U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                              USDL-17-0034
8:30 a.m. (EST) Thursday, January 12, 2017

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Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                         U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - DECEMBER 2016

Prices for U.S. imports rose 0.4 percent in December, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, 
after a 0.2-percent decline the previous month. The advance in December was primarily driven by higher 
fuel prices which more than offset lower nonfuel prices. U.S. export prices advanced in December, rising 
0.3 percent following a 0.1-percent decrease in November. 

Imports

All Imports: Import prices resumed an upward trend in December, rising 0.4 percent following a 0.2-
percent decline in November. Prices for overall imports advanced 1.8 percent between December 2015 and 
December 2016, the largest 12-month increase since the index rose 3.5 percent in March 2012. The increase 
in 2016 was the first calendar-year advance since import prices rose 8.5 percent in 2011. 

Fuel Imports: Prices for import fuel advanced 7.3 percent in December, the largest monthly increase since 
the index rose 10.5 percent in June. The December increase was primarily led by a 7.9-percent advance in 
petroleum prices. Natural gas prices also rose in December, increasing 2.2 percent. The price index for 
import fuel advanced 25.0 percent in 2016 following a 41.0-percent drop the previous year. The 2016 
increase was the first year that fuel prices rose since a 24.9-percent rise in 2011, and the largest calendar-
year advance since a 62.2-percent jump in 2009.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: The price index for nonfuel imports declined for the third consecutive month 
in December, falling 0.2 percent. The December drop matched a 0.2-percent decline in June and those were 
the largest drops since the index decreased 0.3 percent in December 2015. In December 2016, the decrease 
was led by lower prices for foods, feeds, and beverages as well as each of the finished goods areas. In 
contrast, nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices rose. Nonfuel import prices edged down 0.1 
percent in 2016 following a 3.4-percent drop the previous year. 

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2015

December

-1.2 -10.0 -0.3 -1.1 -0.9 -1.1

2016

January

-1.3 -15.6 -0.1 -0.9 -1.3 -0.9

February

-0.5 -6.8 -0.1 -0.4 0.7 -0.6

March

0.4 8.5 -0.1 -0.1 -2.1 0.2

April

0.7 9.8 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.4

May

1.2 12.7 0.3 1.1 3.0 1.0

June

0.7 10.5 -0.2 0.8 2.5 0.5

July

0.1 -2.1 0.3 0.2 -0.3 0.3

August

-0.2 -3.4 0.0 -0.8 -3.4 -0.6

September

0.1 (r)1.3 0.0 0.3 (r)-1.0 0.5

October

0.4 (r)6.5 -0.1 0.2 0.5 0.2

November

(r)-0.2 (r)-2.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.6 -0.1

December

0.4 7.3 -0.2 0.3 -0.3 0.4

Dec. 2014 to 2015

-8.3 -41.0 -3.4 -6.6 -12.9 -5.9

Dec. 2015 to 2016

1.8 25.0 -0.1 1.1 -0.5 1.3

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports

All Exports: Export prices advanced 0.3 percent in December matching the 0.3-percent rise in September; 
those were the largest increases for the index since a 0.8-percent rise in June. In December, higher 
nonagricultural prices more than offset declining agricultural prices. Prices for overall exports rose 1.1 
percent for the year ended in December, the first 12-month increase since the index advanced 0.4 percent in 
August 2014 and the largest over-the-year rise since a 1.5-percent increase in February 2013. 

Agricultural Exports: Prices for agricultural exports decreased 0.3 percent in December following a 0.6-
percent increase in November and a 0.5-percent advance in October. The December drop was led by an 8.0-
percent decline in vegetable prices and a 4.9-percent fall in fruit prices. The price index for agricultural 
exports declined 0.5 percent in 2016, after decreasing 12.9 percent in 2015. Agricultural prices have not 
recorded a calendar-year advance since the index rose 13.4 percent in 2012. 

