Regional and State Unemployment (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 28, 2017			   USDL-17-0286

Technical information:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                REGIONAL AND STATE UNEMPLOYMENT -- 2016 ANNUAL AVERAGES


Annual average unemployment rates decreased in 38 states and the District of 
Columbia, increased in 9 states, and were unchanged in 3 states in 2016, the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment-population ratios
increased in 36 states and the District, decreased in 12 states, and were 
unchanged in 2 states. The U.S. jobless rate declined by 0.4 percentage point
from the prior year to 4.9 percent, and the national employment-population ratio
rose by 0.4 point to 59.7 percent.

Regional Unemployment

All four regions had statistically significant unemployment rate decreases from
2015: the West (-0.6 percentage point), Northeast (-0.5 point), South (-0.4 point),
and Midwest (-0.1 point). The Midwest, at 4.7 percent, had the only jobless rate
significantly lower than that of the U.S. in 2016, while the West, at 5.1 percent,
had the only rate significantly above the national figure. (See table 1.)

Six of the 9 geographic divisions had statistically significant over-the-year
unemployment rate changes in 2016, all of which were declines. The largest of these
occurred in New England (-0.8 percentage point) and the Pacific and South Atlantic
(-0.7 point each). The West North Central had the lowest jobless rate among the
divisions, 3.9 percent. New England, at 4.1 percent, and the Mountain division, at
4.6 percent, also had rates significantly below the U.S. average. The East South
Central and Pacific, at 5.3 percent each, had unemployment rates that were measurably
higher than that of the U.S.

State Unemployment

Twenty-seven states and the District of Columbia had statistically significant
unemployment rate decreases in 2016. The largest declines occurred in Massachusetts
and South Carolina (-1.2 percentage points each), closely followed by Arkansas and
Nevada (-1.1 points each). Three states had significant over-the-year rate increases:
Wyoming (+1.1 percentage points), Oklahoma (+0.5 point), and North Dakota (+0.4 point).
The remaining 20 states had annual average jobless rates in 2016 that were not
appreciably different from those of the previous year, though some had changes that
were at least as large numerically as the significant changes. (See table A.)

New Hampshire and South Dakota had the lowest unemployment rates, 2.8 percent each
in 2016. New Mexico and Alaska had the highest jobless rates, 6.7 percent and 6.6
percent, respectively. Overall, 19 states had unemployment rates that were
significantly lower than the U.S. figure of 4.9 percent, while 12 states and the
District of Columbia had rates measurably above it. Arkansas had the lowest unemployment
rate in its series in 2016, 4.0 percent, while Oregon matched its series low of 4.9
percent, last recorded in 1995. (All region, division, and state series begin in 1976. See
table B.)

Regional Employment-Population Ratios

In 2016, three regions had statistically significant changes in their employment-
population ratios--the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years
of age and over who are employed--all of which were increases. These occurred in the
West (+0.5 percentage point) and the Midwest and South (+0.4 point each). The Midwest
had the highest ratio, 62.2 percent, while the South, at 58.3 percent, had the lowest.
These two regions had the only ratios that were significantly different from the
national figure of 59.7 percent. (See table 2.)

Among the nine geographic divisions, all of the significant changes in employment-
population ratios from 2015 to 2016 were increases: the East South Central (+0.7 
percentage point) and the East North Central, Pacific, and South Atlantic (+0.6 
point each). The division with the highest employment-population ratio in 2016 was
the West North Central, at 65.4 percent, followed by New England, at 62.7 percent.
These two divisions, along with the East North Central and Mountain, at 60.8 percent
and 60.5 percent, respectively, had employment-population ratios measurably above
that of the U.S. The East South Central had the lowest proportion of employed persons,
55.0 percent. The ratios in the South Atlantic (58.6 percent), Middle Atlantic
(59.0 percent), and Pacific (59.2 percent) also were appreciably below the national
average.

State Employment-Population Ratios

In 2016, the largest employment-population ratio increases among the states occurred
in Oregon (+1.5 percentage points) and Georgia (+1.1 points). Twelve other states also
had statistically significant increases in their ratios. Three states had significant
over-the-year decreases in their employment-population ratios: Louisiana and Wyoming
(-1.2 percentage points each) and Nebraska (-0.4 point). (See table C.)

