U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                      USDL-18-1630
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, October 12, 2018

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Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                             U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - SEPTEMBER 2018                              

Prices for U.S. imports increased 0.5 percent in September, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today, after declining 0.4 percent in August and 0.1 percent in July. The September advance was led by 
higher fuel prices. U.S. export prices recorded no change in September following declines of 0.2 percent and 
0.5 percent the previous 2 months. 

Imports

Import prices advanced 0.5 percent in September, the first monthly increase since a 0.9-percent rise in May. 
The upturn reversed the declines in each of the previous 2 months. Prices for overall imports rose 3.5 
percent from September 2017 to September 2018 and have not recorded an over-the-year decrease since the 
index fell 0.2 percent in October 2016. (See table 1.)  

Fuel Imports: The price index for import fuels increased 3.8 percent in September, after declining 2.2 
percent in August. The September advance was the largest monthly rise since a 6.1-percent increase in May 
and was led by higher petroleum prices which more than offset lower natural gas prices. Prices for 
petroleum increased 4.1 percent in September following a 2.3-percent decline the previous month. In 
contrast, natural gas prices fell 4.0 percent, after decreasing 3.9 percent in August. Fuel prices increased 
30.0 percent for the year ended in September, driven by a 32.1-percent advance in petroleum prices. The 
price index for natural gas fell 1.3 percent over the past 12 months.  

All Imports Excluding Fuel: Prices for nonfuel imports recorded no change in September, after a 0.2-
percent decline in August. Higher foods, feeds, and beverages prices in September offset decreasing prices 
for nonfuel industrial supplies and materials and consumer goods. The price index for nonfuel imports 
increased 0.6 percent over the past 12 months. The over-the-year advance was driven mostly by a 4.3-
percent rise in nonfuel industrial supplies and materials, although higher prices for consumer goods and 
automotive vehicles also contributed to the increase. In contrast, prices for foods, feeds, and beverages fell 
over the same period and prices for capital goods recorded no change.   

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices decreased 0.4 
percent in September following a 0.9-percent drop the previous month. The September decrease was driven 
by a 1.4-percent decline in unfinished metals prices and a 1.2-percent drop in prices for selected building 
materials.   

Finished Goods: Finished goods prices were mostly flat during September. Consumer goods prices edged 
down 0.1 percent and the price indexes for capital goods and automotive vehicles both recorded no change.  

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Import prices for foods, feeds, and beverages advanced 2.0 percent in 
September, after a 0.3-percent increase in August. The September advance was led by a 13.7-percent rise in 
fruit prices and a 4.5-percent increase in vegetable prices.


Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2017

September

0.8 5.7 0.3 0.8 -0.7 0.9

October

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 2.0 -0.1

November

1.0 9.8 0.0 0.5 -0.7 0.7

December

0.2 3.3 -0.2 0.1 -0.3 0.0

2018

January

0.8 3.3 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.8

February

0.2 -1.8 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2

March

-0.2 -2.6 0.1 0.4 3.2 0.1

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

(r)0.0 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 (r)0.3

July

-0.1 (r)0.7 (r)-0.2 -0.5 -5.2 (r)0.1

August

(r)-0.4 (r)-2.2 (r)-0.2 (r)-0.2 (r)0.3 -0.2

September

0.5 3.8 0.0 0.0 -1.4 0.2

Sept. 2016 to 2017

2.7 19.4 1.3 2.8 2.1 2.8

Sept. 2017 to 2018

3.5 30.0 0.6 2.7 -2.3 3.3

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports 

U.S. export prices recorded no change in September following declines in each of the previous 2 months. 
Those were the first monthly decreases since June 2017. In September, lower agricultural prices offset 
increasing nonagricultural prices. Despite decreasing over the past quarter, prices for U.S. exports advanced 
2.7 percent for the year ended in September. (See table 2.)  

Agricultural Exports: Agricultural export prices fell 1.4 percent in September, after rising 0.3 percent in 
August and declining 5.2 percent in July. Overall, agricultural prices decreased 6.2 percent in the third 
quarter of 2018. The drop in agricultural prices in September and over the past 3 months was driven by 
lower soybean prices which fell 18.8 percent from June to September. The price index for agricultural 
exports decreased 2.3 percent over the past year. Declining prices for soybeans, fruits, meat, and nuts all 
contributed to the 12-month decrease.    

