The 
remaining 36 states and the District of Columbia had ratios that were not appreciably different 
from those of the previous year, though some had changes that were at least as large numerically 
as the significant changes. (See table C.)

North Dakota had the highest proportion of employed persons, 69.6 percent in 2017. The next highest 
ratios were in Minnesota, 67.8 percent, and Utah, 67.2 percent. West Virginia had the lowest 
employment-population ratio among the states, 50.5 percent. (West Virginia has had the lowest 
employment-population ratio each year since the series began in 1976.) Overall, 24 states and the 
District of Columbia had employment-population ratios significantly higher than the U.S. ratio of 
60.1 percent and 16 states had ratios that were below it. Alaska had the lowest employment-population
ratio in its series, 61.6 percent. (See table D.)

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2018 is scheduled to be released 
on Monday, March 12, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment 
news release for January 2018 is scheduled to be released on Friday, March 16, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. 
(EDT).


Table A.  States with statistically significant unemployment rate changes, 
2016-17 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Rate           |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            |  rate change  
                                |    2016    |    2017    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Alabama ........................|     5.9    |     4.4    |      -1.5
Arizona ........................|     5.4    |     4.9    |       -.5
California .....................|     5.5    |     4.8    |       -.7
Colorado .......................|     3.3    |     2.8    |       -.5
Florida ........................|     4.8    |     4.2    |       -.6
Georgia ........................|     5.4    |     4.7    |       -.7
Hawaii .........................|     2.9    |     2.4    |       -.5
Idaho ..........................|     3.8    |     3.2    |       -.6
Illinois .......................|     5.8    |     5.0    |       -.8
Indiana ........................|     4.4    |     3.5    |       -.9
                                |            |            |
Iowa ...........................|     3.6    |     3.1    |       -.5
Kansas .........................|     4.0    |     3.6    |       -.4
Louisiana ......................|     6.0    |     5.1    |       -.9
Maine ..........................|     3.8    |     3.3    |       -.5
Minnesota ......................|     3.9    |     3.5    |       -.4
Mississippi ....................|     5.8    |     5.1    |       -.7
Missouri .......................|     4.6    |     3.8    |       -.8
Nevada .........................|     5.7    |     5.0    |       -.7
New Mexico .....................|     6.7    |     6.2    |       -.5
North Carolina .................|     5.1    |     4.6    |       -.5
                                |            |            |
North Dakota ...................|     3.1    |     2.6    |       -.5
Oklahoma .......................|     4.8    |     4.3    |       -.5
Oregon .........................|     4.8    |     4.1    |       -.7
Pennsylvania ...................|     5.4    |     4.9    |       -.5
Rhode Island ...................|     5.2    |     4.5    |       -.7
South Carolina .................|     5.0    |     4.3    |       -.7
Tennessee ......................|     4.7    |     3.7    |      -1.0
Texas ..........................|     4.6    |     4.3    |       -.3
Washington .....................|     5.3    |     4.8    |       -.5
West Virginia ..................|     6.1    |     5.2    |       -.9
Wisconsin ......................|     4.0    |     3.3    |       -.7
Wyoming ........................|     5.3    |     4.2    |      -1.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table B.  States with unemployment rates significantly different
from that of the U.S., 2017 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Rate
--------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           4.4
                                     |
Alaska ..............................|           7.2
Arizona .............................|           4.9
Arkansas ............................|           3.7
California ..........................|           4.8
Colorado ............................|           2.8
District of Columbia ................|           6.1
Hawaii ..............................|           2.4
Idaho ...............................|           3.2
Illinois ............................|           5.0
Indiana .............................|           3.5
                                     |
Iowa ................................|           3.1
Kansas ..............................|           3.6
Louisiana ...........................|           5.1
Maine ...............................|           3.3
Massachusetts .......................|           3.7
Minnesota ...........................|           3.5
Mississippi .........................|           5.1
Missouri ............................|           3.8
Nebraska ............................|           2.9
Nevada ..............................|           5.0
                                     |
New Hampshire .......................|           2.7
New Mexico ..........................|           6.2
New York ............................|           4.7
North Dakota ........................|           2.6
Ohio ................................|           5.0
Pennsylvania ........................|           4.9
South Dakota ........................|           3.3
Tennessee ...........................|           3.7
Utah ................................|           3.2
Vermont .............................|           3.0
                                     |
Virginia ............................|           3.8
West Virginia .......................|           5.2
Wisconsin ...........................|           3.3
--------------------------------------------------------------


