Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

August 2023 Report

Characteristics of minimum wage workers, 2022

Characteristics of minimum wage workers, 2022 image

In 2022, 78.7 million workers age 16 and older in the United States were paid at hourly rates, representing 55.6 percent of all wage and salary workers. Among those paid by the hour, 141,000 workers earned exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. About 882,000 workers had wages below the federal minimum. Together, these 1.0 million workers with wages at or below the federal minimum made up 1.3 percent of all hourly paid workers, little changed from 2021. This remains well below the percentage of 13.4 recorded in 1979, when data were first collected on a regular basis. (See table 10.)

This report presents highlights and statistical tables describing workers who earned at or below the federal minimum wage in 2022. The data are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Information on earnings is collected from one-fourth of the CPS sample each month. The CPS does not include questions on whether workers are covered by the minimum wage provisions of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual state or local minimum wage laws. The estimates of workers paid at or below the federal minimum wage are based solely on the hourly wage they report, which does not include overtime pay, tips, or commissions. See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Highlights

The following are highlights from the 2022 data:

Age. Minimum wage workers tend to be young. Although workers under age 25 represented one-fifth of hourly paid workers, they made up about 45 percent of those paid the federal minimum wage or less. Among employed teenagers (ages 16 to 19) paid by the hour, about 3 percent earned the minimum wage or less, compared with just under 1 percent of workers age 25 and older. (See tables 1 and 7.)

Sex. Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2022, about 2 percent of women and 1 percent of men had wages at or below the prevailing federal minimum. (See table 1.)

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. The percentage of hourly paid workers with wages at or below the federal minimum differed little among the major race and ethnicity groups. About 1 percent of White, Asian, and Hispanic workers earned the federal minimum wage or less. Among Black workers, about 2 percent earned the federal minimum wage or less. (See table 1.)

Education. Among hourly paid workers age 16 and older, about 2 percent of those with some college or an associate’s degree earned the federal minimum wage or less, compared with about 1 percent of those without a high school diploma, high school graduates (no college), and those with a bachelor's degree and higher. (See table 6.)

Marital status. Among never-married workers, who are younger than married workers on average, 2 percent of those who were paid hourly had wages at or below the federal minimum wage. This compared with about 1 percent for married workers and for workers who were widowed, divorced, or separated. (See table 8.)

Full- and part-time status. Among part-time workers (people who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week), 3 percent were paid the federal minimum wage or less, compared with about 1 percent of full-time workers. (See table 1.)

Occupation. Among major occupational groups, service occupations had the highest percentage of hourly paid workers earning at or below the federal minimum wage, at 4 percent. Nearly 3 out of 4 workers earning the minimum wage or less in 2022 were employed in service occupations, mostly in food preparation and serving-related jobs. For many of these workers, tips may supplement the hourly wages received. (See table 4.)

Industry. The industry with the highest percentage of workers earning hourly wages at or below the federal minimum wage in 2022 was leisure and hospitality (about 7 percent). About 3 in 5 of all workers paid at or below the federal minimum wage were employed in this industry, almost entirely in restaurants, bars, and other food services. (See table 5.)

State of residence. Among hourly paid workers in the District of Columbia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Rhode Island, about 3 percent earned the federal minimum wage or less. However, less than 1 percent of hourly paid workers earned at or below the federal minimum wage in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington. Note that, as of 2022, 30 states have minimum wages that exceed the federal minimum. (See table 3.)

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2022 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Age and sex

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

16 to 24 years

15,741 457 85 372 20.0 44.7 60.2 42.2 2.9 0.5 2.4

16 to 19 years

5,193 175 53 122 6.6 17.1 37.6 13.8 3.4 1.0 2.3

25 years and older

62,988 566 56 510 80.0 55.3 39.8 57.8 0.9 0.1 0.8

Men, 16 years and older

39,446 328 42 286 50.1 32.1 29.4 32.5 0.8 0.1 0.7

16 to 24 years

7,853 132 20 112 10.0 12.9 14.1 12.7 1.7 0.3 1.4

16 to 19 years

2,543 56 14 42 3.2 5.4 9.7 4.8 2.2 0.5 1.6

25 years and older

31,593 196 22 175 40.1 19.2 15.3 19.8 0.6 0.1 0.6

Women, 16 years and older

39,283 695 100 595 49.9 67.9 70.6 67.5 1.8 0.3 1.5

16 to 24 years

7,888 325 65 260 10.0 31.8 46.2 29.5 4.1 0.8 3.3

16 to 19 years

2,650 119 40 80 3.4 11.7 28.0 9.1 4.5 1.5 3.0

25 years and older

31,395 370 35 335 39.9 36.1 24.5 38.0 1.2 0.1 1.1

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity

White(1)

59,397 743 96 647 75.4 72.6 67.7 73.4 1.3 0.2 1.1

Men

30,312 224 31 194 38.5 21.9 21.8 22.0 0.7 0.1 0.6

Women

29,085 518 65 453 36.9 50.7 45.9 51.4 1.8 0.2 1.6

Black or African American(1)