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Nonagricultural prices increased 0.4 percent in December, after 
edging down 0.1 percent in November. The December increase was driven by higher prices for 
nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials which more than offset lower finished goods prices. The 
price index for nonagricultural exports increased 1.3 percent in 2016, the first calendar-year advance since 
the index rose 4.0 percent in 2011. 


                                     SELECTED DECEMBER HIGHLIGHTS

Import Prices

Imports by Locality of Origin: Import prices from China recorded no change in December. The price 
index for imports from China declined 1.7 percent in 2016, the same decrease recorded in 2015; those are 
the largest calendar-year drops since the index fell 1.8 percent in 2009. Prices for imports from Japan also 
recorded no change in December, but in contrast to import prices from China, increased over the past year. 
The price index for imports from Japan rose 1.5 percent in 2016, the first calendar-year advance since a 0.7-
percent rise in 2012 and the largest since a 2.3-percent increase in 2011. Prices for imports from Canada and 
Mexico each rose in December, up 2.3 percent and 0.3 percent, respectively. Import prices from the 
European Union fell 0.2 percent in December. 

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: The price index for nonfuel industrial supplies and materials 
advanced 0.6 percent in December, after recording no change in November. The December advance was led 
by higher prices for steelmaking materials, chemicals, and industrial agricultural products. 

Finished Goods: Each of the major finished goods price indexes decreased in December. Consumer goods 
prices declined 0.3 percent for the second consecutive month, and decreased 1.0 percent in 2016. The 2016 
decline was the largest calendar-year decrease since consumer goods prices fell 1.2 percent in 2000. Prices 
for capital goods declined 0.2 percent in December and automotive vehicles prices edged down 0.1 percent. 

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: The price index for foods, feeds, and beverages declined 1.4 percent in 
December, after a 1.3-percent increase the previous month. The downturn was led by lower fruit prices 
which had contributed to the advance in November. 

Transportation Services: Import air passenger fares advanced 1.3 percent in December following a 2.7-
percent drop the previous month. The December increase was driven by a 17.4-percent rise in Asian fares 
and an 8.3-percent advance in Latin American/Caribbean fares which more than offset falling European 
fares. Import air passenger fares declined for the second consecutive year, dropping 4.2 percent in 2016, 
after decreasing 9.9 percent in 2015. Prices for import air freight fell 0.7 percent in December and 0.9 
percent over the past 12 months. 

Export Prices

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials 
prices rose 2.0 percent in December, led by a 7.7-percent increase in export fuel prices. 

Finished Goods: Export finished goods prices declined overall in December. Prices for consumer goods fell 
1.0 percent, the largest monthly decline since the index fell 1.4 percent in June 1991. Prices for automotive 
vehicles declined 0.2 percent. Capital goods prices recorded no change in December. Over the past year, the 
price indexes for consumer goods and automotive vehicles decreased 2.5 percent and 0.8 percent, 
respectively, in each case the largest calendar-year decline since the indexes were first published. 

Transportation Services: Export air passenger fares rose 7.7 percent in December following a 4.1-percent 
rise in November and a 2.5-percent advance in October. In December, European, Asian, and Latin 
American/Caribbean fares all increased. Overall export air passenger fares advanced 4.6 percent in 2016, 
after decreasing 14.6 percent the previous year. The price index for export air freight rose 0.2 percent in 
December; despite the advance, prices for export air freight fell 1.0 percent over the past 12 months. 

Import and Export Price Index data for January 2017 are scheduled for release on Friday, February 10, 2017 
at 8:30 a.m. (EST). 