North Dakota had the highest proportion of employed persons, 69.2 percent in 2016.
Four other states in the West North Central division had the next highest ratios:
Nebraska, 67.3 percent; Iowa and South Dakota, 67.0 percent each; and Minnesota, 66.8
percent. West Virginia had the lowest employment-population ratio among the states,
50.0 percent. (West Virginia has had the lowest employment-population ratio each year
since the series began in 1976.) Overall, 24 states and the District of Columbia had
employment-population ratios that were significantly above the U.S. ratio of 59.7
percent and 16 states had ratios that were appreciably below it. Alaska and New
Mexico, at 61.7 percent and 53.7 percent, respectively, had the lowest employment-
population ratios in their series in 2016. (See table D.)

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2017 is scheduled
to be released on Monday, March 13, 2017, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2017 is scheduled to be
released on Friday, March 17, 2017, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).



Table A.  States with statistically significant unemployment rate changes, 
2015-16 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Rate           |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            |  rate change  
                                |    2015    |    2016    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Arizona ........................|     6.0    |     5.3    |      -0.7
Arkansas .......................|     5.1    |     4.0    |      -1.1
California .....................|     6.2    |     5.4    |       -.8
Colorado .......................|     3.9    |     3.3    |       -.6
Connecticut ....................|     5.7    |     5.1    |       -.6
District of Columbia ...........|     6.9    |     6.0    |       -.9
Florida ........................|     5.4    |     4.9    |       -.5
Georgia ........................|     6.0    |     5.4    |       -.6
Hawaii .........................|     3.6    |     3.0    |       -.6
Idaho ..........................|     4.2    |     3.8    |       -.4
                                |            |            |
Maine ..........................|     4.4    |     3.9    |       -.5
Maryland .......................|     5.1    |     4.3    |       -.8
Massachusetts ..................|     4.9    |     3.7    |      -1.2
Michigan .......................|     5.4    |     4.9    |       -.5
Mississippi ....................|     6.4    |     5.8    |       -.6
Missouri .......................|     5.0    |     4.5    |       -.5
Nevada .........................|     6.8    |     5.7    |      -1.1
New Hampshire ..................|     3.4    |     2.8    |       -.6
New Jersey .....................|     5.8    |     5.0    |       -.8
New York .......................|     5.3    |     4.8    |       -.5
                                |            |            |
North Carolina .................|     5.8    |     5.1    |       -.7
North Dakota ...................|     2.8    |     3.2    |        .4
Oklahoma .......................|     4.4    |     4.9    |        .5
Oregon .........................|     5.6    |     4.9    |       -.7
Rhode Island ...................|     6.0    |     5.3    |       -.7
South Carolina .................|     6.0    |     4.8    |      -1.2
Tennessee ......................|     5.6    |     4.8    |       -.8
Vermont ........................|     3.6    |     3.3    |       -.3
Virginia .......................|     4.5    |     4.0    |       -.5
West Virginia ..................|     6.8    |     6.0    |       -.8
Wyoming ........................|     4.2    |     5.3    |       1.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------



Table B.  States with unemployment rates significantly differ-
ent from that of the U.S., 2016 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Rate
--------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           4.9
                                     |
Alabama .............................|           6.0
Alaska ..............................|           6.6
Arkansas ............................|           4.0
California ..........................|           5.4
Colorado ............................|           3.3
District of Columbia ................|           6.0
Georgia .............................|           5.4
Hawaii ..............................|           3.0
Idaho ...............................|           3.8
Illinois ............................|           5.9
                                     |
Iowa ................................|           3.7
Kansas ..............................|           4.2
Louisiana ...........................|           6.1
Maine ...............................|           3.9
Maryland ............................|           4.3
Massachusetts .......................|           3.7
Minnesota ...........................|           3.9
Mississippi .........................|           5.8
Montana .............................|           4.1
Nebraska ............................|           3.2
                                     |
Nevada ..............................|           5.7
New Hampshire .......................|           2.8
New Mexico ..........................|           6.7
North Dakota ........................|           3.2
Pennsylvania ........................|           5.4
South Dakota ........................|           2.8
Utah ................................|           3.4
Vermont .............................|           3.3
Virginia ............................|           4.0
Washington ..........................|           5.4
West Virginia .......................|           6.0
Wisconsin ...........................|           4.1
--------------------------------------------------------------