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Prices for nonagricultural exports rose 0.2 percent in September 
following a 0.2-percent decline the previous month. Higher prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and 
materials; capital goods; automotive vehicles; and nonagricultural foods all contributed to the September 
advance in nonagricultural prices. The price index for nonagricultural exports increased 3.3 percent over the 
past 12 months and has not recorded an over-the-year decline since November 2016. 

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials prices 
advanced 0.2 percent in September, after falling 0.7 percent in August. The increase was led by higher 
prices for fuel, chemicals, and iron and steel mill products, which more than offset lower nonferrous metals 
prices. 

Finished Goods: Finished goods prices were mostly up in September. The price indexes for capital goods 
and automotive vehicles each edged up 0.1 percent and consumer goods prices recorded no change. The rise 
in capital goods prices in September was driven by higher prices for computer peripherals and the increase 
in prices for automotive vehicles was led by a 0.1-percent advance in passenger cars prices.

Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: Import prices from China edged down 0.1 percent for the third consecutive 
month in September. Despite the declines, the price index for imports from China advanced 0.4 percent 
from September 2017 to September 2018. Prices for imports from Japan decreased 0.2 percent in 
September, after recording no change the previous month. The September decline was the largest monthly 
drop since the index fell 0.3 percent in October 2017. Import prices from the European Union also 
decreased in September, declining 0.2 percent following a 0.1-percent drop in August. In contrast, prices for 
imports from Canada and Mexico increased 0.7 percent and 0.9 percent, respectively. Higher fuel prices 
factored into both advances. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: Export prices to China decreased 1.7 percent in September, after 
falling 0.2 percent in August and 2.2 percent in July. The index has not recorded a monthly advance since 
May. Prices for exports to Japan fell 0.5 percent in September and have not recorded a monthly increase 
since a 1.4-percent advance in February. The price index for exports to Mexico edged down 0.1 percent in 
September following 0.1-percent increases in August and July. In contrast, export prices to Canada rose 0.4 
percent, after advancing 0.2 percent the previous month. The September rise was the largest monthly 
increase since a 0.8-percent advance in May. The price index for exports to the European Union recorded no 
change, after edging down 0.1 percent in each of the previous 3 months. (See table 8.)     

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on the country, region, or grouping and 
measure the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The U.S. terms of trade index 
with China fell 1.6 percent in September following a 0.1-percent decline in August and a 2.1-percent drop in 
July. The decreases over the past 3 months were driven by the drop in export prices to China which were 
greater than the declines in import prices from China. The index for U.S. terms of trade with Japan declined 
0.3 percent for the second consecutive month, after falling 1.3 percent in July. The U.S. terms of trade also 
declined with Canada and Mexico in September, falling 0.4 percent and 1.0 percent, respectively. In 
contrast, the index for U.S. terms of trade with the European Union increased 0.3 percent in September 
following 0.1-percent declines the previous 2 months. The September increase resulted from lower import 
prices from the European Union. (See table 9.)

Import and Export Services

Imports: The index for import air passenger fares increased 10.7 percent in September, the largest monthly 
advance since the index rose 10.7 percent in June 2013. The last time the index increased by more than 10.7 
percent was a 13.0-percent rise in June 2009. The September advance was led by a 20.3-percent increase in 
European fares. Import air passenger fares rose 5.7 percent over the past year, the largest 12-month advance 
since a 7.9-percent increase in April. Import air freight prices rose 0.8 percent in September and 3.3 percent 
over the past 12 months. (See table 10.)  

Exports: Export air passenger fares declined 2.8 percent in September following a 3.7-percent drop the 
previous month. The September decrease was driven by a 7.1-percent decline in Asian fares. Despite the 
recent decreases, the index for export air passenger fares increased 2.4 percent from September 2017 to 
September 2018. Prices for export air freight rose 0.5 percent in September and 3.4 percent over the past 
year.           
		