Table C.  States with statistically significant employment-population 
ratio changes, 2016-17 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Ratio          |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            | ratio change  
                                |    2016    |    2017    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Alabama ........................|    53.7    |    54.1    |       0.4
Arizona ........................|    57.0    |    57.7    |        .7
California .....................|    58.8    |    59.4    |        .6
Colorado .......................|    64.9    |    66.2    |       1.3
Florida ........................|    56.3    |    57.1    |        .8
Georgia ........................|    59.1    |    60.2    |       1.1
Kentucky .......................|    55.2    |    56.2    |       1.0
Maryland .......................|    64.2    |    64.8    |        .6
Nebraska .......................|    67.2    |    66.7    |       -.5
New Hampshire ..................|    66.5    |    66.1    |       -.4
                                |            |            |
Oregon .........................|    59.6    |    60.6    |       1.0
Tennessee ......................|    57.3    |    58.4    |       1.1
Utah ...........................|    66.5    |    67.2    |        .7
Washington .....................|    60.2    |    60.9    |        .7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table D.  States with employment-population ratios significantly
different from that of the U.S., 2017 annual averages
----------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Ratio          
----------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           60.1
                                     |
Alabama .............................|           54.1
Alaska ..............................|           61.6
Arizona .............................|           57.7
Arkansas ............................|           56.1
California ..........................|           59.4
Colorado ............................|           66.2
Connecticut .........................|           63.3
District of Columbia ................|           66.1
Florida .............................|           57.1
Idaho ...............................|           62.0
                                     |
Illinois ............................|           61.3
Indiana .............................|           61.8
Iowa ................................|           66.2
Kansas ..............................|           64.2
Kentucky ............................|           56.2
Louisiana ...........................|           55.7
Maine ...............................|           61.5
Maryland ............................|           64.8
Massachusetts .......................|           63.1
Michigan ............................|           58.6
                                     |
Minnesota ...........................|           67.8
Mississippi .........................|           53.1
Missouri ............................|           61.4
Nebraska ............................|           66.7
New Hampshire .......................|           66.1
New Mexico ..........................|           53.9
New York ............................|           58.0
North Carolina ......................|           58.7
North Dakota ........................|           69.6
Oklahoma ............................|           58.6
                                     |
Rhode Island ........................|           61.5
South Carolina ......................|           56.1
South Dakota ........................|           66.7
Tennessee ...........................|           58.4
Texas ...............................|           61.0
Utah ................................|           67.2
Vermont .............................|           64.9
Virginia ............................|           62.8
West Virginia .......................|           50.5
Wisconsin ...........................|           66.4
Wyoming .............................|           62.7
----------------------------------------------------------------




Technical Note

This release presents labor force and unemployment data for census regions 
and divisions and states from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) 
program. The LAUS program is a federal-state cooperative endeavor.

Concepts

Definitions. The labor force and unemployment data are based on the same 
concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates 
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of 
households that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by 
the U.S. Census Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed and unemployed 
persons on a place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the civilian 
noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are 
those who did any work at all for pay or profit in the reference week (the 
week including the 12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without 
pay in a family business or farm, plus those not working who had a job from 
which they were temporarily absent, whether or not paid, for such reasons 
as labor management dispute, illness, or vacation. Unemployed persons are 
those who were not employed during the reference week (based on the 
definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for 
work; persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to 
be counted as unemployed. The labor force is the sum of employed and 
unemployed persons. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed 
expressed as a percent of the labor force. The employment-population ratio 
is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of 
age and older that is employed.

Method of estimation. Estimates for 48 of the 50 states, the District of 
Columbia, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, New 
York City, and the balances of California and New York State are produced 
using estimating equations based on regression techniques. This method 
utilizes data from several sources, including the CPS, the Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey of nonfarm payroll employment, and 
state unemployment insurance (UI) programs. Estimates for the State of 
California are derived by summing the estimates for the Los Angeles-Long 
Beach-Glendale metropolitan division and the balance of California. 
Similarly, estimates for New York State are derived by summing the 
estimates for New York City and the balance of New York State. Estimates 
for all nine census divisions are based on a similar regression approach 
that does not incorporate CES or UI data. Estimates for census regions 
are obtained by summing the model-based estimates for the component 
divisions and then calculating the unemployment rate. Each month, census 
division estimates are controlled to national totals; state estimates 
are then controlled to their respective division totals. Estimates for
Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the
CPS. A detailed description of the estimation procedures is available
from BLS upon request. 