11,745 179 24 155 14.9 17.5 17.0 17.6 1.5 0.2 1.3

Men

5,422 68 7 61 6.9 6.6 4.8 7.0 1.3 0.1 1.1

Women

6,323 111 17 94 8.0 10.8 12.2 10.6 1.8 0.3 1.5

Asian(1)

4,058 52 7 44 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Men

1,896 20 4 16 2.4 2.0 2.7 1.8 1.1 0.2 0.9

Women

2,162 32 3 28 2.7 3.1 2.4 3.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

Hispanic or Latino(1)

18,003 181 33 149 22.9 17.7 23.0 16.9 1.0 0.2 0.8

Men

9,816 77 8 70 12.5 7.6 5.3 7.9 0.8 0.1 0.7

Women

8,187 104 25 79 10.4 10.2 17.7 9.0 1.3 0.3 1.0

Full- and part-time status

Full-time workers(2)

60,153 473 25 448 76.4 46.2 17.4 50.9 0.8 0.0 0.7

Men

32,900 196 8 188 41.8 19.2 5.7 21.3 0.6 0.0 0.6

Women

27,252 277 17 260 34.6 27.1 11.7 29.5 1.0 0.1 1.0

Part-time workers(2)

18,480 549 117 432 23.5 53.6 82.6 49.0 3.0 0.6 2.3

Men

6,499 132 33 99 8.3 12.9 23.7 11.2 2.0 0.5 1.5

Women

11,981 417 83 333 15.2 40.7 58.9 37.8 3.5 0.7 2.8

Footnotes:
(1) Estimates for the above race groups--White, Black or African American, and Asian--do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by census region and division, 2022 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Northeast

12,838 164 31 133 16.3 16.0 21.9 15.1 1.3 0.2 1.0

New England

3,616 37 6 31 4.6 3.6 4.1 3.5 1.0 0.2 0.9

Middle Atlantic

9,222 127 25 102 11.7 12.4 17.9 11.5 1.4 0.3 1.1

Midwest

18,130 265 26 239 23.0 25.9 18.1 27.1 1.5 0.1 1.3

East North Central

12,111 178 19 160 15.4 17.4 13.2 18.1 1.5 0.2 1.3

West North Central

6,020 86 7 79 7.6 8.4 4.9 9.0 1.4 0.1 1.3

South

28,674 481 62 419 36.4 47.1 44.1 47.5 1.7 0.2 1.5

South Atlantic

14,939 260 23 237 19.0 25.4 16.6 26.9 1.7 0.2 1.6

East South Central

4,483 71 13 58 5.7 6.9 9.4 6.6 1.6 0.3 1.3

West South Central

9,251 150 26 124 11.8 14.7 18.1 14.1 1.6 0.3 1.3

West

19,087 113 22 91 24.2 11.1 15.9 10.3 0.6 0.1 0.5

Mountain

6,296 46 9 37 8.0 4.5 6.1 4.3 0.7 0.1 0.6

Pacific

12,791 67 14 53 16.2 6.6 9.8 6.0 0.5 0.1 0.4

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

Northeast:
New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
Midwest:
East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin
West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota
South:
South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia
East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee
West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas
West:
Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming
Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by state, 2022 annual averages
State Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Alabama

1,173 10 1 9 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.1 0.9 0.1 0.8

Alaska

198 1 0 1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.5

Arizona

1,809 12 4 7 2.3 1.1 3.2 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4

Arkansas

745 9 0 9 0.9 0.9 0.3 1.0 1.2 0.1 1.2

California

9,266 50 13 37 11.8 4.8 9.0 4.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Colorado