Import and Export Price Index data for October are scheduled for release on Thursday, November 15, 2018 at 
8:30 a.m. (EST).




Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 127.6 128.2 3.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.4 0.5

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  82.530 100.4 100.3 1.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

All imports excluding petroleum

  89.014 113.2 113.2 0.6 -0.4 -0.1 -0.2 0.0

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  88.387 117.4 117.4 0.6 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0.0

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

5.857 175.9 179.5 -3.2 -2.7 -1.5 0.3 2.0

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.571 191.7 196.2 -4.4 -2.9 -2.1 0.6 2.3

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.287 140.7 142.0 1.3 -1.9 0.7 -0.4 0.9

Industrial supplies & materials

1

25.910 197.3 200.3 14.8 1.3 -0.3 -1.5 1.5

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  14.983 157.0 156.2 4.1 0.2 -0.8 -0.9 -0.5

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  14.286 179.5 178.7 4.3 0.2 -1.1 -0.9 -0.4

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  9.062 170.2 168.9 2.9 0.3 -1.6 -1.4 -0.8

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.862 140.3 140.3 5.9 -0.1 0.4 -0.3 0.0

Fuels & lubricants

10

11.613 226.9 235.5 30.0 2.6 0.7 -2.2 3.8

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

10.986 250.7 261.1 32.1 2.8 0.5 -2.3 4.1

Crude

10000

7.860 262.5 278.0 39.7 2.0 0.6 -3.5 5.9

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.445 88.2 85.8 1.4 -1.6 8.0 -2.5 -2.7

Gas-natural

10110

0.299 69.3 66.5 -1.3 -5.4 21.2 -3.9 -4.0

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.591 121.5 121.4 12.8 1.5 1.4 1.0 -0.1

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.706 162.2 162.5 5.7 -0.2 -0.4 -0.2 0.2

Selected building materials

13

1.649 155.4 153.6 2.8 0.4 -2.0 -2.6 -1.2

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.864 234.1 230.9 2.1 0.6 -2.7 -2.0 -1.4

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.794 160.8 160.5 3.4 -0.7 -0.5 -1.1 -0.2

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.694 114.4 114.7 4.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.3

Capital goods

2

26.497 89.3 89.3 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Electric generating equipment

20

3.230 118.1 118.1 0.9 -0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0

Nonelectrical machinery

21

21.046 81.7 81.7 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.221 134.7 134.5 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.701 110.4 110.4 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

26.034 107.6 107.5 0.6 -0.3 0.3 0.0 -0.1

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.867 123.8 123.9 2.0 -0.1 0.9 0.0 0.1

Durables, manufactured

41

11.883 92.6 92.5 -0.6 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

- 114.9 - - -2.1 -1.0 1.0 -

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 127.2 127.2 2.7 0.2 -0.5 -0.2 0.0

Agricultural commodities

  9.587 175.2 172.8 -2.3 -1.0 -5.2 0.3 -1.4

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.690 101.5 101.4 1.8 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.413 123.5 123.7 3.3 0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.2

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.986 177.1 174.6 -2.6 -1.0 -4.6 0.4 -1.4

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.349 175.1 172.3 -3.4 -0.9 -5.2 0.4 -1.6

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.637 215.9 218.4 8.2 -3.0 2.6 0.9 1.2

Industrial supplies & materials

1

31.956 162.7 163.1 6.6 0.9 -0.2 -0.7 0.2

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.215 163.2 162.2 -0.2 0.4 -1.2 -2.2 -0.6

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  21.742 162.8 163.8 10.2 1.1 0.3 0.0 0.6

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.238 181.8 182.1 4.7 -2.2 -4.9 -0.4 0.2

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  30.719 162.2 162.5 6.7 0.9 0.0 -0.7 0.2

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.324 206.2 208.9 14.8 2.4 0.7 0.1 1.3

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.380 159.3 158.8 3.0 0.3 -0.4 -1.1 -0.3

Selected building materials

13

1.015 123.7 123.1 1.3 0.4 0.2 -1.2 -0.5

Capital goods

2

36.540 110.0 110.1 1.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.917 118.0 117.8 4.1 0.4 -0.5 1.0 -0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.488 94.9 95.0 1.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

9.135 176.6 176.8 3.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.055 114.1 114.2 0.7 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.462 109.8 109.8 0.5 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

6.068 106.6 106.6 1.2 -0.5 0.1 0.1 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

4.961 107.5 107.5 -0.3 0.3 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: September 2017 to September 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  10.226 117.7 124.1 24.8 -0.2 0.3 -2.5 5.4

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.838 168.6 178.8 -8.9 -7.5 -4.1 2.2 6.0

Crop production

111

1.461 177.7 191.2 -10.7 -8.4 -5.1 2.5 7.6

Animal production (Dec. 2014=100)

112

0.187 75.8 75.8 0.4 -4.2 -0.9 -0.3 0.0

Mining

21

8.388 113.3 119.4 35.8 1.7 1.2 -3.4 5.4

Oil and gas extraction

211

8.150 113.6 119.9 37.2 1.7 1.2 -3.5 5.5

Manufacturing

  89.497 112.3 112.2 1.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.250 124.8 124.9 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1 0.1

Food manufacturing

311

3.355 155.1 155.3 -1.0 -1.3 -0.8 -0.2 0.1

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.098 121.9 121.8 2.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.381 100.0 100.3 0.9 -0.3 0.2 0.0 0.3

Textile product mills

314

0.917 109.7 109.0 -0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.3 -0.6

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.833 111.6 111.8 0.5 0.3 -0.1 0.0 0.2

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.666 123.5 123.4 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 2

32

18.598 129.5 129.4 6.2 0.9 0.3 0.1 -0.1

Wood product manufacturing

321

1.026 138.6 136.6 4.0 0.5 -2.9 -3.8 -1.4

Paper manufacturing

322

1.079 115.5 115.3 9.5 2.0 1.5 1.7 -0.2

Printing and related support activities (Dec. 2016=100)

323

0.218 105.3 108.1 9.3 2.9 1.0 0.6 2.7

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.865 105.0 104.6 16.1 5.6 -0.1 1.0 -0.4

Chemical manufacturing

325

10.232 141.8 142.0 5.0 -0.4 0.8 0.1 0.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.188 119.6 119.5 0.9 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.989 131.2 131.2 2.3 0.5 0.2 -0.2 0.0

Manufacturing, part 3

33

59.650 104.5 104.4 0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 -0.1

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.406 155.3 153.6 2.9 0.1 -2.4 -2.0 -1.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.091 127.8 127.8 2.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.0

Machinery manufacturing

333

6.745 118.7 118.6 0.7 -0.3 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

16.798 74.9 74.8 -1.2 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

4.891 116.2 116.0 0.7 -0.2 0.2 0.1 -0.2

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.663 109.4 109.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.773 117.5 117.5 1.6 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.284 118.3 118.0 0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.4 -0.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: September 2017 to September 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  8.329 137.9 136.5 2.5 1.1 -5.6 1.2 -1.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.914 150.0 145.6 -3.4 -1.8 -8.7 1.6 -2.9

Crop production

111

4.547 156.2 151.1 -3.5 -1.7 -9.0 2.0 -3.3

Mining

21

3.415 94.2 95.8 11.7 5.9 -1.0 0.7 1.7

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.102 109.3 107.9 1.2 -0.5 -0.8 -3.5 -1.3

Manufacturing

  90.164 117.2 117.3 3.0 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.858 139.1 139.5 0.3 -0.2 -0.8 -0.7 0.3

Food manufacturing

311

4.661 156.2 156.2 -1.1 -0.3 -0.7 -0.8 0.0

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.679 118.6 120.7 5.0 -1.2 -3.6 -1.8 1.8

Textile mills (Dec. 2016=100)

313

0.647 105.8 105.4 4.3 1.1 0.5 0.4 -0.4

Leather and allied product manufacturing (Dec. 2016=100)

316

0.259 94.0 94.2 -2.2 -0.8 -0.6 -0.3 0.2

Manufacturing, part 2

32

25.808 119.5 119.8 7.5 0.2 0.6 -0.2 0.3

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.538 103.5 102.7 - 0.2 -0.5 -0.6 -0.8