Table C.  States with statistically significant employment-population 
ratio changes, 2015-16 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Ratio          |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            | ratio change  
                                |    2015    |    2016    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Arkansas .......................|    55.1    |    55.8    |       0.7
California .....................|    58.3    |    58.9    |        .6
Florida ........................|    55.8    |    56.3    |        .5
Georgia ........................|    57.9    |    59.0    |       1.1
Hawaii .........................|    59.8    |    60.8    |       1.0
Indiana ........................|    60.8    |    61.8    |       1.0
Louisiana ......................|    56.7    |    55.5    |      -1.2
Maryland .......................|    63.5    |    64.2    |        .7
Michigan .......................|    57.2    |    58.2    |       1.0
Nebraska .......................|    67.7    |    67.3    |       -.4
                                |            |            |
New Hampshire ..................|    66.2    |    66.7    |        .5
North Carolina .................|    57.7    |    58.7    |       1.0
Oregon .........................|    58.0    |    59.5    |       1.5
South Carolina .................|    55.8    |    56.3    |        .5
Tennessee ......................|    56.2    |    57.2    |       1.0
Washington .....................|    59.6    |    60.2    |        .6
Wyoming ........................|    64.7    |    63.5    |      -1.2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------



Table D.  States with employment-population ratios significantly
different from that of the U.S., 2016 annual averages
----------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Ratio          
----------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           59.7
                                     |
Alabama .............................|           53.4
Alaska ..............................|           61.7
Arizona .............................|           57.1
Arkansas ............................|           55.8
California ..........................|           58.9
Colorado ............................|           64.7
Connecticut .........................|           62.6
District of Columbia ................|           65.9
Florida .............................|           56.3
Idaho ...............................|           61.5
                                     |
Illinois ............................|           61.4
Indiana .............................|           61.8
Iowa ................................|           67.0
Kansas ..............................|           64.3
Kentucky ............................|           54.7
Louisiana ...........................|           55.5
Maryland ............................|           64.2
Massachusetts .......................|           62.5
Michigan ............................|           58.2
Minnesota ...........................|           66.8
                                     |
Mississippi .........................|           52.8
Missouri ............................|           62.4
Montana .............................|           61.2
Nebraska ............................|           67.3
New Hampshire .......................|           66.7
New Mexico ..........................|           53.7
New York ............................|           57.7
North Carolina ......................|           58.7
North Dakota ........................|           69.2
Oklahoma ............................|           58.2
                                     |
Rhode Island ........................|           61.0
South Carolina ......................|           56.3
South Dakota ........................|           67.0
Tennessee ...........................|           57.2
Texas ...............................|           60.7
Utah ................................|           66.4
Vermont .............................|           64.8
Virginia ............................|           62.2
West Virginia .......................|           50.0
Wisconsin ...........................|           65.4
Wyoming .............................|           63.5
----------------------------------------------------------------




Technical Note

This release presents labor force and unemployment data for census regions and divisions
and states from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program. The LAUS program
is a federal-state cooperative endeavor.

Concepts

Definitions. The labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and
definitions as those used for the official national estimates obtained from the Current
Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households that is conducted for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed
and unemployed persons on a place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the
civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are
those who did any work at all for pay or profit in the reference week (the week including
the 12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor management dispute, illness, or vacation.
Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference week (based on
the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the 4-week period ending
with the reference week, and were currently available for work; persons on layoff
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The labor
force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons. The unemployment rate is the number
of unemployed persons expressed as a percent of the labor force. The employment-population
ratio is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and 
older that is employed.

Method of estimation. Estimates for 48 of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, New York City, and the balances
of California and New York state are produced using estimating equations based on
regression techniques. This method uses data from several sources, including the CPS,
the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey of nonfarm payroll employment, and state
unemployment insurance (UI) programs. Estimates for the state of California are derived
by summing the estimates for the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division 
and the balance of California. Similarly, estimates for New York state are derived by
summing the estimates for New York City and the balance of New York state. Estimates for
all nine census divisions are based on a similar regression approach that does not
incorporate CES or UI data. Estimates for census regions are obtained by summing the 
model-based estimates for the component divisions and then calculating the unemployment
rate. Each month, census division estimates are controlled to national totals; state
estimates are then controlled to their respective division totals. Estimates for Puerto
Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the CPS. A detailed
description of the estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request. 