Annual revisions. Labor force and unemployment data for prior years 
reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year. The adjusted 
estimates incorporate updated population controls from the U.S. Census 
Bureau, any revisions in the other data sources, and model re-estimation. 
The population controls reflect extrapolation from the 2010 Census. In 
most years, historical data for the most recent 5 years (both seasonally 
adjusted and not seasonally adjusted) are revised near the beginning of 
each calendar year, prior to the release of January estimates. Though 
the labor force estimates typically are updated for 5 years, the 
population estimates are revised back to the decennial estimates base 
(April 2010).

Reliability of the estimates

The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, 
administrative data, and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and 
other types of errors. Sampling error is a measure of sampling variability--
that is, variation that occurs by chance because a sample rather than 
the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to 
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data 
collection and processing operations. Estimates not directly derived 
from sample surveys are subject to additional errors resulting from the 
specific estimation processes used. In table 1, level estimates for 
states may not sum to level estimates for regions and divisions because 
of rounding. Unemployment rates and employment-population ratios are 
computed from unrounded levels and, thus, may differ slightly from rates 
and ratios computed using the rounded level estimates displayed in table 1.

Use of error measures. Changes in unemployment rates and employment-population
ratios are cited in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined
to be statistically significant. Furthermore, unemployment rates and
employment-population ratios for the latest year generally are cited only
if they have been determined to be significantly different from the corresponding
U.S. measure. The underlying model-based error measures are available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lastderr.htm. BLS uses 90-percent confidence levels in determining
whether changes in LAUS unemployment rates and employment-population ratios are
statistically significant. The average magnitude of the over-the-year change in
an annual state unemployment rate that is required in order to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level is about 0.4 percentage point. The 
average magnitude of the over-the-year change in an annual state employment-
population ratio that is required in order to be statistically significant 
at the 90-percent confidence level is about 0.6 percentage point. Measures 
of nonsampling error are not available.

Additional information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay 
Service: (800) 877-8339.




Table 1.  Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over by region, division, and state,
2016-17 annual averages
 
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                    Population      Civilian labor       Employed         Unemployed     Unemployment                
                                                        force                                                rate      Error range of
  Region, division, and state                                                                                          rate, 2017 (1)
                                                                                                                                     
                                  2016     2017     2016     2017     2016     2017      2016     2017    2016   2017                
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     

     United States.............  253,538  255,079  159,187  160,320  151,436  153,337    7,751    6,982    4.9    4.4    4.3  -  4.4

Northeast......................   45,246   45,414   28,505   28,573   27,138   27,289    1,367    1,284    4.8    4.5    4.3  -  4.7
   New England.................   11,984   12,053    7,853    7,922    7,527    7,618      326      303    4.1    3.8    3.6  -  4.1
      Connecticut..............    2,883    2,890    1,905    1,919    1,807    1,829       98       90    5.1    4.7    4.1  -  5.3
      Maine....................    1,094    1,101      692      700      666      677       26       23    3.8    3.3    2.8  -  3.8
      Massachusetts............    5,543    5,584    3,611    3,657    3,471    3,521      140      136    3.9    3.7    3.3  -  4.1
      New Hampshire............    1,091    1,100      746      747      725      727       21       20    2.9    2.7    2.3  -  3.0
      Rhode Island.............      859      862      554      555      525      530       29       25    5.2    4.5    3.8  -  5.1
      Vermont..................      514      516      345      345      333      334       11       10    3.2    3.0    2.6  -  3.4

   Middle Atlantic.............   33,262   33,362   20,652   20,651   19,611   19,671    1,041      980    5.0    4.7    4.5  -  5.0
      New Jersey...............    7,123    7,159    4,531    4,519    4,306    4,310      225      209    5.0    4.6    4.2  -  5.1
      New York.................   15,904   15,941    9,669    9,705    9,200    9,249      468      455    4.8    4.7    4.4  -  5.0
      Pennsylvania.............   10,235   10,261    6,453    6,427    6,105    6,112      348      316    5.4    4.9    4.5  -  5.3