Paper manufacturing

322

1.712 131.8 131.6 8.3 0.2 0.8 -0.2 -0.2

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

6.918 122.6 123.9 16.4 0.3 1.6 -0.8 1.1

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.332 120.0 120.0 4.7 -0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.237 116.1 115.9 1.3 1.0 -0.2 0.1 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.827 116.7 117.0 2.4 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.3

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.498 114.0 114.0 1.4 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Primary metal manufacturing

331

3.821 141.8 141.7 -0.4 0.3 -2.0 -2.1 -0.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.040 140.9 141.0 2.1 0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.1

Machinery manufacturing

333

8.959 127.7 127.6 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 -0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

13.958 83.3 83.4 0.8 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.868 118.4 118.4 4.2 0.5 -0.3 0.6 0.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

18.099 127.0 127.1 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.404 120.7 120.7 2.7 0.3 1.4 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.349 120.5 120.3 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.353 192.5 192.1 0.3 -2.7 0.2 -0.1 -0.2

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.366 244.3 237.8 -3.5 -1.4 -0.8 -0.9 -2.7

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.689 138.3 141.4 1.5 -3.9 0.6 -0.8 2.2

Vegetable products

II

1.804 197.6 211.4 -10.1 -7.6 -4.8 3.0 7.0

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.352 362.6 384.1 -18.0 -15.9 1.5 0.0 5.9

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.770 118.0 135.3 -11.0 -5.8 -9.2 4.8 14.7

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.328 209.6 203.2 -11.4 -1.7 -1.0 -0.8 -3.1

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.254 97.1 96.7 -18.3 -4.5 -1.3 -1.8 -0.4

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.781 165.7 165.9 2.1 -0.4 -0.6 -0.2 0.1

Sugars and sugar confectionary (Dec. 2012=100)

17

0.193 87.3 87.9 2.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.5 0.7

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.200 96.5 97.7 2.8 -2.7 -1.2 -3.2 1.2

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.371 173.0 174.6 2.6 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.9

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.207 103.3 102.3 - 0.1 1.1 0.1 -1.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.039 132.0 132.0 2.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0

Mineral products

V

11.434 227.2 235.9 30.5 2.7 0.9 -2.3 3.8

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

11.171 225.0 233.7 31.1 2.8 0.7 -2.3 3.9

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

9.564 159.6 160.0 5.6 -0.3 0.9 -0.1 0.3

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.619 315.6 328.9 26.3 1.1 0.5 -0.3 4.2

Organic chemicals

29

2.432 133.7 134.1 7.5 -0.1 0.3 -0.2 0.3

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.503 153.9 153.8 3.7 -0.6 1.5 0.0 -0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.268 83.8 82.8 14.8 0.2 0.1 2.2 -1.2

Tanning extracts; dye, pigments, varnish, paints & putty (Dec. 2011=100)

32

0.183 107.8 106.2 -0.4 0.7 1.0 -1.2 -1.5

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.571 102.3 102.1 -0.2 -0.6 -0.6 0.0 -0.2

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.634 106.9 106.8 1.6 0.0 0.2 -0.4 -0.1

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.404 141.6 141.3 0.8 0.4 -0.1 0.3 -0.2

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.246 145.0 144.8 1.8 0.7 0.1 0.4 -0.1

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.158 137.1 136.7 -0.9 -0.3 -0.6 0.1 -0.3

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.635 125.8 125.1 0.8 -0.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.6

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.601 131.5 131.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.4

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

1.058 168.7 166.4 4.0 0.4 -2.8 -3.7 -1.4

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (Dec. 2014=100)

44

1.035 116.5 114.9 4.1 0.4 -2.9 -3.8 -1.4

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.129 120.9 121.2 9.9 1.6 1.8 0.8 0.2

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.741 111.5 111.0 7.9 1.1 2.2 0.7 -0.4

Printed matter (Dec. 2015=100)

49

0.215 111.8 113.7 8.6 3.5 0.9 0.4 1.7

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.979 114.3 114.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

1.994 103.9 104.1 0.2 0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0.2

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.697 120.1 120.4 1.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.637 104.3 104.1 0.2 -0.3 0.0 0.4 -0.2

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.376 122.5 122.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.151 121.3 121.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.922 131.9 132.1 1.1 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.2

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.332 99.7 99.8 3.2 0.7 0.0 -0.7 0.1

Ceramic products

69

0.255 135.1 135.2 -0.5 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Glass and glassware

70

0.335 131.8 131.9 0.5 -0.5 0.0 0.2 0.1

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

2.962 168.5 166.5 -4.8 0.2 -1.7 -1.6 -1.2

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.602 181.2 179.9 4.2 0.2 -1.1 -1.1 -0.7

Iron and steel

72

1.363 231.2 231.4 15.4 0.0 0.8 -0.9 0.1

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.602 152.6 152.2 3.5 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.386 279.7 270.9 -9.9 -0.9 -7.1 -4.7 -3.1

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.944 139.4 138.1 4.0 0.0 -1.8 -1.4 -0.9

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.416 122.9 123.3 0.3 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.3

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.513 137.2 137.0 -0.4 -0.5 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.639 80.4 80.4 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

14.044 86.8 86.8 0.5 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

14.595 74.4 74.4 -1.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.900 114.2 114.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.710 113.3 113.3 0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.1 0.0

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.100 115.3 114.9 -0.5 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.818 102.3 102.2 0.2 -0.5 0.0 -0.2 -0.1

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.532 98.8 98.8 0.2 -0.4 -0.1 -0.2 0.0

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.226 141.8 142.4 -1.0 -1.5 0.4 -0.3 0.4

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.298 112.7 112.8 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.707 118.5 118.5 1.4 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.308 103.0 103.3 2.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.282 129.5 129.5 -0.2 0.5 0.3 -0.1 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.925 207.9 208.5 0.0 -0.6 0.9 -1.0 0.3

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.147 162.5 161.1 -3.3 -0.9 0.6 -1.9 -0.9

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.421 119.4 120.6 9.5 -3.4 3.9 0.6 1.0

Dairy products, eggs and honey (Dec. 2017=100)

04

0.282 103.0 107.5 - 4.4 -1.6 0.9 4.4

Vegetable products

II

4.540 188.3 183.6 -3.8 -1.4 -8.9 1.6 -2.5

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.813 131.1 130.7 -7.9 2.1 -5.3 -2.9 -0.3

Cereals

10

1.452 196.8 190.8 9.6 -2.6 -7.7 5.0 -3.0

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.806 191.9 178.7 -10.6 -2.2 -11.7 2.4 -6.9

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.044 150.4 149.8 0.2 -0.7 -1.6 -0.3 -0.4

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants (Dec. 2009=100)

20

0.343 116.8 116.2 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 0.1 -0.5

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.567 97.5 97.8 - 0.2 -1.5 1.7 0.3

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.525 108.0 103.2 -8.3 -0.3 -0.6 -1.5 -4.4

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.716 213.3 215.8 11.2 -2.3 -4.3 -2.2 1.2

Mineral products

V

10.671 246.7 249.9 15.1 2.3 0.7 -0.3 1.3

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.492 97.7 94.7 -6.6 -1.7 -2.6 -7.2 -3.1

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.999 239.1 242.7 16.6 2.6 0.8 0.1 1.5

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.767 139.1 139.3 3.3 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.678 152.8 151.7 -3.4 0.0 -5.5 -3.2 -0.7

Organic chemicals

29

2.590 147.4 148.4 9.3 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.7

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.194 106.7 106.6 1.1 -0.8 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2016=100)

31

0.262 122.9 127.9 22.3 -1.8 0.5 1.6 4.1

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.532 102.5 102.4 3.0 -0.3 0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.809 130.9 130.9 -1.2 0.4 -0.2 0.1 0.0

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.492 119.9 119.8 -7.1 0.1 -0.2 0.5 -0.1

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.822 153.8 153.9 6.7 -0.1 0.8 0.0 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.210 145.4 145.4 5.4 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.0

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.321 141.9 141.8 5.8 0.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.1