Annual revisions. Labor force and unemployment data for prior years reflect adjustments
made at the beginning of each year. The adjusted estimates incorporate updated population
controls from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in the other data sources, and model
re-estimation. The population controls reflect extrapolation from the 2010 Census. In
most years, historical data for the most recent 5 years (both seasonally adjusted and
not seasonally adjusted) are revised near the beginning of each calendar year, prior to
the release of January estimates. Though the labor force estimates typically are updated
for 5 years, the population estimates are revised back to the decennial estimates base
(April 2010).

Reliability of the estimates

The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a 
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. In table 1, level
estimates for states may not sum to level estimates for regions and divisions because of
rounding. Unemployment rates and employment-population ratios are computed from unrounded
levels and, thus, may differ slightly from rates and ratios computed using the rounded
level estimates displayed in table 1.

Use of error measures. The introductory section of this release preserves the long-time
practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in regional and state unemployment
rates and employment-population ratios regardless of their statistical significance. The
remainder of the analysis in the release—other than historical highs and lows—takes
statistical significance into consideration. Model-based error measures are available
online at www.bls.gov/lau/lastderr.htm. BLS uses 90-percent confidence levels in
determining whether changes in LAUS unemployment rates and employment-population ratios
are statistically significant. The average magnitude of the over-the-year change in an
annual state unemployment rate that is required in order to be statistically significant
at the 90-percent confidence level is about 0.4 percentage point. The average magnitude
of the over-the-year change in an annual state employment-population ratio that is
required in order to be statistically significant at the 90-percent confidence level is
about 0.6 percentage point. Measures of nonsampling error are not available.

Additional information
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.




Table 1.  Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over by region, division, and state,
2015-16 annual averages
 
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                    Population      Civilian labor       Employed         Unemployed     Unemployment                
                                                        force                                                rate      Error range of
  Region, division, and state                                                                                          rate, 2016 (1)
                                                                                                                                     
                                  2015     2016     2015     2016     2015     2016      2015     2016    2015   2016                
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     

     United States.............  250,801  253,538  157,130  159,187  148,834  151,436    8,296    7,751    5.3    4.9    4.8  -  4.9

Northeast......................   44,981   45,097   28,342   28,397   26,850   27,041    1,493    1,357    5.3    4.8    4.6  -  4.9
   New England.................   11,905   11,956    7,795    7,817    7,412    7,499      383      317    4.9    4.1    3.8  -  4.3
      Connecticut..............    2,868    2,870    1,891    1,892    1,782    1,796      108       96    5.7    5.1    4.5  -  5.7
      Maine....................    1,092    1,095      683      691      653      664       30       27    4.4    3.9    3.3  -  4.4
      Massachusetts............    5,492    5,528    3,580    3,589    3,406    3,456      174      133    4.9    3.7    3.3  -  4.1
      New Hampshire............    1,083    1,090      743      749      718      727       25       21    3.4    2.8    2.5  -  3.2
      Rhode Island.............      855      857      554      552      520      523       33       29    6.0    5.3    4.7  -  6.0
      Vermont..................      515      515      345      345      333      334       12       11    3.6    3.3    2.9  -  3.6

   Middle Atlantic.............   33,076   33,141   20,548   20,581   19,438   19,541    1,110    1,039    5.4    5.1    4.8  -  5.3
      New Jersey...............    7,068    7,092    4,531    4,524    4,268    4,300      263      224    5.8    5.0    4.5  -  5.4
      New York.................   15,788   15,818    9,591    9,584    9,085    9,121      507      463    5.3    4.8    4.5  -  5.1
      Pennsylvania.............   10,220   10,231    6,426    6,472    6,085    6,120      341      352    5.3    5.4    5.1  -  5.8