1,273 7 0 7 1.6 0.7 0.0 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.5

Connecticut

891 1 1 0 1.1 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0

Delaware

268 3 0 3 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.3 1.0 0.0 1.0

District of Columbia

84 2 0 2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 2.7 0.1 2.5

Florida

5,012 85 1 84 6.4 8.3 0.9 9.5 1.7 0.0 1.7

Georgia

2,342 36 3 32 3.0 3.5 2.4 3.7 1.5 0.1 1.4

Hawaii

327 1 0 1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.3

Idaho

537 7 1 6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.2 0.2 1.0

Illinois

2,870 23 2 21 3.6 2.3 1.6 2.4 0.8 0.1 0.7

Indiana

1,784 36 4 32 2.3 3.5 2.8 3.6 2.0 0.2 1.8

Iowa

975 20 1 19 1.2 1.9 0.6 2.1 2.0 0.1 1.9

Kansas

770 10 1 8 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.1 1.1

Kentucky

1,061 12 4 8 1.3 1.2 3.0 0.9 1.2 0.4 0.8

Louisiana

1,062 30 7 23 1.3 2.9 5.0 2.6 2.8 0.7 2.2

Maine

318 3 0 3 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.9

Maryland

1,356 14 2 13 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.1 0.1 0.9

Massachusetts

1,580 20 3 17 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Michigan

2,519 40 4 36 3.2 3.9 3.0 4.1 1.6 0.2 1.4

Minnesota

1,601 20 2 18 2.0 1.9 1.6 2.0 1.2 0.1 1.1

Mississippi

692 17 3 14 0.9 1.7 2.2 1.6 2.5 0.4 2.1

Missouri

1,611 21 0 21 2.0 2.0 0.0 2.4 1.3 0.0 1.3

Montana

315 3 0 3 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.8

Nebraska

565 11 1 9 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.9 0.2 1.7

Nevada

881 4 0 4 1.1 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4

New Hampshire

387 5 1 4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.2 0.2 1.0

New Jersey

1,904 33 4 28 2.4 3.2 3.1 3.2 1.7 0.2 1.5

New Mexico

457 7 0 6 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.7 1.5 0.1 1.4

New York

4,073 31 3 28 5.2 3.0 2.4 3.1 0.8 0.1 0.7

North Carolina

2,388 54 5 50 3.0 5.3 3.2 5.6 2.3 0.2 2.1

North Dakota

222 3 1 2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.2 1.2 0.4 0.8

Ohio

3,270 52 2 50 4.2 5.1 1.2 5.7 1.6 0.1 1.5

Oklahoma

935 13 1 12 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.3 1.4 0.1 1.2

Oregon

1,024 4 0 4 1.3 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.4

Pennsylvania

3,245 63 17 46 4.1 6.2 12.4 5.2 2.0 0.5 1.4

Rhode Island

282 7 1 6 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.7 2.5 0.4 2.0

South Carolina

1,213 24 5 19 1.5 2.4 3.4 2.2 2.0 0.4 1.6

South Dakota

276 3 1 2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 1.1 0.2 0.9

Tennessee

1,557 31 5 26 2.0 3.1 3.7 2.9 2.0 0.3 1.7

Texas

6,509 98 17 81 8.3 9.6 11.9 9.2 1.5 0.3 1.2

Utah

862 6 2 3 1.1 0.5 1.5 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.4

Vermont

159 1 0 1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.8

Virginia

1,843 36 7 29 2.3 3.6 5.3 3.3 2.0 0.4 1.6

Washington

1,975 12 1 11 2.5 1.1 0.8 1.2 0.6 0.1 0.5

West Virginia

432 5 0 5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.6 1.2 0.0 1.2

Wisconsin

1,668 27 7 21 2.1 2.7 4.6 2.4 1.6 0.4 1.2

Wyoming

162 2 1 2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 1.5 0.5 1.0

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. These data are based on a sample and therefore are subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous states.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by occupation, 2022 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

18,823 88 24 64 23.9 8.6 17.2 7.2 0.5 0.1 0.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

5,683 36 18 18 7.2 3.5 12.6 2.1 0.6 0.3 0.3

Professional and related occupations

13,140 52 6 45 16.7 5.1 4.5 5.2 0.4 0.0 0.3

Service occupations

18,436 744 67 676 23.4 72.7 47.6 76.7 4.0 0.4 3.7

Healthcare support occupations

4,128 43 1 42 5.2 4.2 0.8 4.8 1.1 0.0 1.0

Protective service occupations

1,966 20 2 18 2.5 1.9 1.1 2.0 1.0 0.1 0.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,961 606 48 557 8.8 59.2 34.0 63.2 8.7 0.7 8.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,551 31 6 24 4.5 3.0 4.5 2.8 0.9 0.2 0.7

Personal care and service occupations

1,829 44 10 34 2.3 4.3 7.1 3.9 2.4 0.6 1.9

Sales and office occupations

17,443 112 34 78 22.2 10.9 23.7 8.9 0.6 0.2 0.4

Sales and related occupations

6,919 59 20 39 8.8 5.8 14.0 4.5 0.9 0.3 0.6

Office and administrative support occupations

10,524 52 14 39 13.4 5.1 9.7 4.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,039 15 2 14 11.5 1.5 1.1 1.6 0.2 0.0 0.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

656 4 0 4 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.6

Construction and extraction occupations

5,094 7 0 7 6.5 0.7 0.0 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,289 5 1 3 4.2 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,988 64 15 50 19.0 6.3 10.4 5.6 0.4 0.1 0.3

Production occupations

6,583 21 7 14 8.4 2.1 5.0 1.6 0.3 0.1 0.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,405 43 8 36 10.7 4.2 5.4 4.0 0.5 0.1 0.4

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system, derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by industry, 2022 annual averages
Industry Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Private sector

69,342 973 134 839 88.1 95.1 94.9 95.1 1.4 0.2 1.2

Agriculture and related industries

802 8 0 8 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.9

Nonagricultural industries

68,540 965 134 831 87.1 94.4 94.9 94.3 1.4 0.2 1.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

273 0 0 0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Construction

5,588 9 2 7 7.1 0.9 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.1

Manufacturing

8,573 35 6 29 10.9 3.4 4.2 3.3 0.4 0.1 0.3

Durable goods

5,355 9 1 8 6.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.1

Nondurable goods

3,219 26 4 21 4.1 2.5 3.2 2.4 0.8 0.1 0.7

Wholesale and retail trade

12,325 79 20 59 15.7 7.7 14.0 6.7 0.6 0.2 0.5

Wholesale trade

1,472 7 0 7 1.9 0.7 0.0 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.5

Retail trade

10,853 71 20 52 13.8 7.0 14.0 5.9 0.7 0.2 0.5

Transportation and utilities

4,530 14 1 12 5.8 1.3 1.0 1.4 0.3 0.0 0.3

Information

907 10 4 7 1.2 1.0 2.6 0.8 1.1 0.4 0.7

Financial activities

3,179 8 1 7 4.0 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.2

Professional and business services

6,495 41 10 31 8.3 4.0 7.2 3.5 0.6 0.2 0.5

Education and health services

13,949 92 18 74 17.7 9.0 12.8 8.4 0.7 0.1 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

