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Economic News Release
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State Unemployment (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, February 28, 2019		USDL-19-0327

Technical information:  (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	  REGIONAL AND STATE UNEMPLOYMENT -- 2018 ANNUAL AVERAGES


In 2018, annual average unemployment rates decreased in 25 states,
increased in 1 state, and were little changed or unchanged in 24
states and the District of Columbia, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Employment-population ratios increased
in 9 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed or
unchanged in 40 states and the District. The U.S. jobless rate
declined by 0.5 percentage point from the prior year to 3.9 percent,
and the national employment-population ratio rose by 0.3 point
to 60.4 percent.

Regional Unemployment

All four census regions had unemployment rate decreases from 2017:
the Northeast and South (-0.5 percentage point each), Midwest
(-0.4 point), and West (-0.3 point). The Midwest had the lowest
jobless rate, 3.7 percent in 2018, while the West had the highest
rate, 4.2 percent. No other region had a rate significantly different
from that of the United States. In 2018, the unemployment rates in
the South (3.8 percent) and West (4.2 percent) were the lowest in
their respective series. All region, division, and state series begin
in 1976. (See table 1.)

Eight of the 9 geographic divisions had over-the-year unemployment
rate changes in 2018, all of which were decreases. The largest of
these declines occurred in the South Atlantic (-0.6 percentage point).
The lowest jobless rate was in the West North Central, 3.0 percent,
followed by the New England and South Atlantic divisions, 3.5 percent
and 3.7 percent, respectively. The highest rates were in the Middle
Atlantic and Pacific, 4.2 percent each. The remaining four divisions
had rates that were not significantly different from that of the United
States. Three divisions recorded new series-low unemployment rates in
2018: the East South Central (4.0 percent), Pacific (4.2 percent), and
West South Central (3.9 percent).

State Unemployment

Twenty-five states had statistically significant unemployment rate
decreases in 2018, the largest of which occurred in New Mexico (-1.0
percentage point). Colorado had the only over-the-year rate increase
(+0.6 percentage point). The remaining 24 states and the District of
Columbia had annual average jobless rates in 2018 that were not
appreciably different from those of the previous year, though some
had changes that were at least as large numerically as the significant
changes. (See table A.)

Hawaii had the lowest unemployment rate in 2018, 2.4 percent, followed
by Iowa and New Hampshire, 2.5 percent each. Alaska had the highest
jobless rate, 6.6 percent. Overall, 20 states had unemployment rates
significantly lower than the U.S. figure of 3.9 percent, 12 states
and the District of Columbia had higher rates, and 18 states had rates
that were not substantially different from that of the nation. Fourteen
states newly recorded the lowest annual average unemployment rates in
their respective series in 2018: Alabama (3.9 percent), California
(4.2 percent), Idaho (2.8 percent), Iowa (2.5 percent), Mississippi
(4.8 percent), Missouri (3.2 percent), New York (4.1 percent), North
Dakota (2.6 percent), South Carolina (3.4 percent), Tennessee (3.5
percent), Texas (3.9 percent), Vermont (2.7 percent), Washington 
(4.5 percent), and Wisconsin (3.0 percent). (See table B.)

Regional Employment-Population Ratios

In 2018, three census regions had statistically significant changes
in their employment-population ratios--the proportion of the civilian
noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over who are employed--
all of which were increases. These increases occurred in the Northeast
(+0.5 percentage point), West (+0.4 point), and South (+0.3 point). The
Midwest had the highest ratio, 62.5 percent, while the South, at 59.2
percent, had the lowest. These two regions had the only ratios that
were notably different from the national figure of 60.4 percent. (See
table 2.)

Four of the 9 geographic divisions had increases in their employment-
population ratios from 2017 to 2018. The largest of these increases
was in New England (+1.0 percentage point), followed by the Mountain
(+0.5 point) and Pacific and West South Central (+0.4 point each).
The remaining five divisions had little or no change in their ratios
over the year. The division with the highest employment-population
ratio in 2018 was the West North Central, 65.3 percent, followed by
New England, 64.4 percent. These two divisions, along with the Mountain
and East North Central, at 61.7 percent and 61.2 percent, respectively,
had employment-population ratios significantly above that of the United
States. The East South Central had the lowest proportion of employed
persons, 56.4 percent. This division, along with the Middle Atlantic
and South Atlantic, at 59.2 percent and 59.3 percent, respectively, had
ratios appreciably below the national average of 60.4 percent.