Midwest........................   53,020   53,207   34,460   34,714   32,790   33,093    1,671    1,621    4.8    4.7    4.5  -  4.8
   East North Central..........   36,689   36,783   23,323   23,536   22,101   22,356    1,222    1,180    5.2    5.0    4.8  -  5.2
      Illinois.................   10,035   10,031    6,507    6,539    6,121    6,155      386      384    5.9    5.9    5.5  -  6.3
      Indiana..................    5,118    5,145    3,272    3,327    3,114    3,180      158      147    4.8    4.4    4.0  -  4.9
      Michigan.................    7,870    7,896    4,757    4,837    4,500    4,599      257      238    5.4    4.9    4.5  -  5.4
      Ohio.....................    9,115    9,140    5,692    5,713    5,413    5,431      279      282    4.9    4.9    4.5  -  5.3
      Wisconsin................    4,551    4,571    3,095    3,120    2,954    2,991      141      129    4.6    4.1    3.7  -  4.6

   West North Central..........   16,331   16,424   11,138   11,178   10,688   10,737      449      441    4.0    3.9    3.7  -  4.2
      Iowa.....................    2,432    2,445    1,703    1,701    1,638    1,638       65       62    3.8    3.7    3.2  -  4.1
      Kansas...................    2,203    2,211    1,489    1,484    1,427    1,422       62       62    4.2    4.2    3.7  -  4.6
      Minnesota................    4,283    4,317    2,976    3,001    2,865    2,884      111      117    3.7    3.9    3.5  -  4.3
      Missouri.................    4,736    4,758    3,097    3,112    2,942    2,971      155      141    5.0    4.5    4.1  -  5.0
      Nebraska.................    1,443    1,454    1,008    1,011      978      979       31       32    3.0    3.2    2.8  -  3.6
      North Dakota.............      581      582      414      416      403      403       12       13    2.8    3.2    2.8  -  3.5
      South Dakota.............      651      657      451      453      437      440       14       13    3.1    2.8    2.4  -  3.2

South..........................   93,650   94,862   57,271   58,145   54,250   55,306    3,021    2,839    5.3    4.9    4.8  -  5.0
   South Atlantic..............   49,652   50,338   30,441   30,992   28,774   29,493    1,667    1,499    5.5    4.8    4.7  -  5.0
      Delaware.................      748      756      467      473      445      452       23       21    4.8    4.4    3.9  -  4.9
      District of Columbia.....      552      560      387      392      360      369       27       24    6.9    6.0    5.5  -  6.5
      Florida..................   16,291   16,616    9,619    9,839    9,098    9,359      521      480    5.4    4.9    4.6  -  5.2
      Georgia..................    7,774    7,886    4,787    4,920    4,502    4,656      285      264    6.0    5.4    4.9  -  5.8
      Maryland.................    4,704    4,726    3,147    3,170    2,987    3,034      161      136    5.1    4.3    3.8  -  4.7
      North Carolina...........    7,786    7,892    4,768    4,876    4,494    4,629      274      246    5.8    5.1    4.6  -  5.5
      South Carolina...........    3,822    3,887    2,270    2,298    2,135    2,187      136      111    6.0    4.8    4.3  -  5.3
      Virginia.................    6,497    6,542    4,212    4,240    4,024    4,070      188      170    4.5    4.0    3.6  -  4.4
      West Virginia............    1,478    1,472      783      783      730      736       53       47    6.8    6.0    5.5  -  6.5

   East South Central..........   14,682   14,777    8,459    8,576    7,970    8,121      489      455    5.8    5.3    5.0  -  5.6
      Alabama..................    3,800    3,816    2,152    2,169    2,021    2,039      132      130    6.1    6.0    5.5  -  6.5
      Kentucky.................    3,441    3,458    1,966    1,992    1,862    1,892      104      100    5.3    5.0    4.4  -  5.6
      Mississippi..............    2,279    2,285    1,270    1,280    1,189    1,206       81       75    6.4    5.8    5.3  -  6.4
      Tennessee................    5,162    5,217    3,071    3,135    2,899    2,984      172      151    5.6    4.8    4.4  -  5.3