Midwest........................   53,240   53,492   34,760   34,777   33,142   33,337    1,617    1,440    4.7    4.1    4.0  -  4.3
   East North Central..........   36,823   36,967   23,587   23,629   22,406   22,571    1,182    1,058    5.0    4.5    4.3  -  4.7
      Illinois.................   10,060   10,060    6,550    6,493    6,170    6,171      380      322    5.8    5.0    4.6  -  5.3
      Indiana..................    5,147    5,181    3,327    3,320    3,180    3,203      147      117    4.4    3.5    3.1  -  4.0
      Michigan.................    7,903    7,944    4,840    4,884    4,599    4,657      241      227    5.0    4.6    4.2  -  5.1
      Ohio.....................    9,147    9,190    5,739    5,780    5,451    5,491      288      289    5.0    5.0    4.6  -  5.4
      Wisconsin................    4,566    4,592    3,131    3,152    3,005    3,048      125      104    4.0    3.3    2.9  -  3.7

   West North Central..........   16,417   16,525   11,172   11,148   10,736   10,766      436      382    3.9    3.4    3.2  -  3.6
      Iowa.....................    2,441    2,455    1,696    1,679    1,635    1,626       61       53    3.6    3.1    2.7  -  3.6
      Kansas...................    2,211    2,219    1,485    1,479    1,425    1,425       60       54    4.0    3.6    3.2  -  4.1
      Minnesota................    4,321    4,365    3,036    3,064    2,919    2,958      117      106    3.9    3.5    3.0  -  3.9
      Missouri.................    4,756    4,781    3,080    3,051    2,939    2,936      140      115    4.6    3.8    3.3  -  4.2
      Nebraska.................    1,454    1,466    1,009    1,007      978      977       31       30    3.1    2.9    2.6  -  3.3
      North Dakota.............      581      580      414      414      402      404       13       11    3.1    2.6    2.3  -  2.9
      South Dakota.............      653      659      452      455      438      440       14       15    3.0    3.3    2.8  -  3.8

South..........................   94,960   96,155   58,207   59,139   55,364   56,581    2,843    2,558    4.9    4.3    4.2  -  4.4
   South Atlantic..............   50,409   51,104   30,993   31,600   29,487   30,236    1,505    1,364    4.9    4.3    4.1  -  4.5
      Delaware.................      757      766      474      477      452      455       21       22    4.5    4.6    4.0  -  5.2
      District of Columbia.....      563      570      395      401      371      377       24       24    6.1    6.1    5.5  -  6.6
      Florida..................   16,646   16,951    9,846   10,100    9,373    9,681      473      419    4.8    4.2    3.9  -  4.5
      Georgia..................    7,893    8,007    4,927    5,061    4,663    4,822      264      240    5.4    4.7    4.3  -  5.2
      Maryland.................    4,735    4,764    3,179    3,219    3,038    3,086      141      133    4.4    4.1    3.7  -  4.6
      North Carolina...........    7,910    8,030    4,855    4,942    4,608    4,717      247      225    5.1    4.6    4.1  -  5.0
      South Carolina...........    3,886    3,948    2,294    2,313    2,180    2,214      114       99    5.0    4.3    3.8  -  4.8
      Virginia.................    6,548    6,606    4,243    4,308    4,069    4,146      174      162    4.1    3.8    3.4  -  4.2
      West Virginia............    1,471    1,462      782      779      734      738       48       41    6.1    5.2    4.7  -  5.8

   East South Central..........   14,767   14,873    8,599    8,700    8,146    8,320      453      379    5.3    4.4    4.1  -  4.6
      Alabama..................    3,812    3,830    2,173    2,168    2,046    2,073      128       95    5.9    4.4    3.9  -  4.9
      Kentucky.................    3,457    3,476    2,012    2,052    1,909    1,952      103      100    5.1    4.9    4.3  -  5.5
      Mississippi..............    2,283    2,289    1,279    1,280    1,204    1,215       74       65    5.8    5.1    4.5  -  5.6
      Tennessee................    5,215    5,278    3,135    3,199    2,987    3,080      148      119    4.7    3.7    3.3  -  4.1