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.889 159.5 159.4 3.7 0.4 -0.6 0.6 -0.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.671 104.4 102.9 2.1 0.2 -0.5 -2.0 -1.4

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

2.107 134.7 132.8 5.4 0.8 1.1 -0.4 -1.4

Woodpulp and recovered paper

47

0.663 144.5 138.8 3.8 2.2 2.7 -1.7 -3.9

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.108 129.9 129.6 6.0 -0.2 0.6 0.1 -0.2

Printed material (Dec. 2014=100)

49

0.336 108.1 107.9 6.3 0.8 -0.3 0.0 -0.2

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.698 126.1 126.1 5.3 -0.7 -1.0 1.1 0.0

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.472 140.2 135.0 8.0 -2.6 -3.2 2.3 -3.7

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.802 124.0 124.2 0.7 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 0.2

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.269 102.1 102.6 1.3 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5

Glass and glassware

70

0.409 99.2 99.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

3.955 232.0 230.4 -4.2 0.2 -1.5 -1.3 -0.7

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.886 160.2 159.9 1.8 0.5 -0.7 -2.3 -0.2

Iron and steel

72

1.095 176.6 179.8 6.5 0.3 -0.1 -3.2 1.8

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.525 185.9 178.8 -5.3 4.2 -4.6 -5.2 -3.8

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.913 114.0 112.4 -2.9 -0.1 -2.7 -5.3 -1.4

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal (Dec. 2015=100)

82

0.314 100.0 100.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.343 153.0 153.0 3.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

27.525 97.7 97.7 1.6 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.782 115.1 115.2 1.2 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.743 78.9 78.9 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.272 135.4 135.6 1.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.269 116.3 116.4 0.9 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.952 109.6 109.5 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.397 112.8 112.8 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.0

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.819 130.0 130.0 1.4 0.1 1.1 0.0 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.416 87.6 87.6 -1.2 -0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 125.7 125.8 4.4 -0.2 0.1 -0.2 0.1

Nonmanufacturing

9.561 169.2 176.3 28.3 -0.9 2.5 -0.6 4.2

Manufacturing

89.932 121.6 121.3 2.3 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Canada

100.000 136.7 137.7 9.5 0.2 -0.1 -0.6 0.7

Nonmanufacturing

25.356 161.8 168.9 29.1 -1.1 2.7 -0.5 4.4

Manufacturing

73.802 133.6 132.9 3.6 0.7 -1.0 -0.5 -0.5

European Union

100.000 137.2 136.9 2.2 -0.3 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Manufacturing

98.982 133.7 133.5 2.2 -0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.1

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 128.6 128.4 2.4 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.2

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 111.9 111.9 -2.8 -0.3 -0.2 0.0 0.0

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 121.6 121.5 2.7 0.3 -0.4 -0.4 -0.1

Latin America(3)

100.000 150.8 152.8 4.5 -0.5 0.1 -0.7 1.3

Nonmanufacturing

19.294 271.2 290.1 18.6 -1.4 0.8 -1.9 7.0

Manufacturing

80.434 122.3 122.2 1.4 -0.2 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 128.6 129.8 0.5 -0.2 -0.4 0.1 0.9

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

9.290 141.8 157.9 8.2 -1.9 2.2 1.1 11.4

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

90.457 88.2 88.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.6 -0.1 -0.1

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 99.1 99.0 0.6 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 100.3 100.2 0.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Japan

100.000 96.7 96.5 0.7 -0.1 0.2 0.0 -0.2

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 88.9 88.6 1.5 -0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.3

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 98.7 98.6 0.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 192.5 200.6 29.9 2.6 0.1 0.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: September 2017 to September 2018 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 102.3 102.5 - -0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.2

Nonmanufacturing

6.475 98.9 100.7 - -2.2 2.7 0.5 1.8

Manufacturing

92.306 102.6 102.7 - 0.0 -0.2 -0.1 0.1

Canada

100.000 104.0 104.4 - 0.2 -0.1 0.2 0.4

European Union

100.000 103.2 103.2 - -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Nonmanufacturing