State Employment-Population Ratios

In 2018, the largest employment-population ratio increase among the
states occurred in Massachusetts (+1.6 percentage points). Eight other
states also had significant increases in their ratios. North Dakota
was the only state with an over-the-year decrease in its employment-
population ratio (-1.2 percentage points). The remaining 40 states and
the District of Columbia had ratios that were not notably different
from those of the previous year, though some had changes that were at
least as large numerically as the significant changes. (See table C.)

Minnesota had the highest proportion of employed persons in 2018, 67.8
percent, followed by North Dakota and Nebraska, 67.7 percent and 67.3
percent, respectively. West Virginia had the lowest employment-population
ratio among the states, 51.0 percent. (West Virginia has had the lowest
ratio each year since the series began in 1976.) Overall, 22 states and
the District of Columbia had employment-population ratios significantly
higher than the U.S. ratio of 60.4 percent and 17 states had ratios that
were appreciably below it. Alaska and Wyoming each had the lowest
employment-population ratios in their series (60.9 percent and 62.1 percent,
respectively). (See table D.)

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2019
is scheduled to be released on Monday, March 11, 2019, at 10:00 a.m.
(EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release
for January 2019 is scheduled to be released on Friday, March 15, 2019,
at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A.  States with statistically significant unemployment rate changes, 
2017-18 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Rate           |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            |  rate change  
                                |    2017    |    2018    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Alabama ........................|     4.4    |     3.9    |      -0.5
California .....................|     4.8    |     4.2    |       -.6
Colorado .......................|     2.7    |     3.3    |        .6
Connecticut ....................|     4.7    |     4.1    |       -.6
Delaware .......................|     4.5    |     3.8    |       -.7
Florida ........................|     4.2    |     3.6    |       -.6
Georgia ........................|     4.7    |     3.9    |       -.8
Idaho ..........................|     3.2    |     2.8    |       -.4
Illinois .......................|     4.9    |     4.3    |       -.6
Iowa ...........................|     3.1    |     2.5    |       -.6
                                |            |            |
Kentucky .......................|     4.9    |     4.3    |       -.6
Massachusetts ..................|     3.8    |     3.3    |       -.5
Michigan .......................|     4.6    |     4.1    |       -.5
Minnesota ......................|     3.4    |     2.9    |       -.5
Missouri .......................|     3.8    |     3.2    |       -.6
Nevada .........................|     5.1    |     4.6    |       -.5
New Jersey .....................|     4.6    |     4.1    |       -.5
New Mexico .....................|     5.9    |     4.9    |      -1.0
New York .......................|     4.7    |     4.1    |       -.6
North Carolina .................|     4.5    |     3.9    |       -.6
                                |            |            |
Oklahoma .......................|     4.2    |     3.4    |       -.8
Pennsylvania ...................|     4.9    |     4.3    |       -.6
South Carolina .................|     4.3    |     3.4    |       -.9
Texas ..........................|     4.3    |     3.9    |       -.4
Vermont ........................|     3.0    |     2.7    |       -.3
Virginia .......................|     3.7    |     3.0    |       -.7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table B.  States with unemployment rates significantly differ-
ent from that of the U.S., 2018 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Rate
--------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           3.9
                                     |
Alaska ..............................|           6.6
Arizona .............................|           4.8
California ..........................|           4.2
Colorado ............................|           3.3
District of Columbia ................|           5.6
Florida .............................|           3.6
Hawaii ..............................|           2.4
Idaho ...............................|           2.8
Illinois ............................|           4.3
Indiana .............................|           3.4
                                     |
Iowa ................................|           2.5
Kansas ..............................|           3.4
Louisiana ...........................|           4.9
Massachusetts .......................|           3.3
Minnesota ...........................|           2.9
Mississippi .........................|           4.8
Missouri ............................|           3.2
Nebraska ............................|           2.8
Nevada ..............................|           4.6
New Hampshire .......................|           2.5
                                     |
New Mexico ..........................|           4.9
North Dakota ........................|           2.6
Ohio ................................|           4.6
Oklahoma ............................|           3.4
Pennsylvania ........................|           4.3
South Carolina ......................|           3.4
South Dakota ........................|           3.0
Utah ................................|           3.1
Vermont .............................|           2.7
Virginia ............................|           3.0
                                     |
Washington ..........................|           4.5
West Virginia .......................|           5.3
Wisconsin ...........................|           3.0
--------------------------------------------------------------