   West South Central..........   29,783   30,179   18,615   18,839   17,730   18,025      885      815    4.8    4.3    4.1  -  4.5
      Arkansas.................    2,310    2,325    1,343    1,354    1,290    1,304       53       50    3.9    3.7    3.2  -  4.1
      Louisiana................    3,590    3,595    2,126    2,112    1,997    2,004      129      108    6.0    5.1    4.6  -  5.6
      Oklahoma.................    2,985    2,997    1,829    1,834    1,741    1,756       88       79    4.8    4.3    3.8  -  4.8
      Texas....................   20,898   21,261   13,317   13,538   12,702   12,961      615      578    4.6    4.3    4.0  -  4.5

West...........................   59,674   60,443   37,450   38,100   35,539   36,387    1,911    1,712    5.1    4.5    4.3  -  4.6
   Mountain....................   18,320   18,653   11,625   11,911   11,093   11,423      531      487    4.6    4.1    3.9  -  4.3
      Arizona..................    5,357    5,462    3,226    3,313    3,053    3,151      173      161    5.4    4.9    4.4  -  5.4
      Colorado.................    4,315    4,392    2,893    2,992    2,799    2,907       94       85    3.3    2.8    2.4  -  3.2
      Idaho....................    1,271    1,302      813      833      782      807       31       26    3.8    3.2    2.8  -  3.6
      Montana..................      821      832      522      525      500      504       22       21    4.1    4.0    3.6  -  4.5
      Nevada...................    2,298    2,349    1,430    1,463    1,348    1,389       82       74    5.7    5.0    4.4  -  5.6
      New Mexico...............    1,612    1,620      929      930      867      872       62       57    6.7    6.2    5.6  -  6.7
      Utah.....................    2,195    2,248    1,511    1,561    1,459    1,510       52       51    3.4    3.2    2.9  -  3.6
      Wyoming..................      451      448      301      293      285      281       16       12    5.3    4.2    3.7  -  4.7

   Pacific.....................   41,354   41,790   25,826   26,189   24,446   24,964    1,379    1,225    5.3    4.7    4.5  -  4.9
      Alaska...................      546      547      363      363      338      337       25       26    6.9    7.2    6.5  -  7.9
      California...............   30,720   30,990   19,094   19,312   18,049   18,393    1,045      919    5.5    4.8    4.5  -  5.0
      Hawaii...................    1,094    1,096      684      685      664      669       20       16    2.9    2.4    2.0  -  2.7
      Oregon...................    3,274    3,329    2,049    2,104    1,951    2,017       98       87    4.8    4.1    3.6  -  4.6
      Washington...............    5,719    5,829    3,635    3,725    3,444    3,547      191      177    5.3    4.8    4.3  -  5.2

Puerto Rico....................    2,786    2,751    1,118    1,103      986      983      132      119   11.8   10.8         NA

   1 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Unemployment rates are in percent and are based on unrounded levels. Data for subnational
areas reflect revised population controls and model re-estimation. As a result, they do not sum to U.S. totals. Data for Puerto Rico
are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey.

Table 2.  Employment-population ratios of persons 16 years of age and over by region, division,
and state, 2016-17 annual averages

(Percent)
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                   Employment-population                                        
                                         ratio (1)        Over-the-       Error range of       
  Region, division, and state                               year                ratio,
                                                           change              2017 (2)          
                                      2016       2017                                           
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
     United States.............       59.7       60.1        0.4          59.9    -    60.3

Northeast......................       60.0       60.1         .1          59.7    -    60.5
   New England.................       62.8       63.2         .4          62.6    -    63.8
      Connecticut..............       62.7       63.3         .6          62.0    -    64.5
      Maine....................       60.9       61.5         .6          60.1    -    62.9
      Massachusetts............       62.6       63.1         .5          62.2    -    63.9
      New Hampshire............       66.5       66.1        -.4          65.0    -    67.1
      Rhode Island.............       61.1       61.5         .4          60.2    -    62.7
      Vermont..................       64.8       64.9         .1          63.7    -    66.0

   Middle Atlantic.............       59.0       59.0         .0          58.5    -    59.5
      New Jersey...............       60.4       60.2        -.2          59.3    -    61.1
      New York.................       57.8       58.0         .2          57.3    -    58.7
      Pennsylvania.............       59.7       59.6        -.1          58.8    -    60.3