   West South Central..........   29,317   29,747   18,371   18,577   17,506   17,692      866      885    4.7    4.8    4.6  -  5.0
      Arkansas.................    2,298    2,311    1,333    1,343    1,265    1,289       67       54    5.1    4.0    3.6  -  4.4
      Louisiana................    3,570    3,587    2,161    2,121    2,024    1,992      137      129    6.3    6.1    5.6  -  6.6
      Oklahoma.................    2,970    2,988    1,834    1,828    1,753    1,739       80       89    4.4    4.9    4.4  -  5.4
      Texas....................   20,479   20,862   13,044   13,285   12,463   12,672      581      613    4.5    4.6    4.4  -  4.9

West...........................   58,864   59,665   36,879   37,486   34,772   35,574    2,108    1,912    5.7    5.1    4.9  -  5.3
   Mountain....................   18,018   18,352   11,425   11,638   10,845   11,106      580      532    5.1    4.6    4.3  -  4.8
      Arizona..................    5,267    5,374    3,165    3,238    2,974    3,066      191      172    6.0    5.3    4.8  -  5.8
      Colorado.................    4,234    4,323    2,834    2,891    2,723    2,795      111       96    3.9    3.3    2.9  -  3.7
      Idaho....................    1,247    1,273      797      815      763      783       34       31    4.2    3.8    3.4  -  4.2
      Montana..................      816      824      520      526      498      505       22       22    4.2    4.1    3.8  -  4.5
      Nevada...................    2,249    2,297    1,415    1,427    1,318    1,346       96       81    6.8    5.7    5.1  -  6.3
      New Mexico...............    1,604    1,610      924      927      863      865       61       62    6.6    6.7    6.2  -  7.3
      Utah.....................    2,148    2,200    1,466    1,511    1,413    1,460       53       52    3.6    3.4    3.0  -  3.8
      Wyoming..................      452      451      305      302      292      286       13       16    4.2    5.3    4.8  -  5.8

   Pacific.....................   40,846   41,313   25,454   25,848   23,926   24,467    1,528    1,380    6.0    5.3    5.1  -  5.5
      Alaska...................      542      546      363      360      339      337       23       24    6.4    6.6    6.0  -  7.3
      California...............   30,379   30,669   18,893   19,103   17,723   18,065    1,170    1,038    6.2    5.4    5.2  -  5.7
      Hawaii...................    1,088    1,093      675      685      651      665       24       21    3.6    3.0    2.6  -  3.4
      Oregon...................    3,221    3,283    1,978    2,055    1,867    1,955      111      100    5.6    4.9    4.4  -  5.4
      Washington...............    5,616    5,722    3,546    3,644    3,346    3,446      200      198    5.6    5.4    5.0  -  5.9

Puerto Rico....................    2,814    2,787    1,122    1,121      988      989      135      132   12.0   11.8         NA

   1 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Unemployment rates are in percent and are based on unrounded levels. Data for subnational
areas reflect revised population controls and model re-estimation. As a result, they do not sum to U.S. totals. Data for Puerto Rico
are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey.

Table 2.  Employment-population ratios of persons 16 years of age and over by region, division,
and state, 2015-16 annual averages

(Percent)
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                   Employment-population                                        
                                         ratio (1)        Over-the-       Error range of       
  Region, division, and state                               year                ratio,
                                                           change              2016 (2)          
                                      2015       2016                                           
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
     United States.............       59.3       59.7        0.4          59.5    -    59.9

Northeast......................       59.7       60.0         .3          59.5    -    60.4
   New England.................       62.3       62.7         .4          62.0    -    63.5
      Connecticut..............       62.1       62.6         .5          61.1    -    64.0
      Maine....................       59.8       60.7         .9          59.1    -    62.2
      Massachusetts............       62.0       62.5         .5          61.5    -    63.6
      New Hampshire............       66.2       66.7         .5          65.7    -    67.8
      Rhode Island.............       60.9       61.0         .1          59.8    -    62.2
      Vermont..................       64.7       64.8         .1          63.5    -    66.0

   Middle Atlantic.............       58.8       59.0         .2          58.4    -    59.5
      New Jersey...............       60.4       60.6         .2          59.7    -    61.5
      New York.................       57.5       57.7         .2          56.9    -    58.5
      Pennsylvania.............       59.5       59.8         .3          59.1    -    60.6

Midwest........................       61.8       62.2         .4          61.8    -    62.6
   East North Central..........       60.2       60.8         .6          60.2    -    61.3
      Illinois.................       61.0       61.4         .4          60.5    -    62.2
      Indiana..................       60.8       61.8        1.0          60.6    -    63.0
      Michigan.................       57.2       58.2        1.0          57.2    -    59.3
      Ohio.....................       59.4       59.4         .0          58.4    -    60.4
      Wisconsin................       64.9       65.4         .5          64.1    -    66.8

   West North Central..........       65.4       65.4         .0          64.7    -    66.1
      Iowa.....................       67.3       67.0        -.3          65.6    -    68.4
      Kansas...................       64.8       64.3        -.5          63.0    -    65.6
      Minnesota................       66.9       66.8        -.1          65.7    -    67.9
      Missouri.................       62.1       62.4         .3          61.1    -    63.8
      Nebraska.................       67.7       67.3        -.4          66.3    -    68.3
      North Dakota.............       69.3       69.2        -.1          67.8    -    70.6
      South Dakota.............       67.1       67.0        -.1          65.8    -    68.3

South..........................       57.9       58.3         .4          58.0    -    58.6
   South Atlantic..............       58.0       58.6         .6          58.2    -    59.0
      Delaware.................       59.5       59.8         .3          58.5    -    61.1
      District of Columbia.....       65.3       65.9         .6          64.8    -    66.9
      Florida..................       55.8       56.3         .5          55.6    -    57.0
      Georgia..................       57.9       59.0        1.1          58.2    -    59.9
      Maryland.................       63.5       64.2         .7          63.2    -    65.2
      North Carolina...........       57.7       58.7        1.0          57.7    -    59.6
      South Carolina...........       55.8       56.3         .5          55.4    -    57.1
      Virginia.................       61.9       62.2         .3          61.0    -    63.4
      West Virginia............       49.4       50.0         .6          48.7    -    51.3

   East South Central..........       54.3       55.0         .7          54.2    -    55.7
      Alabama..................       53.2       53.4         .2          52.3    -    54.5
      Kentucky.................       54.1       54.7         .6          53.3    -    56.1
      Mississippi..............       52.2       52.8         .6          51.5    -    54.0
      Tennessee................       56.2       57.2        1.0          56.0    -    58.4

   West South Central..........       59.7       59.5        -.2          58.9    -    60.1
      Arkansas.................       55.1       55.8         .7          54.7    -    56.9
      Louisiana................       56.7       55.5       -1.2          54.5    -    56.5
      Oklahoma.................       59.0       58.2        -.8          56.9    -    59.5
      Texas....................       60.9       60.7        -.2          60.1    -    61.4

West...........................       59.1       59.6         .5          59.3    -    60.0
   Mountain....................       60.2       60.5         .3          59.9    -    61.2
      Arizona..................       56.5       57.1         .6          55.9    -    58.3
      Colorado.................       64.3       64.7         .4          63.2    -    66.1
      Idaho....................       61.2       61.5         .3          60.3    -    62.8
      Montana..................       61.1       61.2         .1          60.1    -    62.4
      Nevada...................       58.6       58.6         .0          57.4    -    59.8
      New Mexico...............       53.8       53.7        -.1          52.6    -    54.9
      Utah.....................       65.8       66.4         .6          65.2    -    67.5
      Wyoming..................       64.7       63.5       -1.2          62.0    -    64.9

   Pacific.....................       58.6       59.2         .6          58.8    -    59.6
      Alaska...................       62.6       61.7        -.9          59.8    -    63.6
      California...............       58.3       58.9         .6          58.4    -    59.4
      Hawaii...................       59.8       60.8        1.0          59.7    -    61.9
      Oregon...................       58.0       59.5        1.5          58.4    -    60.7
      Washington...............       59.6       60.2         .6          59.2    -    61.2

Puerto Rico....................       35.1       35.5         .4                  NA

   1 Employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age
and over.
   2 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded
data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Employment-population ratios are based on
unrounded levels. Data for subnational areas reflect revised population controls and model
re-estimation. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to
the Current Population Survey.

Last Modified Date: February 28, 2017