Table C.  States with statistically significant employment-population 
ratio changes, 2017-18 annual averages
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Ratio          |               
                                |-------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |            |            | ratio change  
                                |    2017    |    2018    |               
--------------------------------|------------|------------|---------------
Alabama ........................|    54.3    |    54.9    |       0.6
Arizona ........................|    57.6    |    58.4    |        .8
California .....................|    59.2    |    59.8    |        .6
Colorado .......................|    66.2    |    66.9    |        .7
Massachusetts ..................|    63.7    |    65.3    |       1.6
Nevada .........................|    59.5    |    60.1    |        .6
New Mexico .....................|    54.2    |    54.7    |        .5
New York .......................|    58.0    |    58.5    |        .5
North Dakota ...................|    68.9    |    67.7    |      -1.2
Texas ..........................|    61.1    |    61.5    |        .4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Table D.  States with employment-population ratios significantly
different from that of the U.S., 2018 annual averages
----------------------------------------------------------------
                State                |          Ratio          
----------------------------------------------------------------
United States .......................|           60.4
                                     |
Alabama .............................|           54.9
Arizona .............................|           58.4
Arkansas ............................|           55.7
California ..........................|           59.8
Colorado ............................|           66.9
Connecticut .........................|           63.4
District of Columbia ................|           66.5
Florida .............................|           57.3
Idaho ...............................|           62.3
Illinois ............................|           61.7
                                     |
Indiana .............................|           62.7
Iowa ................................|           66.7
Kansas ..............................|           64.5
Kentucky ............................|           56.5
Louisiana ...........................|           55.9
Maryland ............................|           64.6
Massachusetts .......................|           65.3
Michigan ............................|           58.8
Minnesota ...........................|           67.8
Mississippi .........................|           53.0
                                     |
Missouri ............................|           61.6
Nebraska ............................|           67.3
New Hampshire .......................|           66.6
New Mexico ..........................|           54.7
New York ............................|           58.5
North Carolina ......................|           58.8
North Dakota ........................|           67.7
Ohio ................................|           59.5
Oklahoma ............................|           59.1
Rhode Island ........................|           61.9
                                     |
South Carolina ......................|           56.0
South Dakota ........................|           66.6
Tennessee ...........................|           58.8
Texas ...............................|           61.5
Utah ................................|           66.1
Vermont .............................|           64.9
Virginia ............................|           63.2
West Virginia .......................|           51.0
Wisconsin ...........................|           65.9
Wyoming .............................|           62.1
----------------------------------------------------------------




Technical Note

This release presents labor force and unemployment data for census regions 
and divisions and states from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) 
program. The LAUS program is a federal-state cooperative endeavor.

Concepts

Definitions. The labor force and unemployment data are based on the same 
concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates 
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of 
households that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by 
the U.S. Census Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed and unemployed 
persons on a place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the civilian 
noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are 
those who did any work at all for pay or profit in the reference week (the 
week including the 12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without 
pay in a family business or farm, plus those not working who had a job from 
which they were temporarily absent, whether or not paid, for such reasons 
as labor management dispute, illness, or vacation. Unemployed persons are 
those who were not employed during the reference week (based on the 
definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for 
work; persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to 
be counted as unemployed. The labor force is the sum of employed and 
unemployed persons. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed 
expressed as a percent of the labor force. The employment-population ratio 
is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of 
age and older that is employed.

Method of estimation. Estimates for 48 of the 50 states, the District of 
Columbia, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, New 
York City, and the balances of California and New York State are produced 
using estimating equations based on regression techniques. This method 
utilizes data from several sources, including the CPS, the Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey of nonfarm payroll employment, and 
state unemployment insurance (UI) programs. Estimates for the State of 
California are derived by summing the estimates for the Los Angeles-Long 
Beach-Glendale metropolitan division and the balance of California. 
Similarly, estimates for New York State are derived by summing the 
estimates for New York City and the balance of New York State. Estimates 
for all nine census divisions are based on a similar regression approach 
that does not incorporate CES or UI data. Estimates for census regions 
are obtained by summing the model-based estimates for the component 
divisions and then calculating the unemployment rate. Each month, census 
division estimates are controlled to national totals; state estimates 
are then controlled to their respective division totals. Estimates for
Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the
CPS. A detailed description of the estimation procedures is available
from BLS upon request. 