Midwest........................       62.3       62.3         .0          61.9    -    62.7
   East North Central..........       60.8       61.1         .3          60.6    -    61.5
      Illinois.................       61.3       61.3         .0          60.5    -    62.2
      Indiana..................       61.8       61.8         .0          60.8    -    62.9
      Michigan.................       58.2       58.6         .4          57.7    -    59.5
      Ohio.....................       59.6       59.8         .2          58.9    -    60.6
      Wisconsin................       65.8       66.4         .6          65.3    -    67.4

   West North Central..........       65.4       65.2        -.2          64.5    -    65.8
      Iowa.....................       67.0       66.2        -.8          65.0    -    67.5
      Kansas...................       64.5       64.2        -.3          63.1    -    65.4
      Minnesota................       67.6       67.8         .2          66.6    -    68.9
      Missouri.................       61.8       61.4        -.4          60.3    -    62.5
      Nebraska.................       67.2       66.7        -.5          65.6    -    67.7
      North Dakota.............       69.1       69.6         .5          68.2    -    71.0
      South Dakota.............       67.1       66.7        -.4          65.4    -    68.0

South..........................       58.3       58.8         .5          58.6    -    59.1
   South Atlantic..............       58.5       59.2         .7          58.8    -    59.6
      Delaware.................       59.8       59.4        -.4          58.2    -    60.7
      District of Columbia.....       65.8       66.1         .3          65.0    -    67.3
      Florida..................       56.3       57.1         .8          56.5    -    57.7
      Georgia..................       59.1       60.2        1.1          59.3    -    61.1
      Maryland.................       64.2       64.8         .6          63.7    -    65.8
      North Carolina...........       58.3       58.7         .4          57.9    -    59.5
      South Carolina...........       56.1       56.1         .0          55.2    -    57.0
      Virginia.................       62.1       62.8         .7          61.8    -    63.7
      West Virginia............       49.9       50.5         .6          48.9    -    52.1

   East South Central..........       55.2       55.9         .7          55.3    -    56.6
      Alabama..................       53.7       54.1         .4          53.1    -    55.1
      Kentucky.................       55.2       56.2        1.0          55.0    -    57.3
      Mississippi..............       52.8       53.1         .3          51.9    -    54.3
      Tennessee................       57.3       58.4        1.1          57.3    -    59.4

   West South Central..........       59.5       59.7         .2          59.2    -    60.2
      Arkansas.................       55.8       56.1         .3          55.1    -    57.1
      Louisiana................       55.6       55.7         .1          54.7    -    56.8
      Oklahoma.................       58.3       58.6         .3          57.3    -    59.8
      Texas....................       60.8       61.0         .2          60.4    -    61.5

West...........................       59.6       60.2         .6          59.9    -    60.5
   Mountain....................       60.6       61.2         .6          60.7    -    61.8
      Arizona..................       57.0       57.7         .7          56.6    -    58.8
      Colorado.................       64.9       66.2        1.3          65.0    -    67.4
      Idaho....................       61.6       62.0         .4          60.9    -    63.1
      Montana..................       60.9       60.6        -.3          59.6    -    61.7
      Nevada...................       58.7       59.1         .4          58.2    -    60.1
      New Mexico...............       53.7       53.9         .2          52.7    -    55.0
      Utah.....................       66.5       67.2         .7          66.2    -    68.2
      Wyoming..................       63.2       62.7        -.5          61.4    -    64.1

   Pacific.....................       59.1       59.7         .6          59.3    -    60.2
      Alaska...................       61.8       61.6        -.2          60.2    -    63.1
      California...............       58.8       59.4         .6          58.9    -    59.8
      Hawaii...................       60.7       61.1         .4          60.0    -    62.2
      Oregon...................       59.6       60.6        1.0          59.4    -    61.8
      Washington...............       60.2       60.9         .7          59.9    -    61.8

Puerto Rico....................       35.4       35.7         .3                  NA

   1 Employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age
and over.
   2 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded
data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Employment-population ratios are based on
unrounded levels. Data for subnational areas reflect revised population controls and model
re-estimation. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to
the Current Population Survey.

Last Modified Date: February 27, 2018