9,558 639 63 575 12.1 62.4 44.7 65.3 6.7 0.7 6.0

Other services

3,163 39 8 31 4.0 3.8 5.8 3.5 1.2 0.3 1.0

Public sector

9,387 50 7 43 11.9 4.9 5.1 4.9 0.5 0.1 0.5

Federal

1,895 10 1 9 2.4 1.0 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.0 0.5

State

2,815 13 1 12 3.6 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.4

Local

4,677 27 5 22 5.9 2.6 3.7 2.5 0.6 0.1 0.5

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by educational attainment, 2022 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Less than a high school diploma

8,971 119 38 82 11.4 11.7 26.7 9.3 1.3 0.4 0.9

Less than 1 year of high school

2,465 11 1 10 3.1 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

1 to 3 years of high school

5,093 90 34 56 6.5 8.8 24.3 6.3 1.8 0.7 1.1

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,413 18 2 16 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.2 0.1 1.1

High school graduates or more

69,759 904 104 800 88.6 88.3 73.3 90.7 1.3 0.1 1.1

High school graduates, no college

27,372 368 47 320 34.8 36.0 33.6 36.3 1.3 0.2 1.2

Some college or associate degree

25,078 378 41 337 31.9 36.9 29.0 38.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

Some college, no degree

15,274 288 35 253 19.4 28.1 24.7 28.7 1.9 0.2 1.7

Associate degree

9,804 90 6 84 12.5 8.8 4.3 9.5 0.9 0.1 0.9

Occupational program

4,224 38 1 37 5.4 3.7 1.0 4.2 0.9 0.0 0.9

Academic program

5,579 52 5 47 7.1 5.1 3.3 5.4 0.9 0.1 0.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

17,309 158 15 143 22.0 15.5 10.7 16.2 0.9 0.1 0.8

Bachelor's degree

13,100 134 12 122 16.6 13.1 8.5 13.8 1.0 0.1 0.9

Master's degree

3,375 16 2 14 4.3 1.6 1.3 1.6 0.5 0.1 0.4

Professional degree

361 6 1 4 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.4 1.2

Doctoral degree

473 3 0 3 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.6

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by age and sex, 2022 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

16 to 24 years

15,741 457 85 372 20.0 44.7 60.2 42.2 2.9 0.5 2.4

16 to 19 years

5,193 175 53 122 6.6 17.1 37.6 13.8 3.4 1.0 2.3

20 to 24 years

10,549 282 32 250 13.4 27.6 22.6 28.4 2.7 0.3 2.4

25 years and older

62,988 566 56 510 80.0 55.3 39.8 57.8 0.9 0.1 0.8

25 to 34 years

18,440 207 7 200 23.4 20.2 4.8 22.7 1.1 0.0 1.1

25 to 29 years

9,507 123 5 118 12.1 12.0 3.4 13.4 1.3 0.1 1.2

30 to 34 years

8,933 84 2 82 11.3 8.2 1.4 9.3 0.9 0.0 0.9

35 to 44 years

14,852 117 11 106 18.9 11.4 8.0 12.0 0.8 0.1 0.7

35 to 39 years

7,677 65 9 57 9.8 6.4 6.1 6.4 0.8 0.1 0.7

40 to 44 years

7,174 52 3 49 9.1 5.1 2.0 5.6 0.7 0.0 0.7

45 to 54 years

13,162 97 14 82 16.7 9.5 10.2 9.3 0.7 0.1 0.6

45 to 49 years

6,551 51 10 40 8.3 5.0 7.4 4.6 0.8 0.2 0.6

50 to 54 years

6,612 46 4 42 8.4 4.5 2.9 4.8 0.7 0.1 0.6

55 to 64 years

12,032 110 16 93 15.3 10.7 11.6 10.6 0.9 0.1 0.8

55 to 59 years

6,672 49 9 40 8.5 4.8 6.3 4.6 0.7 0.1 0.6

60 to 64 years

5,360 61 8 53 6.8 5.9 5.3 6.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

65 years and older

4,502 36 7 28 5.7 3.5 5.1 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.6