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

All commodities

  100.000 120.9 121.4 1.8 0.1 0.4 -0.2 0.4

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  85.003 98.0 97.9 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

All imports excluding petroleum

  92.097 111.0 110.8 0.0 0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.2

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  91.413 115.0 114.8 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

6.410 181.9 179.4 4.1 0.4 -0.7 1.3 -1.4

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.981 200.1 196.6 3.4 0.4 -1.0 1.6 -1.7

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.429 140.9 140.5 6.2 0.8 0.5 0.2 -0.3

Industrial supplies & materials

1

22.018 158.6 163.7 10.5 0.1 2.1 -0.9 3.2

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  14.114 141.5 142.4 2.9 -0.3 -0.8 0.4 0.6

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  13.430 160.0 161.0 2.4 -0.7 -0.6 0.0 0.6

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  8.195 149.6 150.5 4.9 -0.9 -1.2 0.1 0.6

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.236 131.1 132.2 0.3 0.5 -0.2 0.5 0.8

Fuels & lubricants

10

8.588 158.0 169.6 25.0 1.3 6.5 -2.2 7.3

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

7.904 169.2 182.5 26.2 0.9 7.5 -3.0 7.9

Crude

10000

5.612 168.4 187.1 33.7 -0.4 8.1 -5.4 11.1

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.516 102.5 104.5 16.9 9.2 -3.8 9.3 2.0

Gas-natural

10110

0.424 86.9 88.8 24.0 11.5 -4.6 10.8 2.2

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.559 104.4 105.6 -2.6 -1.1 -0.8 -0.6 1.1

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.742 149.4 150.2 -1.1 -0.1 0.5 -0.2 0.5

Selected building materials

13

1.293 136.5 137.4 2.3 -0.3 -0.1 -0.6 0.7

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.475 197.1 199.1 12.4 -1.7 -2.1 0.7 1.0

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.665 143.7 143.8 -1.2 -0.8 -1.3 0.1 0.1

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.696 107.5 107.8 -0.6 0.3 -0.1 -0.4 0.3

Capital goods

2

28.315 88.7 88.5 -1.4 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2

Electric generating equipment

20

3.453 116.0 116.2 -0.3 0.0 -0.1 0.2 0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

22.170 81.1 80.9 -1.7 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.692 136.3 136.2 -0.6 -0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

16.107 110.6 110.5 0.0 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

27.151 106.4 106.1 -1.0 0.0 0.1 -0.3 -0.3

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.979 119.3 119.3 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

12.688 93.7 93.4 -1.7 -0.1 0.3 -0.5 -0.3

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.484 118.4 115.5 -4.0 0.4 0.1 -0.2 -2.4

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

All commodities

  100.000 120.7 121.1 1.1 0.3 0.2 -0.1 0.3

Agricultural commodities

  9.022 175.3 174.8 -0.5 -1.0 0.5 0.6 -0.3

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  84.430 98.3 98.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.1 -0.2

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.978 116.6 117.1 1.3 0.5 0.2 -0.1 0.4

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.463 177.2 176.2 -0.6 -0.8 0.5 0.7 -0.6

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

7.762 176.7 175.9 -0.9 -1.1 0.5 0.9 -0.5

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.701 191.9 186.8 2.5 2.9 0.2 -0.7 -2.7

Industrial supplies & materials

1

29.231 142.8 145.6 6.0 1.3 0.9 -0.3 2.0

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.745 155.0 154.6 4.7 0.0 -0.8 1.0 -0.3

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  18.487 137.1 141.6 6.7 2.0 2.0 -1.0 3.3

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.260 172.0 172.9 1.8 -0.3 0.8 -1.3 0.5

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  27.971 141.8 144.7 6.1 1.4 0.9 -0.3 2.0

Fuels & lubricants

11

7.107 151.4 163.1 19.1 5.9 5.1 -2.9 7.7

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.816 149.7 149.8 2.0 -0.1 -0.5 0.7 0.1

Selected building materials

13

1.048 117.0 117.9 3.0 0.8 -0.2 0.3 0.8

Capital goods

2

38.824 106.7 106.7 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.944 111.8 111.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

26.137 93.7 93.6 -1.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

8.743 164.9 165.1 2.0 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.674 112.8 112.6 -0.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.2

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.808 109.8 108.7 -2.5 0.2 -0.5 -0.2 -1.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

