September 2016 Report 1062

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2015

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2015 image

In 2015, the overall unemployment rate for the United States was 5.3 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. The rates were highest for American Indians and Alaska Natives (9.9 percent) and for Blacks (9.6 percent) and lowest for Asians (3.8 percent). The jobless rate was 4.6 percent for Whites, 5.7 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and 8.4 percent for people of Two or More Races. The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity was 6.6 percent, higher than the rate of 5.0 percent for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations across the groups in educational attainment; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also includes a limited amount of data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic ethnicity. Among the detailed Hispanic ethnicity categories are: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic or Latino. The latter two categories are expanded into five additional categories—Salvadoran, Other Central American, South American, Dominican, and Other Hispanic or Latino. Estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables because of their relatively small sample sizes.

The data are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The following sections highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2015.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (79 percent). Blacks and Asians made up an additional 12 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders made up less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Chinese, making up 22 percent of all Asians. Asian Indians made up 21 percent, followed by Filipinos (17 percent), Vietnamese (10 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—17 percent—were classified as Other Asian, which includes individuals who reported an Asian group not listed above—such as Pakistani, Cambodian, and Hmong—and those who reported two or more Asian groups. (See table 2.)

Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics (89 percent) in the labor force were White, 4 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (63 percent). Central Americans—which includes Salvadorans and Other Central Americans (excluding Salvadorans)—made up 10 percent. Eight percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 8 percent were classified as Other Hispanics or Latinos—which includes Dominicans and Other Hispanics or Latinos (excluding Dominicans). (See table 2.)

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics had the highest labor force participation rates, at 66.6 percent and 65.9 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives (60.6 percent) and Blacks (61.5 percent) had the lowest participation rates. The participation rates were 62.8 percent each for Asians and Whites, and 64.5 percent for people of Two or More Races. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 4A, and chart 1.)

 

Among adult men (age 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.9 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups, while Blacks (67.3 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (74.7 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (72.0 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (62.0 percent) were more likely than Hispanics (58.4 percent), Whites (57.5 percent), and Asians (57.2 percent) to participate in the labor force. (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (that is, the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 54.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 62.8 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 55.7 percent for Blacks, 59.0 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, 59.9 percent for Whites, 60.4 percent for Asians, and 61.6 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (age 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (76.3 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Blacks (60.9 percent) had the lowest employment–population ratio, continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 71.9 percent and 68.9 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the employment–population ratios were 56.9 percent for Blacks, 55.2 percent for Asians, 55.1 percent for Whites, and 54.6 percent for Hispanics. (See table 3).

Among teenagers age 16 to 19, the employment–population ratio was higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (31.0 percent) was about 13 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (17.7 percent) and about 11 percentage points higher than the ratio for Black teens (20.1 percent). The ratio for Hispanic teens was 24.9 percent.

Educational attainment

Among people age 25 and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was over 90 percent for Whites, Blacks, and Asians. By contrast, 72 percent of Hispanics in the labor force had completed high school. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college; 61 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 39 percent of Whites, 28 percent of Blacks, and 19 percent of Hispanics. (See table 6 and chart 2.)

 

For all major race and ethnicity groups, higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment and a lower likelihood of unemployment. Nonetheless, at nearly every level of education, Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to be unemployed than were Whites and Asians. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education are typically more likely to be employed in higher-paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. For those age 25 and older, median earnings for all major race and ethnicity groups increased with educational attainment. However, Blacks and Hispanics had lower earnings than Whites and Asians with at least some college education. (See table 17.)

Occupation and industry

Occupational categories

Fifty-one percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 40 percent of employed Whites, 30 percent of employed Blacks, and 22 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

 

Among employed men, 52 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 36 percent of Whites, 25 percent of Blacks, and 18 percent of Hispanics. About 2 in 10 employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas about 1 in 10 employed Asian and White men worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men were also more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-seven percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 12 percent of Black men, and 5 percent of Asian men.

Employed Asian and White women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations—50 percent of Asian women and 44 percent of White women, compared with 35 percent of Black women and 27 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 62 percent of Hispanics worked in two job groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 57 percent of Blacks, 50 percent of Whites, and 43 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 16 percent of total employment but were over represented by a substantial amount in several detailed occupational categories, including miscellaneous agricultural workers (51 percent), painters, construction and maintenance (49 percent), maids and housekeeping cleaners (49 percent), and construction laborers (46 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for one-quarter or more of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (38 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (29 percent), licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (29 percent), and bus drivers (28 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (57 percent), software developers (34 percent), and physicians and surgeons (18 percent). Whites made up 79 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 97 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 91 percent of construction managers; and 90 percent of chief executives. (See table 8.)

Industry 

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (19 percent) than were Whites (13 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than other employed men to work in transportation and utilities (12 percent). Nineteen percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of Whites (13 percent), Hispanic (12 percent), and Black men (11 percent). A large share of employed women in all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services—Blacks (41 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (29 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and mothers

Among Asian families, 89 percent had an employed family member, compared with 86 percent of Hispanic families, 80 percent of White families, and 78 percent of Black families. (See table 10.)

Families maintained by Black women (that is, without a spouse present) comprised 44 percent of Black families, and Hispanics women without a spouse present maintained 26 percent of Hispanic families. Women without a spouse present maintained about 16 percent of White families and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (84 percent). In comparison, 73 percent of Black families, 76 percent of White families, and 78 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women without a spouse present are less likely to have an employed family member than married-couple families and families maintained by men.

Among mothers with children under 18, 76.6 percent of Black mothers were in the labor force, higher than the participation rates for White (69.4 percent), Asian (62.4 percent), or Hispanic (61.4 percent) mothers. (See table 11.)

Unemployment 

Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (9.9 percent) and Blacks (9.6 percent) had the highest unemployment rates while the rate was lowest for Asians (3.8 percent). The jobless rate was 4.6 percent for Whites, 5.7 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and 8.4 percent for people of Two or More Races. The unemployment rate was 6.6 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A and charts 4 and 5.)

 

Among the largest race and ethnicity groups, adult Black men and women (age 20 and older) had jobless rates of 9.5 percent and 8.2 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate for adult Hispanic men was 5.7 percent, and the rate for adult Hispanic women was 6.5 percent. In comparison, the jobless rate for adult White men was 4.3 percent, and the rate for adult White women was 4.1 percent. For adult Asian men and women, the unemployment rates were 3.7 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. (See table 3.)

Among teenagers, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate—28.4 percent. The unemployment rate for Hispanic teenagers was 19.3 percent; White teenagers, 14.8 percent; and Asian teenagers 14.4 percent.

Unemployed Blacks and Asians experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Blacks and Asians was 15.5 weeks and 13.1 weeks, respectively, compared with 10.5 weeks for Whites and 10.4 weeks for Hispanics. (See table 13.)

Of the 8.3 million unemployed people, 49 percent were job losers (that is, workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (31 percent), new entrants (11 percent), and job leavers (10 percent) constituted the balance of unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each large race and ethnicity group, 51 percent of Whites and 50 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 46 percent of Blacks and 42 percent of Asians. Eighteen percent of unemployed Asians, 12 percent each of unemployed Hispanics and unemployed Blacks, and 9 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

Blacks made up 12 percent of the civilian labor force, but 23 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. People marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force, wanted to work and were available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months—but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force—79 percent of the labor force versus 66 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (28 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were $604 for Hispanics and $641 for Blacks, compared with $835 for Whites and $993 for Asians. Among men, the earnings for Whites ($920), Blacks ($680), and Hispanics ($631) were 81 percent, 60 percent, and 56 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asians ($1,129). The median earnings of White women ($743), Black women ($615), and Hispanic women ($566) were 85 percent, 70 percent, and 65 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($877). (See table 16.)

Men

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men ($1,560) and White men ($1,399) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupation group) were well above the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,127) and Black men ($1,075) in the same occupation group. (See table 18.)

Women 

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were fairly close across some occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $489 for Asians, $467 for Whites, $440 for Blacks, and $430 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Gender and race Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

Men

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

Women

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

White

196,868 123,607 62.8 117,944 59.9 5,662 4.6 73,261

Men

96,147 67,018 69.7 63,892 66.5 3,126 4.7 29,129

Women

100,720 56,589 56.2 54,052 53.7 2,537 4.5 44,132

Black

31,386 19,318 61.5 17,472 55.7 1,846 9.6 12,068

Men

14,268 9,099 63.8 8,164 57.2 935 10.3 5,169

Women

17,118 10,218 59.7 9,308 54.4 911 8.9 6,899

Asian

14,420 9,053 62.8 8,706 60.4 347 3.8 5,366

Men

6,737 4,811 71.4 4,620 68.6 191 4.0 1,925

Women

7,683 4,242 55.2 4,086 53.2 156 3.7 3,441

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,844 1,724 60.6 1,553 54.6 171 9.9 1,120

Men

1,400 923 65.9 820 58.6 103 11.1 477

Women

1,444 801 55.5 733 50.8 68 8.5 643

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

1,007 671 66.6 633 62.8 38 5.7 336

Men

497 367 73.7 346 69.5 21 5.7 131

Women

510 304 59.7 287 56.3 17 5.6 206

Two or More Races

4,276 2,757 64.5 2,525 59.0 232 8.4 1,519

Men

2,051 1,402 68.4 1,288 62.8 114 8.1 649

Women

2,225 1,355 60.9 1,236 55.6 118 8.7 870

 

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

Men

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

Women

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

Asian

14,420 9,053 62.8 8,706 60.4 347 3.8 5,366

Men

6,737 4,811 71.4 4,620 68.6 191 4.0 1,925

Women

7,683 4,242 55.2 4,086 53.2 156 3.7 3,441

Asian Indian

2,854 1,884 66.0 1,807 63.3 78 4.1 970

Chinese

3,332 1,997 59.9 1,932 58.0 64 3.2 1,335

Filipino

2,271 1,546 68.1 1,479 65.1 67 4.3 726

Japanese

798 447 56.0 436 54.6 11 2.4 351

Korean

1,301 765 58.8 740 56.9 25 3.3 535

Vietnamese

1,439 906 62.9 872 60.6 34 3.7 533

Other Asian

2,424 1,508 62.2 1,440 59.4 69 4.6 916

Hispanic or Latino

39,617 26,126 65.9 24,400 61.6 1,726 6.6 13,491

Men

19,745 15,054 76.2 14,111 71.5 943 6.3 4,691

Women

19,872 11,072 55.7 10,289 51.8 783 7.1 8,800

Mexican

24,711 16,392 66.3 15,342 62.1 1,050 6.4 8,319

Men

12,476 9,675 77.5 9,099 72.9 576 6.0 2,801

Women

12,234 6,716 54.9 6,243 51.0 474 7.1 5,518

Puerto Rican

3,679 2,220 60.4 2,022 55.0 198 8.9 1,459

Men

1,756 1,172 66.7 1,062 60.5 110 9.4 584

Women

1,923 1,048 54.5 961 50.0 88 8.4 874

Cuban

1,760 1,079 61.3 1,010 57.4 69 6.4 681

Men

883 610 69.1 566 64.1 44 7.3 273

Women

876 468 53.5 444 50.6 25 5.3 408

Central American

3,609 2,552 70.7 2,392 66.3 160 6.3 1,057

Men

1,863 1,543 82.8 1,455 78.1 87 5.7 321

Women

1,746 1,010 57.8 937 53.7 73 7.2 736

Salvadoran

1,401 1,000 71.3 945 67.4 55 5.5 401

Men

706 585 82.9 558 79.0 28 4.7 121

Women

695 414 59.6 387 55.7 27 6.5 280

Other Central American(1)

2,208 1,553 70.3 1,447 65.5 106 6.8 655

Men

1,157 957 82.7 897 77.6 60 6.2 200

Women

1,051 596 56.7 550 52.3 46 7.7 455

South American

2,517 1,776 70.5 1,689 67.1 86 4.9 741

Men

1,185 953 80.4 910 76.8 43 4.5 232

Women

1,332 823 61.8 779 58.5 43 5.3 509

Other Hispanic or Latino

3,342 2,107 63.0 1,944 58.2 163 7.7 1,235

Men

1,581 1,101 69.6 1,019 64.4 82 7.5 480

Women

1,761 1,006 57.1 925 52.5 81 8.0 755

Dominican

1,371 896 65.4 817 59.6 79 8.9 475

Men

616 434 70.5 400 64.9 35 8.0 182

Women

755 462 61.2 417 55.2 45 9.7 293

Other Hispanic or Latino(2)

1,971 1,211 61.4 1,127 57.2 84 6.9 760

Men

965 667 69.1 619 64.1 48 7.1 298

Women

1,006 544 54.1 508 50.5 36 6.6 462

Hispanic or Latino

39,617 26,126 65.9 24,400 61.6 1,726 6.6 13,491

Men

19,745 15,054 76.2 14,111 71.5 943 6.3 4,691

Women

19,872 11,072 55.7 10,289 51.8 783 7.1 8,800

White Hispanic or Latino

35,314 23,199 65.7 21,710 61.5 1,489 6.4 12,116

Men

17,635 13,486 76.5 12,664 71.8 821 6.1 4,149

Women

17,680 9,713 54.9 9,046 51.2 667 6.9 7,967

Black Hispanic or Latino

1,669 1,122 67.3 1,017 60.9 106 9.4 546

Men

767 549 71.7 500 65.3 49 8.9 217

Women

902 573 63.5 516 57.2 57 9.9 329

Asian Hispanic or Latino

390 281 72.1 272 69.8 9 3.2 109

Men

200 157 78.2 154 76.7 3 2.0 44

Women

189 124 65.6 118 62.4 6 4.8 65

Non-Hispanic or Latino

211,183 131,004 62.0 124,434 58.9 6,570 5.0 80,179

Men

101,356 68,566 67.6 65,020 64.2 3,546 5.2 32,789

Women

109,828 62,438 56.9 59,414 54.1 3,024 4.8 47,390

White non-Hispanic or Latino

161,553 100,408 62.2 96,234 59.6 4,174 4.2 61,145

Men

78,513 53,532 68.2 51,228 65.2 2,304 4.3 24,981

Women

83,041 46,876 56.4 45,006 54.2 1,870 4.0 36,165

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

29,717 18,195 61.2 16,455 55.4 1,740 9.6 11,522

Men

13,501 8,550 63.3 7,664 56.8 886 10.4 4,952

Women

16,216 9,645 59.5 8,792 54.2 854 8.9 6,570

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

14,030 8,773 62.5 8,435 60.1 338 3.9 5,258

Men

6,536 4,654 71.2 4,467 68.3 188 4.0 1,882

Women

7,494 4,118 55.0 3,968 52.9 150 3.6 3,376

(1) Excludes Salvadoran.

(2) Excludes Dominican.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

16 to 19 years

16,619 5,700 34.3 4,734 28.5 966 16.9 10,919

20 years and older

234,182 151,430 64.7 144,099 61.5 7,330 4.8 82,752

20 to 24 years

21,971 15,523 70.7 14,022 63.8 1,501 9.7 6,448

25 to 54 years

125,109 101,152 80.9 96,638 77.2 4,515 4.5 23,957

55 to 64 years

40,594 25,954 63.9 24,975 61.5 978 3.8 14,640

65 years and older

46,509 8,801 18.9 8,465 18.2 337 3.8 37,708

Men, 16 years and older

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

16 to 19 years

8,430 2,885 34.2 2,354 27.9 531 18.4 5,545

20 years and older

112,671 80,735 71.7 76,776 68.1 3,959 4.9 31,936

20 to 24 years

11,012 8,038 73.0 7,173 65.1 865 10.8 2,974

25 to 54 years

61,425 54,226 88.3 51,851 84.4 2,374 4.4 7,199

55 to 64 years

19,518 13,627 69.8 13,092 67.1 536 3.9 5,891

65 years and older

20,717 4,845 23.4 4,661 22.5 184 3.8 15,872

Women, 16 years and older

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

16 to 19 years

8,189 2,815 34.4 2,380 29.1 435 15.5 5,374

20 years and older

121,511 70,695 58.2 67,323 55.4 3,371 4.8 50,816

20 to 24 years

10,959 7,485 68.3 6,849 62.5 636 8.5 3,474

25 to 54 years

63,684 46,926 73.7 44,786 70.3 2,140 4.6 16,758

55 to 64 years

21,076 12,326 58.5 11,884 56.4 442 3.6 8,749

65 years and older

25,792 3,957 15.3 3,804 14.7 153 3.9 21,835

White

 

Total, 16 years and older

196,868 123,607 62.8 117,944 59.9 5,662 4.6 73,261

16 to 19 years

12,323 4,487 36.4 3,824 31.0 662 14.8 7,836

20 years and older

184,545 119,120 64.5 114,120 61.8 5,000 4.2 65,425

20 to 24 years

16,171 11,755 72.7 10,784 66.7 970 8.3 4,416

25 to 54 years

95,856 78,300 81.7 75,276 78.5 3,024 3.9 17,556

55 to 64 years

33,005 21,534 65.2 20,783 63.0 751 3.5 11,471

65 years and older

39,513 7,531 19.1 7,276 18.4 255 3.4 31,982

Men, 16 years and older

96,147 67,018 69.7 63,892 66.5 3,126 4.7 29,129

16 to 19 years

6,282 2,308 36.7 1,934 30.8 375 16.2 3,974

20 years and older

89,865 64,710 72.0 61,959 68.9 2,751 4.3 25,155

20 to 24 years

8,164 6,165 75.5 5,585 68.4 581 9.4 1,999

25 to 54 years

47,831 42,829 89.5 41,198 86.1 1,630 3.8 5,003

55 to 64 years

16,067 11,489 71.5 11,088 69.0 400 3.5 4,579

65 years and older

17,802 4,227 23.7 4,088 23.0 139 3.3 13,575

Women, 16 years and older

100,720 56,589 56.2 54,052 53.7 2,537 4.5 44,132

16 to 19 years

6,040 2,178 36.1 1,891 31.3 288 13.2 3,862

20 years and older

94,680 54,410 57.5 52,161 55.1 2,249 4.1 40,270

20 to 24 years

8,007 5,589 69.8 5,200 64.9 390 7.0 2,418

25 to 54 years

48,024 35,472 73.9 34,078 71.0 1,393 3.9 12,553

55 to 64 years

16,938 10,045 59.3 9,695 57.2 351 3.5 6,893

65 years and older

21,711 3,304 15.2 3,188 14.7 116 3.5 18,407

Black or African American

 

Total, 16 years and older

31,386 19,318 61.5 17,472 55.7 1,846 9.6 12,068

16 to 19 years

2,491 701 28.1 502 20.1 199 28.4 1,790

20 years and older

28,895 18,616 64.4 16,970 58.7 1,646 8.8 10,278

20 to 24 years

3,425 2,337 68.2 1,953 57.0 384 16.4 1,089

25 to 54 years

16,545 12,984 78.5 11,924 72.1 1,061 8.2 3,561

55 to 64 years

4,718 2,584 54.8 2,433 51.6 151 5.8 2,134

65 years and older

4,207 711 16.9 660 15.7 51 7.2 3,496

Men, 16 years and older

14,268 9,099 63.8 8,164 57.2 935 10.3 5,169

16 to 19 years

1,237 326 26.3 226 18.2 100 30.8 911

20 years and older

13,031 8,773 67.3 7,938 60.9 835 9.5 4,258

20 to 24 years

1,662 1,145 68.9 936 56.3 209 18.3 517

25 to 54 years

7,547 6,105 80.9 5,591 74.1 514 8.4 1,442

55 to 64 years

2,130 1,204 56.5 1,115 52.3 89 7.4 927

65 years and older

1,692 320 18.9 297 17.5 23 7.2 1,372

Women, 16 years and older

17,118 10,218 59.7 9,308 54.4 911 8.9 6,899

16 to 19 years

1,254 376 29.9 276 22.0 99 26.4 879

20 years and older

15,863 9,843 62.0 9,032 56.9 811 8.2 6,021

20 to 24 years

1,764 1,192 67.6 1,017 57.7 174 14.6 572

25 to 54 years

8,998 6,880 76.5 6,333 70.4 547 8.0 2,118

55 to 64 years

2,588 1,381 53.4 1,319 51.0 62 4.5 1,207

65 years and older

2,515 391 15.6 363 14.4 28 7.2 2,123

Asian

 

Total, 16 years and older

14,420 9,053 62.8 8,706 60.4 347 3.8 5,366

16 to 19 years

833 172 20.6 147 17.7 25 14.4 661

20 years and older

13,587 8,882 65.4 8,559 63.0 322 3.6 4,705

20 to 24 years

1,293 682 52.8 625 48.4 57 8.4 610

25 to 54 years

8,317 6,476 77.9 6,283 75.5 193 3.0 1,842

55 to 64 years

1,960 1,315 67.1 1,263 64.4 53 4.0 644

65 years and older

2,017 408 20.2 388 19.3 20 4.8 1,609

Men, 16 years and older

6,737 4,811 71.4 4,620 68.6 191 4.0 1,925

16 to 19 years

406 83 20.5 69 16.9 15 17.7 322

20 years and older

6,331 4,728 74.7 4,552 71.9 176 3.7 1,603

20 to 24 years

656 347 53.0 318 48.6 29 8.4 308

25 to 54 years

3,911 3,488 89.2 3,389 86.7 99 2.9 423

55 to 64 years

883 664 75.1 630 71.3 34 5.1 219

65 years and older

882 229 25.9 215 24.4 14 6.1 653

Women, 16 years and older

7,683 4,242 55.2 4,086 53.2 156 3.7 3,441

16 to 19 years

428 89 20.8 79 18.4 10 11.4 339

20 years and older

7,256 4,154 57.2 4,008 55.2 146 3.5 3,102

20 to 24 years

637 335 52.6 307 48.2 28 8.4 302

25 to 54 years

4,407 2,988 67.8 2,894 65.7 93 3.1 1,419

55 to 64 years

1,077 652 60.5 633 58.8 19 2.9 425

65 years and older

1,135 179 15.8 174 15.3 6 3.2 956

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Total, 16 years and older

39,617 26,126 65.9 24,400 61.6 1,726 6.6 13,491

16 to 19 years

3,705 1,144 30.9 922 24.9 221 19.3 2,562

20 years and older

35,912 24,983 69.6 23,477 65.4 1,505 6.0 10,929

20 to 24 years

4,697 3,365 71.6 3,027 64.4 338 10.0 1,332

25 to 54 years

23,262 18,315 78.7 17,326 74.5 989 5.4 4,948

55 to 64 years

4,255 2,666 62.7 2,523 59.3 143 5.4 1,589

65 years and older

3,698 637 17.2 601 16.3 36 5.6 3,061

Men, 16 years and older

19,745 15,054 76.2 14,111 71.5 943 6.3 4,691

16 to 19 years

1,886 610 32.4 487 25.8 124 20.3 1,275

20 years and older

17,860 14,444 80.9 13,624 76.3 820 5.7 3,416

20 to 24 years

2,396 1,851 77.3 1,655 69.1 196 10.6 545

25 to 54 years

11,810 10,722 90.8 10,206 86.4 516 4.8 1,089

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,515 73.9 1,432 69.9 83 5.5 535

65 years and older

1,604 356 22.2 331 20.7 25 7.0 1,248

Women, 16 years and older

19,872 11,072 55.7 10,289 51.8 783 7.1 8,800

16 to 19 years

1,820 533 29.3 436 23.9 98 18.3 1,287

20 years and older

18,052 10,539 58.4 9,853 54.6 686 6.5 7,513

20 to 24 years

2,301 1,514 65.8 1,372 59.6 142 9.4 787

25 to 54 years

11,452 7,593 66.3 7,120 62.2 473 6.2 3,859

55 to 64 years

2,205 1,151 52.2 1,091 49.5 60 5.2 1,054

65 years and older

2,094 280 13.4 270 12.9 11 3.9 1,813

 

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

 

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

 

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8
Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college (1) Some college, no degree Associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher (2)

Total

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,211 24,175 61,712 35,326 20,937 70,061

Civilian labor force

135,907 10,971 35,322 22,706 14,774 52,133

Percent of population

64 45 57 64 71 74

Employed

130,077 10,098 33,402 21,573 14,213 50,792

Employment–population ratio

61 42 54 61 68 73

Unemployed

5,830 873 1,920 1,134 562 1,341

Unemployment rate

4.3 8.0 5.4 5.0 3.8 2.6

Men

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

101,659 12,137 30,388 16,644 9,020 33,471

Civilian labor force

72,698 7,081 20,416 11,862 6,911 26,429

Percent of population

72 58 67 71 77 79

Employed

69,604 6,573 19,302 11,293 6,660 25,776

Employment–population ratio

69 54 64 68 74 77

Unemployed

3,094 507 1,114 569 251 654

Unemployment rate

4.3 7.2 5.5 4.8 3.6 2.5

Women

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

110,552 12,038 31,325 18,682 11,918 36,590

Civilian labor force

63,209 3,891 14,906 10,845 7,864 25,704

Percent of population

57 32 48 58 66 70

Employed

60,474 3,525 14,100 10,280 7,553 25,016

Employment–population ratio

55 29 45 55 63 68

Unemployed

2,735 366 806 565 311 687

Unemployment rate

4.3 9.4 5.4 5.2 4.0 2.7

White

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

168,374 18,672 49,012 27,796 16,983 55,911

Civilian labor force

107,365 8,723 27,790 17,588 11,904 41,361

Percent of population

64 47 57 63 70 74

Employed

103,336 8,128 26,508 16,820 11,501 40,380

Employment–population ratio

61 44 54 61 68 72

Unemployed

4,030 595 1,282 768 404 981

Unemployment rate

3.8 6.8 4.6 4.4 3.4 2.4

Men

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

81,701 9,594 24,260 13,278 7,479 27,090

Civilian labor force

58,544 5,841 16,367 9,431 5,718 21,188

Percent of population

72 61 68 71 76 78

Employed

56,374 5,484 15,617 9,037 5,533 20,702

Employment–population ratio

69 57 64 68 74 76

Unemployed

2,170 357 750 393 185 485

Unemployment rate

3.7 6.1 4.6 4.2 3.2 2.3

Women

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

86,673 9,078 24,752 14,518 9,504 28,821

Civilian labor force

48,821 2,882 11,422 8,157 6,187 20,173

Percent of population

56 32 46 56 65 70

Employed

46,962 2,643 10,891 7,782 5,968 19,677

Employment–population ratio

54 29 44 54 63 68

Unemployed

1,860 238 532 375 219 496

Unemployment rate

3.8 8.3 4.7 4.6 3.5 2.5

Black or African American

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

25,469 3,271 8,566 5,135 2,580 5,917

Civilian labor force

16,280 1,228 5,035 3,526 1,891 4,600

Percent of population

64 38 59 69 73 78

Employed

15,017 1,033 4,549 3,242 1,775 4,418

Employment–population ratio

59 32 53 63 69 75

Unemployed

1,263 196 486 284 115 182

Unemployment rate

7.8 15.9 9.7 8.0 6.1 4.0

Men

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,370 1,532 4,207 2,233 955 2,442

Civilian labor force

7,628 641 2,676 1,612 727 1,973

Percent of population

67 42 64 72 76 81

Employed

7,003 545 2,407 1,477 679 1,895

Employment–population ratio

62 36 57 66 71 78

Unemployed

626 97 269 135 47 78

Unemployment rate

8.2 15.1 10.0 8.4 6.5 4.0

Women

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,100 1,739 4,359 2,902 1,625 3,475

Civilian labor force

8,651 587 2,359 1,914 1,164 2,627

Percent of population

61 34 54 66 72 76

Employed

8,014 488 2,142 1,765 1,096 2,523

Employment–population ratio

57 28 49 61 68 73

Unemployed

637 99 217 149 68 104

Unemployment rate

7.4 16.8 9.2 7.8 5.9 4.0

Asian

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,294 1,217 2,385 1,165 754 6,773

Civilian labor force

8,199 497 1,402 763 545 4,993

Percent of population

67 41 59 66 72 74

Employed

7,934 470 1,344 737 528 4,855

Employment–population ratio

65 39 56 63 70 72

Unemployed

265 27 57 26 17 138

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.4 4.1 3.4 3.1 2.8

Men

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,675 476 1,017 571 311 3,300

Civilian labor force

4,380 258 723 409 257 2,734

Percent of population

77 54 71 72 83 83

Employed

4,233 240 690 393 248 2,663

Employment–population ratio

75 50 68 69 80 81

Unemployed

147 18 33 16 9 71

Unemployment rate

3.4 7.1 4.6 3.8 3.6 2.6

Women

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,619 741 1,368 594 443 3,474

Civilian labor force

3,819 239 679 354 288 2,259

Percent of population

58 32 50 60 65 65

Employed

3,701 230 655 344 280 2,192

Employment–population ratio

56 31 48 58 63 63

Unemployed

118 8 24 11 8 67

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.5 3.5 3.0 2.7 3.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,215 10,094 9,261 4,401 2,373 5,086

Civilian labor force

21,618 5,986 6,444 3,295 1,817 4,076

Percent of population

69 59 70 75 77 80

Employed

20,450 5,592 6,064 3,119 1,739 3,936

Employment–population ratio

66 55 66 71 73 77

Unemployed

1,167 394 379 175 78 140

Unemployment rate

5.4 6.6 5.9 5.3 4.3 3.4

Men

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,464 5,222 4,716 2,094 1,053 2,378

Civilian labor force

12,593 4,017 3,872 1,726 905 2,072

Percent of population

81 77 82 82 86 87

Employed

11,969 3,787 3,664 1,642 875 2,001

Employment–population ratio

77 73 78 78 83 84

Unemployed

623 230 209 83 30 71

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.7 5.4 4.8 3.3 3.4

Women

 

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,751 4,872 4,544 2,307 1,320 2,708

Civilian labor force

9,025 1,969 2,571 1,569 913 2,003

Percent of population

57 40 57 68 69 74

Employed

8,481 1,805 2,401 1,477 864 1,935

Employment–population ratio

54 37 53 64 66 71

Unemployed

544 164 171 92 48 69

Unemployment rate

6.0 8.3 6.6 5.9 5.3 3.4

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

148,834 117,944 17,472 8,706 24,400

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

38.9 39.6 30.4 51.3 21.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.2 17.0 11.3 17.3 9.3

Management occupations

11.4 12.2 7.1 10.9 6.8

Business and financial operations occupations

4.8 4.8 4.2 6.4 2.6

Professional and related occupations

22.7 22.7 19.1 33.9 12.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.9 2.5 2.1 10.0 1.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.0 2.0 1.0 3.9 1.0

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.3 0.4

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.7 2.6 1.1 1.1

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.7 0.9 0.6

Education, training, and library occupations

6.0 6.3 5.3 4.6 3.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.2 1.1 1.8 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5.9 5.7 5.8 9.3 2.9

Service occupations

17.4 16.2 24.8 16.1 24.9

Healthcare support occupations

2.4 1.9 5.4 2.3 2.4

Protective service occupations

2.1 2.0 3.4 0.9 1.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.5 5.2 6.4 5.7 8.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.8 3.8 4.7 1.9 8.9

Personal care and service occupations

3.6 3.3 4.8 5.3 3.5

Sales and office occupations

22.6 22.6 23.7 19.9 21.1

Sales and related occupations

10.5 10.8 9.5 10.2 9.7

Office and administrative support occupations

12.0 11.8 14.2 9.7 11.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.2 10.2 5.7 3.1 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.7 0.8 0.3 0.2 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5.1 5.7 3.0 1.1 10.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.4 3.6 2.4 1.8 3.9

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

11.9 11.4 15.4 9.6 16.1

Production occupations

5.7 5.6 6.1 6.0 7.8

Transportation and material-moving occupations

6.1 5.8 9.3 3.6 8.4

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

79,131 63,892 8,164 4,620 14,111

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

35.5 36.0 24.9 52.3 17.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.2 18.2 10.9 17.1 9.1

Management occupations

13.1 14.0 7.5 11.7 7.1

Business and financial operations occupations

4.1 4.2 3.4 5.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

18.3 17.8 14.0 35.1 8.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.2 3.6 3.0 14.1 1.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.2 3.2 1.8 5.9 1.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.5 0.3

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.1 1.7 0.9 0.6

Legal occupations

1.1 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.0 3.0 2.8 3.4 1.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 2.1 1.4 1.6 1.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.8 2.6 2.3 6.1 1.3

Service occupations

14.2 13.1 21.6 12.7 19.9

Healthcare support occupations

0.6 0.4 1.3 1.0 0.6

Protective service occupations

3.1 3.0 5.0 1.3 2.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.7 4.2 6.6 6.0 7.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.3 4.2 5.8 2.0 8.1

Personal care and service occupations

1.6 1.3 2.8 2.5 1.3

Sales and office occupations

16.4 16.2 17.4 17.0 14.3

Sales and related occupations

10.1 10.4 8.1 10.2 7.8

Office and administrative support occupations

6.3 5.8 9.3 6.8 6.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.5 17.9 11.5 5.4 26.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.0 1.1 0.5 0.2 2.6

Construction and extraction occupations

9.4 10.3 6.2 2.1 17.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

6.1 6.5 4.8 3.2 6.5

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

17.4 16.8 24.7 12.6 21.3

Production occupations

7.7 7.6 8.4 6.6 9.1

Transportation and material-moving occupations

9.8 9.2 16.3 6.0 12.2

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

69,703 54,052 9,308 4,086 10,289

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

42.9 44.0 35.2 50.2 26.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.1 15.6 11.7 17.5 9.7

Management occupations

9.5 10.1 6.7 9.9 6.3

Business and financial operations occupations

5.5 5.5 4.9 7.6 3.4

Professional and related occupations

27.8 28.4 23.6 32.6 16.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.5 1.3 1.4 5.3 0.7

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.6 0.6 0.3 1.6 0.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.2 0.5

Community and social service occupations

2.4 2.4 3.4 1.2 1.8

Legal occupations

1.3 1.4 0.9 1.3 0.8

Education, training, and library occupations

9.4 10.1 7.5 6.0 6.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.3 0.9 2.1 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.4 9.4 8.8 12.9 5.1

Service occupations

21.1 19.8 27.7 20.0 31.8

Healthcare support occupations

4.4 3.6 9.1 3.8 4.9

Protective service occupations

0.9 0.8 2.0 0.4 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.4 6.4 6.2 5.4 9.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.4 3.4 3.8 1.9 10.0

Personal care and service occupations

6.0 5.6 6.6 8.5 6.4

Sales and office occupations

29.6 30.1 29.2 23.2 30.4

Sales and related occupations

11.1 11.2 10.7 10.2 12.2

Office and administrative support occupations

18.5 18.9 18.5 13.0 18.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

0.9 1.0 0.6 0.4 2.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 1.2

Construction and extraction occupations

0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

5.5 5.1 7.3 6.2 9.1

Production occupations

3.5 3.2 4.1 5.4 5.9

Transportation and material-moving occupations

2.0 1.9 3.2 0.8 3.2

 

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent of total employed
White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

148,834 79.2 11.7 5.8 16.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,960 80.7 9.2 7.7 9.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,108 83.1 8.2 6.3 9.4

Management occupations

16,994 84.7 7.3 5.6 9.7

Chief executives

1,517 89.5 3.6 4.7 5.5

General and operations managers

899 85.8 6.9 4.7 10.8

Legislators

13

Advertising and promotions managers

67 93.1 5.5 6.6

Marketing and sales managers

1,006 85.8 6.2 5.8 9.7

Public relations and fundraising managers

61 81.6 10.6 5.2 5.6

Administrative services managers

195 84.5 9.9 3.0 7.2

Computer and information systems managers

652 77.4 5.6 14.2 4.8

Financial managers

1,197 82.9 7.2 7.9 9.4

Compensation and benefits managers

23

Human resources managers

290 84.1 11.9 2.2 10.8

Training and development managers

41

Industrial production managers

280 89.9 5.1 4.3 6.7

Purchasing managers

198 77.6 11.4 7.2 12.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

263 86.7 8.2 3.4 19.2

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,052 97.0 0.9 0.6 4.3

Construction managers

737 90.6 3.3 3.2 12.9

Education administrators

928 80.3 13.4 3.8 9.3

Architectural and engineering managers

110 82.3 6.3 7.6 9.0

Food service managers

1,192 75.6 11.1 10.6 17.0

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

23

Lodging managers

159 75.5 7.2 10.9 16.8

Medical and health services managers

636 79.9 13.1 5.2 8.0

Natural sciences managers

25

Postmasters and mail superintendents

24

Property, real estate, and community association managers

685 85.8 7.6 3.6 11.1

Social and community service managers

378 77.7 12.1 5.3 9.9

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,315 85.1 7.2 5.4 10.1

Business and financial operations occupations

7,114 79.3 10.3 7.9 8.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

46

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

190 80.8 6.3 7.5 11.0

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

280 85.5 6.7 5.8 11.5

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

321 80.0 14.6 3.1 10.4

Compliance officers

246 82.5 11.4 4.2 9.5

Cost estimators

112 95.1 0.4 3.0 8.1

Human resources workers

662 76.3 15.4 4.9 10.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

68 76.5 14.1 6.9 8.4

Training and development specialists

118 78.8 13.7 2.0 7.0

Logisticians

117 77.4 14.4 4.2 20.2

Management analysts

848 78.2 9.3 10.1 5.9

Meeting, convention, and event planners

159 78.4 11.1 5.6 12.3

Fundraisers

77 89.4 7.2 1.1 1.9

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

261 87.6 4.8 6.9 9.7

Business operations specialists, all other

213 81.6 9.2 7.0 9.0

Accountants and auditors

1,732 77.6 9.5 11.3 7.4

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

76 91.4 5.9 0.9 3.9

Budget analysts

44

Credit analysts

21

Financial analysts

322 70.4 11.1 16.2 6.4

Personal financial advisors

498 82.7 7.6 7.4 9.4

Insurance underwriters

107 85.2 8.9 5.8 5.3

Financial examiners

15

Credit counselors and loan officers

332 75.8 14.0 6.0 10.6

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

58 73.6 17.0 9.4 13.5

Tax preparers

109 76.4 14.4 4.7 18.8

Financial specialists, all other

71 83.3 6.7 8.5 7.6

Professional and related occupations

33,852 78.9 9.8 8.7 8.8

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,369 68.4 8.6 19.9 6.8

Computer and information research scientists

24

Computer systems analysts

552 68.2 9.6 19.6 6.9

Information security analysts

70 87.3 3.0 3.4 5.2

Computer programmers

480 70.5 7.0 18.9 6.9

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,353 57.5 5.0 33.8 5.4

Web developers

204 76.9 9.1 9.6 6.2

Computer support specialists

475 74.2 12.5 9.6 8.4

Database administrators

93 80.7 6.2 9.6 2.1

Network and computer systems administrators

218 76.1 11.5 10.4 9.4

Computer network architects

114 74.1 8.9 16.5 6.5

Computer occupations, all other

547 74.1 11.8 12.0 9.5

Actuaries

21

Mathematicians

6

Operations research analysts

123 72.6 15.3 10.2 9.3

Statisticians

86 73.9 12.4 11.4 3.7

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,954 80.5 6.0 11.4 8.2

Architects, except naval

203 85.0 5.8 7.6 5.7

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

38

Aerospace engineers

138 75.1 2.1 18.6 13.1

Agricultural engineers

6

Biomedical engineers

16

Chemical engineers

84 79.4 2.8 16.3 6.5

Civil engineers

360 84.2 3.6 10.2 9.0

Computer hardware engineers

72 62.2 12.1 23.4 11.0

Electrical and electronics engineers

302 77.2 6.0 14.3 7.2

Environmental engineers

40

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

214 85.9 4.2 8.9 7.3

Marine engineers and naval architects

11

Materials engineers

40

Mechanical engineers

323 80.5 6.2 11.2 5.6

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15

Nuclear engineers

6

Petroleum engineers

44

Engineers, all other

440 75.9 7.6 14.7 5.9

Drafters

133 94.4 3.7 1.1 15.0

Engineering technicians, except drafters

403 76.5 10.0 10.7 9.7

Surveying and mapping technicians

65 88.7 3.5 4.1 7.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,404 77.0 6.1 14.5 7.0

Agricultural and food scientists

25

Biological scientists

86 81.9 6.6 10.8 8.2

Conservation scientists and foresters

25

Medical scientists

157 58.5 5.9 35.1 5.4

Life scientists, all other

1

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

12

Chemists and materials scientists

99 75.2 8.4 13.5 5.9

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

92 89.6 1.3 6.2 7.3

Physical scientists, all other

232 70.1 4.4 23.9 6.2

Economists

34

Survey researchers

-

Psychologists

193 91.2 4.1 2.5 5.8

Sociologists

1

Urban and regional planners

25

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

45

Agricultural and food science technicians

25

Biological technicians

18

Chemical technicians

82 78.4 11.7 7.5 9.7

Geological and petroleum technicians

21

Nuclear technicians

3

Social science research assistants

4

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

203 75.1 7.7 12.5 6.6

Community and social service occupations

2,596 75.7 17.4 3.6 10.7

Counselors

802 75.8 18.4 2.5 9.5

Social workers

765 71.4 22.0 3.0 12.5

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

99 68.9 23.3 4.0 12.1

Social and human service assistants

194 70.4 21.2 2.2 16.0

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

117 76.8 14.2 5.2 16.5

Clergy

469 81.1 10.2 6.6 7.3

Directors, religious activities and education

78 90.3 7.5 1.1 5.1

Religious workers, all other

73 90.9 2.3 5.2 6.2

Legal occupations

1,803 86.8 6.8 4.5 7.5

Lawyers

1,160 89.0 4.6 4.8 5.1

Judicial law clerks

13

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

58 81.8 11.8 6.2 6.4

Paralegals and legal assistants

400 82.9 10.3 3.9 13.4

Miscellaneous legal support workers

172 83.8 10.9 4.1 10.8

Education, training, and library occupations

8,908 82.9 10.4 4.5 9.9

Postsecondary teachers

1,341 80.3 5.1 12.6 7.6

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

695 77.5 16.1 3.4 12.2

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,152 84.9 10.8 2.5 8.5

Secondary school teachers

1,144 86.4 8.7 2.5 7.8

Special education teachers

330 87.0 9.5 2.3 7.5

Other teachers and instructors

876 79.5 12.1 6.1 11.2

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

53 92.2 2.7 8.5

Librarians

166 86.3 8.5 2.8 4.8

Library technicians

31

Teacher assistants

960 80.3 13.8 3.0 18.7

Other education, training, and library workers

161 81.5 12.5 4.1 12.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,051 85.7 6.3 5.2 10.8

Artists and related workers

222 89.5 2.7 4.1 9.4

Designers

899 87.0 3.5 6.9 12.3

Actors

49

Producers and directors

169 85.1 5.3 5.6 6.8

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

296 83.6 11.1 2.7 10.1

Dancers and choreographers

19

Musicians, singers, and related workers

202 83.5 10.5 2.6 8.8

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

41

Announcers

55 74.4 14.8 5.6 19.1

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

68 89.8 6.5 1.7 13.7

Public relations specialists

147 83.0 9.8 4.8 7.7

Editors

160 88.3 2.0 7.7 7.9

Technical writers

68 86.6 9.2 1.2 6.0

Writers and authors

208 87.0 4.9 3.5 5.3

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

84 80.0 5.8 13.4 35.8

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

119 84.0 11.3 0.8 14.5

Photographers

180 87.8 3.3 7.8 9.5

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

64 87.7 4.5 6.0 15.4

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,766 76.9 11.5 9.2 8.1

Chiropractors

75 92.6 3.2 3.2 8.7

Dentists

196 79.0 2.9 16.8 8.6

Dietitians and nutritionists

108 76.2 14.2 9.6 5.3

Optometrists

39

Pharmacists

282 74.1 8.7 15.3 5.4

Physicians and surgeons

1,007 73.6 6.4 18.4 6.4

Physician assistants

74 88.9 3.7 7.1 6.5

Podiatrists

15

Audiologists

16

Occupational therapists

116 83.4 7.2 8.6 6.5

Physical therapists

274 81.2 4.3 12.5 4.9

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

108 77.5 15.2 6.0 9.2

Speech-language pathologists

158 91.1 4.9 2.9 7.1

Exercise physiologists

5

Therapists, all other

189 85.7 7.9 3.8 15.4

Veterinarians

90 91.7 3.4 4.7 2.5

Registered nurses

2,973 76.7 12.2 8.7 6.6

Nurse anesthetists

27

Nurse midwives

7

Nurse practitioners

149 85.3 8.2 3.5 2.5

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

17

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

327 65.6 17.3 13.5 12.4

Dental hygienists

177 87.5 3.6 6.6 5.4

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

322 84.5 7.9 5.2 8.7

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

220 85.3 10.6 1.2 8.3

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

626 75.7 14.2 7.5 13.0

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

670 62.1 28.5 5.7 13.9

Medical records and health information technicians

200 79.6 12.1 3.6 8.4

Opticians, dispensing

52 87.2 8.4 4.0 13.3

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

117 73.7 14.2 7.8 11.4

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

108 83.7 8.8 3.3 9.0

Service occupations

25,896 73.6 16.8 5.4 23.5

Healthcare support occupations

3,514 62.8 27.1 5.7 16.5

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,032 52.5 37.7 5.6 14.8

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

23

Physical therapist assistants and aides

68 83.9 5.6 6.0 10.8

Massage therapists

189 81.3 4.8 9.1 9.1

Dental assistants

286 77.8 9.6 6.6 23.8

Medical assistants

524 76.1 13.0 5.6 27.5

Medical transcriptionists

42

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

38

Phlebotomists

106 66.9 25.2 3.5 13.8

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

170 67.8 25.1 4.1 8.5

Protective service occupations

3,109 74.6 19.2 2.4 13.9

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

52 70.0 24.7 2.7 6.3

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

110 80.1 14.0 1.3 6.6

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

49

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

81 80.9 14.7 2.0 10.5

Firefighters

293 86.7 8.4 1.1 7.8

Fire inspectors

19

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

443 70.4 26.0 1.2 11.8

Detectives and criminal investigators

144 88.5 8.5 0.8 11.9

Fish and game wardens

6

Parking enforcement workers

10

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

688 81.0 13.5 2.0 15.5

Transit and railroad police

1

Animal control workers

5

Private detectives and investigators

100 81.3 12.7 5.0 14.6

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

869 62.0 28.8 4.0 18.6

Crossing guards

57 62.5 33.2 3.1 17.3

Transportation security screeners

38

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

144 84.9 9.1 1.5 12.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,142 75.8 13.8 6.1 25.3

Chefs and head cooks

415 64.5 15.2 16.8 19.3

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

527 77.9 14.9 3.8 16.5

Cooks

2,091 71.4 18.5 5.3 35.7

Food preparation workers

858 75.3 15.1 5.6 27.4

Bartenders

451 87.8 4.4 3.3 13.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

420 68.5 21.6 3.7 17.3

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

233 79.6 10.7 6.2 18.2

Waiters and waitresses

2,057 81.4 8.2 6.9 21.1

Food servers, nonrestaurant

190 67.3 20.6 8.7 19.4

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

321 75.2 13.9 6.1 29.1

Dishwashers

281 72.8 14.7 5.1 39.7

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

293 80.8 11.2 3.6 19.2

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,716 78.3 14.5 2.9 38.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

293 74.5 19.7 2.4 20.5

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

215 91.0 4.0 2.0 23.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,263 75.4 17.6 3.4 31.4

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,510 74.0 16.1 4.4 48.9

Pest control workers

85 82.7 13.0 1.3 14.0

Grounds maintenance workers

1,349 86.5 7.9 0.9 44.5

Personal care and service occupations

5,415 71.7 15.6 8.5 15.5

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

168 86.8 4.8 5.1 8.7

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

185 70.3 11.9 16.2 8.9

Animal trainers

54 95.6 1.2 11.5

Nonfarm animal caretakers

252 88.0 5.4 1.8 13.0

Gaming services workers

89 65.6 8.0 22.0 8.2

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

44

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

221 78.7 12.8 2.1 15.7

Embalmers and funeral attendants

9

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

35

Barbers

116 50.3 40.7 6.4 20.7

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

707 81.4 12.3 3.9 15.3

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

324 33.7 7.0 56.5 8.5

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

76 55.1 21.0 10.5 32.9

Tour and travel guides

54 84.3 3.4 10.1 5.3

Childcare workers

1,206 77.1 15.3 3.3 19.1

Personal care aides

1,251 63.1 24.2 8.1 17.9

Recreation and fitness workers

429 81.4 10.7 2.1 10.4

Residential advisors

38

Personal care and service workers, all other

149 72.2 15.6 4.9 20.8

Sales and office occupations

33,598 79.3 12.3 5.2 15.3

Sales and related occupations

15,700 80.9 10.6 5.7 15.0

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,245 81.7 9.5 6.1 13.0

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,242 86.6 6.2 5.9 12.8

Cashiers

3,246 71.0 17.4 6.8 20.6

Counter and rental clerks

109 83.0 12.2 2.9 18.8

Parts salespersons

124 89.8 5.0 1.5 18.1

Retail salespersons

3,346 77.6 12.8 6.3 17.3

Advertising sales agents

200 83.7 9.4 4.8 11.3

Insurance sales agents

615 87.2 7.3 3.5 12.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

258 86.6 4.8 5.8 7.0

Travel agents

89 78.1 3.3 17.7 8.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

479 90.0 5.7 2.8 13.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,281 90.9 4.0 3.3 10.0

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

68 84.3 5.6 6.5 15.1

Real estate brokers and sales agents

906 87.5 5.7 4.9 9.4

Sales engineers

42

Telemarketers

60 68.5 25.9 2.2 27.3

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

156 85.0 10.5 2.5 21.7

Sales and related workers, all other

236 88.2 6.5 3.9 10.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,897 78.0 13.9 4.7 15.6

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,474 80.5 11.7 4.7 13.1

Switchboard operators, including answering service

16

Telephone operators

34

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

168 72.5 20.6 3.9 18.4

Billing and posting clerks

473 80.8 13.0 3.3 13.5

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,182 84.0 7.5 4.9 10.6

Gaming cage workers

14

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

138 83.5 7.3 4.8 15.5

Procurement clerks

40

Tellers

357 80.9 8.4 6.4 20.7

Financial clerks, all other

69 65.6 24.6 7.6 7.0

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

3

Court, municipal, and license clerks

71 79.0 11.9 3.3 16.6

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

52 84.7 10.4 2.5 15.8

Customer service representatives

2,271 74.9 16.6 4.7 18.0

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

74 67.8 25.1 2.3 33.3

File clerks

203 79.2 12.9 4.2 13.4

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

156 64.1 18.0 10.7 18.7

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

151 77.4 16.1 3.7 18.3

Library assistants, clerical

98 81.7 8.0 7.5 10.6

Loan interviewers and clerks

139 81.5 12.8 4.1 16.5

New accounts clerks

26

Order clerks

84 77.7 14.5 4.4 16.6

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

59 74.4 18.9 3.5 7.1

Receptionists and information clerks

1,232 79.2 13.4 3.7 17.7

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

111 70.9 16.4 6.4 18.6

Information and record clerks, all other

127 71.6 17.7 7.5 13.4

Cargo and freight agents

21

Couriers and messengers

235 72.8 20.4 4.0 18.6

Dispatchers

277 82.6 13.4 2.3 12.8

Meter readers, utilities

41

Postal service clerks

130 56.2 33.5 8.7 6.3

Postal service mail carriers

320 70.4 20.3 6.8 13.1

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

64 59.8 29.9 8.1 9.4

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

286 81.5 10.3 4.6 12.0

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

575 78.4 14.7 3.5 27.0

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,529 73.2 18.2 4.5 20.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

72 75.5 13.1 6.6 23.7

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,870 83.3 10.4 3.5 11.9

Computer operators

69 80.7 13.5 5.3 13.7

Data entry keyers

281 75.1 13.8 7.7 15.1

Word processors and typists

103 74.5 15.0 5.0 9.9

Desktop publishers

1

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

287 75.2 17.7 5.0 7.7

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

81 58.4 25.1 10.9 18.4

Office clerks, general

1,288 76.0 13.4 6.7 18.6

Office machine operators, except computer

37

Proofreaders and copy markers

8

Statistical assistants

17

Office and administrative support workers, all other

477 79.9 12.9 3.9 13.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,733 87.3 7.3 1.9 29.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,073 89.3 5.1 1.3 45.7

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

54 89.4 1.4 41.6

Agricultural inspectors

18

Animal breeders

8

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

97 73.8 18.6 3.8 54.3

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

789 91.4 3.5 1.1 50.7

Fishers and related fishing workers

39

Hunters and trappers

-

Forest and conservation workers

18

Logging workers

51 88.2 10.4 11.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,652 88.2 6.9 1.3 33.3

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

712 89.3 6.2 1.2 16.7

Boilermakers

20

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

172 92.5 5.3 43.3

Carpenters

1,281 90.3 5.4 1.2 32.8

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

156 86.2 6.2 2.1 47.1

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

54 81.7 12.1 49.2

Construction laborers

1,649 85.8 8.1 1.9 45.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

12

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

357 88.1 7.5 0.1 21.1

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

151 90.2 5.5 0.2 61.8

Electricians

773 86.6 8.8 1.9 19.3

Glaziers

47

Insulation workers

49

Painters, construction and maintenance

572 90.0 5.6 1.8 49.3

Paperhangers

1

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

573 89.5 6.8 1.1 25.0

Plasterers and stucco masons

28

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

10

Roofers

221 85.9 6.0 1.4 51.2

Sheet metal workers

122 94.1 2.4 0.7 15.7

Structural iron and steel workers

58 90.8 6.4 2.8 19.8

Solar photovoltaic installers

11

Helpers, construction trades

52 83.5 7.0 2.8 44.7

Construction and building inspectors

90 83.4 9.5 1.0 8.2

Elevator installers and repairers

30

Fence erectors

34

Hazardous materials removal workers

42

Highway maintenance workers

103 81.5 13.4 0.9 16.5

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

11

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

12

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

32

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

34

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

29

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

9

Mining machine operators

67 91.8 4.1 16.3

Roof bolters, mining

2

Roustabouts, oil and gas

9

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

64 94.6 3.1 0.5 26.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,008 85.4 8.3 3.1 18.9

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

262 85.3 8.5 3.3 11.4

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

241 71.1 18.4 8.2 9.8

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

158 76.1 11.7 8.2 11.8

Avionics technicians

5

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

23

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

20

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

18

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

38

Security and fire alarm systems installers

74 86.9 6.0 1.0 23.1

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

140 85.2 8.3 3.1 13.6

Automotive body and related repairers

154 88.5 5.4 0.6 22.9

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

924 84.9 8.2 4.0 25.7

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

345 87.3 7.5 2.6 15.8

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

233 90.6 4.8 1.5 14.3

Small engine mechanics

54 95.0 1.3 10.4

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

81 87.2 4.5 1.0 24.4

Control and valve installers and repairers

29

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

408 87.8 7.6 2.2 21.6

Home appliance repairers

53 83.0 3.7 6.0 26.8

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

425 89.1 6.6 1.5 13.6

Maintenance and repair workers, general

527 82.3 11.2 2.4 21.9

Maintenance workers, machinery

29

Millwrights

57 91.7 5.6 0.5 8.4

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

119 91.7 5.2 1.7 11.1

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

177 80.8 12.9 3.1 19.7

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

66 88.2 6.3 3.3 10.5

Wind turbine service technicians

4

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

48

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

21

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

5

Riggers

10

Signal and track switch repairers

8

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

28

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

200 90.0 5.1 2.1 25.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,647 76.5 15.3 4.7 22.3

Production occupations

8,522 77.8 12.5 6.2 22.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

817 84.7 8.0 4.6 16.3

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

14

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

133 57.1 16.9 22.0 22.5

Engine and other machine assemblers

11

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

32

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,026 72.0 16.1 6.9 22.2

Bakers

231 71.4 15.4 9.6 23.5

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

302 66.2 22.4 8.0 35.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

14

Food batchmakers

101 78.4 14.1 7.0 29.6

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

13

Food processing workers, all other

135 71.9 16.6 7.6 35.1

Computer control programmers and operators

88 84.4 8.4 3.7 9.8

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

15

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

82 73.6 20.1 1.4 14.5

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51 87.3 11.5 0.2 29.0

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

11

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

-

Machinists

363 88.0 3.1 6.1 13.8

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

30

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

46

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1

Tool and die makers

47

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

615 85.8 7.1 3.3 23.1

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Layout workers, metal and plastic

5

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

23

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

6

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

376 73.6 17.6 6.3 22.6

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

180 85.7 9.0 3.6 22.7

Print binding and finishing workers

20

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

192 65.6 17.7 10.8 31.8

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

34

Sewing machine operators

196 75.5 9.7 12.4 41.8

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

7

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

83 77.6 5.3 17.1 22.2

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

3

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

-

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

4

Upholsterers

40

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

16

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

60 92.1 4.3 1.2 20.5

Furniture finishers

15

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

29

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

24

Woodworkers, all other

31

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

33

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

81 82.5 9.4 5.2 10.2

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

89 86.2 7.1 1.5 6.5

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

36

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

63 88.4 4.3 0.4 10.6

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

86 83.8 10.5 3.1 37.2

Cutting workers

64 78.7 13.4 2.6 24.2

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

28

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

7

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

752 77.2 12.5 6.9 17.7

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

44

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

110 75.3 7.8 13.4 19.1

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

250 67.7 20.4 7.5 36.7

Painting workers

151 76.9 14.2 5.2 23.0

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

33

Semiconductor processors

1

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

4

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4

Etchers and engravers

19

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

27

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

30

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

944 76.8 14.4 4.9 24.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,125 75.2 17.8 3.4 22.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

205 81.0 15.0 1.6 20.6

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

140 94.8 2.6 0.7 5.7

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

30

Flight attendants

86 82.3 12.0 4.5 9.8

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

550 65.8 28.0 2.7 14.3

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,469 79.0 15.1 2.7 21.5

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

446 55.1 27.0 15.1 17.0

Motor vehicle operators, all other

51 77.4 14.2 5.5 21.5

Locomotive engineers and operators

50 70.8 21.3 1.4 8.2

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

6

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

52 77.7 18.6 1.7 2.1

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

11

Ship and boat captains and operators

35

Ship engineers

6

Bridge and lock tenders

5

Parking lot attendants

91 57.5 32.1 5.3 26.5

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

99 84.6 8.2 3.8 12.7

Transportation inspectors

29

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

22

Other transportation workers

43

Conveyor operators and tenders

7

Crane and tower operators

76 89.4 9.1 0.2 10.3

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

35

Hoist and winch operators

6

Industrial truck and tractor operators

589 71.9 21.6 2.3 25.9

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

338 81.6 12.3 1.4 39.4

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,908 73.5 19.0 2.9 24.1

Machine feeders and offbearers

33

Packers and packagers, hand

505 72.3 19.0 5.6 37.5

Pumping station operators

23

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

97 73.8 19.1 2.1 30.8

Mine shuttle car operators

1

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

5

Material moving workers, all other

43

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Employed people by industry, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Industry and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

148,834 117,944 17,472 8,706 24,400

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

1.6 1.9 0.4 0.2 2.4

Mining

0.6 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.6

Construction

6.7 7.5 3.4 2.0 11.6

Manufacturing

10.3 10.5 8.6 11.6 10.2

Durable goods

6.5 6.7 4.8 7.7 5.6

Nondurable goods

3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.6

Wholesale and retail trade

13.7 13.7 13.2 13.2 14.0

Wholesale trade

2.4 2.6 1.7 2.2 2.5

Retail trade

11.2 11.1 11.5 11.0 11.5

Transportation and utilities

5.2 4.9 7.9 4.1 5.6

Information

2.0 2.0 1.9 2.7 1.4

Financial activities

6.8 6.9 5.7 7.4 4.9

Professional and business services

11.7 11.8 9.5 15.9 11.6

Education and health services

22.6 21.8 28.4 22.8 16.0

Leisure and hospitality

9.3 8.9 10.0 10.4 12.8

Other services

4.9 4.9 4.2 5.9 5.6

Other services, except private households

4.3 4.4 3.8 5.5 4.4

Other services, private households

0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 1.3

Public administration

4.7 4.4 6.7 3.4 3.3

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

79,131 63,892 8,164 4,620 14,111

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

2.3 2.7 0.7 0.3 3.2

Mining

1.0 1.1 0.4 0.4 1.0

Construction

11.4 12.5 6.6 3.3 19.0

Manufacturing

13.8 14.1 12.0 13.5 12.2

Durable goods

9.3 9.6 7.1 9.7 7.4

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.5 5.0 3.8 4.8

Wholesale and retail trade

14.2 14.2 14.7 14.0 13.4

Wholesale trade

3.2 3.4 2.6 2.6 3.0

Retail trade

10.9 10.7 12.1 11.3 10.4

Transportation and utilities

7.6 7.0 12.3 6.4 7.6

Information

2.3 2.2 2.2 3.2 1.6

Financial activities

6.0 6.1 4.8 7.0 3.9

Professional and business services

13.0 12.8 11.2 19.0 11.9

Education and health services

10.8 10.2 13.7 15.1 6.7

Leisure and hospitality

8.5 8.0 10.2 10.2 11.6

Other services

4.4 4.4 4.5 4.4 5.0

Other services, except private households

4.4 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.8

Other services, private households

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Public administration

4.8 4.6 6.5 3.2 2.9

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

69,703 54,052 9,308 4,086 10,289

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

0.9 1.0 0.1 0.1 1.2

Mining

0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Construction

1.3 1.5 0.6 0.6 1.4

Manufacturing

6.4 6.4 5.5 9.5 7.5

Durable goods

3.4 3.4 2.8 5.5 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.0 3.0 2.7 4.0 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

13.1 13.2 11.9 12.4 14.8

Wholesale trade

1.5 1.6 0.9 1.7 1.9

Retail trade

11.5 11.6 11.0 10.7 12.9

Transportation and utilities

2.5 2.3 4.0 1.5 2.8

Information

1.7 1.6 1.7 2.1 1.1

Financial activities

7.7 7.9 6.4 7.9 6.2

Professional and business services

10.3 10.6 7.9 12.3 11.2

Education and health services

36.0 35.7 41.3 31.5 28.9

Leisure and hospitality

10.1 10.0 9.7 10.7 14.4

Other services

5.4 5.5 3.9 7.6 6.5

Other services, except private households

4.3 4.4 3.2 6.9 3.8

Other services, private households

1.1 1.1 0.7 0.7 2.8

Public administration

4.5 4.1 6.8 3.7 3.9

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Family type and employment status of family members Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

81,410 64,663 9,854 4,538 12,602

With at least one family member employed

65,360 51,769 7,652 4,020 10,883

As a percent of total families

80.3 80.1 77.7 88.6 86.4

With at least one family member unemployed

5,615 3,908 1,184 260 1,220

As a percent of total families

6.9 6.0 12.0 5.7 9.7

Some family member(s) employed

3,831 2,784 666 213 864

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

68.2 71.2 56.3 82.1 70.8

Some family member(s) employed full time

3,302 2,408 558 191 740

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

58.8 61.6 47.2 73.6 60.7

Married-couple families

59,217 49,801 4,373 3,682 7,792

With at least one family member employed

48,205 40,119 3,630 3,285 6,954

As a percent of total families

81.4 80.6 83.0 89.2 89.2

With at least one family member unemployed

3,292 2,571 395 196 698

As a percent of total families

5.6 5.2 9.0 5.3 9.0

Some family member(s) employed

2,653 2,073 315 168 565

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

80.6 80.6 79.8 85.4 81.0

Some family member(s) employed full time

2,366 1,848 281 40 503

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.9 71.9 71.0 77.2 72.1

Families maintained by women

15,693 10,177 4,311 528 3,287

With at least one family member employed

11,765 7,701 3,126 441 2,567

As a percent of total families

75.0 75.7 72.5 83.7 78.1

With at least one family member unemployed

1,666 917 625 35 360

As a percent of total families

10.6 9.0 14.5 6.7 11.0

Some family member(s) employed

804 469 265 23 198

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

48.2 51.1 42.4 64.2 55.0

Some family member(s) employed full time

619 353 209 20 149

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

37.2 38.5 33.4 56.4 41.2

Families maintained by men

6,499 4,684 1,170 328 1,524

With at least one family member employed

5,389 3,948 896 294 1,363

As a percent of total families

82.9 84.3 76.6 89.7 89.5

With at least one family member unemployed

657 421 163 28 161

As a percent of total families

10.1 9.0 14.0 8.5 10.6

Some family member(s) employed

375 242 86 23 101

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

57.0 57.6 52.5 81.7 62.3

Some family member(s) employed full time

317 208 69 20 88

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

48.2 49.4 42.2 69.8 54.5

Note: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1994–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

With no children under 18 years

                             

1994

60.2 67.1 53.6 60.6 67.7 53.8 57.2 62.0 52.4 62.3 71.5 51.5

1995

60.2 67.0 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 57.5 62.3 52.7 61.2 70.9 50.2

1996

60.1 66.8 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 56.9 61.5 52.3 61.6 71.3 50.5

1997

60.4 67.0 53.8 60.8 67.8 53.8 57.3 61.2 53.5 62.6 72.1 51.4

1998

60.3 67.0 53.9 60.6 67.6 53.8 58.0 62.0 54.2 62.8 72.1 51.7

1999

60.4 66.8 54.1 60.7 67.5 53.9 58.3 62.1 54.6 62.5 71.6 52.2

2000

60.6 67.0 54.3 60.9 67.7 54.3 58.4 62.5 54.5 63.7 73.2 52.6

2001

60.4 66.7 54.3 60.8 67.4 54.3 57.9 61.7 54.4 63.0 72.4 52.6

2002

60.0 66.2 53.9 60.4 66.8 54.0 56.8 61.0 52.7 61.2 67.8 55.0 63.9 72.7 53.2

2003

59.7 65.4 54.1 60.1 66.1 54.1 56.5 60.0 53.2 59.7 66.4 53.7 62.8 72.1 51.5

2004

59.6 65.3 54.0 60.0 66.1 54.0 56.4 59.5 53.5 59.1 65.0 53.5 63.5 72.6 52.5

2005

59.8 65.5 54.2 60.1 66.2 54.1 57.3 60.8 53.9 59.9 66.0 54.3 63.0 72.1 51.9

2006

60.0 65.8 54.2 60.4 66.5 54.2 57.1 60.5 53.9 60.0 66.2 54.1 63.7 73.0 52.2

2007

59.8 65.6 54.0 60.3 66.4 54.1 56.5 60.1 53.0 60.2 66.6 54.0 63.7 72.8 52.4

2008

59.9 65.6 54.3 60.3 66.3 54.3 56.9 60.4 53.6 60.3 66.6 54.4 63.5 72.7 52.1

2009

59.3 64.6 54.0 59.9 65.4 54.3 55.9 59.3 52.7 59.0 65.3 53.1 62.6 70.7 52.8

2010

58.7 63.8 53.6 59.1 64.5 53.7 56.0 59.1 52.9 58.1 64.3 52.4 62.0 69.8 52.3

2011

58.1 63.1 53.0 58.6 63.8 53.2 55.1 58.4 51.8 58.0 63.9 52.6 60.8 68.3 51.6

2012

57.7 62.9 52.6 58.1 63.7 52.4 55.2 57.6 52.8 58.1 63.2 53.4 60.7 68.1 52.0

2013

57.2 62.3 52.1 57.4 62.9 52.0 54.5 57.1 52.0 58.8 64.5 53.6 60.6 68.2 51.9

2014

56.7 61.7 51.7 56.9 62.2 51.6 54.8 57.5 52.1 57.0 63.0 51.7 60.5 68.0 51.8

2015

56.5 61.6 51.5 56.7 62.1 51.2 55.3 58.0 52.7 56.5 61.7 51.7 60.4 68.1 51.9

With children under 18 years

                             

1994

79.8 94.1 69.0 80.9 94.8 69.5 74.9 89.5 68.4 70.2 92.1 54.7

1995

80.3 94.1 69.8 81.3 94.9 70.3 76.3 89.6 70.3 71.0 92.2 55.6

1996

81.1 94.5 70.8 81.8 95.3 70.7 78.5 89.7 73.3 72.3 93.7 56.7

1997

81.8 94.6 71.9 82.4 95.4 71.7 79.6 89.6 75.0 74.0 93.4 59.6

1998

81.8 94.6 71.8 82.2 95.3 71.3 81.0 90.4 76.7 74.2 92.9 60.2

1999

82.0 94.6 72.2 82.3 95.4 71.5 82.0 89.3 78.5 74.6 93.8 60.3

2000

82.1 94.7 72.3 82.3 95.3 71.6 82.2 90.3 78.2 75.7 93.8 62.0

2001

81.9 94.6 72.1 82.2 95.3 71.5 81.8 89.7 77.9 75.7 93.6 62.0

2002

81.6 94.3 71.8 81.9 94.8 71.1 81.9 90.3 77.7 78.3 93.2 66.6 75.8 93.2 62.7

2003

81.2 94.1 71.1 81.4 94.7 70.3 81.5 89.7 77.5 78.9 93.5 67.0 75.1 93.4 61.2

2004

80.7 94.1 70.4 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.5 88.4 76.5 77.9 93.8 64.9 74.9 93.9 60.4

2005

80.7 94.1 70.5 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.4 88.7 76.3 77.9 93.1 65.6 74.5 94.2 59.6

2006

81.0 94.1 70.9 81.4 94.9 70.2 80.5 88.1 76.9 78.3 93.2 66.3 75.3 94.2 60.9

2007

81.4 94.3 71.0 81.7 95.0 70.3 81.2 89.6 76.6 78.9 93.1 67.1 76.5 94.8 61.4

2008

81.5 94.1 71.4 81.8 94.8 70.8 81.1 89.7 76.7 80.0 93.0 68.8 76.4 94.4 61.4

2009

81.3 93.8 71.4 81.8 94.5 70.9 80.2 87.7 76.3 80.1 94.1 68.0 76.5 94.2 61.5

2010

80.9 93.7 70.8 81.4 94.5 70.5 79.7 89.0 74.9 78.2 92.2 66.2 76.6 93.9 62.1

2011

80.6 93.5 70.6 81.1 94.3 70.2 79.6 87.9 75.3 78.3 93.0 65.4 76.1 93.5 61.8

2012

80.5 93.3 70.5 81.0 94.0 70.3 80.0 88.9 75.4 76.7 93.0 63.2 76.4 93.7 63.2

2013

80.0 92.8 69.9 80.6 93.6 69.6 80.0 87.9 75.6 77.0 92.7 64.2 75.3 92.9 61.2

2014

80.1 92.8 70.1 80.6 93.5 69.8 79.9 87.9 75.4 77.4 93.3 64.3 75.8 93.1 62.0

2015

80.0 92.7 69.9 80.4 93.5 69.4 80.4 87.3 76.6 76.2 92.9 62.4 75.7 93.4 61.4

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger

                             

1994

83.5 93.1 76.1 84.3 93.9 76.5 79.6 88.0 75.5 74.9 89.7 64.5

1995

83.7 93.0 76.6 84.6 93.7 77.2 80.1 88.1 76.4 75.4 89.7 65.5

1996

84.5 93.5 77.5 85.3 94.4 77.7 81.3 87.9 78.1 77.3 92.3 66.7

1997

84.7 93.6 77.9 85.4 94.4 78.0 81.8 88.1 78.7 77.6 91.2 68.2

1998

84.5 93.5 77.6 84.9 94.2 77.3 83.1 88.2 80.6 77.5 90.6 68.1

1999

84.8 93.4 78.2 85.4 94.4 78.1 83.2 86.7 81.4 78.6 91.2 69.5

2000

85.1 93.5 78.7 85.7 94.3 78.6 83.3 87.8 81.0 79.3 91.5 70.5

2001

85.0 93.6 78.3 85.5 94.5 78.1 83.3 87.5 81.1 79.6 91.7 70.9

2002

84.8 93.3 78.2 85.1 94.0 77.8 84.3 89.2 81.8 82.6 91.6 75.7 79.0 91.1 70.2

2003

84.5 93.1 77.8 84.7 93.7 77.3 84.0 88.0 82.1 82.9 93.5 74.3 78.8 91.5 69.4

2004

84.1 93.1 77.3 84.5 93.9 76.9 82.7 86.3 80.9 82.6 93.8 73.4 79.6 92.8 70.2

2005

83.7 93.0 76.5 84.1 93.8 76.3 82.4 86.9 80.2 80.7 92.3 71.2 78.8 92.9 68.7

2006

83.8 93.1 76.7 84.3 94.0 76.3 82.4 85.7 80.8 80.8 91.8 72.0 79.1 92.6 69.4

2007

84.3 93.2 77.2 84.6 94.0 76.7 83.7 87.7 81.5 81.8 91.7 73.6 80.5 93.1 70.4

2008

84.3 93.1 77.3 84.7 93.9 77.0 83.1 87.8 80.6 82.7 91.8 74.9 80.4 93.2 70.0

2009

84.2 92.7 77.3 84.7 93.7 77.0 82.2 85.7 80.3 82.7 92.9 74.0 80.7 93.6 69.9

2010

83.7 92.8 76.5 84.2 93.6 76.3 81.9 87.1 79.2 81.8 92.2 73.1 80.1 92.6 69.9

2011

83.3 92.6 76.1 83.9 93.5 76.0 81.5 86.5 78.8 80.8 92.2 71.2 79.2 91.9 69.0

2012

82.7 92.3 75.1 83.2 93.0 75.1 81.9 87.3 79.1 78.4 91.6 67.7 79.4 92.7 69.1

2013

82.3 91.9 74.7 83.0 92.8 74.8 81.4 86.4 78.6 78.8 91.7 68.4 78.1 91.8 67.5

2014

82.2 91.6 74.7 82.7 92.4 74.6 81.7 86.5 79.0 80.1 92.6 70.1 78.4 91.9 68.2

2015

82.1 91.8 74.4 82.5 92.5 74.2 81.4 85.5 79.1 79.0 92.0 68.4 78.3 92.3 67.3

With children under 6 years

                             

1994

75.8 95.2 61.2 77.1 95.9 61.6 70.0 91.3 61.2 66.6 94.0 47.0

1995

76.6 95.5 62.3 77.7 96.1 62.6 72.0 91.4 63.9 67.6 94.1 47.7

1996

77.2 95.6 63.2 77.9 96.3 62.7 75.4 91.9 68.2 68.5 94.8 48.7

1997

78.3 95.8 64.8 78.8 96.5 64.1 77.1 91.3 70.8 70.9 95.1 52.3

1998

78.6 96.1 64.9 78.9 96.6 64.1 78.5 93.0 72.0 71.3 94.9 53.0

1999

78.5 96.1 64.8 78.5 96.7 63.4 80.6 92.5 74.9 71.2 95.9 52.1

2000

78.4 96.1 64.6 78.2 96.5 63.0 80.9 93.3 74.9 72.5 95.7 54.5

2001

78.1 95.8 64.3 78.1 96.2 63.0 80.0 92.5 73.9 72.2 95.2 53.8

2002

77.7 95.5 63.7 77.9 95.9 62.7 78.9 91.8 72.5 73.5 94.8 56.3 73.1 94.8 56.1

2003

77.2 95.4 62.8 77.3 96.0 61.5 78.2 92.1 71.8 74.2 93.4 58.5 71.9 94.9 53.4

2004

76.5 95.4 61.8 76.8 96.0 60.7 77.6 91.1 70.8 73.1 93.8 56.0 70.6 94.8 51.2

2005

77.0 95.4 62.8 77.2 96.1 61.6 77.8 91.2 71.4 74.9 94.0 59.3 70.6 95.4 50.9

2006

77.5 95.4 63.5 77.7 95.9 62.5 78.0 91.1 71.8 75.6 94.8 59.9 71.7 95.6 52.7

2007

77.8 95.7 63.3 77.9 96.2 62.3 77.9 92.3 70.4 75.8 94.8 59.9 72.9 96.1 53.0

2008

77.9 95.4 64.0 78.0 95.9 62.9 78.6 92.4 71.7 77.1 94.3 61.9 72.7 95.5 53.0

2009

77.8 95.1 64.2 78.1 95.6 63.3 77.7 90.4 71.4 77.3 95.4 61.4 72.4 94.9 53.1

2010

77.5 94.7 63.9 78.0 95.5 63.4 77.1 91.3 69.8 74.3 92.2 58.3 73.2 95.2 54.6

2011

77.4 94.5 63.9 77.7 95.2 63.0 77.4 89.7 71.1 75.4 93.8 58.4 73.2 95.0 54.7

2012

77.7 94.6 64.8 78.2 95.1 64.3 77.6 91.0 71.0 74.7 94.5 57.8 73.3 94.6 57.0

2013

77.2 93.9 63.9 77.5 94.7 62.9 78.5 89.8 72.1 74.9 93.8 59.3 72.3 94.0 54.5

2014

77.5 94.2 64.2 78.0 94.9 63.7 77.6 89.6 71.0 74.3 94.0 57.4 73.1 94.4 55.2

2015

77.4 93.9 64.2 77.7 94.7 63.3 79.2 89.5 73.4 72.8 94.1 55.0 72.9 94.5 54.7

With children under 3 years

                             

1994

74.0 95.3 57.7 75.6 96.0 58.6 66.0 91.5 55.6 64.4 94.1 42.2

1995

74.8 95.5 58.9 76.0 96.2 59.2 68.9 90.9 60.0 65.7 94.1 43.7

1996

75.4 95.8 59.4 76.2 96.5 59.2 72.1 92.2 63.1 66.2 94.6 44.7

1997

76.6 95.9 61.4 77.5 96.5 61.4 73.6 92.1 65.1 68.6 94.6 48.0

1998

77.2 96.2 61.9 77.7 96.7 61.5 75.8 93.2 67.5 69.5 95.0 48.9

1999

77.0 96.4 61.5 77.0 97.0 60.1 78.7 92.4 72.0 68.8 96.2 47.4

2000

76.3 96.4 60.4 76.3 96.7 59.0 77.6 93.6 69.8 70.4 96.2 50.0

2001

76.0 95.9 60.2 76.1 96.4 58.9 77.3 92.6 69.7 69.7 95.3 48.7

2002

76.1 95.8 60.2 76.3 96.2 59.2 76.9 93.2 68.6 72.1 95.4 53.5 70.3 95.1 50.3

2003

75.2 95.7 58.9 75.6 96.2 57.8 74.7 91.4 67.0 73.0 94.5 55.1 69.5 95.2 47.9

2004

74.4 95.7 57.5 74.9 96.3 56.8 74.7 91.0 66.4 70.2 93.8 50.4 68.2 95.2 46.0

2005

74.8 95.5 58.4 75.1 96.4 57.2 74.7 90.6 67.0 72.4 92.9 55.8 67.7 96.0 45.0

2006

75.8 95.5 60.2 76.2 96.2 59.3 75.0 90.6 67.2 73.4 94.2 56.8 69.5 95.9 48.6

2007

75.6 95.9 59.2 76.0 96.4 58.3 74.8 92.8 65.7 73.6 94.2 56.2 69.9 96.0 47.6

2008

76.1 95.7 60.4 76.4 96.2 59.4 75.0 92.4 66.7 75.9 94.4 59.5 70.3 95.9 47.9

2009

76.1 95.0 61.1 76.6 95.5 60.5 74.5 90.2 66.6 76.1 95.9 58.2 70.0 94.4 49.1

2010

75.7 94.7 60.7 76.4 95.7 60.3 74.2 91.0 65.6 72.2 91.2 55.3 71.3 95.3 50.8

2011

75.7 94.7 60.6 76.1 95.3 60.0 75.0 89.2 67.5 73.8 95.3 54.1 71.3 95.5 50.1

2012

76.0 95.0 61.4 76.6 95.5 61.2 75.5 92.2 67.0 72.4 94.3 53.7 71.2 95.5 52.4

2013

75.8 94.0 61.1 76.2 94.9 60.3 76.6 89.9 68.8 72.5 92.6 55.5 70.3 94.3 50.4

2014

76.0 94.4 61.0 76.6 95.0 60.8 75.9 90.2 67.6 72.6 94.5 53.4 70.8 95.1 50.6

2015

76.1 93.9 61.4 76.4 94.7 60.6 77.5 89.7 70.3 70.8 92.8 52.0 70.9 94.4 50.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

5.6 5.0 6.6 5.1 4.5 5.9 10.4 9.3 11.8

1973

4.9 4.2 6.0 4.3 3.8 5.3 9.4 8.0 11.1 7.5 6.7 9.0

1974

5.6 4.9 6.7 5.0 4.4 6.1 10.5 9.8 11.3 8.1 7.3 9.4

1975

8.5 7.9 9.3 7.8 7.2 8.6 14.8 14.8 14.8 12.2 11.4 13.5

1976

7.7 7.1 8.6 7.0 6.4 7.9 14.0 13.7 14.3 11.5 10.8 12.7

1977

7.1 6.3 8.2 6.2 5.5 7.3 14.0 13.3 14.9 10.1 9.0 11.9

1978

6.1 5.3 7.2 5.2 4.6 6.2 12.8 11.8 13.8 9.1 7.7 11.3

1979

5.8 5.1 6.8 5.1 4.5 5.9 12.3 11.4 13.3 8.3 7.0 10.3

1980

7.1 6.9 7.4 6.3 6.1 6.5 14.3 14.5 14.0 10.1 9.7 10.7

1981

7.6 7.4 7.9 6.7 6.5 6.9 15.6 15.7 15.6 10.4 10.2 10.8

1982

9.7 9.9 9.4 8.6 8.8 8.3 18.9 20.1 17.6 13.8 13.6 14.1

1983

9.6 9.9 9.2 8.4 8.8 7.9 19.5 20.3 18.6 13.7 13.6 13.8

1984

7.5 7.4 7.6 6.5 6.4 6.5 15.9 16.4 15.4 10.7 10.5 11.1

1985

7.2 7.0 7.4 6.2 6.1 6.4 15.1 15.3 14.9 10.5 10.2 11.0

1986

7.0 6.9 7.1 6.0 6.0 6.1 14.5 14.8 14.2 10.6 10.5 10.8

1987

6.2 6.2 6.2 5.3 5.4 5.2 13.0 12.7 13.2 8.8 8.7 8.9

1988

5.5 5.5 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 8.2 8.1 8.3

1989

5.3 5.2 5.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 11.4 11.5 11.4 8.0 7.6 8.8

1990

5.6 5.7 5.5 4.8 4.9 4.7 11.4 11.9 10.9 8.2 8.0 8.4

1991

6.8 7.2 6.4 6.1 6.5 5.6 12.5 13.0 12.0 10.0 10.3 9.6

1992

7.5 7.9 7.0 6.6 7.0 6.1 14.2 15.2 13.2 11.6 11.7 11.4

1993

6.9 7.2 6.6 6.1 6.3 5.7 13.0 13.8 12.1 10.8 10.6 11.0

1994

6.1 6.2 6.0 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.5 12.0 11.0 9.9 9.4 10.7

1995

5.6 5.6 5.6 4.9 4.9 4.8 10.4 10.6 10.2 9.3 8.8 10.0

1996

5.4 5.4 5.4 4.7 4.7 4.7 10.5 11.1 10.0 8.9 7.9 10.2

1997

4.9 4.9 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 10.0 10.2 9.9 7.7 7.0 8.9

1998

4.5 4.4 4.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 8.9 8.9 9.0 7.2 6.4 8.2

1999

4.2 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.6 3.8 8.0 8.2 7.8 6.4 5.6 7.6

2000

4.0 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.6 7.6 8.0 7.1 3.6 3.6 3.6 5.7 5.0 6.8

2001

4.7 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 8.6 9.3 8.1 4.5 4.5 4.4 6.6 5.9 7.5

2002

5.8 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.3 4.9 10.2 10.7 9.8 5.9 6.1 5.7 7.5 7.2 8.0

2003

6.0 6.3 5.7 5.2 5.6 4.8 10.8 11.6 10.2 6.0 6.2 5.7 7.7 7.2 8.4

2004

5.5 5.6 5.4 4.8 5.0 4.7 10.4 11.1 9.8 4.4 4.5 4.3 7.0 6.5 7.6

2005

5.1 5.1 5.1 4.4 4.4 4.4 10.0 10.5 9.5 4.0 4.0 3.9 6.0 5.4 6.9

2006

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 8.9 9.5 8.4 3.0 3.0 3.1 5.2 4.8 5.9

2007

4.6 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.0 8.3 9.1 7.5 3.2 3.1 3.4 5.6 5.3 6.1

2008

5.8 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.5 4.9 10.1 11.4 8.9 4.0 4.1 3.7 7.6 7.6 7.7

2009

9.3 10.3 8.1 8.5 9.4 7.3 14.8 17.5 12.4 7.3 7.9 6.6 12.1 12.5 11.5

2010

9.6 10.5 8.6 8.7 9.6 7.7 16.0 18.4 13.8 7.5 7.8 7.1 12.5 12.7 12.3

2011

8.9 9.4 8.5 7.9 8.3 7.5 15.8 17.8 14.1 7.0 6.8 7.3 11.5 11.2 11.8

2012

8.1 8.2 7.9 7.2 7.4 7.0 13.8 15.0 12.8 5.9 5.8 6.1 10.3 9.9 10.9

2013

7.4 7.6 7.1 6.5 6.8 6.2 13.1 14.2 12.1 5.2 5.6 4.8 9.1 8.8 9.5

2014

6.2 6.3 6.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.3 12.2 10.5 5.0 5.3 4.6 7.4 6.8 8.2

2015

5.3 5.4 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.5 9.6 10.3 8.9 3.8 4.0 3.7 6.6 6.3 7.1
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 12A. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2015 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

10.5 11.2 9.6 7.7 6.9 8.6 9.1 9.3 8.9

2004

9.6 9.7 9.4 6.1 6.8 5.4 8.7 8.7 8.7

2005

9.3 8.7 10.1 4.3 4.8 3.9 8.0 7.9 8.2

2006

7.9 7.9 8.0 5.3 6.3 4.3 6.7 7.3 6.0

2007

8.1 7.9 8.4 4.8 5.4 4.3 7.1 7.4 6.8

2008

9.9 10.8 8.8 6.4 7.7 4.9 9.5 10.1 8.7

2009

13.3 15.5 10.8 10.8 11.6 10.0 13.6 14.2 12.9

2010

15.1 17.3 12.7 12.0 13.6 10.4 13.6 14.2 13.0

2011

14.6 15.4 13.7 10.4 11.4 9.3 13.6 14.0 13.1

2012

12.3 11.9 12.7 11.8 12.4 11.2 11.9 12.1 11.5

2013

12.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 11.1 9.3 11.0 11.4 10.5

2014

11.3 11.9 10.6 6.1 5.7 6.6 10.2 10.9 9.5

2015

9.9 11.1 8.5 5.7 5.7 5.6 8.4 8.1 8.7

 

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. 

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Unemployed people by duration of unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Duration of unemployment Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

8,296 5,662 1,846 347 1,726

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

28.9 30.8 22.6 28.6 31.7

5 to 14 weeks

27.7 28.4 26.0 24.5 28.0

15 to 26 weeks

15.3 14.8 17.0 15.8 15.0

27 weeks and over

28.1 26.0 34.4 31.1 25.3

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

29.2 27.5 33.8 33.3 25.2

Median duration, in weeks

11.6 10.5 15.5 13.1 10.4

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

4,490 3,126 935 191 943

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

28.1 30.2 21.2 26.2 33.1

5 to 14 weeks

26.9 27.8 24.9 21.9 27.5

15 to 26 weeks

15.5 15.1 17.2 15.9 15.0

27 weeks and over

29.5 27.0 36.7 36.0 24.4

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

30.3 28.2 36.0 38.1 23.5

Median duration, in weeks

12.3 11.1 17.2 16.0 10.1

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,807 2,537 911 156 783

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

29.9 31.7 24.0 31.6 30.1

5 to 14 weeks

28.8 29.2 27.2 27.8 28.6

15 to 26 weeks

15.0 14.4 16.7 15.6 14.9

27 weeks and over

26.4 24.7 32.1 25.0 26.4

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

27.8 26.7 31.6 27.3 27.3

Median duration, in weeks

10.8 10.0 14.0 10.7 10.8

(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see https://www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Unemployed people by reason for unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Reason for unemployment Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

8,296 5,662 1,846 347 1,726

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

49.0 51.4 45.7 41.5 50.4

On temporary layoff

11.7 13.8 6.4 8.0 13.3

Not on temporary layoff

37.2 37.6 39.4 33.5 37.1

Permanent job losers

26.3 27.2 25.7 25.5 24.2

Persons who completed temporary jobs

11.0 10.4 13.7 8.0 12.9

Job leavers

9.9 10.2 7.9 9.7 8.8

Reentrants

30.6 29.1 34.1 31.3 28.4

New entrants

10.6 9.4 12.3 17.5 12.4

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

4,490 3,126 935 191 943

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

54.4 57.1 49.6 45.1 58.4

On temporary layoff

13.2 15.3 7.5 6.6 16.1

Not on temporary layoff

41.2 41.8 42.1 38.5 42.3

Permanent job losers

28.4 29.4 26.5 31.5 26.6

Persons who completed temporary jobs

12.8 12.4 15.6 7.0 15.8

Job leavers

8.8 9.1 7.1 10.2 7.5

Reentrants

26.2 24.6 30.1 29.9 22.3

New entrants

10.6 9.2 13.2 14.9 11.7

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,807 2,537 911 156 783

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

42.6 44.4 41.8 37.1 40.8

On temporary layoff

10.1 12.1 5.3 9.7 9.9

Not on temporary layoff

32.6 32.4 36.5 27.5 30.8

Permanent job losers

23.7 24.5 24.8 18.2 21.5

Persons who completed temporary jobs

8.8 7.9 11.7 9.2 9.4

Job leavers

11.1 11.5 8.7 9.1 10.4

Reentrants

35.7 34.6 38.2 33.2 35.6

New entrants

10.6 9.5 11.3 20.6 13.2

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. People in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian labor force(1) Not in the labor force
Total Want a job Do not want a job now
Total Searched for work in previous year, but not in past 4 weeks
Total Marginally attached (available to work now)(2)
Total Discouraged workers(3) Other(4)

Total

               

Total, 16 years and older

157,130 93,671 6,082 2,628 1,956 664 1,291 87,589

16 to 24 years

21,223 17,367 1,842 812 525 159 366 15,525

25 to 54 years

101,152 23,957 2,612 1,256 949 316 632 21,344

55 years and older

34,755 52,347 1,628 561 482 189 293 50,719

Men, 16 years and older

83,620 37,481 2,799 1,292 1,015 404 611 34,681

16 to 24 years

10,923 8,519 942 428 288 103 185 7,578

25 to 54 years

54,226 7,199 1,084 583 479 191 288 6,115

55 years and older

18,472 21,763 774 281 248 109 138 20,989

Women, 16 years and older

73,510 56,190 3,283 1,336 941 261 680 52,907

16 to 24 years

10,300 8,848 900 384 236 55 181 7,947

25 to 54 years

46,926 16,758 1,528 673 470 126 344 15,230

55 years and older

16,283 30,585 854 280 235 80 155 29,731

White

               

Total, 16 years and older

123,607 73,261 4,179 1,738 1,282 421 861 69,082

16 to 24 years

16,241 12,252 1,247 536 337 96 242 11,006

25 to 54 years

78,300 17,556 1,705 789 591 182 409 15,851

55 years and older

29,065 43,453 1,228 413 354 143 211 42,225

Men, 16 years and older

67,018 29,129 1,924 853 663 260 403 27,206

16 to 24 years

8,474 5,973 646 290 190 65 125 5,327

25 to 54 years

42,829 5,003 689 356 291 110 181 4,314

55 years and older

15,716 18,154 589 206 182 84 97 17,565

Women, 16 years and older

56,589 44,132 2,255 886 619 161 459 41,876

16 to 24 years

7,768 6,279 601 246 147 30 117 5,679

25 to 54 years

35,472 12,553 1,016 433 300 72 228 11,537

55 years and older

13,350 25,299 639 207 172 59 114 24,661

Black or African American

               

Total, 16 years and older

19,318 12,068 1,189 577 459 183 276 10,880

16 to 24 years

3,038 2,879 375 179 129 47 81 2,504

25 to 54 years

12,984 3,561 549 301 246 108 138 3,012

55 years and older

3,295 5,629 266 97 85 28 57 5,364

Men, 16 years and older

9,099 5,169 550 278 232 104 128 4,619

16 to 24 years

1,471 1,428 184 88 66 27 39 1,244

25 to 54 years

6,105 1,442 251 148 128 63 65 1,191

55 years and older

1,524 2,299 115 43 38 13 25 2,184

Women, 16 years and older

10,218 6,899 639 299 227 80 147 6,261

16 to 24 years

1,567 1,451 190 91 63 20 43 1,261

25 to 54 years

6,880 2,118 297 153 118 45 73 1,821

55 years and older

1,772 3,330 151 55 47 15 32 3,179

Asian

               

Total, 16 years and older

9,053 5,366 370 158 99 30 69 4,997

16 to 24 years

854 1,271 82 36 16 3 12 1,189

25 to 54 years

6,476 1,842 202 90 55 13 42 1,640

55 years and older

1,723 2,253 86 32 28 13 15 2,167

Men, 16 years and older

4,811 1,925 166 83 58 21 37 1,759

16 to 24 years

431 631 43 18 8 2 6 588

25 to 54 years

3,488 423 77 43 30 9 21 345

55 years and older

892 872 46 23 19 10 10 826

Women, 16 years and older

4,242 3,441 204 75 41 9 32 3,237

16 to 24 years

424 641 39 18 7 1 6 602

25 to 54 years

2,988 1,419 125 47 25 4 21 1,295

55 years and older

831 1,381 40 10 9 3 6 1,341

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

               

Total, 16 years and older

26,126 13,491 1,118 457 340 116 224 12,374

16 to 24 years

4,509 3,894 379 154 109 39 70 3,515

25 to 54 years

18,315 4,948 560 243 181 56 125 4,388

55 years and older

3,303 4,650 179 60 50 22 29 4,471

Men, 16 years and older

15,054 4,691 470 213 166 69 97 4,221

16 to 24 years

2,461 1,820 194 87 63 27 36 1,626

25 to 54 years

10,722 1,089 186 94 75 28 46 902

55 years and older

1,871 1,783 89 32 27 13 14 1,693

Women, 16 years and older

11,072 8,800 648 244 175 47 127 8,152

16 to 24 years

2,047 2,074 185 66 46 12 34 1,889

25 to 54 years

7,593 3,859 373 150 106 27 79 3,486

55 years and older

1,432 2,867 89 28 23 8 14 2,778

(1) The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.

(2) People marginally attached to the labor force are those who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.

(3) Discouraged workers are people marginally attached to the labor force who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks school or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.

(4) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as childcare and transportation problems, as well as a small number for which reason nonparticipation was not ascertained.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2015 annual averages
Years Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

         

1979

$241 $248 $199 $194

1980

262 269 212 209

1981

284 291 235 223

1982

302 310 245 240

1983

313 320 261 250

1984

326 336 269 259

1985

344 356 277 270

1986

359 371 291 277

1987

374 384 301 285

1988

385 395 314 290

1989

399 409 319 298

1990

412 424 329 304

1991

426 442 348 312

1992

440 458 357 321

1993

459 475 369 331

1994

467 484 371 324

1995

479 494 383 329

1996

490 506 387 339

1997

503 519 400 351

1998

523 545 426 370

1999

549 573 445 385

2000

576 590 474 615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

Men

         

1979

$292 $298 $227 $219

1980

313 320 244 234

1981

340 350 268 251

1982

364 375 278 269

1983

379 387 294 274

1984

392 401 303 287

1985

407 418 305 296

1986

419 433 319 299

1987

434 450 327 306

1988

449 465 348 308

1989

468 482 348 315

1990

481 494 361 318

1991

493 506 375 323

1992

501 514 380 339

1993

510 524 392 346

1994

522 547 400 343

1995

538 566 411 350

1996

557 580 412 356

1997

579 595 432 371

1998

598 615 468 390

1999

618 638 488 406

2000

641 662 510 685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

Women

         

1979

$182 $184 $169 $157

1980

201 203 185 172

1981

219 221 206 190

1982

239 242 217 203

1983

252 254 232 215

1984

265 268 241 223

1985

277 281 252 230

1986

291 294 264 241

1987

303 307 276 251

1988

315 318 288 260

1989

328 334 301 269

1990

346 353 308 278

1991

366 373 323 292

1992

380 387 335 302

1993

393 401 348 313

1994

399 408 346 305

1995

406 415 355 305

1996

418 428 362 316

1997

431 444 375 318

1998

456 468 400 337

1999

473 483 409 348

2000

493 502 429 547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

Women's earnings as a percent of men's

         

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 25 years and older

$860 $885 $682 $1,031 $631

Less than a high school diploma

493 498 448 475 478

High school graduates, no college(1)

678 706 578 611 611

Some college, no degree

738 767 619 722 686

Associate's degree

798 826 681 793 727

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,230 1,245 1,010 1,351 1,044

Men, 25 years and older

947 974 722 1,157 674

Less than a high school diploma

520 524 492 495 502

High school graduates, no college(1)

759 792 614 654 678

Some college, no degree

850 889 678 825 764

Associate's degree

931 960 765 828 859

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,420 1,448 1,103 1,495 1,167

Women, 25 years and older

761 778 651 902 593

Less than a high school diploma

418 418 406 443 410

High school graduates, no college(1)

586 602 511 577 532

Some college, no degree

637 652 579 616 610

Associate's degree

703 721 630 747 630

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,064 1,070 961 1,162 958

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

$809 $835 $641 $993 $604

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,158 1,165 937 1,402 970

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,258 1,286 977 1,372 988

Management occupations

1,351 1,373 1,012 1,530 1,026

Business and financial operations occupations

1,137 1,151 959 1,232 940

Professional and related occupations

1,112 1,109 905 1,416 956

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,428 1,425 1,225 1,559 1,245

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,424 1,426 1,167 1,539 1,326

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,206 1,211 1,149 1,327 1,057

Community and social services occupations

889 916 789 970 852

Legal occupations

1,391 1,421 1,125 1,510 1,100

Education, training, and library occupations

956 966 836 1,085 858

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,001 1,004 744 1,133 788

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,041 1,044 868 1,372 953

Service occupations

509 518 477 518 469

Healthcare support occupations

498 512 462 556 500

Protective service occupations

796 867 633 745 745

Food preparation and serving related occupations

441 454 403 483 420

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

486 490 458 534 444

Personal care and service occupations

498 499 483 512 478

Sales and office occupations

673 692 593 692 593

Sales and related occupations

716 751 504 691 582

Office and administrative support occupations

656 663 616 692 598

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

761 767 699 806 598

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

464 462 515 343 435

Construction and extraction occupations

749 758 673 691 608

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

839 849 770 884 692

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

656 683 584 611 556

Production occupations

663 686 583 620 555

Transportation and material moving occupations

646 679 584 580 556

Men, 16 years and older

895 920 680 1,129 631

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,383 1,399 1,075 1,560 1,127

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,436 1,457 1,099 1,547 1,092

Management occupations

1,486 1,513 1,129 1,626 1,131

Business and financial operations occupations

1,327 1,343 1,055 1,416 1,001

Professional and related occupations

1,343 1,345 1,062 1,566 1,144

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,503 1,497 1,253 1,668 1,226

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,452 1,460 1,179 1,548 1,373

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,379 1,366 1,151 1,757 1,072

Community and social services occupations

973 1,034 805 1,069 1,000

Legal occupations

1,877 1,883 2,137 1,833 1,423

Education, training, and library occupations

1,144 1,156 983 1,238 1,023

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,088 1,101 722 1,245 857

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,272 1,285 1,004 1,572 1,129

Service occupations

585 601 524 588 496

Healthcare support occupations

577 591 502 661 557

Protective service occupations

851 905 660 742 796

Food preparation and serving related occupations

481 492 412 518 456

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

517 520 502 622 475

Personal care and service occupations

597 621 534 546 588

Sales and office occupations

777 817 602 763 636

Sales and related occupations

880 917 604 830 714

Office and administrative support occupations

693 711 601 711 594

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

770 776 699 808 606

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

477 473 556 344 438

Construction and extraction occupations

751 761 668 681 608

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

842 850 770 890 698

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

704 724 610 659 599

Production occupations

729 748 612 696 605

Transportation and material moving occupations

679 701 609 599 592

Women, 16 years and older

726 743 615 877 566

Management, professional, and related occupations

996 1,001 884 1,210 879

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,073 1,087 945 1,199 916

Management occupations

1,139 1,148 947 1,365 942

Business and financial operations occupations

1,004 1,009 942 1,134 883

Professional and related occupations

963 966 844 1,213 853

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,245 1,236 1,108 1,350 1,259

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,257 1,238 947 1,458 1,025

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,067 1,053 1,148 1,089 1,046

Community and social services occupations

845 863 781 939 817

Legal occupations

1,135 1,138 945 1,440 915

Education, training, and library occupations

907 919 780 1,017 791

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

942 939 925 997 686

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

991 995 845 1,280 890

Service occupations

463 467 440 489 430

Healthcare support occupations

490 506 453 518 490

Protective service occupations

655 678 562 888 645

Food preparation and serving related occupations

414 418 396 411 395

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

419 423 402 424 414

Personal care and service occupations

475 465 459 503 429

Sales and office occupations

627 636 588 651 575

Sales and related occupations

578 598 440 590 496

Office and administrative support occupations

646 650 623 675 599

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

580 561 727 614 437

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

437 434 443 321 430

Construction and extraction occupations

704 662 908 1,059 606

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

761 794 661 617 365

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

512 519 478 550 438

Production occupations

519 520 511 562 449

Transportation and material moving occupations

494 517 447 500 417

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. Earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Upon request, this information is available to individuals who are sensory-impaired. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

For more information on the data provided in this report, contact the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics. Email: cpsinfo@bls.gov; Telephone: (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Civilian noninstitutional population. Included are people 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

Employed. Employed people are all those who, during the survey reference week (which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or businesses because of illness, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

Unemployed. The unemployed are people who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work (except for temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Duration of unemployment. This represents the length of time (through the reference week) that people classified as unemployed had been looking for work. For people on layoff, duration of unemployment represents the number of full weeks they had been on layoff. Mean duration is the arithmetic average computed from single weeks of unemployment; median duration is the midpoint of a distribution of weeks of unemployment.

Reason for unemployment. Unemployment also is categorized according to the status of individuals at the time they began to look for work. The reasons for unemployment are divided into four major groups:

1.  Job losers, comprising (a) people on temporary layoff, who have been given a date to return to work or who expect to return within 6 months (people on layoff need not be looking for work to qualify as unemployed), (b) permanent job losers, whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work, and (c) people who completed temporary jobs, who began looking for work after the jobs ended.

2.  Job leavers, people who quit or otherwise terminated their employment voluntarily and immediately began looking for work.

3.  Reentrants, people who previously worked but who were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job search.

4.  New entrants, people who had never worked.

Civilian labor force. This group comprises all people classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the criteria described above.

Unemployment rate. This rate is the number unemployed as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

Labor force participation rate. This rate is the labor force as a percentage of the population.

Employment–population ratio. This ratio is the number of employed as a percentage of the population.

Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all people in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed. People marginally attached to the labor force are those individuals who are not in the labor force who wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months). They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.

Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, were not looking for work because they believed no jobs were available for them.

Occupation and industry. This information applies to the job held during the reference week. People with two or more jobs are classified in the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The occupational and industry classification of CPS data is based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system and the 2012 Census industrial classification system, which are derived from the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) and the 2012 North American Industry Classification (NAICS). Additional information about these classifications is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget guidelines, these terms are used to describe the race of people. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. (Previously, people identified a group as their main race.) People who identified themselves as Asian are further classified as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian. The Other Asian category includes individuals of a group not listed in the CPS—such as Pakistani, Hmong, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups. Estimates for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and people of Two or More Races are not shown separately in all tables because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of sufficient quality. In the enumeration process, race is determined by the household respondent. More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This refers to people who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin. These individuals are further classified by detailed Hispanic ethnicity. Previous versions of this report presented data for the following detailed Hispanic ethnicity categories: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, or Other Hispanic or Latino. The latter two categories were expanded in 2014 into additional categories: Central American, which includes the two subcategories of Salvadoran and Other Central American (excluding Salvadorans); South American; and Other Hispanic or Latino, which includes the two subcategories of Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino (excluding Dominicans). People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. More information on the 2003 changes in questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job, in the case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, or hourly) are converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Data refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers (excluding all self-employed people, regardless of whether their businesses were incorporated).

Median earnings. These figures indicate the value that divides the earnings distribution into two equal parts, one part having values above the median and the other having values below the median. The medians shown in this publication are calculated by linear interpolation of the $50 centered interval within which each median falls.

Family. A family is defined as a group of two or more people residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such people are considered as members of one family. Families are classified either as married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without spouses.

Children. Data on children refer to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90 percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90 percent level of confidence.

All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability, or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data.

A more detailed discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating standard errors is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.