Annual revisions. Labor force and unemployment data for prior years 
reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year. The adjusted 
estimates incorporate updated population controls from the U.S. Census 
Bureau, any revisions in the other data sources, and model re-estimation. 
The population controls reflect extrapolation from the 2010 Census. In 
most years, historical data for the most recent 5 years (both seasonally 
adjusted and not seasonally adjusted) are revised near the beginning of 
each calendar year, prior to the release of January estimates. Though 
the labor force estimates typically are updated for 5 years, the 
population estimates are revised back to the decennial estimates base 
(April 2010).

Reliability of the estimates

The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, 
administrative data, and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and 
other types of errors. Sampling error is a measure of sampling variability--
that is, variation that occurs by chance because a sample rather than 
the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to 
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data 
collection and processing operations. Estimates not directly derived 
from sample surveys are subject to additional errors resulting from the 
specific estimation processes used. In table 1, level estimates for 
states may not sum to level estimates for regions and divisions because 
of rounding. Unemployment rates and employment-population ratios are 
computed from unrounded levels and, thus, may differ slightly from rates 
and ratios computed using the rounded level estimates displayed in table 1.

Use of error measures. Changes in unemployment rates and employment-population
ratios are cited in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined
to be statistically significant. Furthermore, unemployment rates and
employment-population ratios for the latest year generally are cited only
if they have been determined to be significantly different from the corresponding
U.S. measure. The underlying model-based error measures are available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lastderr.htm. BLS uses 90-percent confidence levels in determining
whether changes in LAUS unemployment rates and employment-population ratios are
statistically significant. The average magnitude of the over-the-year change in
an annual state unemployment rate that is required in order to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level is about 0.4 percentage point. The 
average magnitude of the over-the-year change in an annual state employment-
population ratio that is required in order to be statistically significant 
at the 90-percent confidence level is about 0.5 percentage point. Measures 
of nonsampling error are not available.

Additional information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay 
Service: (800) 877-8339.




Table 1.  Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over by region, division, and state,
2017-18 annual averages
 
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                    Population      Civilian labor       Employed         Unemployed     Unemployment                
                                                        force                                                rate      Error range of
  Region, division, and state                                                                                          rate, 2018 (1)
                                                                                                                                     
                                  2017     2018     2017     2018     2017     2018      2017     2018    2017   2018                
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     

     United States.............  255,079  257,791  160,320  162,075  153,337  155,761    6,982    6,314    4.4    3.9    3.8  -  4.0

Northeast......................   45,074   45,168   28,385   28,495   27,110   27,362    1,275    1,133    4.5    4.0    3.8  -  4.1
   New England.................   12,045   12,110    7,946    8,073    7,638    7,793      307      280    3.9    3.5    3.2  -  3.7
      Connecticut..............    2,878    2,883    1,897    1,905    1,808    1,827       89       78    4.7    4.1    3.5  -  4.7
      Maine....................    1,099    1,104      698      699      675      675       24       24    3.4    3.4    2.8  -  3.9
      Massachusetts............    5,586    5,630    3,696    3,805    3,557    3,678      139      127    3.8    3.3    3.0  -  3.7
      New Hampshire............    1,105    1,114      754      762      734      743       20       19    2.7    2.5    2.2  -  2.9
      Rhode Island.............      859      861      554      556      529      533       24       23    4.4    4.1    3.5  -  4.7
      Vermont..................      516      519      346      346      336      337       10        9    3.0    2.7    2.3  -  3.0

   Middle Atlantic.............   33,030   33,058   20,440   20,422   19,472   19,569      968      853    4.7    4.2    4.0  -  4.4
      New Jersey...............    7,058    7,082    4,454    4,423    4,248    4,240      206      183    4.6    4.1    3.7  -  4.6
      New York.................   15,724   15,705    9,561    9,575    9,114    9,181      448      394    4.7    4.1    3.8  -  4.4
      Pennsylvania.............   10,248   10,271    6,425    6,424    6,111    6,149      314      276    4.9    4.3    3.9  -  4.7