5.829 105.9 105.2 -1.9 0.2 -0.5 -0.3 -0.7

Durables, manufactured

41

5.354 107.2 106.9 -2.4 0.1 -0.7 0.0 -0.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Nonmanufacturing

  8.501 88.0 94.1 23.7 0.6 5.0 -2.7 6.9

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

2.156 187.0 182.3 3.1 1.5 -1.8 2.4 -2.5

Crop production

111

1.790 206.1 196.7 2.6 2.2 -2.1 3.0 -4.6

Animal production (Dec. 2014=100)

112

0.184 70.8 73.6 -4.5 -4.2 -4.7 -1.9 4.0

Mining

21

6.345 76.0 83.7 31.6 0.3 7.3 -4.2 10.1

Mining (except oil and gas) (Dec. 2006=100)

212

0.240 95.7 96.8 -0.6 0.7 0.3 0.1 1.1

Manufacturing

  91.192 108.9 108.8 -0.2 0.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

12.180 123.9 123.9 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0

Food manufacturing

311

3.521 154.3 154.5 4.9 0.4 -0.1 0.5 0.1

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.088 118.0 118.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 -0.3 0.0

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.401 97.9 97.7 -1.7 0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.2

Textile product mills

314

0.895 109.0 108.8 -1.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.2

Apparel manufacturing

315

4.359 111.2 111.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.915 123.0 123.0 -1.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Manufacturing, part 2

32

16.879 116.6 116.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.0

Wood product manufacturing

321

0.783 114.8 116.2 4.9 -0.5 0.0 -0.8 1.2

Paper manufacturing

322

1.058 103.8 104.5 -1.3 -0.8 -0.5 -0.2 0.7

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.134 80.3 79.8 7.4 4.4 5.0 3.6 -0.6

Chemical manufacturing

325

9.394 130.1 130.3 -0.6 -0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.274 117.4 116.8 -1.3 -0.1 -0.3 0.1 -0.5

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

1.029 129.2 128.9 -1.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 3

33

62.133 103.2 103.0 -0.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.213 130.3 131.5 9.1 -1.9 -1.7 0.4 0.9

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.085 121.5 121.3 -2.1 0.0 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2

Machinery manufacturing

333

7.682 116.3 116.1 -1.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.2

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

17.850 75.8 75.8 -1.9 0.1 -0.1 -0.5 0.0

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

4.838 114.9 114.9 -1.0 0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

17.315 109.8 109.7 0.1 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.653 114.5 114.4 -0.6 0.0 0.0 -0.3 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.497 119.1 117.7 -1.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.2 -1.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Nonmanufacturing

  6.935 122.5 132.1 10.2 0.1 0.6 -0.3 7.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.587 152.5 151.6 -1.7 -0.9 1.1 1.2 -0.6

Crop production

111

4.304 158.8 158.2 -1.0 -1.5 1.1 1.4 -0.4

Mining

21

2.348 67.0 83.3 35.9 2.1 -0.3 -3.3 24.3

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.296 89.3 94.3 22.2 1.3 4.4 6.4 5.6

Manufacturing

  91.707 111.4 111.5 0.7 0.3 0.2 -0.1 0.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.756 135.0 135.2 1.2 -0.4 -0.3 -0.1 0.1

Food manufacturing

311

4.559 152.4 152.8 2.3 -0.5 -0.2 0.3 0.3

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.618 108.0 108.2 0.8 -0.7 -0.8 -3.6 0.2

Manufacturing, part 2

32

23.311 106.4 107.8 3.1 1.4 1.3 -0.7 1.3

Paper manufacturing

322

1.687 117.9 118.3 -3.2 -0.2 -1.2 -0.8 0.3

Printing and related support activities (Dec. 2015=100)

323

0.268 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

4.656 88.9 94.8 22.3 7.5 7.7 -3.7 6.6

Chemical manufacturing

325

12.960 114.2 114.3 -0.5 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.351 113.8 113.4 -2.7 0.1 -0.6 0.2 -0.4