65 to 69 years

2,680 14 3 11 3.4 1.3 1.9 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

70 years and older

1,822 22 5 17 2.3 2.1 3.2 2.0 1.2 0.2 1.0

Men

Total, 16 years and older

39,446 328 42 286 50.1 32.1 29.4 32.5 0.8 0.1 0.7

16 to 24 years

7,853 132 20 112 10.0 12.9 14.1 12.7 1.7 0.3 1.4

16 to 19 years

2,543 56 14 42 3.2 5.4 9.7 4.8 2.2 0.5 1.6

20 to 24 years

5,310 76 6 70 6.7 7.4 4.4 7.9 1.4 0.1 1.3

25 years and older

31,593 196 22 175 40.1 19.2 15.3 19.8 0.6 0.1 0.6

25 to 34 years

9,625 65 0 65 12.2 6.3 0.1 7.3 0.7 0.0 0.7

25 to 29 years

4,965 37 0 37 6.3 3.6 0.1 4.2 0.7 0.0 0.7

30 to 34 years

4,660 28 0 28 5.9 2.7 0.0 3.2 0.6 0.0 0.6

35 to 44 years

7,593 30 5 25 9.6 2.9 3.7 2.8 0.4 0.1 0.3

35 to 39 years

3,984 15 3 12 5.1 1.4 2.1 1.3 0.4 0.1 0.3

40 to 44 years

3,610 15 2 13 4.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.4 0.1 0.4

45 to 54 years

6,478 37 4 33 8.2 3.7 2.9 3.8 0.6 0.1 0.5

45 to 49 years

3,268 13 2 10 4.2 1.2 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.1 0.3

50 to 54 years

3,210 25 2 23 4.1 2.4 1.3 2.6 0.8 0.1 0.7

55 to 64 years

5,749 51 6 45 7.3 5.0 4.4 5.1 0.9 0.1 0.8

55 to 59 years

3,212 23 4 19 4.1 2.2 3.0 2.1 0.7 0.1 0.6

60 to 64 years

2,537 28 2 26 3.2 2.8 1.4 3.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

65 years and older

2,147 13 6 7 2.7 1.3 4.2 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.3

65 to 69 years

1,262 2 1 0 1.6 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0

70 years and older

885 11 5 7 1.1 1.1 3.2 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.8

Women

Total, 16 years and older

39,283 695 100 595 49.9 67.9 70.6 67.5 1.8 0.3 1.5

16 to 24 years

7,888 325 65 260 10.0 31.8 46.2 29.5 4.1 0.8 3.3

16 to 19 years

2,650 119 40 80 3.4 11.7 28.0 9.1 4.5 1.5 3.0

20 to 24 years

5,239 206 26 180 6.7 20.1 18.2 20.4 3.9 0.5 3.4

25 years and older

31,395 370 35 335 39.9 36.1 24.5 38.0 1.2 0.1 1.1

25 to 34 years

8,815 142 7 135 11.2 13.9 4.7 15.4 1.6 0.1 1.5

25 to 29 years

4,542 86 5 81 5.8 8.4 3.3 9.2 1.9 0.1 1.8

30 to 34 years

4,273 56 2 54 5.4 5.5 1.4 6.2 1.3 0.0 1.3

35 to 44 years

7,258 87 6 81 9.2 8.5 4.3 9.2 1.2 0.1 1.1

35 to 39 years

3,694 51 6 45 4.7 4.9 4.0 5.1 1.4 0.2 1.2

40 to 44 years

3,565 37 0 36 4.5 3.6 0.3 4.1 1.0 0.0 1.0

45 to 54 years

6,684 59 10 49 8.5 5.8 7.3 5.6 0.9 0.2 0.7

45 to 49 years

3,283 38 8 30 4.2 3.7 5.8 3.4 1.2 0.2 0.9

50 to 54 years

3,401 21 2 19 4.3 2.1 1.5 2.2 0.6 0.1 0.6

55 to 64 years

6,283 59 10 48 8.0 5.7 7.3 5.5 0.9 0.2 0.8

55 to 59 years

3,460 26 5 22 4.4 2.6 3.3 2.5 0.8 0.1 0.6

60 to 64 years

2,823 32 6 27 3.6 3.1 3.9 3.0 1.1 0.2 0.9

65 years and older

2,355 23 1 21 3.0 2.2 0.9 2.4 1.0 0.1 0.9

65 to 69 years

1,418 12 1 11 1.8 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.1 0.7

70 years and older

937 11 0 11 1.2 1.0 0.0 1.2 1.1 0.0 1.1

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by marital status, age, and sex, 2022 annual averages
Marital status, age,
and sex
Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Never married

34,188 680 108 572 43.4 66.5 76.5 64.9 2.0 0.3 1.7

16 to 24 years

14,657 439 85 354 18.6 42.9 59.9 40.2 3.0 0.6 2.4

25 years and older

19,531 241 23 218 24.8 23.6 16.6 24.7 1.2 0.1 1.1

25 to 54 years

17,510 216 17 199 22.2 21.2 12.3 22.6 1.2 0.1 1.1

Married, spouse present(1)

32,686 229 18 211 41.5 22.4 12.7 24.0 0.7 0.1 0.6

16 to 24 years

815 11 0 11 1.0 1.1 0.0 1.3 1.4 0.0 1.4

25 years and older

31,871 218 18 200 40.5 21.3 12.7 22.7 0.7 0.1 0.6

25 to 54 years

22,108 136 6 130 28.1 13.3 4.1 14.8 0.6 0.0 0.6

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

11,855 113 15 98 15.1 11.1 10.8 11.1 1.0 0.1 0.8

16 to 24 years

269 7 0 6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.7 2.4 0.2 2.3

25 years and older

11,586 107 15 92 14.7 10.4 10.5 10.4 0.9 0.1 0.8

25 to 54 years

6,835 68 9 58 8.7 6.6 6.7 6.6 1.0 0.1 0.9

Men

Total, 16 years and older

39,446 328 42 286 50.1 32.1 29.4 32.5 0.8 0.1 0.7

Never married

17,932 204 31 172 22.8 19.9 22.2 19.6 1.1 0.2 1.0

16 to 24 years

7,374 128 20 108 9.4 12.5 14.1 12.3 1.7 0.3 1.5

25 years and older

10,558 75 11 64 13.4 7.4 8.1 7.3 0.7 0.1 0.6

25 to 54 years

9,581 66 8 59 12.2 6.5 5.4 6.6 0.7 0.1 0.6

Married, spouse present(1)