4.847 100.4 99.7 - 0.1 -3.3 0.4 -0.7

Manufacturing

94.155 103.4 103.4 - -0.2 0.2 -0.2 0.0

Germany

100.000 101.2 100.8 - -0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4

Latin America(3)

100.000 103.8 104.0 - 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2

Nonmanufacturing

6.455 105.7 104.4 - 0.4 -2.8 2.3 -1.2

Manufacturing

93.203 103.7 104.0 - 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.3

Mexico

100.000 102.8 102.7 - 0.3 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Nonmanufacturing

6.226 104.0 103.1 - 0.1 -2.3 1.5 -0.9

Manufacturing

93.375 102.7 102.7 - 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 100.3 99.6 - -0.3 -1.0 -0.5 -0.7

Nonmanufacturing

11.885 96.0 90.6 - -2.9 -7.1 0.2 -5.6

Manufacturing

85.655 100.9 101.1 - 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 0.2

China

100.000 99.8 98.1 - -0.6 -2.2 -0.2 -1.7

Nonmanufacturing

18.579 95.3 89.2 - -2.2 -9.9 1.8 -6.4

Manufacturing

76.943 100.8 100.5 - -0.3 -0.5 -0.2 -0.3

Japan

100.000 100.1 99.6 - -0.3 -1.2 -0.3 -0.5

Nonmanufacturing

14.416 95.5 92.2 - -2.1 -7.4 -1.4 -3.5

Manufacturing

84.662 100.9 101.0 - 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: September 2017 to September 2018(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Industrialized Countries(2)

99.6 99.7 - 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1

Canada

100.0 99.6 - -0.1 0.1 0.8 -0.4

European Union

101.2 101.5 - 0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.3

Germany

104.1 103.7 - -0.2 0.0 -0.4 -0.4

Latin America(3)

102.5 101.3 - 0.7 0.1 0.8 -1.2

Mexico

103.1 102.1 - 0.5 0.5 0.0 -1.0

Pacific Rim(4)

99.6 99.0 - -0.3 -0.9 -0.3 -0.6

China

99.6 98.0 - -0.6 -2.1 -0.1 -1.6

Japan

98.9 98.6 - -0.2 -1.3 -0.3 -0.3

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: September 2017 to September 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Aug.
2018(1)
Index Percent change
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Annual Monthly
Sept.
2017
to
Sept.
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2018
to
Sept.
2018

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 187.4 188.9 3.3 -1.1 -2.4 -0.4 0.8

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

23.848 147.3 145.7 -1.4 -3.5 -0.8 -0.3 -1.1

Asia

63.898 181.1 184.3 5.0 -0.3 -3.3 -0.5 1.8

Export Air Freight

100.000 162.9 163.7 3.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.6 0.5

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

33.000 148.1 149.1 0.8 0.8 -0.4 -0.2 0.7

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 171.2 173.2 4.1 -0.2 -2.1 -0.3 1.2

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

25.685 135.7 135.6 -0.7 -2.2 -0.2 -0.7 -0.1

Asia

59.164 162.2 165.5 3.8 0.5 -2.9 -0.2 2.0

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 148.7 144.8 4.2 -0.4 3.4 3.0 -2.6

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

31.946 148.1 149.1 3.7 0.2 -0.7 0.1 0.7

Asia

45.793 152.7 142.4 6.5 -0.6 8.4 7.4 -6.7

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 163.5 181.0 5.7 7.3 -5.8 -8.8 10.7

Europe

39.902 175.8 211.5 9.6 7.9 -8.5 -12.2 20.3

Asia

24.970 133.1 132.3 -2.1 12.6 -7.9 -8.0 -0.6

Latin America/Caribbean

10.253 157.5 148.8 -2.6 4.6 2.3 -4.2 -5.5

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 155.6 151.2 2.4 5.0 1.6 -3.7 -2.8

Europe

28.173 189.4 198.5 -3.8 6.4 0.3 -11.1 4.8

Asia

28.593 145.2 134.9 13.5 7.0 4.4 2.0 -7.1

Latin America/Caribbean

23.916 162.1 153.2 -5.8 4.0 0.9 -1.5 -5.5

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2016 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   
Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.

Last Modified Date: October 12, 2018