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.865 112.7 112.4 -0.3 0.2 -0.3 0.1 -0.3

Manufacturing, part 3

33

61.640 111.0 110.6 -0.3 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.4

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.314 136.3 132.9 4.4 -0.3 -1.8 0.7 -2.5

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.295 130.4 130.2 0.3 0.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.2

Machinery manufacturing

333

11.573 125.8 125.6 0.4 -0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

14.299 82.9 82.8 -2.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.816 112.0 112.0 -0.4 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

18.338 122.3 122.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.418 118.0 117.3 6.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.6

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.586 119.7 117.8 -3.5 0.1 -0.1 0.1 -1.6

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Live animals; animal products

I

1.468 188.5 187.9 6.0 -0.2 -1.2 0.1 -0.3

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.386 237.3 234.4 7.2 -0.4 -1.8 1.3 -1.2

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.801 144.9 143.8 11.4 1.3 0.3 0.3 -0.8

Vegetable products

II

2.294 228.0 218.9 4.7 3.2 -1.0 2.7 -4.0

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.534 485.2 490.7 -5.6 21.5 -4.3 -3.6 1.1

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.834 137.3 124.8 27.9 -4.0 0.2 7.8 -9.1

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.387 244.9 233.8 1.1 0.6 -0.6 4.5 -4.5

Oilseeds & misc grains, seeds, plants, straw & fodder (Dec. 2015=100)

12

0.161 99.1 89.7 -10.3 -7.9 2.1 2.1 -9.5

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.298 113.8 118.0 21.5 3.3 -0.8 3.5 3.7

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.771 160.3 160.9 1.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.4

Sugars and sugar confectionary (Dec. 2012=100)

17

0.195 88.0 90.2 6.2 -0.2 0.5 0.9 2.5

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.229 106.5 104.8 -9.3 1.4 -3.0 -4.1 -1.6

Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers' wares (Dec. 2007=100)

19

0.285 132.7 132.4 0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.2

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.335 161.0 163.6 5.8 0.9 1.1 -0.2 1.6

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.026 127.9 127.9 -0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.2 0.0

Mineral products

V

8.620 157.4 168.9 24.2 1.1 6.6 -2.2 7.3

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

8.381 155.1 166.7 25.4 1.2 6.8 -2.3 7.5

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

8.777 145.6 146.0 -0.2 -0.2 -0.3 0.0 0.3

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.535 249.7 254.7 -8.2 -1.1 -2.0 0.0 2.0

Organic chemicals

29

2.374 120.4 121.4 -0.3 0.3 -0.3 -0.3 0.8

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.801 140.4 140.4 1.2 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.272 74.1 75.5 -18.4 -4.0 -0.4 5.6 1.9

Tanning extracts; dye, pigments, varnish, paints & putty (Dec. 2011=100)

32

0.197 102.3 101.4 3.7 0.3 0.9 -0.2 -0.9

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.668 101.9 101.8 14.0 0.2 -0.1 0.1 -0.1

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.507 137.2 137.3 -0.3 0.0 0.4 -0.1 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.236 139.9 139.1 -2.0 0.1 0.3 -0.4 -0.6

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.271 133.9 135.6 2.9 -0.2 0.6 0.4 1.3

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.704 123.4 123.3 -2.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.671 128.7 128.6 -1.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

0.819 139.8 141.5 4.7 -0.4 -0.1 -0.8 1.2

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (Dec. 2014=100)

44

0.794 96.1 97.2 4.7 -0.4 0.0 -0.8 1.1

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.141 108.8 109.8 -0.5 -0.5 -0.2 0.0 0.9

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.774 103.6 103.6 -1.1 -0.3 -0.8 0.1 0.0

Printed matter (Dec. 2015=100)

49

0.218 103.9 105.8 5.8 0.3 1.5 1.5 1.8

Textile and textile articles

XI

5.475 113.2 113.1 -0.5 0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

2.267 103.7 103.8 -0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.887 119.2 119.1 -0.3 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.635 103.5 103.4 -1.3 0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.1

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.523 122.3 122.3 -0.9 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.299 121.4 121.4 -0.9 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.955 130.8 130.4 -1.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.327 97.7 97.0 -3.0 -0.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.7

Ceramic products

69

0.281 137.0 137.0 -0.8 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Glass and glassware

70

0.347 129.7 129.7 0.2 0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

3.113 172.9 165.0 3.4 -1.3 -2.2 0.1 -4.6

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.444 155.7 159.2 2.9 -0.6 -0.8 0.4 2.2

Iron and steel

72

1.316 167.8 175.9 11.6 -1.4 -2.6 0.1 4.8

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.689 136.1 136.1 -4.2 -0.6 -0.7 -0.1 0.0

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.369 248.6 270.3 6.5 0.1 -1.1 3.9 8.7

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.726 121.4 122.0 0.5 -1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.443 122.0 121.7 -3.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.521 135.2 135.0 -2.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

30.442 80.5 80.4 -1.6 0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.449 85.4 85.2 -1.7 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

14.993 75.8 75.8 -1.3 0.0 0.4 -0.4 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.383 114.2 114.0 -0.1 0.0 0.4 -0.1 -0.2

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.891 112.9 112.6 -0.1 0.1 0.4 -0.1 -0.3

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.416 118.9 118.9 -0.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.996 102.8 102.7 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 -0.1

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.665 99.6 99.4 -0.4 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 -0.2

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.267 141.6 141.5 1.1 0.6 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.181 111.7 111.6 -0.5 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.562 116.4 116.3 -0.3 0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.347 103.3 103.4 -0.5 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.272 131.8 131.7 -1.6 -0.6 -1.7 0.0 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Live animals; animal products

I

1.779 192.1 193.0 6.0 1.5 0.4 0.1 0.5

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.026 147.8 149.6 7.6 -0.9 0.3 0.6 1.2

Vegetable products

II

4.298 194.1 191.9 -2.3 -1.7 1.3 2.1 -1.1

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.912 151.6 145.8 -14.3 -2.1 7.0 -0.2 -3.8

Cereals

10

1.202 170.9 167.8 -9.5 -3.7 2.8 1.2 -1.8

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.613 199.8 207.1 9.7 -2.0 -2.8 0.4 3.7

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages,and tobacco

IV

2.937 147.9 147.6 -0.6 -1.0 -0.4 -0.4 -0.2

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants (Dec. 2009=100)

20

0.370 116.7 116.8 -1.8 0.0 -0.9 0.2 0.1

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.554 112.4 112.3 5.8 0.4 1.1 0.5 -0.1

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.659 200.0 203.0 2.0 -3.4 -1.0 -2.8 1.5

Mineral products

V

7.196 177.5 195.8 26.6 6.0 4.5 -1.2 10.3

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.542 85.8 89.8 27.7 3.4 0.5 5.1 4.7

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

6.453 169.0 187.7 27.4 6.4 5.0 -1.8 11.1

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.723 136.1 136.2 -1.7 0.0 -0.1 0.1 0.1

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.921 176.1 179.1 -2.6 -0.9 1.3 0.6 1.7

Organic chemicals

29

2.477 134.1 133.7 -0.7 0.2 0.3 0.9 -0.3

Pharmaceutical products

30

2.937 108.1 106.9 -2.1 0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -1.1

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.537 97.5 97.9 -2.1 -0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.4

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.808 131.1 131.0 -3.3 0.0 -2.6 0.0 -0.1

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.514 116.2 116.0 3.3 0.1 0.4 -0.1 -0.2

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.848 147.1 149.9 0.9 -0.3 -0.2 0.6 1.9

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.109 137.2 136.8 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.3 -0.3

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.127 132.7 132.4 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 -0.2

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.982 156.4 155.5 0.3 0.6 -1.1 1.1 -0.6

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc.

VIII

0.332 121.1 121.2 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.1

Raw hides and skins other than furskins and leather (Dec.2014=100)

41

0.198 70.5 70.5 2.3 0.3 0.7 1.4 0.0

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.638 93.9 95.3 -1.0 0.9 -1.5 -1.3 1.5

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

2.145 123.0 124.0 1.7 -0.9 -0.2 0.3 0.8

Woodpulp and recovered paper

47

0.647 130.8 134.8 11.1 -3.0 -0.5 1.2 3.1

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.117 118.5 118.3 -2.7 0.1 -0.3 -0.1 -0.2

Printed material (Dec. 2014=100)

49

0.381 100.6 100.6 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.702 119.4 119.7 -0.8 0.2 -0.3 -0.2 0.3

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.410 122.5 122.1 4.7 0.7 0.2 0.2 -0.3

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.868 123.1 122.9 0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.1 -0.2

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.295 101.3 101.3 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Glass and glassware

70

0.439 99.8 99.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.466 235.9 223.6 2.5 -0.3 -2.1 0.2 -5.2

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.992 144.4 147.3 3.9 -0.2 -0.1 1.2 2.0

Iron and steel

72

1.013 143.6 151.6 10.1 -0.4 -1.4 2.1 5.6

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.435 156.8 171.6 13.6 -3.0 1.9 2.8 9.4

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.787 106.3 106.8 3.1 0.0 -0.1 3.1 0.5

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal (Dec. 2015=100)

82

0.391 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.354 147.8 147.7 -0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

29.530 95.2 95.2 -1.0 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

17.668 112.1 112.1 -0.6 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.862 77.0 76.9 -1.5 -0.1 -0.4 0.1 -0.1

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

15.160 131.8 131.7 0.6 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

9.195 114.7 114.5 -0.3 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.2

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

6.173 106.0 105.6 -1.3 0.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.4

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.558 112.5 112.4 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.938 128.6 128.3 3.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.471 89.3 89.3 -0.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 117.3 118.0 2.2 0.1 0.4 -0.2 0.6

Nonmanufacturing

7.560 122.8 133.3 24.6 -0.7 7.5 -3.9 8.6

Manufacturing

92.005 116.4 116.3 0.4 0.2 -0.1 0.1 -0.1

Other Countries(3)

100.000 118.2 119.5 1.8 0.2 0.5 -0.2 1.1

Nonmanufacturing

9.011 180.5 196.7 25.8 0.9 4.3 -0.3 9.0

Manufacturing

90.741 102.7 102.9 -0.4 0.0 0.2 -0.1 0.2

Canada

100.000 119.7 122.4 7.1 0.1 1.7 -0.7 2.3

Nonmanufacturing

21.604 117.4 127.9 26.0 -1.0 8.1 -3.8 8.9

Manufacturing

77.645 124.3 124.7 2.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.3

European Union(4)

100.000 131.4 131.2 -0.6 0.1 0.2 -0.1 -0.2

Manufacturing

99.524 128.1 127.9 -0.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 -0.2

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 122.0 121.9 0.7 -0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 112.1 111.7 -4.0 0.2 -0.6 -0.1 -0.4

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 117.6 117.5 -1.7 -0.5 -0.2 -0.3 -0.1

Latin America(5)

100.000 140.6 143.9 4.4 0.0 0.6 0.2 2.3

Nonmanufacturing

17.168 205.7 224.1 27.9 1.9 3.9 0.0 8.9

Manufacturing

82.346 119.4 120.7 0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.2 1.1

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 126.2 126.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

9.320 118.0 119.7 23.8 0.5 -0.1 3.7 1.4

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

90.220 88.0 88.2 -1.3 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.2

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 98.4 98.3 -1.0 0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 100.2 100.2 -1.7 -0.1 -0.1 -0.4 0.0

Japan

100.000 96.5 96.5 1.5 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0

Asian NICs(7)

100.000 84.3 84.4 -0.8 0.4 -0.1 0.0 0.1

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(8)

100.000 97.1 97.4 -0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(9)

100.000 148.6 158.5 16.2 -0.4 3.3 0.3 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
(3) Eastern Europe, Latin America, OPEC countries, and other countries in Asia, Africa and the Western Hemisphere.
(4) European Union countries.
(5) Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
(6) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(7) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan.
(8) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
(9) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: December 2015 to December 2016 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2016(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2015
to
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2016
to
Sept.
2016
Sept.
2016
to
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2016
to
Nov.
2016
Nov.
2016
to
Dec.
2016

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 161.8 160.6 -0.9 1.1 6.2 -0.3 -0.7

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

22.529 139.0 136.8 -2.6 1.8 0.2 0.3 -1.6

Asia

64.358 148.1 147.3 -0.6 1.0 9.9 -0.6 -0.5

Export Air Freight

100.000 154.6 154.9 -1.0 -0.3 1.0 0.0 0.2

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

37.554 145.5 145.9 -2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 152.6 153.9 0.9 0.8 4.5 0.3 0.9

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

27.096 135.0 133.1 -1.4 0.8 -0.4 0.1 -1.4

Asia

59.124 139.4 142.4 2.6 1.0 8.0 0.4 2.2

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 136.4 136.5 -5.4 0.1 0.1 -0.5 0.1

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

33.289 143.3 143.3 -9.2 1.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Asia

43.172 128.6 128.7 -4.1 -0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.1

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 183.9 186.2 -4.2 4.2 6.3 -2.7 1.3

Europe

45.335 218.0 196.5 -4.4 10.0 6.9 -1.2 -9.9

Asia

21.377 124.7 146.4 -8.4 -5.6 4.8 -5.0 17.4

Latin America/Caribbean

9.786 161.8 175.3 2.8 -5.7 4.2 4.7 8.3

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 156.2 168.3 4.6 -11.1 2.5 4.1 7.7

Europe

30.516 203.8 217.8 9.3 0.5 2.6 2.4 6.9

Asia

28.031 134.7 141.2 1.3 -24.7 1.2 6.5 4.8

Latin America/Caribbean

23.312 162.9 171.1 5.0 -5.8 6.9 -1.0 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2014 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


					     TECHNICAL NOTE


Import and Export Merchandise and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) include 
outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS classification 
structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to produce the 
NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Indexes - Products have been classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Indexes - Products have been classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification 
system of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" 
(f.a.s.) factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Starting in September 2008, the import air passenger fares indexes represent 
changes in the average revenue per passenger received by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and are 
calculated from data obtained from an airline consulting service. These data include tickets sold by 
travel agencies and travel websites. Tickets sold directly by the airlines are excluded, as are frequent 
flyer tickets generally. Starting in January 2008, the export air passenger fares indexes represent changes 
in the average revenue per passenger received by U.S. carriers from foreign residents and are calculated 
from data collected directly from airlines. These data include frequent flyer tickets and those sold by 
consolidators. Taxes and fees are included in the import air passenger fares indexes and excluded from 
the export air passenger fares indexes. The air freight indexes are calculated from data collected directly 
from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the service being priced is 
the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any ground transportation or 
port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: balance of payments (which 
represent transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and international (which represent 
transactions inbound to and outbound from the U.S.). Fact sheets specifying detailed information for 
each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp under "MXP Publications."

Import Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data collected 
for the import price indexes. Beginning with January 2002, the indexes are defined by locality of origin 
using a nomenclature based upon the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). 
Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are defined as 
NAICS 31-33. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. Merchandise and services indexes also can be used to study U.S. 
competitiveness and to compute price elasticities, and the merchandise import indexes by country or 
region of origin are useful in terms of trade analysis.

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   

Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.



Last Modified Date: January 12, 2017