16,741 95 6 89 21.3 9.3 4.4 10.1 0.6 0.0 0.5

16 to 24 years

368 3 0 3 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.9 0.0 0.9

25 years and older

16,373 92 6 86 20.8 9.0 4.4 9.7 0.6 0.0 0.5

25 to 54 years

11,218 48 0 48 14.2 4.7 0.2 5.4 0.4 0.0 0.4

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

4,773 29 4 25 6.1 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.6 0.1 0.5

16 to 24 years

111 0 0 0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

25 years and older

4,662 29 4 25 5.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.6 0.1 0.5

25 to 54 years

2,898 18 2 16 3.7 1.7 1.2 1.8 0.6 0.1 0.6

Women

Total, 16 years and older

39,283 695 100 595 49.9 67.9 70.6 67.5 1.8 0.3 1.5

Never married

16,256 477 77 400 20.6 46.6 54.3 45.4 2.9 0.5 2.5

16 to 24 years

7,283 311 65 246 9.3 30.4 45.9 27.9 4.3 0.9 3.4

25 years and older

8,973 166 12 154 11.4 16.2 8.5 17.5 1.9 0.1 1.7

25 to 54 years

7,929 150 10 140 10.1 14.7 6.9 15.9 1.9 0.1 1.8

Married, spouse present(1)

15,945 134 12 122 20.3 13.1 8.2 13.9 0.8 0.1 0.8

16 to 24 years

447 8 0 8 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.9 1.8 0.0 1.8

25 years and older

15,498 126 12 114 19.7 12.3 8.2 13.0 0.8 0.1 0.7

25 to 54 years

10,891 88 6 83 13.8 8.6 3.9 9.4 0.8 0.1 0.8

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

7,082 84 11 73 9.0 8.2 8.0 8.3 1.2 0.2 1.0

16 to 24 years

158 7 0 6 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.7 4.2 0.3 3.9

25 years and older

6,924 78 11 67 8.8 7.6 7.7 7.6 1.1 0.2 1.0

25 to 54 years

3,937 50 8 42 5.0 4.9 5.5 4.8 1.3 0.2 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed workers, whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by usual hours worked per week on primary job, 2022 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid
hourly rates
Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

78,729 1,023 141 882 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Hours vary

3,957 131 16 116 5.0 12.8 11.0 13.1 3.3 0.4 2.9

0 to 34 hours

17,115 479 106 373 21.7 46.8 74.8 42.3 2.8 0.6 2.2

0 to 4 hours

349 10 3 7 0.4 1.0 2.0 0.8 2.8 0.8 2.0

5 to 9 hours

1,005 34 15 19 1.3 3.3 10.6 2.1 3.3 1.5 1.9

10 to 14 hours

1,701 58 17 40 2.2 5.6 12.3 4.6 3.4 1.0 2.4

15 to 19 hours

2,167 76 14 62 2.8 7.4 9.8 7.1 3.5 0.6 2.9

20 to 24 hours

5,056 117 27 90 6.4 11.4 19.3 10.2 2.3 0.5 1.8

25 to 29 hours

2,350 68 9 59 3.0 6.7 6.4 6.7 2.9 0.4 2.5

30 to 34 hours

4,487 116 20 96 5.7 11.4 14.5 10.9 2.6 0.5 2.1

35 hours or more

57,658 413 20 393 73.2 40.4 14.2 44.6 0.7 0.0 0.7

35 to 39 hours

5,477 97 6 90 7.0 9.5 4.5 10.3 1.8 0.1 1.7

40 hours or more

52,181 316 14 302 66.3 30.9 9.7 34.3 0.6 0.0 0.6

40 hours

45,045 262 10 251 57.2 25.6 7.4 28.5 0.6 0.0 0.6

41 hours or more

7,136 54 3 51 9.1 5.3 2.3 5.8 0.8 0.0 0.7

41 to 44 hours

738 8 2 6 0.9 0.8 1.7 0.7 1.1 0.3 0.8

45 to 48 hours

2,318 18 1 17 2.9 1.7 0.6 1.9 0.8 0.0 0.7

49 to 59 hours

2,741 18 0 18 3.5 1.8 0.0 2.0 0.7 0.0 0.7

60 hours or more

1,338 11 0 11 1.7 1.0 0.0 1.2 0.8 0.0 0.8

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Estimates of usual hours worked presented in this table differ from usual full- or part-time status (as shown in table 1) because of a sizable number of workers whose usual hours vary on the primary job.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below prevailing federal minimum wage, by sex, 1979-2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total
wage
and
salary
workers
Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percentage
of total
wage
and
salary
workers
At
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage(1)
Below
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage(1)
Total at or below
prevailing federal
minimum wage
Number Percentage
of hourly
paid
workers