Midwest........................   53,468   53,674   34,777   34,817   33,344   33,530    1,433    1,287    4.1    3.7    3.6  -  3.8
   East North Central..........   36,961   37,072   23,623   23,642   22,570   22,687    1,053      955    4.5    4.0    3.8  -  4.2
      Illinois.................   10,049   10,035    6,490    6,470    6,171    6,191      319      278    4.9    4.3    3.9  -  4.7
      Indiana..................    5,176    5,208    3,337    3,382    3,218    3,266      119      116    3.6    3.4    3.0  -  3.9
      Michigan.................    7,954    7,986    4,886    4,902    4,661    4,699      225      203    4.6    4.1    3.7  -  4.6
      Ohio.....................    9,193    9,229    5,770    5,755    5,483    5,492      287      263    5.0    4.6    4.2  -  5.0
      Wisconsin................    4,589    4,615    3,140    3,133    3,037    3,039      103       94    3.3    3.0    2.6  -  3.4

   West North Central..........   16,507   16,602   11,154   11,176   10,774   10,843      380      332    3.4    3.0    2.8  -  3.2
      Iowa.....................    2,453    2,465    1,678    1,687    1,626    1,644       52       43    3.1    2.5    2.1  -  2.9
      Kansas...................    2,217    2,222    1,479    1,482    1,425    1,432       54       50    3.7    3.4    2.9  -  3.8
      Minnesota................    4,357    4,395    3,057    3,070    2,953    2,981      104       89    3.4    2.9    2.5  -  3.3
      Missouri.................    4,776    4,796    3,061    3,052    2,946    2,955      115       98    3.8    3.2    2.8  -  3.6
      Nebraska.................    1,463    1,474    1,012    1,020      982      992       29       29    2.9    2.8    2.4  -  3.2
      North Dakota.............      579      582      410      404      399      394       11       11    2.7    2.6    2.3  -  3.0
      South Dakota.............      662      669      456      459      442      446       15       14    3.2    3.0    2.6  -  3.5

South..........................   96,100   97,203   59,137   59,772   56,571   57,497    2,566    2,275    4.3    3.8    3.7  -  3.9
   South Atlantic..............   51,037   51,681   31,557   31,846   30,196   30,670    1,362    1,176    4.3    3.7    3.5  -  3.9
      Delaware.................      762      772      477      482      455      464       21       18    4.5    3.8    3.2  -  4.3
      District of Columbia.....      570      575      401      405      377      382       24       22    6.1    5.6    5.0  -  6.1
      Florida..................   16,940   17,233   10,093   10,235    9,669    9,870      424      365    4.2    3.6    3.3  -  3.9
      Georgia..................    7,995    8,099    5,059    5,108    4,822    4,906      237      201    4.7    3.9    3.5  -  4.3
      Maryland.................    4,736    4,755    3,193    3,197    3,058    3,072      136      125    4.3    3.9    3.5  -  4.4
      North Carolina...........    8,029    8,141    4,938    4,982    4,717    4,787      221      195    4.5    3.9    3.5  -  4.3
      South Carolina...........    3,946    4,004    2,306    2,323    2,207    2,244       99       80    4.3    3.4    3.0  -  3.9
      Virginia.................    6,595    6,645    4,310    4,331    4,150    4,203      159      129    3.7    3.0    2.6  -  3.3
      West Virginia............    1,464    1,456      780      783      739      742       41       41    5.2    5.3    4.7  -  5.8

   East South Central..........   14,869   14,958    8,703    8,781    8,320    8,431      382      350    4.4    4.0    3.7  -  4.2
      Alabama..................    3,833    3,847    2,178    2,199    2,082    2,112       97       86    4.4    3.9    3.5  -  4.4
      Kentucky.................    3,475    3,490    2,054    2,062    1,953    1,972      101       89    4.9    4.3    3.8  -  4.9
      Mississippi..............    2,290    2,293    1,281    1,276    1,215    1,215       65       61    5.1    4.8    4.2  -  5.3
      Tennessee................    5,270    5,329    3,190    3,245    3,070    3,132      120      113    3.8    3.5    3.1  -  3.9

   West South Central..........   30,195   30,563   18,877   19,145   18,055   18,396      822      749    4.4    3.9    3.7  -  4.1
      Arkansas.................    2,324    2,336    1,348    1,351    1,298    1,301       50       50    3.7    3.7    3.3  -  4.1
      Louisiana................    3,584    3,582    2,104    2,103    1,996    2,001      108      103    5.1    4.9    4.4  -  5.4
      Oklahoma.................    3,000    3,011    1,836    1,842    1,758    1,779       78       63    4.2    3.4    2.9  -  3.9
      Texas....................   21,287   21,635   13,589   13,848   13,003   13,314      586      534    4.3    3.9    3.6  -  4.1

West...........................   60,358   61,046   37,975   38,555   36,269   36,954    1,706    1,601    4.5    4.2    4.0  -  4.3
   Mountain....................   18,679   19,028   11,916   12,224   11,433   11,736      483      487    4.1    4.0    3.8  -  4.2
      Arizona..................    5,492    5,606    3,328    3,440    3,165    3,274      163      166    4.9    4.8    4.3  -  5.3
      Colorado.................    4,399    4,477    2,992    3,096    2,911    2,995       81      102    2.7    3.3    2.8  -  3.7
      Idaho....................    1,305    1,337      835      857      808      833       27       24    3.2    2.8    2.5  -  3.2
      Montana..................      834      843      525      528      504      509       21       20    3.9    3.7    3.3  -  4.2
      Nevada...................    2,328    2,382    1,458    1,500    1,385    1,432       74       68    5.1    4.6    4.0  -  5.1
      New Mexico...............    1,625    1,633      936      940      881      894       55       47    5.9    4.9    4.4  -  5.5
      Utah.....................    2,248    2,303    1,548    1,572    1,498    1,523       50       49    3.3    3.1    2.7  -  3.5
      Wyoming..................      448      448      293      290      281      278       12       12    4.2    4.1    3.6  -  4.6

   Pacific.....................   41,679   42,018   26,059   26,331   24,836   25,218    1,223    1,114    4.7    4.2    4.0  -  4.4
      Alaska...................      547      547      361      357      336      333       25       24    7.0    6.6    5.9  -  7.3
      California...............   30,865   31,063   19,205   19,398   18,285   18,583      920      815    4.8    4.2    4.0  -  4.4
      Hawaii...................    1,093    1,092      684      679      667      662       17       17    2.4    2.4    2.0  -  2.8
      Oregon...................    3,332    3,376    2,091    2,105    2,005    2,017       86       87    4.1    4.2    3.7  -  4.6
      Washington...............    5,842    5,941    3,719    3,793    3,544    3,622      175      171    4.7    4.5    4.1  -  4.9

Puerto Rico....................    2,739    2,682    1,096    1,084      977      985      119      100   10.8    9.2         NA

   1 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Unemployment rates are in percent and are based on unrounded levels. Data for subnational
areas reflect revised population controls and model re-estimation. As a result, they do not sum to U.S. totals. Data for Puerto Rico
are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey.

Table 2.  Employment-population ratios of persons 16 years of age and over by region, division,
and state, 2017-18 annual averages

(Percent)
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                   Employment-population                                        
                                         ratio (1)        Over-the-       Error range of       
  Region, division, and state                               year                ratio,
                                                           change              2018 (2)          
                                      2017       2018                                           
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
     United States.............       60.1       60.4        0.3          60.2    -    60.6

Northeast......................       60.1       60.6         .5          60.2    -    61.0
   New England.................       63.4       64.4        1.0          63.7    -    65.0
      Connecticut..............       62.8       63.4         .6          62.1    -    64.7
      Maine....................       61.4       61.2        -.2          59.8    -    62.6
      Massachusetts............       63.7       65.3        1.6          64.4    -    66.2
      New Hampshire............       66.4       66.6         .2          65.6    -    67.7
      Rhode Island.............       61.6       61.9         .3          60.7    -    63.2
      Vermont..................       65.0       64.9        -.1          63.8    -    66.1

   Middle Atlantic.............       59.0       59.2         .2          58.7    -    59.7
      New Jersey...............       60.2       59.9        -.3          58.9    -    60.8
      New York.................       58.0       58.5         .5          57.8    -    59.2
      Pennsylvania.............       59.6       59.9         .3          59.1    -    60.6

Midwest........................       62.4       62.5         .1          62.1    -    62.9
   East North Central..........       61.1       61.2         .1          60.7    -    61.7
      Illinois.................       61.4       61.7         .3          60.9    -    62.5
      Indiana..................       62.2       62.7         .5          61.6    -    63.8
      Michigan.................       58.6       58.8         .2          57.9    -    59.7
      Ohio.....................       59.6       59.5        -.1          58.7    -    60.3
      Wisconsin................       66.2       65.9        -.3          64.8    -    66.9

   West North Central..........       65.3       65.3         .0          64.7    -    65.9
      Iowa.....................       66.3       66.7         .4          65.5    -    68.0
      Kansas...................       64.3       64.5         .2          63.3    -    65.6
      Minnesota................       67.8       67.8         .0          66.7    -    69.0
      Missouri.................       61.7       61.6        -.1          60.6    -    62.6
      Nebraska.................       67.1       67.3         .2          66.3    -    68.3
      North Dakota.............       68.9       67.7       -1.2          66.2    -    69.2
      South Dakota.............       66.7       66.6        -.1          65.3    -    67.9

South..........................       58.9       59.2         .3          58.9    -    59.4
   South Atlantic..............       59.2       59.3         .1          58.9    -    59.8
      Delaware.................       59.8       60.2         .4          58.9    -    61.4
      District of Columbia.....       66.2       66.5         .3          65.3    -    67.7
      Florida..................       57.1       57.3         .2          56.6    -    57.9
      Georgia..................       60.3       60.6         .3          59.7    -    61.5
      Maryland.................       64.6       64.6         .0          63.5    -    65.7
      North Carolina...........       58.8       58.8         .0          58.0    -    59.6
      South Carolina...........       55.9       56.0         .1          55.2    -    56.9
      Virginia.................       62.9       63.2         .3          62.3    -    64.2
      West Virginia............       50.5       51.0         .5          49.3    -    52.6

   East South Central..........       56.0       56.4         .4          55.7    -    57.0
      Alabama..................       54.3       54.9         .6          53.9    -    55.9
      Kentucky.................       56.2       56.5         .3          55.3    -    57.7
      Mississippi..............       53.1       53.0        -.1          51.8    -    54.2
      Tennessee................       58.3       58.8         .5          57.7    -    59.8

   West South Central..........       59.8       60.2         .4          59.7    -    60.7
      Arkansas.................       55.8       55.7        -.1          54.7    -    56.7
      Louisiana................       55.7       55.9         .2          54.8    -    56.9
      Oklahoma.................       58.6       59.1         .5          57.9    -    60.3
      Texas....................       61.1       61.5         .4          61.0    -    62.1

West...........................       60.1       60.5         .4          60.2    -    60.9
   Mountain....................       61.2       61.7         .5          61.1    -    62.3
      Arizona..................       57.6       58.4         .8          57.3    -    59.4
      Colorado.................       66.2       66.9         .7          65.7    -    68.1
      Idaho....................       61.9       62.3         .4          61.2    -    63.4
      Montana..................       60.5       60.3        -.2          59.3    -    61.4
      Nevada...................       59.5       60.1         .6          59.2    -    61.1
      New Mexico...............       54.2       54.7         .5          53.6    -    55.9
      Utah.....................       66.6       66.1        -.5          65.1    -    67.2
      Wyoming..................       62.6       62.1        -.5          60.7    -    63.4

   Pacific.....................       59.6       60.0         .4          59.6    -    60.4
      Alaska...................       61.4       60.9        -.5          59.5    -    62.4
      California...............       59.2       59.8         .6          59.4    -    60.3
      Hawaii...................       61.0       60.6        -.4          59.5    -    61.8
      Oregon...................       60.2       59.8        -.4          58.5    -    61.0
      Washington...............       60.7       61.0         .3          60.0    -    61.9

Puerto Rico....................       35.7       36.7        1.0                  NA

   1 Employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age
and over.
   2 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded
data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Employment-population ratios are based on
unrounded levels. Data for subnational areas reflect revised population controls and model
re-estimation. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to
the Current Population Survey.

Last Modified Date: February 28, 2019