Total

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 3,997 2,916 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 4,686 3,087 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 4,311 3,513 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 4,148 2,348 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 4,261 2,077 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 4,125 1,838 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 3,899 1,639 5,538 9.9

1986

96,903 57,529 59.4 3,461 1,599 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 3,229 1,468 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 2,608 1,319 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,790 1,372 3,162 5.1

1990

104,876 63,172 60.2 1,096 2,132 3,228 5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,906 2,377 5,283 8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 2,982 1,939 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 2,625 1,707 4,332 6.7

1994

107,989 66,549 61.6 2,132 1,995 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,956 1,699 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,861 1,863 3,724 5.4

1997

114,533 70,735 61.8 1,764 2,990 4,754 6.7

1998

116,730 71,440 61.2 1,593 2,834 4,427 6.2

1999

118,963 72,306 60.8 1,146 2,194 3,340 4.6

2000

122,089 73,496 60.2 898 1,752 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 656 1,518 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 567 1,579 2,146 3.0

2003

122,358 72,946 59.6 545 1,555 2,100 2.9

2004

123,554 73,939 59.8 520 1,483 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 479 1,403 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 409 1,283 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 267 1,462 1,729 2.3

2008

129,377 75,305 58.2 286 1,940 2,226 3.0

2009

124,490 72,611 58.3 980 2,592 3,572 4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 1,820 2,541 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 1,677 2,152 3,829 5.2

2012

127,577 75,276 59.0 1,566 1,984 3,550 4.7

2013

129,110 75,948 58.8 1,532 1,768 3,301 4.3

2014

131,431 77,207 58.7 1,255 1,737 2,992 3.9

2015

133,743 78,232 58.5 870 1,691 2,561 3.3

2016

136,101 79,883 58.7 701 1,451 2,153 2.7

2017

137,890 80,439 58.3 542 1,282 1,824 2.3

2018

140,099 81,915 58.5 434 1,276 1,711 2.1

2019

141,737 82,289 58.1 392 1,211 1,603 1.9

2020

132,174 73,305 55.5 247 865 1,112 1.5

2021

136,393 76,125 55.8 181 910 1,091 1.4

2022

141,673 78,729 55.6 141 882 1,023 1.3

Men

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 1,353 846 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 1,696 983 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,533 1,119 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 1,587 697 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 1,658 585 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 1,626 490 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 1,544 440 1,984 6.9

1986

51,942 29,666 57.1 1,336 408 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 1,283 364 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 1,066 311 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 733 379 1,112 3.5

1990

55,553 32,104 57.8 385 712 1,097 3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 1,114 795 1,909 6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 1,231 653 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 1,091 573 1,664 5.1

1994

56,570 33,528 59.3 891 674 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 796 542 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 755 619 1,374 3.9

1997

59,825 35,521 59.4 673 1,147 1,820 5.1

1998

60,973 35,761 58.7 628 1,039 1,667 4.7

1999

61,914 36,073 58.3 446 768 1,214 3.4

2000

63,662 36,720 57.7 319 582 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 247 497 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 217 582 799 2.2

2003

63,236 35,853 56.7 213 493 706 2.0

2004

64,145 36,806 57.4 210 470 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 189 459 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 146 422 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 86 460 546 1.4

2008

66,846 37,334 55.9 90 638 728 1.9

2009

63,539 35,185 55.4 368 990 1,358 3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 669 943 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 648 785 1,433 3.9

2012

65,898 37,113 56.3 567 696 1,263 3.4

2013

66,794 37,544 56.2 622 621 1,243 3.3

2014

68,048 38,405 56.4 516 598 1,114 2.9

2015

69,298 38,732 55.9 330 629 959 2.5

2016

70,589 39,568 56.1 270 499 769 1.9

2017

71,469 39,781 55.7 226 452 678 1.7

2018

72,632 40,691 56.0 168 464 632 1.6

2019

73,349 40,918 55.8 125 411 536 1.3

2020

68,711 36,792 53.5 111 258 369 1.0

2021

70,739 38,089 53.8 87 311 398 1.0

2022

73,672 39,446 53.5 42 286 328 0.8

Women

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,644 2,070 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,990 2,104 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,778 2,394 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 2,561 1,651 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 2,603 1,492 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 2,499 1,348 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 2,356 1,198 3,554 13.2

1986

44,961 27,863 62.0 2,125 1,192 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,946 1,105 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,542 1,008 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 1,056 994 2,050 6.7

1990

49,323 31,069 63.0 711 1,420 2,131 6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,792 1,582 3,374 10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,751 1,286 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,534 1,133 2,667 8.4

1994

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,241 1,322 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,161 1,157 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,106 1,244 2,350 6.8

1997

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,092 1,843 2,935 8.3

1998

55,757 35,680 64.0 965 1,794 2,760 7.7

1999

57,050 36,233 63.5 700 1,426 2,126 5.9

2000

58,427 36,777 62.9 579 1,170 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 409 1,021 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 350 997 1,347 3.7

2003

59,122 37,093 62.7 332 1,062 1,394 3.8

2004

59,408 37,133 62.5 310 1,013 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 290 944 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 263 861 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 181 1,002 1,183 3.1

2008

62,532 37,972 60.7 196 1,302 1,498 3.9

2009

60,951 37,426 61.4 612 1,603 2,215 5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,151 1,598 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,029 1,366 2,395 6.4

2012

61,679 38,163 61.9 999 1,288 2,287 6.0

2013

62,316 38,404 61.6 910 1,148 2,058 5.4

2014

63,383 38,802 61.2 739 1,139 1,878 4.8

2015

64,445 39,500 61.3 540 1,062 1,602 4.1

2016

65,512 40,315 61.5 432 952 1,384 3.4

2017

66,421 40,658 61.2 316 829 1,146 2.8

2018

67,467 41,223 61.1 267 812 1,078 2.6

2019

68,388 41,372 60.5 268 800 1,067 2.6

2020

63,462 36,513 57.5 136 607 742 2.0

2021

65,654 38,036 57.9 94 599 693 1.8

2022

68,001 39,283 57.8 100 595 695 1.8

Footnote
(1) Data for 1990–91, 1996–97, and 2007–09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a nationally representative sample of about 60,000 eligible households in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey also provides data on earnings, which are based on one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers, regardless of whether their businesses are incorporated, are excluded from these earnings estimates.

This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services or the information voice phone at: (202) 691-5200.

For more information on the data provided in this report, contact the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics. Email: cpsinfo@bls.gov; Telephone: (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Wage and salary workers are people age 16 and older who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payments in kind, or piece rates on their sole or principal job. This group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. All self-employed workers are excluded, regardless of whether their businesses are incorporated.

Workers paid by the hour are wage and salary workers who report that they are paid at an hourly rate on their job. Historically, workers paid an hourly wage have made up approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers. Estimates of workers paid by the hour include both full- and part-time workers unless otherwise specified.

Hourly earnings data are for wage and salary workers who are paid by the hour and pertain to earnings from a person’s sole or principal job. Hourly earnings for hourly paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received.

Workers paid at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage include only workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other nonhourly paid workers are excluded.

Regular collection of earnings data in the basic CPS began in 1979. The prevailing federal minimum wage for 1979 and later years is listed in the following table.

Federal minimum wage

Effective date

$2.90

January 1, 1979

$3.10

January 1, 1980

$3.35

January 1, 1981

$3.80

April 1, 1990

$4.25

April 1, 1991

$4.75

October 1, 1996

$5.15

September 1, 1997

$5.85

July 24, 2007

$6.55

July 24, 2008

$7.25

July 24, 2009

Estimates of the annual average number of minimum wage workers for years when the minimum wage increased during the year reflect both minimum wage levels in effect during the year. For example, data for 2007 reflect the number of workers at or below the federal minimum of $5.15 for January to July and $5.85 for August to December.

Full-time workers are defined as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job. The federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) does not define full- or part-time employment.

Part-time workers are defined as those who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or principal job.

Race is reported by the household respondent. In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget standards, White, Black or African American, and Asian are terms used to describe a person’s race for the data presented in this report. Data for other race groups—American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders—and for people of Two or More Races are included in totals but not separately identified in this report because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of acceptable reliability.

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity refers to people who identified themselves in the survey process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People who identify themselves as Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

Married, spouse present refers to people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages living together in the same household.

Other marital status refers to people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; or married, spouse absent. 

Separated includes people with legal separations, those living apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other people permanently or temporarily separated because of marital discord. 

Married, spouse absent includes both opposite-sex and same-sex married people living apart because either the husband or wife was employed and living at a considerable distance from home, was serving away from home in the Armed Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence for any other reason except those listed in the previous definition of separated.

Interpreting minimum wage data

The CPS does not determine whether workers are covered by the minimum wage provisions of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual state or local minimum wage laws. The estimates of workers paid at or below the federal minimum wage are based solely on the hourly wage that respondents report (which does not include overtime pay, tips, or commissions). It should be noted that some respondents might round their hourly earnings when answering survey questions. As a result, some workers might be reported as having hourly earnings above or below the federal minimum wage when, in fact, they earn the minimum wage.

Some workers reported as earning at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by federal or state minimum wage laws because of exclusions and exemptions in the statutes. Thus, the presence of workers with hourly earnings below the federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or state statutes in cases where such standards apply.

Estimates of the number of minimum wage workers in this report pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other workers who are not paid by the hour are excluded, even though some have earnings that, if converted to hourly rates, would be at or below the federal minimum wage. Consequently, the estimates presented in this report likely underestimate the actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage. BLS does not routinely estimate the hourly earnings of workers not paid by the hour because of data quality concerns associated with constructing such an estimate.

Several states have established minimum wage rates that exceed the federal level. (Information on state minimum wage laws is available at https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/minimum-wage/state.) Users should be cautious about comparing state estimates with CPS estimates in this report because of differing statutory minimum wages. It also should be noted that the CPS sample is based on residence; workers report their earnings on their job, which may not be located in the same state in which they live. In addition, the degree of sampling error may be quite large for some state estimates.

Reliability

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample of the population is surveyed, rather than the entire population, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information from all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data. For example, respondents may round their hourly earnings to whole dollars when answering survey questions.

Information about the reliability of data from the CPS is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability