October 2017 Report 1070

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016 image

In 2016, the overall unemployment rate for the United States was 4.9 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, the rates were higher for American Indians and Alaska Natives (8.9 percent), Blacks (8.4 percent), and people categorized as being of Two or More Races (7.5 percent) than for Asians (3.6 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (4.4 percent). The jobless rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity was 5.8 percent, higher than the 4.7-percent rate for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2016.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (78 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 12 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders consisted of less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up about 2 percent of the labor force (as computed from table 1).

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 22 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up another 21 percent, followed by Filipinos (17 percent), Vietnamese (10 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—16 percent—were classified as Other Asian, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Pakistani, Cambodian, and Hmong—and those who reported two or more Asian groups (as computed from table 2).

Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), 4 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. (See table 2.) By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans—including Salvadorans and Other Central Americans (excluding Salvadorans)—made up another 10 percent. Nine percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 9 percent were classified as Other Hispanics or Latinos, a category that includes two subcategories: Dominicans and Other Hispanics or Latinos (excluding Dominicans).

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (68.7 percent) and Hispanics (65.8 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates while American Indians and Alaska Natives (61.1 percent) and Blacks (61.6 percent) had the lowest participation rates. The participation rates were 62.9 percent for Whites, 63.2 percent for Asians, and 65.0 percent for people of Two or More Races. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

 

 

Among adult men (ages 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.5 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups while Blacks (67.5 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (75.3 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (72.0 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (61.8 percent) were more likely than Hispanics (58.4 percent), Whites (57.6 percent), and Asians (57.4 percent) to participate in the labor force. (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (that is, the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 55.7 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 65.7 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 56.4 percent for Blacks, 60.2 percent for Whites, 60.2 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, 60.9 percent for Asians, and 62.0 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (ages 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (76.6 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Blacks (62.0 percent) had the lowest, continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 72.8 percent and 69.1 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the race and ethnicity groups: 57.3 percent for Blacks, 55.4 percent for Whites, 55.2 percent for Asians, and 55.0 percent for Hispanics (as computed from table 3).

The employment–population ratio among teenagers ages 16 to 19 continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (32.1 percent) was about 13 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (18.8 percent) and about 11 percentage points higher than the ratio for Black teens (21.3 percent). The ratio for Hispanic teens was 25.9 percent.

Educational attainment

Among people ages 25 and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent for each of Whites, Blacks, and Asians. By contrast, 74 percent of Hispanics in the labor force had completed high school. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 61 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 39 percent of Whites, 29 percent of Blacks, and 20 percent of Hispanics (as computed from table 6 and chart 2).

 

 

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment, for all major race and ethnicity groups. Nonetheless, at nearly every level of education, Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to be unemployed than were Whites and Asians. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education typically are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of those ages 25 and older increased with educational attainment, for all major race and ethnicity groups. However, Blacks and Hispanics generally had lower earnings than Whites and Asians at nearly all educational attainment levels. (See table 17.)

Occupation

Fifty-two percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 40 percent of employed Whites, 30 percent of employed Blacks, and 22 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

 

Among employed men, 53 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 36 percent of Whites, 25 percent of Blacks, and 18 percent of Hispanics. About 2 in 10 employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas about 12 percent and 14 percent of employed Asian and White men, respectively, worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-seven percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 11 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. 

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 51 percent of Asian women, compared with 44 percent of White women, 35 percent of Black women, and 27 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 62 percent of Hispanics worked in two occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 57 percent of Blacks, 50 percent of Whites, and 42 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 17 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including miscellaneous agricultural workers (53 percent); painters, construction and maintenance (51 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (47 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for one-quarter or more of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (38 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (30 percent); and bus drivers (29 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (58 percent), software developers (36 percent), and physicians and surgeons (19 percent). Whites made up 79 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 97 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 92 percent of construction managers; and 89 percent of lawyers and chief executives, respectively. (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (20 percent) than were Whites (13 percent), Blacks (6 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (12 percent). Twenty percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White (13 percent), Hispanic (12 percent), and Black men (12 percent). A large share of employed women in all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (42 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (30 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and parents

Eighty-nine percent of Asian families and 87 percent of Hispanic families had an employed person. By contrast, White and Black families were less likely to have an employed person: 80 percent and 78 percent, respectively. (See table 10.)

Families maintained by women (without a spouse present) accounted for 43 percent of Black families and 25 percent of Hispanic families. Women without a spouse present maintained about 15 percent of White families and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 75 percent of Black families, 77 percent of White families, and 79 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women without a spouse present are less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member.

Among mothers with children under 18, Black mothers (77.2 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White (70.0 percent), Asian (63.4 percent), or Hispanic (61.8 percent) mothers. (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 were more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18. Participation rates for fathers were 93.6 percent for Whites, 93.4 percent for Hispanics, 92.6 percent for Asians, and 87.3 percent for Blacks.

Unemployment

Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (8.9 percent), Blacks (8.4 percent), and individuals of Two or More Races (7.5 percent) had higher unemployment rates than Asians (3.6 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (4.4 percent). The unemployment rate was 5.8 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

 

 

 

Among the largest race and ethnicity groups, the jobless rates for adult Black men and adult Black women (ages 20 and older) were 8.2 percent and 7.3 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate for adult Hispanic men was 4.9 percent, and the rate for adult Hispanic women was 5.8 percent. In comparison, the jobless rate for adult White men was 4.0 percent, and the rate for adult White women was 3.8 percent. For adult Asian men and adult Asian women, the unemployment rates were 3.3 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively. (See table 3.)

Among teenagers, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, 26.7 percent. The unemployment rates for Hispanic, White, and Asian teenagers were 17.1 percent, 14.1 percent, and 10.9 percent, respectively.

Unemployed Blacks and Asians experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Blacks and Asians was 13.4 weeks and 11.4 weeks, respectively, compared with 10.0 weeks for Whites and 9.6 weeks for Hispanics. (See table 13.)

Of the 7.8 million unemployed, 48 percent (3.7 million) were job losers (that is, workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (30 percent), job leavers (11 percent), and new entrants (11 percent) constituted the balance of unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each large race and ethnicity group, 50 percent of Whites and 49 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 45 percent of Blacks and 42 percent of Asians. Fifteen percent of unemployed Asians, 13 percent of unemployed Blacks, 13 percent of unemployed Hispanics, and 10 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

As computed from table 15, Blacks made up 12 percent of the civilian labor force, but 24 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force, wanted to work and were available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 78 percent of the labor force versus 66 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (26 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. A subset of the marginally attached, discouraged workers are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2016 were $624 for Hispanics, $678 for Blacks, $862 for Whites, and $1,021 for Asians. Among men, the earnings for Whites ($942), Blacks ($718), and Hispanics ($663) were 82 percent, 62 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asians ($1,151). The median earnings of White women ($766), Black women ($641), and Hispanic women ($586) were 85 percent, 71 percent, and 65 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($902). (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men ($1,661) and White men ($1,427) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group) were considerably above the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,169) and Black men ($1,124) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were fairly close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $514 for Asians, $488 for Whites, $475 for Blacks, and $460 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Gender and race

Civilian noninstitutional

 population

Civilian labor force

Not in

 labor force

Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

Men

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

Women

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

White

198,215 124,658 62.9 119,313 60.2 5,345 4.3 73,557

Men

96,861 67,564 69.8 64,612 66.7 2,952 4.4 29,297

Women

101,354 57,095 56.3 54,701 54.0 2,393 4.2 44,260

Black

31,889 19,637 61.6 17,982 56.4 1,655 8.4 12,252

Men

14,525 9,315 64.1 8,471 58.3 845 9.1 5,209

Women

17,365 10,321 59.4 9,511 54.8 810 7.8 7,043

Asian

15,121 9,562 63.2 9,213 60.9 349 3.6 5,559

Men

7,064 5,091 72.1 4,915 69.6 176 3.5 1,973

Women

8,057 4,471 55.5 4,298 53.4 172 3.9 3,586

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,898 1,772 61.1 1,614 55.7 158 8.9 1,126

Men

1,404 944 67.2 857 61.0 86 9.2 461

Women

1,494 828 55.4 756 50.6 72 8.7 666

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

1,017 698 68.7 668 65.7 31 4.4 319

Men

512 389 76.0 372 72.7 17 4.3 123

Women

505 309 61.3 295 58.5 14 4.5 196

Two or More Races

4,397 2,860 65.0 2,646 60.2 213 7.5 1,537

Men

2,131 1,452 68.1 1,341 62.9 110 7.6 679

Women

2,266 1,408 62.1 1,305 57.6 103 7.3 858
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

Men

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

Women

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

Asian

15,121 9,562 63.2 9,213 60.9 349 3.6 5,559

Men

7,064 5,091 72.1 4,915 69.6 176 3.5 1,973

Women

8,057 4,471 55.5 4,298 53.4 172 3.9 3,586

Asian Indian

3,163 2,146 67.8 2,059 65.1 86 4.0 1,017

Chinese

3,518 2,055 58.4 1,996 56.8 59 2.9 1,462

Filipino

2,408 1,637 68.0 1,580 65.6 57 3.5 771

Japanese

836 487 58.3 477 57.1 10 2.0 349

Korean

1,267 754 59.5 727 57.4 27 3.5 513

Vietnamese

1,475 926 62.8 885 60.0 41 4.4 549

Other Asian

2,455 1,557 63.4 1,489 60.6 69 4.4 898

Hispanic or Latino

40,697 26,797 65.8 25,249 62.0 1,548 5.8 13,900

Men

20,266 15,396 76.0 14,563 71.9 833 5.4 4,870

Women

20,430 11,401 55.8 10,686 52.3 715 6.3 9,029

Mexican

24,960 16,458 65.9 15,502 62.1 955 5.8 8,503

Men

12,594 9,718 77.2 9,199 73.0 519 5.3 2,876

Women

12,366 6,740 54.5 6,304 51.0 436 6.5 5,626

Puerto Rican

3,835 2,305 60.1 2,146 56.0 159 6.9 1,530

Men

1,833 1,196 65.3 1,114 60.8 82 6.9 636

Women

2,002 1,108 55.4 1,032 51.5 77 6.9 894

Cuban

1,819 1,149 63.2 1,088 59.8 61 5.3 670

Men

882 632 71.6 597 67.7 35 5.5 250

Women

936 517 55.2 491 52.4 26 5.1 419

Central American

3,735 2,694 72.1 2,572 68.9 122 4.5 1,041

Men

1,944 1,628 83.8 1,563 80.4 65 4.0 315

Women

1,792 1,066 59.5 1,008 56.3 58 5.4 726

Salvadoran

1,373 992 72.2 946 68.9 46 4.6 381

Men

720 600 83.3 575 79.8 26 4.3 120

Women

653 391 60.0 371 56.9 20 5.1 261

Other Central American(1)

2,362 1,703 72.1 1,626 68.8 77 4.5 659

Men

1,223 1,028 84.1 989 80.9 39 3.8 195

Women

1,139 674 59.2 637 55.9 38 5.6 464

South American

2,816 1,946 69.1 1,853 65.8 93 4.8 870

Men

1,340 1,036 77.3 991 73.9 46 4.4 304

Women

1,477 910 61.6 862 58.4 47 5.2 567

Other Hispanic or Latino

3,531 2,245 63.6 2,088 59.1 157 7.0 1,286

Men

1,674 1,185 70.8 1,099 65.6 86 7.3 488

Women

1,857 1,060 57.1 989 53.3 71 6.7 797

Dominican

1,519 986 64.9 903 59.5 83 8.4 532

Men

689 491 71.3 452 65.6 39 8.0 198

Women

830 495 59.7 452 54.4 44 8.8 335

Other Hispanic or Latino(2)

2,012 1,259 62.6 1,185 58.9 74 5.9 753

Men

985 694 70.5 647 65.7 47 6.8 291

Women

1,028 565 55.0 538 52.3 27 4.8 463

Hispanic or Latino

40,697 26,797 65.8 25,249 62.0 1,548 5.8 13,900

Men

20,266 15,396 76.0 14,563 71.9 833 5.4 4,870

Women

20,430 11,401 55.8 10,686 52.3 715 6.3 9,029

White Hispanic or Latino

36,258 23,780 65.6 22,430 61.9 1,351 5.7 12,477

Men

18,089 13,795 76.3 13,067 72.2 729 5.3 4,294

Women

18,169 9,985 55.0 9,363 51.5 622 6.2 8,183

Black Hispanic or Latino

1,775 1,183 66.6 1,091 61.4 92 7.8 592

Men

804 553 68.8 508 63.2 45 8.1 251

Women

971 629 64.8 582 60.0 47 7.5 342

Asian Hispanic or Latino

421 307 73.0 296 70.3 11 3.6 114

Men

213 176 82.6 169 79.4 7 3.9 37

Women

208 131 63.1 127 61.1 4 3.2 77

Non-Hispanic or Latino

212,841 132,390 62.2 126,187 59.3 6,203 4.7 80,451

Men

102,231 69,359 67.8 66,005 64.6 3,353 4.8 32,872

Women

110,610 63,031 57.0 60,182 54.4 2,850 4.5 47,579

White non-Hispanic or Latino

161,958 100,878 62.3 96,883 59.8 3,994 4.0 61,080

Men

78,772 53,769 68.3 51,545 65.4 2,223 4.1 25,004

Women

83,186 47,109 56.6 45,338 54.5 1,771 3.8 36,076

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

30,114 18,454 61.3 16,891 56.1 1,563 8.5 11,660

Men

13,721 8,762 63.9 7,962 58.0 800 9.1 4,958

Women

16,394 9,692 59.1 8,929 54.5 763 7.9 6,702

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

14,700 9,255 63.0 8,917 60.7 337 3.6 5,446

Men

6,851 4,915 71.7 4,746 69.3 169 3.4 1,936

Women

7,849 4,340 55.3 4,172 53.1 168 3.9 3,510
Footnotes:

(1) Excludes Salvadoran.

(2) Excludes Dominican.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percent of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of population Total Percent of labor force

Total

               

Total, 16 years and older

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

16 to 19 years

16,714 5,889 35.2 4,965 29.7 925 15.7 10,824

20 years and older

236,824 153,298 64.7 146,471 61.8 6,826 4.5 83,526

20 to 24 years

21,721 15,313 70.5 14,027 64.6 1,286 8.4 6,408

25 to 54 years

125,761 102,248 81.3 98,004 77.9 4,244 4.2 23,513

55 to 64 years

41,308 26,465 64.1 25,524 61.8 941 3.6 14,843

65 years and older

48,035 9,272 19.3 8,916 18.6 355 3.8 38,763

Men, 16 years and older

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

16 to 19 years

8,475 2,995 35.3 2,484 29.3 512 17.1 5,479

20 years and older

114,023 81,759 71.7 78,084 68.5 3,675 4.5 32,263

20 to 24 years

10,897 7,954 73.0 7,212 66.2 742 9.3 2,943

25 to 54 years

61,811 54,726 88.5 52,514 85.0 2,212 4.0 7,085

55 to 64 years

19,867 13,938 70.2 13,410 67.5 528 3.8 5,929

65 years and older

21,448 5,141 24.0 4,948 23.1 193 3.8 16,306

Women, 16 years and older

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

16 to 19 years

8,239 2,894 35.1 2,481 30.1 413 14.3 5,345

20 years and older

122,801 71,538 58.3 68,387 55.7 3,151 4.4 51,263

20 to 24 years

10,823 7,359 68.0 6,815 63.0 545 7.4 3,464

25 to 54 years

63,950 47,522 74.3 45,490 71.1 2,032 4.3 16,428

55 to 64 years

21,441 12,527 58.4 12,114 56.5 413 3.3 8,914

65 years and older

26,587 4,130 15.5 3,968 14.9 162 3.9 22,457

White

               

Total, 16 years and older

198,215 124,658 62.9 119,313 60.2 5,345 4.3 73,557

16 to 19 years

12,342 4,618 37.4 3,967 32.1 651 14.1 7,724

20 years and older

185,873 120,040 64.6 115,346 62.1 4,694 3.9 65,833

20 to 24 years

15,947 11,553 72.4 10,722 67.2 831 7.2 4,395

25 to 54 years

95,786 78,650 82.1 75,797 79.1 2,853 3.6 17,136

55 to 64 years

33,478 21,889 65.4 21,169 63.2 720 3.3 11,589

65 years and older

40,662 7,948 19.5 7,658 18.8 290 3.7 32,714

Men, 16 years and older

96,861 67,564 69.8 64,612 66.7 2,952 4.4 29,297

16 to 19 years

6,289 2,395 38.1 2,037 32.4 358 14.9 3,895

20 years and older

90,572 65,169 72.0 62,575 69.1 2,594 4.0 25,403

20 to 24 years

8,057 6,082 75.5 5,598 69.5 484 8.0 1,975

25 to 54 years

47,842 42,929 89.7 41,385 86.5 1,544 3.6 4,912

55 to 64 years

16,300 11,694 71.7 11,284 69.2 410 3.5 4,606

65 years and older

18,373 4,464 24.3 4,308 23.4 156 3.5 13,909

Women, 16 years and older

101,354 57,095 56.3 54,701 54.0 2,393 4.2 44,260

16 to 19 years

6,053 2,224 36.7 1,931 31.9 293 13.2 3,829

20 years and older

95,301 54,871 57.6 52,771 55.4 2,100 3.8 40,430

20 to 24 years

7,890 5,471 69.3 5,124 64.9 347 6.3 2,419

25 to 54 years

47,944 35,721 74.5 34,412 71.8 1,309 3.7 12,223

55 to 64 years

17,178 10,195 59.3 9,885 57.5 310 3.0 6,983

65 years and older

22,289 3,484 15.6 3,350 15.0 134 3.9 18,805

Black or African American

               

Total, 16 years and older

31,889 19,637 61.6 17,982 56.4 1,655 8.4 12,252

16 to 19 years

2,510 729 29.0 535 21.3 194 26.7 1,781

20 years and older

29,380 18,908 64.4 17,447 59.4 1,460 7.7 10,472

20 to 24 years

3,338 2,259 67.7 1,930 57.8 329 14.5 1,079

25 to 54 years

16,792 13,248 78.9 12,302 73.3 946 7.1 3,543

55 to 64 years

4,840 2,669 55.1 2,526 52.2 143 5.4 2,171

65 years and older

4,409 732 16.6 689 15.6 43 5.8 3,678

Men, 16 years and older

14,525 9,315 64.1 8,471 58.3 845 9.1 5,209

16 to 19 years

1,247 350 28.1 242 19.4 108 30.9 896

20 years and older

13,278 8,965 67.5 8,228 62.0 737 8.2 4,313

20 to 24 years

1,621 1,091 67.3 906 55.9 186 17.0 530

25 to 54 years

7,686 6,255 81.4 5,800 75.5 455 7.3 1,431

55 to 64 years

2,189 1,270 58.0 1,195 54.6 75 5.9 918

65 years and older

1,782 349 19.6 327 18.3 22 6.2 1,434

Women, 16 years and older

17,365 10,321 59.4 9,511 54.8 810 7.8 7,043

16 to 19 years

1,263 379 30.0 292 23.1 86 22.8 884

20 years and older

16,102 9,943 61.8 9,219 57.3 724 7.3 6,159

20 to 24 years

1,717 1,168 68.0 1,025 59.7 143 12.3 549

25 to 54 years

9,106 6,994 76.8 6,502 71.4 492 7.0 2,112

55 to 64 years

2,652 1,399 52.7 1,330 50.2 68 4.9 1,253

65 years and older

2,627 383 14.6 362 13.8 21 5.4 2,244

Asian

               

Total, 16 years and older

15,121 9,562 63.2 9,213 60.9 349 3.6 5,559

16 to 19 years

846 179 21.2 159 18.8 20 10.9 667

20 years and older

14,275 9,383 65.7 9,054 63.4 329 3.5 4,892

20 to 24 years

1,352 717 53.0 668 49.4 49 6.9 635

25 to 54 years

8,710 6,851 78.7 6,633 76.2 219 3.2 1,858

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,382 67.4 1,335 65.1 47 3.4 668

65 years and older

2,163 432 20.0 418 19.3 14 3.2 1,731

Men, 16 years and older

7,064 5,091 72.1 4,915 69.6 176 3.5 1,973

16 to 19 years

424 91 21.4 79 18.6 12 13.5 333

20 years and older

6,640 5,000 75.3 4,836 72.8 164 3.3 1,640

20 to 24 years

676 375 55.5 348 51.4 27 7.3 301

25 to 54 years

4,108 3,683 89.7 3,578 87.1 105 2.9 424

55 to 64 years

924 702 76.0 680 73.5 23 3.2 222

65 years and older

932 240 25.7 231 24.7 9 3.8 692

Women, 16 years and older

8,057 4,471 55.5 4,298 53.4 172 3.9 3,586

16 to 19 years

422 88 20.9 81 19.1 7 8.2 334

20 years and older

7,635 4,383 57.4 4,218 55.2 165 3.8 3,252

20 to 24 years

676 342 50.6 321 47.4 22 6.4 334

25 to 54 years

4,602 3,168 68.8 3,054 66.4 114 3.6 1,434

55 to 64 years

1,126 680 60.4 655 58.2 25 3.6 446

65 years and older

1,231 192 15.6 187 15.2 5 2.4 1,039

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

               

Total, 16 years and older

40,697 26,797 65.8 25,249 62.0 1,548 5.8 13,900

16 to 19 years

3,777 1,178 31.2 977 25.9 201 17.1 2,599

20 years and older

36,919 25,619 69.4 24,272 65.7 1,347 5.3 11,301

20 to 24 years

4,711 3,384 71.8 3,086 65.5 298 8.8 1,327

25 to 54 years

23,780 18,754 78.9 17,878 75.2 877 4.7 5,026

55 to 64 years

4,483 2,765 61.7 2,627 58.6 137 5.0 1,718

65 years and older

3,946 715 18.1 681 17.3 34 4.8 3,230

Men, 16 years and older

20,266 15,396 76.0 14,563 71.9 833 5.4 4,870

16 to 19 years

1,920 621 32.3 508 26.4 113 18.3 1,299

20 years and older

18,346 14,775 80.5 14,055 76.6 720 4.9 3,571

20 to 24 years

2,396 1,848 77.1 1,677 70.0 171 9.3 548

25 to 54 years

12,077 10,951 90.7 10,504 87.0 447 4.1 1,126

55 to 64 years

2,166 1,569 72.4 1,490 68.8 78 5.0 597

65 years and older

1,708 407 23.8 384 22.5 23 5.6 1,300

Women, 16 years and older

20,430 11,401 55.8 10,686 52.3 715 6.3 9,029

16 to 19 years

1,857 557 30.0 470 25.3 88 15.8 1,300

20 years and older

18,573 10,844 58.4 10,217 55.0 627 5.8 7,729

20 to 24 years

2,315 1,536 66.4 1,409 60.9 127 8.3 779

25 to 54 years

11,703 7,803 66.7 7,374 63.0 429 5.5 3,900

55 to 64 years

2,317 1,196 51.6 1,137 49.1 59 4.9 1,121

65 years and older

2,238 308 13.8 297 13.3 12 3.7 1,930

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college(1) Some college, no degree Associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Total

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,103 23,368 62,022 35,489 21,696 72,528

Civilian labor force

137,985 10,679 35,649 22,667 15,267 53,723

Percent of population

64.1 45.7 57.5 63.9 70.4 74.1

Employed

132,444 9,884 33,801 21,668 14,718 52,374

Employment-population ratio

61.6 42.3 54.5 61.1 67.8 72.2

Unemployed

5,540 795 1,847 1,000 549 1,349

Unemployment rate

4.0 7.4 5.2 4.4 3.6 2.5

Men

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

103,125 11,713 30,692 16,678 9,394 34,648

Civilian labor force

73,806 6,803 20,760 11,803 7,191 27,249

Percent of population

71.6 58.1 67.6 70.8 76.5 78.6

Employed

70,872 6,354 19,691 11,311 6,928 26,588

Employment-population ratio

68.7 54.2 64.2 67.8 73.7 76.7

Unemployed

2,934 448 1,069 491 263 661

Unemployment rate

4.0 6.6 5.1 4.2 3.7 2.4

Women

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

111,978 11,655 31,329 18,811 12,302 37,880

Civilian labor force

64,179 3,876 14,888 10,865 8,076 26,474

Percent of population

57.3 33.3 47.5 57.8 65.6 69.9

Employed

61,572 3,530 14,110 10,357 7,790 25,786

Employment-population ratio

55.0 30.3 45.0 55.1 63.3 68.1

Unemployed

2,607 346 778 508 286 688

Unemployment rate

4.1 8.9 5.2 4.7 3.5 2.6

White

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

169,926 17,853 49,010 27,787 17,577 57,700

Civilian labor force

108,487 8,429 27,874 17,462 12,284 42,439

Percent of population

63.8 47.2 56.9 62.8 69.9 73.6

Employed

104,624 7,879 26,623 16,786 11,881 41,454

Employment-population ratio

61.6 44.1 54.3 60.4 67.6 71.8

Unemployed

3,863 549 1,251 675 402 985

Unemployment rate

3.6 6.5 4.5 3.9 3.3 2.3

Men

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

82,515 9,193 24,431 13,240 7,731 27,919

Civilian labor force

59,087 5,586 16,582 9,314 5,903 21,703

Percent of population

71.6 60.8 67.9 70.3 76.4 77.7

Employed

56,977 5,258 15,844 8,970 5,705 21,199

Employment-population ratio

69.1 57.2 64.9 67.8 73.8 75.9

Unemployed

2,110 328 737 343 198 504

Unemployment rate

3.6 5.9 4.4 3.7 3.4 2.3

Women

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

87,411 8,660 24,578 14,547 9,845 29,781

Civilian labor force

49,400 2,843 11,293 8,148 6,380 20,736

Percent of population

56.5 32.8 45.9 56.0 64.8 69.6

Employed

47,647 2,621 10,779 7,816 6,176 20,255

Employment-population ratio

54.5 30.3 43.9 53.7 62.7 68.0

Unemployed

1,753 222 514 332 204 481

Unemployment rate

3.5 7.8 4.5 4.1 3.2 2.3

Black or African American

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,041 3,292 8,763 5,209 2,615 6,161

Civilian labor force

16,649 1,244 5,185 3,511 1,920 4,788

Percent of population

63.9 37.8 59.2 67.4 73.4 77.7

Employed

15,517 1,069 4,737 3,282 1,817 4,612

Employment-population ratio

59.6 32.5 54.1 63.0 69.5 74.9

Unemployed

1,132 175 448 230 103 176

Unemployment rate

6.8 14.1 8.6 6.5 5.3 3.7

Men

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,657 1,536 4,257 2,224 1,035 2,605

Civilian labor force

7,874 649 2,751 1,584 796 2,093

Percent of population

67.5 42.3 64.6 71.2 76.9 80.3

Employed

7,323 562 2,504 1,482 751 2,023

Employment-population ratio

62.8 36.6 58.8 66.7 72.6 77.6

Unemployed

551 87 247 102 45 70

Unemployment rate

7.0 13.4 9.0 6.4 5.6 3.4

Women

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,385 1,757 4,506 2,986 1,580 3,556

Civilian labor force

8,775 595 2,434 1,927 1,124 2,695

Percent of population

61.0 33.9 54.0 64.5 71.1 75.8

Employed

8,194 507 2,233 1,799 1,066 2,589

Employment-population ratio

57.0 28.9 49.6 60.3 67.5 72.8

Unemployed

581 88 201 128 58 106

Unemployment rate

6.6 14.8 8.2 6.6 5.1 3.9

Asian

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,923 1,282 2,428 1,227 839 7,147

Civilian labor force

8,665 520 1,459 821 594 5,272

Percent of population

67.1 40.6 60.1 66.9 70.7 73.8

Employed

8,386 500 1,400 788 571 5,127

Employment-population ratio

64.9 39.0 57.7 64.3 68.0 71.7

Unemployed

280 20 59 33 23 145

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8 2.8

Men

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,964 500 1,067 622 344 3,431

Civilian labor force

4,625 260 764 456 274 2,872

Percent of population

77.6 52.1 71.5 73.3 79.6 83.7

Employed

4,489 251 732 437 262 2,806

Employment-population ratio

75.3 50.3 68.6 70.2 76.2 81.8

Unemployed

137 9 31 19 12 66

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 2.3

Women

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,958 783 1,361 605 495 3,715

Civilian labor force

4,040 260 695 365 320 2,400

Percent of population

58.1 33.2 51.1 60.4 64.5 64.6

Employed

3,897 249 668 352 309 2,321

Employment-population ratio

56.0 31.8 49.1 58.1 62.3 62.5

Unemployed

143 12 28 13 11 80

Unemployment rate

3.5 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,208 9,855 9,791 4,569 2,482 5,510

Civilian labor force

22,234 5,815 6,743 3,376 1,902 4,398

Percent of population

69.0 59.0 68.9 73.9 76.6 79.8

Employed

21,186 5,472 6,398 3,227 1,826 4,263

Employment-population ratio

65.8 55.5 65.3 70.6 73.6 77.4

Unemployed

1,049 344 346 149 76 135

Unemployment rate

4.7 5.9 5.1 4.4 4.0 3.1

Men

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,951 5,043 5,088 2,141 1,101 2,578

Civilian labor force

12,927 3,859 4,156 1,763 930 2,220

Percent of population

81.0 76.5 81.7 82.4 84.5 86.1

Employed

12,378 3,669 3,960 1,697 896 2,156

Employment-population ratio

77.6 72.8 77.8 79.3 81.4 83.7

Unemployed

549 190 196 66 34 63

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.9 4.7 3.7 3.6 2.9

Women

           

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,258 4,813 4,703 2,428 1,381 2,932

Civilian labor force

9,307 1,957 2,588 1,612 972 2,178

Percent of population

57.2 40.7 55.0 66.4 70.4 74.3

Employed

8,807 1,803 2,438 1,530 930 2,107

Employment-population ratio

54.2 37.5 51.8 63.0 67.3 71.9

Unemployed

500 154 150 83 42 71

Unemployment rate

5.4 7.9 5.8 5.1 4.3 3.3
Footnotes:

(1)Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

151,436 119,313 17,982 9,213 25,249

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.2 40.0 30.1 52.3 22.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.5 17.3 11.3 17.9 9.7

Management occupations

11.5 12.3 7.2 11.6 6.8

Business and financial operations occupations

5.0 5.0 4.1 6.3 2.9

Professional and related occupations

22.8 22.7 18.8 34.4 12.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.0 2.6 2.0 10.6 1.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.1 2.1 1.0 3.9 1.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.9 .9 .5 2.4 .4

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.6 2.7 1.0 1.3

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 .6 .8 .6

Education, training, and library occupations

5.9 6.2 5.0 4.6 3.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 2.2 1.1 1.8 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5.9 5.7 5.9 9.3 2.8

Service occupations

17.7 16.5 25.1 16.1 25.4

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 1.9 5.4 2.1 2.4

Protective service occupations

2.1 1.9 3.3 1.0 1.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.6 5.4 6.5 5.4 8.7

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.8 3.8 4.7 1.8 8.8

Personal care and service occupations

3.8 3.4 5.1 5.8 3.7

Sales and office occupations

22.1 22.1 23.5 18.9 20.8

Sales and related occupations

10.5 10.6 9.7 9.8 9.8

Office and administrative support occupations

11.7 11.5 13.8 9.1 10.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.2 10.1 5.7 3.4 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

.7 .8 .3 .2 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5.2 5.9 3.0 1.5 10.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.2 3.5 2.4 1.7 3.7

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

11.7 11.3 15.6 9.3 15.6

Production occupations

5.6 5.5 6.1 5.4 7.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.1 5.7 9.5 3.9 8.1

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

80568 64612 8471 4915 14563

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

35.8 36.3 24.9 53.4 18.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.4 18.4 11.0 18.0 9.5

Management occupations

13.2 14.1 7.9 12.9 7.2

Business and financial operations occupations

4.2 4.4 3.1 5.1 2.3

Professional and related occupations

18.4 17.9 13.9 35.4 8.8

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.3 3.7 2.8 14.8 1.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.3 3.4 1.7 5.9 1.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.9 .9 .5 2.4 .4

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.1 1.8 .8 .6

Legal occupations

1.1 1.2 .4 .6 .3

Education, training, and library occupations

3.0 3.0 2.6 3.2 1.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 2.1 1.5 1.7 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.7 2.5 2.7 6.0 1.4

Service occupations

14.4 13.5 20.9 12.4 20.3

Healthcare support occupations

.5 .4 1.1 .8 .5

Protective service occupations

3.0 2.9 4.7 1.5 2.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.9 4.5 6.9 5.6 7.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.3 4.3 5.7 1.8 8.2

Personal care and service occupations

1.6 1.4 2.5 2.8 1.3

Sales and office occupations

16.2 15.9 18.2 16.1 14.3

Sales and related occupations

10.0 10.3 8.5 10.0 8.2

Office and administrative support occupations

6.1 5.6 9.7 6.1 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.4 17.9 11.2 5.7 26.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.1 1.2 .5 .2 2.6

Construction and extraction occupations

9.5 10.5 6.1 2.5 18.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.8 6.2 4.7 3.0 6.2

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

17.2 16.4 24.8 12.3 20.3

Production occupations

7.5 7.5 8.4 6.2 8.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.6 8.9 16.4 6.2 11.6

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

70868 54701 9511 4298 10686

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.2 44.4 34.8 51.0 27.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.4 16.0 11.6 17.8 10.0

Management occupations

9.6 10.1 6.7 10.1 6.3

Business and financial operations occupations

5.8 5.9 4.9 7.7 3.7

Professional and related occupations

27.8 28.4 23.2 33.2 17.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.7 1.4 1.3 5.8 .7

Architecture and engineering occupations

.6 .6 .3 1.6 .4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.8 .8 .5 2.3 .5

Community and social service occupations

2.4 2.3 3.5 1.2 2.1

Legal occupations

1.3 1.5 .8 1.0 1.0

Education, training, and library occupations

9.2 10.0 7.1 6.2 6.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.4 .8 2.0 1.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.6 9.5 8.8 13.1 4.6

Service occupations

21.4 20.0 28.8 20.3 32.2

Healthcare support occupations

4.4 3.6 9.2 3.7 4.9

Protective service occupations

1.0 .8 2.1 .3 .9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.5 6.5 6.2 5.1 9.8

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.3 3.3 3.8 1.8 9.5

Personal care and service occupations

6.3 5.8 7.5 9.4 7.1

Sales and office occupations

28.9 29.5 28.3 22.1 29.6

Sales and related occupations

11.0 11.0 10.8 9.6 12.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18.0 18.5 17.5 12.5 17.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

.9 1.0 .7 .7 2.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

.3 .4 .2 .2 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

.3 .4 .2 .2 .7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

.2 .2 .3 .2 .3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.5 5.1 7.4 5.9 9.1

Production occupations

3.4 3.1 4.0 4.6 5.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.2 2.0 3.4 1.2 3.4

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent of total employed
White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

151,436 78.8 11.9 6.1 16.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,438 80.3 9.1 8.1 9.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,941 82.9 8.2 6.6 9.8

Management occupations

17,418 84.1 7.5 6.1 9.9

Chief executives

1,649 88.8 3.4 6.0 5.6

General and operations managers

949 85.0 7.1 5.6 11.3

Legislators

20

Advertising and promotions managers

67 88.4 7.1 1.3 4.8

Marketing and sales managers

1,066 87.1 5.3 6.0 9.9

Public relations and fundraising managers

62 81.6 10.3 5.4 3.3

Administrative services managers

181 82.6 13.2 3.4 10.0

Computer and information systems managers

597 77.4 6.2 15.2 6.7

Financial managers

1,197 82.2 6.9 8.3 10.3

Compensation and benefits managers

20

Human resources managers

287 78.9 13.5 4.9 11.2

Training and development managers

58 83.9 8.3 2.1 8.5

Industrial production managers

275 84.9 4.9 9.2 7.4

Purchasing managers

203 86.8 9.1 2.9 10.6

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

299 81.1 11.4 4.8 18.4

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,042 96.8 1.0 1.0 4.7

Construction managers

812 91.9 3.8 2.0 11.0

Education administrators

954 81.3 14.3 2.2 8.8

Architectural and engineering managers

136 80.7 4.2 10.6 3.8

Food service managers

1,157 73.8 10.2 12.0 17.7

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

16

Lodging managers

166 69.7 9.7 15.8 9.0

Medical and health services managers

593 78.9 13.2 5.4 10.2

Natural sciences managers

14

Postmasters and mail superintendents

25

Property, real estate, and community association managers

709 84.6 9.0 3.6 11.3

Social and community service managers

421 76.0 15.4 4.8 11.0

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,420 84.3 7.2 6.3 10.2

Business and financial operations occupations

7,523 80.0 9.7 7.8 9.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

38

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

207 86.3 6.4 4.4 11.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

272 81.7 9.9 6.2 11.6

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

349 81.4 15.1 1.6 12.7

Compliance officers

270 77.6 12.4 7.9 10.0

Cost estimators

113 90.5 2.9 3.2 8.3

Human resources workers

693 78.8 12.8 5.2 11.3

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

77 72.0 17.8 7.2 8.5

Training and development specialists

156 82.9 12.0 3.0 10.3

Logisticians

115 74.5 17.0 6.9 12.0

Management analysts

902 78.5 9.0 10.7 7.9

Meeting, convention, and event planners

162 82.1 8.6 4.5 11.1

Fundraisers

86 91.5 4.3 1.9 4.8

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

302 83.9 5.0 8.8 8.3

Business operations specialists, all other

290 77.9 13.7 4.7 13.5

Accountants and auditors

1,777 78.4 8.5 10.9 9.0

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

73 91.8 5.5 2.2 9.5

Budget analysts

53 72.2 16.8 8.6 5.6

Credit analysts

27

Financial analysts

307 78.6 6.5 12.8 10.9

Personal financial advisors

513 83.9 6.0 7.7 7.1

Insurance underwriters

104 82.6 9.6 6.3 4.9

Financial examiners

14

Credit counselors and loan officers

367 77.3 11.5 5.6 10.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

68 75.6 15.8 8.1 13.3

Tax preparers

108 83.0 8.5 5.3 14.9

Financial specialists, all other

68 75.0 16.8 5.4 13.6

Professional and related occupations

34,498 78.5 9.8 9.2 9.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,601 67.9 7.9 21.3 6.8

Computer and information research scientists

20

Computer systems analysts

526 68.7 10.8 17.6 6.7

Information security analysts

89 78.7 9.2 7.7 8.9

Computer programmers

466 71.4 7.6 19.8 6.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,483 56.8 4.1 35.7 4.8

Web developers

205 76.2 8.4 9.3 5.8

Computer support specialists

570 74.5 9.8 12.6 7.8

Database administrators

90 75.4 4.4 16.2 2.9

Network and computer systems administrators

218 77.5 9.6 10.8 9.4

Computer network architects

115 71.4 13.0 11.8 9.3

Computer occupations, all other

596 74.0 11.0 12.7 10.6

Actuaries

14

Mathematicians

4

Operations research analysts

129 71.9 11.2 12.9 10.4

Statisticians

74 67.0 8.4 19.8 3.9

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,106 80.5 5.6 11.6 8.8

Architects, except naval

246 85.0 3.0 11.1 8.0

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

34

Aerospace engineers

130 87.6 2.6 9.3 7.3

Agricultural engineers

2

Biomedical engineers

13

Chemical engineers

79 80.8 4.1 10.3 6.6

Civil engineers

425 86.4 3.6 7.7 10.4

Computer hardware engineers

69 61.9 5.3 29.2 12.0

Electrical and electronics engineers

293 74.4 7.5 15.1 9.3

Environmental engineers

33

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

220 89.3 2.7 6.6 11.2

Marine engineers and naval architects

13

Materials engineers

31

Mechanical engineers

350 83.2 4.2 10.5 5.5

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

9

Nuclear engineers

7

Petroleum engineers

36

Engineers, all other

539 71.8 7.2 18.2 6.1

Drafters

109 88.5 4.9 4.9 22.7

Engineering technicians, except drafters

385 76.8 11.2 8.8 10.6

Surveying and mapping technicians

83 91.0 3.7 3.2 7.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,367 75.5 6.4 16.0 8.2

Agricultural and food scientists

35

Biological scientists

96 73.8 6.5 17.2 7.0

Conservation scientists and foresters

31

Medical scientists

154 57.9 3.7 37.3 4.6

Life scientists, all other

3

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

6

Chemists and materials scientists

95 69.0 10.6 18.4 2.7

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

89 88.1 3.4 8.0 5.6

Physical scientists, all other

261 65.9 4.9 26.9 9.7

Economists

26

Survey researchers

3

Psychologists

161 88.1 5.8 4.2 6.9

Sociologists

3

Urban and regional planners

38

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39

Agricultural and food science technicians

35

Biological technicians

17

Chemical technicians

76 76.0 14.9 8.2 12.9

Geological and petroleum technicians

18

Nuclear technicians

5

Social science research assistants

2

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

155 75.0 8.0 13.0 11.6

Community and social service occupations

2,612 74.4 18.6 3.4 12.1

Counselors

869 73.9 19.6 2.7 11.6

Social workers

781 70.4 22.7 3.0 13.8

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

102 73.3 21.0 1.3 14.3

Social and human service assistants

184 70.5 21.6 2.6 14.1

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

89 72.6 20.4 2.5 16.1

Clergy

436 80.4 11.8 5.9 9.1

Directors, religious activities and education

78 90.6 3.1 4.2 9.9

Religious workers, all other

73 83.7 7.4 7.9 8.0

Legal occupations

1,808 88.0 6.3 4.1 8.4

Lawyers

1,133 89.3 4.4 4.7 5.6

Judicial law clerks

15

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

59 86.8 11.0 1.2 3.5

Paralegals and legal assistants

433 84.2 10.2 3.5 16.2

Miscellaneous legal support workers

168 88.5 8.4 1.9 8.7

Education, training, and library occupations

8,948 82.7 10.0 4.7 10.0

Postsecondary teachers

1,420 77.8 7.0 12.3 6.9

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

692 81.0 12.5 3.4 13.3

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,186 85.1 10.3 2.4 9.8

Secondary school teachers

1,078 87.9 8.0 2.0 7.9

Special education teachers

353 86.8 8.6 2.2 6.5

Other teachers and instructors

868 79.4 10.3 7.2 10.6

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

43

Librarians

190 85.3 7.5 5.8 7.1

Library technicians

37

Teacher assistants

950 79.2 14.8 3.4 17.3

Other education, training, and library workers

132 78.3 12.2 6.3 9.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,097 85.0 6.6 5.5 10.6

Artists and related workers

232 89.0 3.6 3.6 9.9

Designers

878 83.7 5.1 8.4 10.6

Actors

47

Producers and directors

173 89.3 3.6 4.6 6.3

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

312 87.8 8.4 2.2 11.7

Dancers and choreographers

17

Musicians, singers, and related workers

192 77.0 14.6 3.7 9.3

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

49

Announcers

59 76.0 16.6 4.0 20.7

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

73 84.6 3.6 9.6 10.5

Public relations specialists

121 87.3 8.2 1.7 7.3

Editors

167 90.1 1.9 6.6 6.0

Technical writers

61 87.4 7.8 4.1 7.8

Writers and authors

229 90.6 3.4 2.5 5.6

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

116 73.6 11.3 13.0 37.8

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

111 80.3 13.1 2.4 12.1

Photographers

205 86.9 5.7 5.7 8.4

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

54 93.0 3.1 3.8 11.4

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,960 76.4 11.8 9.6 7.8

Chiropractors

51 93.7 1.7 4.6 9.8

Dentists

163 74.6 3.2 20.2 9.5

Dietitians and nutritionists

120 74.8 15.9 6.1 4.9

Optometrists

36

Pharmacists

306 71.2 10.1 18.1 4.6

Physicians and surgeons

1,061 71.6 7.5 19.3 5.9

Physician assistants

92 83.9 3.2 11.5 6.0

Podiatrists

12

Audiologists

15

Occupational therapists

118 81.5 7.5 8.2 6.3

Physical therapists

290 83.9 5.2 9.5 5.3

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

84 82.1 8.5 5.2 8.7

Speech-language pathologists

162 91.9 2.9 3.2 9.0

Exercise physiologists

2

Therapists, all other

205 81.2 9.2 6.1 15.7

Veterinarians

101 93.3 2.1 3.7 0.3

Registered nurses

3,102 76.9 11.9 9.0 6.6

Nurse anesthetists

23

Nurse midwives

6

Nurse practitioners

176 83.2 8.5 6.2 3.5

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

32

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

361 68.9 16.5 10.6 13.0

Dental hygienists

169 91.6 5.2 2.7 9.2

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

311 82.8 9.8 5.4 8.8

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

194 81.8 12.4 2.3 12.1

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

610 76.4 12.7 8.8 12.2

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

653 62.6 30.3 4.2 10.1

Medical records and health information technicians

184 79.7 10.7 5.3 6.4

Opticians, dispensing

55 87.0 7.3 2.2 11.6

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

130 61.2 24.3 11.9 9.7

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

114 80.1 13.5 3.4 11.9

Service occupations

26,811 73.3 16.8 5.5 23.9

Healthcare support occupations

3,554 63.4 27.3 5.5 16.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,058 52.4 37.5 5.8 14.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

20

Physical therapist assistants and aides

70 84.5 6.4 6.3 10.4

Massage therapists

170 82.4 6.8 7.7 9.6

Dental assistants

294 78.9 11.4 6.5 24.1

Medical assistants

570 77.9 14.3 4.1 28.6

Medical transcriptionists

39

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39

Phlebotomists

101 70.8 22.0 3.6 16.2

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

156 67.2 26.0 4.0 7.9

Protective service occupations

3,117 73.7 19.0 2.8 14.1

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

61 71.7 23.3 2.6 17.3

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

114 85.6 12.3 0.2 10.6

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

88 73.7 16.9 3.0 11.7

Firefighters

252 86.6 6.8 1.4 7.7

Fire inspectors

27

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

383 69.3 25.5 1.9 12.9

Detectives and criminal investigators

130 88.2 6.9 4.0 7.6

Fish and game wardens

9

Parking enforcement workers

8

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

708 82.2 12.0 2.7 16.0

Transit and railroad police

2

Animal control workers

9

Private detectives and investigators

94 78.6 11.5 4.5 6.7

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

923 59.5 30.4 4.0 17.6

Crossing guards

72 69.5 26.4 1.5 15.5

Transportation security screeners

44

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

149 83.3 8.7 1.2 11.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,542 75.7 13.8 5.8 25.8

Chefs and head cooks

460 69.7 14.7 11.6 23.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

543 75.5 15.5 5.3 17.6

Cooks

2,179 73.0 17.3 4.8 35.0

Food preparation workers

1,000 74.3 14.9 6.7 29.3

Bartenders

454 85.7 7.4 2.5 17.0

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

420 73.2 18.0 3.3 20.2

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

214 77.6 11.4 5.7 18.0

Waiters and waitresses

2,085 79.6 9.4 6.6 20.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

213 71.2 16.3 5.7 22.5

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

331 74.2 15.3 6.4 27.8

Dishwashers

319 68.8 16.3 5.9 35.4

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

319 82.4 8.8 3.8 16.3

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,804 78.2 14.6 2.9 38.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

323 79.2 16.0 1.2 28.4

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

231 91.3 5.1 1.0 24.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,276 74.1 17.9 3.4 32.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,485 74.2 17.3 4.2 47.3

Pest control workers

79 86.1 6.2 .2 14.6

Grounds maintenance workers

1,411 86.5 8.1 1.4 43.1

Personal care and service occupations

5,795 70.5 15.9 9.3 16.3

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

206 84.7 4.8 4.1 11.6

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

191 72.7 9.2 15.5 10.6

Animal trainers

61 95.0 1.2 1.3 11.7

Nonfarm animal caretakers

233 88.5 4.7 2.4 11.7

Gaming services workers

92 53.8 8.0 28.2 9.8

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

40

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

199 73.1 15.7 6.4 9.8

Embalmers and funeral attendants

12

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

40

Barbers

126 52.9 39.9 3.3 19.6

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

806 78.5 12.4 5.2 16.5

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

364 30.4 9.5 57.8 9.2

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

66 67.6 18.4 8.1 31.8

Tour and travel guides

53 80.4 13.0 5.7 11.4

Childcare workers

1,280 75.6 17.1 2.8 20.9

Personal care aides

1,396 60.8 24.4 10.2 20.6

Recreation and fitness workers

440 84.8 10.0 1.0 7.8

Residential advisors

42

Personal care and service workers, all other

142 74.7 14.4 4.4 12.6

Sales and office occupations

33,539 78.7 12.6 5.2 15.6

Sales and related occupations

15,848 80.0 11.0 5.7 15.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,282 81.9 8.9 6.1 14.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,180 84.1 6.8 6.7 13.6

Cashiers

3,260 70.2 17.8 7.2 20.7

Counter and rental clerks

105 78.1 14.0 3.2 22.6

Parts salespersons

117 87.5 7.5 3.1 17.9

Retail salespersons

3,312 79.0 12.3 5.3 18.2

Advertising sales agents

222 79.5 12.0 4.0 11.7

Insurance sales agents

630 80.9 11.0 4.6 11.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

263 82.7 7.1 7.2 8.9

Travel agents

83 85.5 2.6 10.3 11.3

Sales representatives, services, all other

512 84.9 8.5 3.9 11.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,308 88.8 4.8 4.3 10.7

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

59 80.9 9.6 3.0 9.3

Real estate brokers and sales agents

977 86.3 6.9 4.6 10.2

Sales engineers

43

Telemarketers

61 59.2 34.9 4.8 19.7

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

160 84.8 9.1 3.4 22.3

Sales and related workers, all other

274 84.2 9.7 3.2 12.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,691 77.6 14.1 4.7 15.6

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,352 81.9 11.1 4.6 13.6

Switchboard operators, including answering service

25

Telephone operators

41

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

152 71.1 25.1 2.0 19.3

Billing and posting clerks

452 77.8 14.0 4.6 15.8

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,137 84.5 7.7 4.9 11.9

Gaming cage workers

12

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129 79.8 10.4 8.1 13.2

Procurement clerks

27

Tellers

342 79.8 12.5 5.3 17.5

Financial clerks, all other

69 75.8 14.6 9.1 14.2

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

7

Court, municipal, and license clerks

80 75.9 18.9 2.4 19.6

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

44

Customer service representatives

2,388 74.5 16.9 4.5 18.3

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

77 60.8 27.6 6.6 19.4

File clerks

183 69.6 21.2 5.7 11.6

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

138 63.6 17.2 9.7 21.5

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

152 70.6 20.7 5.2 11.6

Library assistants, clerical

87 84.1 12.5 1.4 10.5

Loan interviewers and clerks

132 80.8 10.8 5.4 13.8

New accounts clerks

24

Order clerks

105 84.5 8.1 4.1 21.5

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

42

Receptionists and information clerks

1,331 80.1 13.0 3.7 18.4

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

144 59.7 24.8 8.2 20.0

Information and record clerks, all other

118 74.5 19.8 3.6 7.9

Cargo and freight agents

27

Couriers and messengers

227 66.3 22.1 6.0 19.3

Dispatchers

292 81.1 12.8 3.1 16.6

Meter readers, utilities

31

Postal service clerks

121 63.1 23.9 12.1 8.7

Postal service mail carriers

320 71.5 18.6 8.3 12.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

60 53.4 34.3 7.5 9.7

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

245 84.0 8.6 4.2 9.1

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

546 78.0 16.1 2.2 21.7

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,530 71.2 18.8 4.8 19.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

51 77.2 17.8 1.7 19.2

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,744 84.9 8.6 3.2 11.8

Computer operators

91 79.3 13.8 4.1 14.3

Data entry keyers

272 73.7 13.4 9.1 20.9

Word processors and typists

82 77.2 14.3 4.1 11.2

Desktop publishers

0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

273 73.4 17.9 6.7 11.4

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

77 74.6 21.7 1.0 21.2

Office clerks, general

1,295 74.9 14.6 6.9 16.9

Office machine operators, except computer

35

Proofreaders and copy markers

12

Statistical assistants

9

Office and administrative support workers, all other

551 77.8 13.6 4.3 11.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,904 87.0 7.3 2.2 29.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,096 90.4 4.9 1.8 45.0

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

48

Agricultural inspectors

19

Animal breeders

7

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

85 71.5 20.4 6.3 40.7

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

818 92.8 2.7 1.3 52.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

29

Hunters and trappers

1

Forest and conservation workers

21

Logging workers

68 85.7 11.2 .0 5.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,929 88.1 6.8 1.7 34.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

680 89.7 5.5 1.5 22.5

Boilermakers

23

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

160 87.3 6.4 .5 45.5

Carpenters

1,359 90.5 5.4 1.2 33.9

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

168 90.3 3.5 .9 50.8

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

56 83.9 10.5 1.6 48.8

Construction laborers

1,801 85.5 8.1 2.2 45.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

13

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

351 89.0 8.7 .2 19.3

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

180 88.7 6.7 .5 62.7

Electricians

774 87.6 5.9 3.1 16.8

Glaziers

54 92.3 5.0 .0 21.2

Insulation workers

50 88.2 7.7 .5 33.8

Painters, construction and maintenance

612 87.5 5.7 3.6 50.7

Paperhangers

4

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

583 90.2 7.5 .9 21.2

Plasterers and stucco masons

34

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12

Roofers

230 89.5 4.9 1.1 51.7

Sheet metal workers

126 86.6 6.7 2.1 16.7

Structural iron and steel workers

60 82.4 10.7 1.9 10.8

Solar photovoltaic installers

10

Helpers, construction trades

57 89.0 9.2 .9 42.5

Construction and building inspectors

93 81.1 11.8 2.4 9.9

Elevator installers and repairers

44

Fence erectors

43

Hazardous materials removal workers

34

Highway maintenance workers

92 87.5 9.6 .2 15.1

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

34

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

25

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

33

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

11

Mining machine operators

55 90.7 7.1 .0 11.6

Roof bolters, mining

4

Roustabouts, oil and gas

6

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

32

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,879 84.4 8.8 3.2 19.0

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

264 86.0 10.2 2.0 10.4

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

212 76.2 13.0 10.0 12.0

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

143 74.7 16.3 5.3 15.8

Avionics technicians

7

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

25

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

13

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

10

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

44

Security and fire alarm systems installers

79 83.6 5.6 4.2 24.2

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

140 86.3 3.3 6.0 18.5

Automotive body and related repairers

147 85.5 5.2 3.0 24.1

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

879 81.3 9.6 4.3 23.3

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

342 87.7 7.0 1.9 16.1

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

203 89.4 3.8 1.9 16.9

Small engine mechanics

51 85.0 11.0 .0 6.6

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

87 79.1 10.8 2.0 31.6

Control and valve installers and repairers

33

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

427 90.1 7.0 1.3 21.9

Home appliance repairers

49

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

393 86.7 8.5 1.9 15.0

Maintenance and repair workers, general

552 84.0 10.6 2.2 19.8

Maintenance workers, machinery

21

Millwrights

40

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

136 87.2 7.7 .9 10.5

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

171 76.4 16.1 5.2 20.9

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

66 88.4 4.5 3.9 13.9

Wind turbine service technicians

5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

30

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

10

Riggers

13

Signal and track switch repairers

7

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

198 87.0 5.8 3.9 22.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,743 75.7 15.8 4.8 22.2

Production occupations

8,459 77.8 12.9 5.9 22.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

763 83.1 9.7 3.9 15.0

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

5

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

117 64.6 14.1 16.9 22.5

Engine and other machine assemblers

9

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,082 71.1 17.8 7.2 19.6

Bakers

224 74.4 13.9 7.2 27.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

277 66.8 19.8 9.9 34.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

24

Food batchmakers

107 80.0 14.2 3.1 30.6

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

10

Food processing workers, all other

138 66.9 23.3 7.4 35.3

Computer control programmers and operators

87 81.3 6.3 4.3 12.3

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

83 93.3 5.8 .6 22.3

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

48

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6

Machinists

356 85.3 5.4 6.8 13.0

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

33

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Tool and die makers

50 95.6 2.4 .0 12.3

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

603 84.5 10.0 2.8 23.6

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Layout workers, metal and plastic

7

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

5

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

379 74.3 15.3 7.3 22.1

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

205 86.4 6.7 4.7 15.9

Print binding and finishing workers

14

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

188 67.1 21.4 7.9 34.0

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

36

Sewing machine operators

208 77.3 8.0 12.1 46.9

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

8

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

79 66.9 7.8 22.6 19.3

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

11

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1

Upholsterers

36

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

20

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

56 90.8 6.7 .0 15.7

Furniture finishers

19

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

35

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23

Woodworkers, all other

34

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

44

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

78 85.4 9.6 5.0 14.1

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

77 82.5 13.9 2.1 6.8

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

54 92.5 3.7 1.5 15.8

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

94 84.0 12.2 1.5 35.3

Cutting workers

67 79.9 7.2 4.1 37.2

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

16

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

734 76.7 12.8 7.4 17.7

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

85 77.0 8.4 11.8 11.3

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

236 72.5 16.1 6.2 43.1

Painting workers

173 84.8 8.8 1.8 28.4

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

29

Semiconductor processors

2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

3

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0

Etchers and engravers

6

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

24

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

33

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

968 73.8 17.1 5.4 22.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,284 73.8 18.4 3.8 22.1

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

190 81.6 13.4 3.2 21.2

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

141 93.9 3.0 .5 7.7

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

26

Flight attendants

93 77.2 13.7 6.4 16.1

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

553 64.5 29.4 3.3 11.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,542 78.8 14.8 2.6 21.3

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

500 50.6 28.7 16.0 12.6

Motor vehicle operators, all other

63 81.6 13.7 2.3 14.6

Locomotive engineers and operators

52 75.3 20.8 .6 7.8

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

2

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

55 74.4 21.3 4.3 6.0

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

16

Ship and boat captains and operators

31

Ship engineers

4

Bridge and lock tenders

2

Parking lot attendants

89 65.3 24.3 7.3 28.5

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

97 78.4 9.9 6.4 18.1

Transportation inspectors

26

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

41

Other transportation workers

34

Conveyor operators and tenders

3

Crane and tower operators

63 84.8 13.0 .5 13.7

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

37

Hoist and winch operators

9

Industrial truck and tractor operators

605 68.3 26.0 2.3 28.0

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

328 73.7 18.0 2.5 29.4

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,900 72.7 19.9 3.2 23.4

Machine feeders and offbearers

30

Packers and packagers, hand

550 68.3 18.9 7.1 43.6

Pumping station operators

16

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

101 81.6 16.4 .5 23.5

Mine shuttle car operators

0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

4

Material moving workers, all other

45

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Employed people by industry, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Industry and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

151,436 119,313 17,982 9,213 25,249

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

1.6 1.9 .4 .3 2.4

Mining

.5 .6 .3 .2 .6

Construction

6.8 7.7 3.3 2.1 11.8

Manufacturing

10.2 10.4 8.5 11.3 9.8

Durable goods

6.4 6.6 4.8 7.5 5.4

Nondurable goods

3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.4

Wholesale and retail trade

13.4 13.5 12.7 12.9 13.7

Wholesale trade

2.4 2.5 1.7 2.4 2.5

Retail trade

10.9 10.9 11.0 10.6 11.2

Transportation and utilities

5.3 4.9 8.0 4.6 5.5

Information

1.9 1.9 1.8 2.3 1.3

Financial activities

6.9 7.0 6.0 7.9 5.0

Professional and business services

12.1 12.1 9.9 16.5 12.0

Education and health services

22.6 21.9 28.4 22.3 16.4

Leisure and hospitality

9.4 9.0 10.0 10.0 12.9

Other services

4.8 4.8 4.3 6.1 5.2

Other services, except private households

4.4 4.3 4.0 5.8 4.1

Other services, private households

.5 .5 .3 .3 1.1

Public administration

4.5 4.3 6.4 3.4 3.3

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

80,568 64,612 8,471 4,915 14,563

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

2.3 2.7 .7 .3 3.2

Mining

.9 .9 .5 .3 .9

Construction

11.7 13.0 6.4 3.4 19.5

Manufacturing

13.6 13.9 12.2 13.4 11.6

Durable goods

9.0 9.3 7.1 9.6 7.0

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.6 5.0 3.8 4.6

Wholesale and retail trade

13.9 13.9 14.2 13.7 13.5

Wholesale trade

3.2 3.3 2.7 2.7 3.2

Retail trade

10.7 10.6 11.5 11.1 10.3

Transportation and utilities

7.6 7.1 12.3 6.6 7.3

Information

2.1 2.1 2.0 2.7 1.4

Financial activities

6.2 6.2 5.3 7.7 4.3

Professional and business services

13.3 13.0 11.7 19.9 12.2

Education and health services

10.8 10.2 13.6 14.1 6.8

Leisure and hospitality

8.7 8.2 10.6 10.2 11.7

Other services

4.3 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.6

Other services, except private households

4.3 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.4

Other services, private households

.1 .1 .1 .1 .1

Public administration

4.7 4.6 6.0 3.1 3.1

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

70,868 54,701 9,511 4,298 10,686

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

0.9 1.1 .1 .3 1.3

Mining

.2 .2 .1 .1 .1

Construction

1.3 1.5 .6 .7 1.3

Manufacturing

6.3 6.3 5.3 8.9 7.4

Durable goods

3.4 3.4 2.7 5.0 3.3

Nondurable goods

2.9 2.9 2.6 3.9 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.7 12.9 11.5 12.0 14.0

Wholesale trade

1.5 1.6 .8 2.1 1.7

Retail trade

11.2 11.3 10.6 10.0 12.3

Transportation and utilities

2.7 2.4 4.2 2.4 3.0

Information

1.6 1.6 1.5 1.9 1.1

Financial activities

7.7 7.9 6.6 8.2 6.1

Professional and business services

10.7 11.0 8.4 12.5 11.9

Education and health services

36.1 35.7 41.5 31.7 29.5

Leisure and hospitality

10.1 10.1 9.4 9.8 14.5

Other services

5.4 5.4 4.0 7.8 6.2

Other services, except private households

4.5 4.4 3.5 7.2 3.7

Other services, private households

.9 1.0 .5 .6 2.5

Public administration

4.4 4.0 6.7 3.7 3.6

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Family type and employment status of family members Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

82,092 65,083 9,976 4,707 12,900

With at least one family member employed

66,023 52,209 7,764 4,166 11,182

As a percent of total families

80.4 80.2 77.8 88.5 86.7

With at least one family member unemployed

5,301 3,711 1,086 265 1,117

As a percent of total families

6.5 5.7 10.9 5.6 8.7

Some family member(s) employed

3,656 2,684 628 204 811

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

69.0 72.3 57.8 76.9 72.6

Some family member(s) employed full time

3,162 2,343 524 185 702

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

59.7 63.1 48.2 69.8 62.9

Married-couple families(1)

59,747 50,170 4,492 3,775 8,025

With at least one family member employed

48,440 40,298 3,655 3,361 7,170

As a percent of total families

81.1 80.3 81.4 89.0 89.3

With at least one family member unemployed

3,122 2,443 371 196 642

As a percent of total families

100.0 4.9 8.3 5.2 8.0

Some family member(s) employed

2,511 1,975 289 163 533

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

80.4 80.8 77.8 83.0 83.1

Some family member(s) employed full time

2,235 1,765 259 19 473

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.6 72.2 69.7 75.5 73.7

Families maintained by women(2)

15,669 10,064 4,326 579 3,287

With at least one family member employed

12,001 7,775 3,229 492 2,588

As a percent of total families

76.6 77.3 74.6 84.9 78.7

With at least one family member unemployed

1,543 845 564 45 337

As a percent of total families

100.0 8.4 13.0 7.8 10.3

Some family member(s) employed

774 457 254 26 189

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

50.1 54.0 45.1 56.8 56.0

Some family member(s) employed full time

607 360 194 23 151

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

39.3 42.7 34.3 50.3 44.7

Families maintained by men(2)

6,676 4,849 1,158 353 1,588

With at least one family member employed

5,582 4,136 881 314 1,424

As a percent of total families

83.6 85.3 76.1 88.8 89.7

With at least one family member unemployed

635 423 151 24 138

As a percent of total families

100.0 8.7 13.0 6.8 8.7

Some family member(s) employed

372 252 85 16 89

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

58.5 59.7 56.1 65.5 64.5

Some family member(s) employed full time

320 217 72 15 79

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

50.4 51.4 47.4 60.2 57.2
Footnotes:

(1) Opposite-sex married-couple families only.

(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

Note: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1994-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

With no children under 18 years

                             

1994

60.2 67.1 53.6 60.6 67.7 53.8 57.2 62.0 52.4 62.3 71.5 51.5

1995

60.2 67.0 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 57.5 62.3 52.7 61.2 70.9 50.2

1996

60.1 66.8 53.5 60.5 67.6 53.6 56.9 61.5 52.3 61.6 71.3 50.5

1997

60.4 67.0 53.8 60.8 67.8 53.8 57.3 61.2 53.5 62.6 72.1 51.4

1998

60.3 67.0 53.9 60.6 67.6 53.8 58.0 62.0 54.2 62.8 72.1 51.7

1999

60.4 66.8 54.1 60.7 67.5 53.9 58.3 62.1 54.6 62.5 71.6 52.2

2000

60.6 67.0 54.3 60.9 67.7 54.3 58.4 62.5 54.5 63.7 73.2 52.6

2001

60.4 66.7 54.3 60.8 67.4 54.3 57.9 61.7 54.4 63.0 72.4 52.6

2002

60.0 66.2 53.9 60.4 66.8 54.0 56.8 61.0 52.7 61.2 67.8 55.0 63.9 72.7 53.2

2003

59.7 65.4 54.1 60.1 66.1 54.1 56.5 60.0 53.2 59.7 66.4 53.7 62.8 72.1 51.5

2004

59.6 65.3 54.0 60.0 66.1 54.0 56.4 59.5 53.5 59.1 65.0 53.5 63.5 72.6 52.5

2005

59.8 65.5 54.2 60.1 66.2 54.1 57.3 60.8 53.9 59.9 66.0 54.3 63.0 72.1 51.9

2006

60.0 65.8 54.2 60.4 66.5 54.2 57.1 60.5 53.9 60.0 66.2 54.1 63.7 73.0 52.2

2007

59.8 65.6 54.0 60.3 66.4 54.1 56.5 60.1 53.0 60.2 66.6 54.0 63.7 72.8 52.4

2008

59.9 65.6 54.3 60.3 66.3 54.3 56.9 60.4 53.6 60.3 66.6 54.4 63.5 72.7 52.1

2009

59.3 64.6 54.0 59.9 65.4 54.3 55.9 59.3 52.7 59.0 65.3 53.1 62.6 70.7 52.8

2010

58.7 63.8 53.6 59.1 64.5 53.7 56.0 59.1 52.9 58.1 64.3 52.4 62.0 69.8 52.3

2011

58.1 63.1 53.0 58.6 63.8 53.2 55.1 58.4 51.8 58.0 63.9 52.6 60.8 68.3 51.6

2012

57.5 62.6 52.5 58.1 63.7 52.4 55.2 57.6 52.8 58.1 63.2 53.4 60.7 68.1 52.0

2013

57.2 62.3 52.1 57.4 62.9 52.0 54.5 57.1 52.0 58.8 64.5 53.6 60.6 68.2 51.9

2014

56.7 61.7 51.7 56.9 62.2 51.6 54.8 57.5 52.1 57.0 63.0 51.7 60.5 68.0 51.8

2015

56.5 61.6 51.5 56.7 62.1 51.2 55.3 58.0 52.7 56.5 61.7 51.7 60.4 68.1 51.9

2016

56.7 61.9 51.6 56.8 62.3 51.4 55.2 58.4 52.2 57.1 63.1 51.8 60.3 67.9 52.0

With children under 18 years

                             

1994

79.8 94.1 69.0 80.9 94.8 69.5 74.9 89.5 68.4 70.2 92.1 54.7

1995

80.3 94.1 69.8 81.3 94.9 70.3 76.3 89.6 70.3 71.0 92.2 55.6

1996

81.1 94.5 70.8 81.8 95.3 70.7 78.5 89.7 73.3 72.3 93.7 56.7

1997

81.8 94.6 71.9 82.4 95.4 71.7 79.6 89.6 75.0 74.0 93.4 59.6

1998

81.8 94.6 71.8 82.2 95.3 71.3 81.0 90.4 76.7 74.2 92.9 60.2

1999

82.0 94.6 72.2 82.3 95.4 71.5 82.0 89.3 78.5 74.6 93.8 60.3

2000

82.1 94.7 72.3 82.3 95.3 71.6 82.2 90.3 78.2 75.7 93.8 62.0

2001

81.9 94.6 72.1 82.2 95.3 71.5 81.8 89.7 77.9 75.7 93.6 62.0

2002

81.6 94.3 71.8 81.9 94.8 71.1 81.9 90.3 77.7 78.3 93.2 66.6 75.8 93.2 62.7

2003

81.2 94.1 71.1 81.4 94.7 70.3 81.5 89.7 77.5 78.9 93.5 67.0 75.1 93.4 61.2

2004

80.7 94.1 70.4 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.5 88.4 76.5 77.9 93.8 64.9 74.9 93.9 60.4

2005

80.7 94.1 70.5 81.1 94.8 69.8 80.4 88.7 76.3 77.9 93.1 65.6 74.5 94.2 59.6

2006

81.0 94.1 70.9 81.4 94.9 70.2 80.5 88.1 76.9 78.3 93.2 66.3 75.3 94.2 60.9

2007

81.4 94.3 71.0 81.7 95.0 70.3 81.2 89.6 76.6 78.9 93.1 67.1 76.5 94.8 61.4

2008

81.5 94.1 71.4 81.8 94.8 70.8 81.1 89.7 76.7 80.0 93.0 68.8 76.4 94.4 61.4

2009

81.3 93.8 71.4 81.8 94.5 70.9 80.2 87.7 76.3 80.1 94.1 68.0 76.5 94.2 61.5

2010

80.9 93.7 70.8 81.4 94.5 70.5 79.7 89.0 74.9 78.2 92.2 66.2 76.6 93.9 62.1

2011

80.6 93.5 70.6 81.1 94.3 70.2 79.6 87.9 75.3 78.3 93.0 65.4 76.1 93.5 61.8

2012

80.4 93.1 70.3 81.0 94.0 70.3 80.0 88.9 75.4 76.7 93.0 63.2 76.4 93.7 63.2

2013

80.0 92.8 69.9 80.6 93.6 69.6 80.0 87.9 75.6 77.0 92.7 64.2 75.3 92.9 61.2

2014

80.1 92.8 70.1 80.6 93.5 69.8 79.9 87.9 75.4 77.4 93.3 64.3 75.8 93.1 62.0

2015

80.0 92.7 69.9 80.4 93.5 69.4 80.4 87.3 76.6 76.2 92.9 62.4 75.7 93.4 61.4

2016

80.4 92.8 70.5 80.8 93.6 70.0 80.8 87.3 77.2 76.7 92.6 63.4 76.0 93.4 61.8

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger

                             

1994

83.5 93.1 76.1 84.3 93.9 76.5 79.6 88.0 75.5 74.9 89.7 64.5

1995

83.7 93.0 76.6 84.6 93.7 77.2 80.1 88.1 76.4 75.4 89.7 65.5

1996

84.5 93.5 77.5 85.3 94.4 77.7 81.3 87.9 78.1 77.3 92.3 66.7

1997

84.7 93.6 77.9 85.4 94.4 78.0 81.8 88.1 78.7 77.6 91.2 68.2

1998

84.5 93.5 77.6 84.9 94.2 77.3 83.1 88.2 80.6 77.5 90.6 68.1

1999

84.8 93.4 78.2 85.4 94.4 78.1 83.2 86.7 81.4 78.6 91.2 69.5

2000

85.1 93.5 78.7 85.7 94.3 78.6 83.3 87.8 81.0 79.3 91.5 70.5

2001

85.0 93.6 78.3 85.5 94.5 78.1 83.3 87.5 81.1 79.6 91.7 70.9

2002

84.8 93.3 78.2 85.1 94.0 77.8 84.3 89.2 81.8 82.6 91.6 75.7 79.0 91.1 70.2

2003

84.5 93.1 77.8 84.7 93.7 77.3 84.0 88.0 82.1 82.9 93.5 74.3 78.8 91.5 69.4

2004

84.1 93.1 77.3 84.5 93.9 76.9 82.7 86.3 80.9 82.6 93.8 73.4 79.6 92.8 70.2

2005

83.7 93.0 76.5 84.1 93.8 76.3 82.4 86.9 80.2 80.7 92.3 71.2 78.8 92.9 68.7

2006

83.8 93.1 76.7 84.3 94.0 76.3 82.4 85.7 80.8 80.8 91.8 72.0 79.1 92.6 69.4

2007

84.3 93.2 77.2 84.6 94.0 76.7 83.7 87.7 81.5 81.8 91.7 73.6 80.5 93.1 70.4

2008

84.3 93.1 77.3 84.7 93.9 77.0 83.1 87.8 80.6 82.7 91.8 74.9 80.4 93.2 70.0

2009

84.2 92.7 77.3 84.7 93.7 77.0 82.2 85.7 80.3 82.7 92.9 74.0 80.7 93.6 69.9

2010

83.7 92.8 76.5 84.2 93.6 76.3 81.9 87.1 79.2 81.8 92.2 73.1 80.1 92.6 69.9

2011

83.3 92.6 76.1 83.9 93.5 76.0 81.5 86.5 78.8 80.8 92.2 71.2 79.2 91.9 69.0

2012

82.6 92.2 75.1 83.2 93.0 75.1 81.9 87.3 79.1 78.4 91.6 67.7 79.4 92.7 69.1

2013

82.3 91.9 74.7 83.0 92.8 74.8 81.4 86.4 78.6 78.8 91.7 68.4 78.1 91.8 67.5

2014

82.2 91.6 74.7 82.7 92.4 74.6 81.7 86.5 79.0 80.1 92.6 70.1 78.4 91.9 68.2

2015

82.1 91.8 74.4 82.5 92.5 74.2 81.4 85.5 79.1 79.0 92.0 68.4 78.3 92.3 67.3

2016

82.5 91.9 75.0 82.8 92.7 74.6 81.9 85.6 79.9 80.0 92.2 69.9 78.5 92.4 67.7

With children under 6 years

                             

1994

75.8 95.2 61.2 77.1 95.9 61.6 70.0 91.3 61.2 66.6 94.0 47.0

1995

76.6 95.5 62.3 77.7 96.1 62.6 72.0 91.4 63.9 67.6 94.1 47.7

1996

77.2 95.6 63.2 77.9 96.3 62.7 75.4 91.9 68.2 68.5 94.8 48.7

1997

78.3 95.8 64.8 78.8 96.5 64.1 77.1 91.3 70.8 70.9 95.1 52.3

1998

78.6 96.1 64.9 78.9 96.6 64.1 78.5 93.0 72.0 71.3 94.9 53.0

1999

78.5 96.1 64.8 78.5 96.7 63.4 80.6 92.5 74.9 71.2 95.9 52.1

2000

78.4 96.1 64.6 78.2 96.5 63.0 80.9 93.3 74.9 72.5 95.7 54.5

2001

78.1 95.8 64.3 78.1 96.2 63.0 80.0 92.5 73.9 72.2 95.2 53.8

2002

77.7 95.5 63.7 77.9 95.9 62.7 78.9 91.8 72.5 73.5 94.8 56.3 73.1 94.8 56.1

2003

77.2 95.4 62.8 77.3 96.0 61.5 78.2 92.1 71.8 74.2 93.4 58.5 71.9 94.9 53.4

2004

76.5 95.4 61.8 76.8 96.0 60.7 77.6 91.1 70.8 73.1 93.8 56.0 70.6 94.8 51.2

2005

77.0 95.4 62.8 77.2 96.1 61.6 77.8 91.2 71.4 74.9 94.0 59.3 70.6 95.4 50.9

2006

77.5 95.4 63.5 77.7 95.9 62.5 78.0 91.1 71.8 75.6 94.8 59.9 71.7 95.6 52.7

2007

77.8 95.7 63.3 77.9 96.2 62.3 77.9 92.3 70.4 75.8 94.8 59.9 72.9 96.1 53.0

2008

77.9 95.4 64.0 78.0 95.9 62.9 78.6 92.4 71.7 77.1 94.3 61.9 72.7 95.5 53.0

2009

77.8 95.1 64.2 78.1 95.6 63.3 77.7 90.4 71.4 77.3 95.4 61.4 72.4 94.9 53.1

2010

77.5 94.7 63.9 78.0 95.5 63.4 77.1 91.3 69.8 74.3 92.2 58.3 73.2 95.2 54.6

2011

77.4 94.5 63.9 77.7 95.2 63.0 77.4 89.7 71.1 75.4 93.8 58.4 73.2 95.0 54.7

2012

77.7 94.2 64.6 78.2 95.1 64.3 77.6 91.0 71.0 74.7 94.5 57.8 73.3 94.6 57.0

2013

77.2 93.9 63.9 77.5 94.7 62.9 78.5 89.8 72.1 74.9 93.8 59.3 72.3 94.0 54.5

2014

77.5 94.2 64.2 78.0 94.9 63.7 77.6 89.6 71.0 74.3 94.0 57.4 73.1 94.4 55.2

2015

77.4 93.9 64.2 77.7 94.7 63.3 79.2 89.5 73.4 72.8 94.1 55.0 72.9 94.5 54.7

2016

77.8 94.0 64.7 78.2 94.8 63.9 79.4 89.5 73.6 72.8 93.2 55.6 72.9 94.6 54.8

With children under 3 years

                             

1994

74.0 95.3 57.7 75.6 96.0 58.6 66.0 91.5 55.6 64.4 94.1 42.2

1995

74.8 95.5 58.9 76.0 96.2 59.2 68.9 90.9 60.0 65.7 94.1 43.7

1996

75.4 95.8 59.4 76.2 96.5 59.2 72.1 92.2 63.1 66.2 94.6 44.7

1997

76.6 95.9 61.4 77.5 96.5 61.4 73.6 92.1 65.1 68.6 94.6 48.0

1998

77.2 96.2 61.9 77.7 96.7 61.5 75.8 93.2 67.5 69.5 95.0 48.9

1999

77.0 96.4 61.5 77.0 97.0 60.1 78.7 92.4 72.0 68.8 96.2 47.4

2000

76.3 96.4 60.4 76.3 96.7 59.0 77.6 93.6 69.8 70.4 96.2 50.0

2001

76.0 95.9 60.2 76.1 96.4 58.9 77.3 92.6 69.7 69.7 95.3 48.7

2002

76.1 95.8 60.2 76.3 96.2 59.2 76.9 93.2 68.6 72.1 95.4 53.5 70.3 95.1 50.3

2003

75.2 95.7 58.9 75.6 96.2 57.8 74.7 91.4 67.0 73.0 94.5 55.1 69.5 95.2 47.9

2004

74.4 95.7 57.5 74.9 96.3 56.8 74.7 91.0 66.4 70.2 93.8 50.4 68.2 95.2 46.0

2005

74.8 95.5 58.4 75.1 96.4 57.2 74.7 90.6 67.0 72.4 92.9 55.8 67.7 96.0 45.0

2006

75.8 95.5 60.2 76.2 96.2 59.3 75.0 90.6 67.2 73.4 94.2 56.8 69.5 95.9 48.6

2007

75.6 95.9 59.2 76.0 96.4 58.3 74.8 92.8 65.7 73.6 94.2 56.2 69.9 96.0 47.6

2008

76.1 95.7 60.4 76.4 96.2 59.4 75.0 92.4 66.7 75.9 94.4 59.5 70.3 95.9 47.9

2009

76.1 95.0 61.1 76.6 95.5 60.5 74.5 90.2 66.6 76.1 95.9 58.2 70.0 94.4 49.1

2010

75.7 94.7 60.7 76.4 95.7 60.3 74.2 91.0 65.6 72.2 91.2 55.3 71.3 95.3 50.8

2011

75.7 94.7 60.6 76.1 95.3 60.0 75.0 89.2 67.5 73.8 95.3 54.1 71.3 95.5 50.1

2012

76.0 95.0 61.2 76.6 95.5 61.2 75.5 92.2 67.0 72.4 94.3 53.7 71.2 95.5 52.4

2013

75.8 94.0 61.1 76.2 94.9 60.3 76.6 89.9 68.8 72.5 92.6 55.5 70.3 94.3 50.4

2014

76.0 94.4 61.0 76.6 95.0 60.8 75.9 90.2 67.6 72.6 94.5 53.4 70.8 95.1 50.6

2015

76.1 93.9 61.4 76.4 94.7 60.6 77.5 89.7 70.3 70.8 92.8 52.0 70.9 94.4 50.6

2016

76.5 94.2 61.8 77.1 95.1 61.3 78.2 90.2 70.8 69.3 92.5 49.8 70.9 94.5 50.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

5.6 5.0 6.6 5.1 4.5 5.9 10.4 9.3 11.8

1973

4.9 4.2 6.0 4.3 3.8 5.3 9.4 8.0 11.1 7.5 6.7 9.0

1974

5.6 4.9 6.7 5.0 4.4 6.1 10.5 9.8 11.3 8.1 7.3 9.4

1975

8.5 7.9 9.3 7.8 7.2 8.6 14.8 14.8 14.8 12.2 11.4 13.5

1976

7.7 7.1 8.6 7.0 6.4 7.9 14.0 13.7 14.3 11.5 10.8 12.7

1977

7.1 6.3 8.2 6.2 5.5 7.3 14.0 13.3 14.9 10.1 9.0 11.9

1978

6.1 5.3 7.2 5.2 4.6 6.2 12.8 11.8 13.8 9.1 7.7 11.3

1979

5.8 5.1 6.8 5.1 4.5 5.9 12.3 11.4 13.3 8.3 7.0 10.3

1980

7.1 6.9 7.4 6.3 6.1 6.5 14.3 14.5 14.0 10.1 9.7 10.7

1981

7.6 7.4 7.9 6.7 6.5 6.9 15.6 15.7 15.6 10.4 10.2 10.8

1982

9.7 9.9 9.4 8.6 8.8 8.3 18.9 20.1 17.6 13.8 13.6 14.1

1983

9.6 9.9 9.2 8.4 8.8 7.9 19.5 20.3 18.6 13.7 13.6 13.8

1984

7.5 7.4 7.6 6.5 6.4 6.5 15.9 16.4 15.4 10.7 10.5 11.1

1985

7.2 7.0 7.4 6.2 6.1 6.4 15.1 15.3 14.9 10.5 10.2 11.0

1986

7.0 6.9 7.1 6.0 6.0 6.1 14.5 14.8 14.2 10.6 10.5 10.8

1987

6.2 6.2 6.2 5.3 5.4 5.2 13.0 12.7 13.2 8.8 8.7 8.9

1988

5.5 5.5 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 8.2 8.1 8.3

1989

5.3 5.2 5.4 4.5 4.5 4.5 11.4 11.5 11.4 8.0 7.6 8.8

1990

5.6 5.7 5.5 4.8 4.9 4.7 11.4 11.9 10.9 8.2 8.0 8.4

1991

6.8 7.2 6.4 6.1 6.5 5.6 12.5 13.0 12.0 10.0 10.3 9.6

1992

7.5 7.9 7.0 6.6 7.0 6.1 14.2 15.2 13.2 11.6 11.7 11.4

1993

6.9 7.2 6.6 6.1 6.3 5.7 13.0 13.8 12.1 10.8 10.6 11.0

1994

6.1 6.2 6.0 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.5 12.0 11.0 9.9 9.4 10.7

1995

5.6 5.6 5.6 4.9 4.9 4.8 10.4 10.6 10.2 9.3 8.8 10.0

1996

5.4 5.4 5.4 4.7 4.7 4.7 10.5 11.1 10.0 8.9 7.9 10.2

1997

4.9 4.9 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 10.0 10.2 9.9 7.7 7.0 8.9

1998

4.5 4.4 4.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 8.9 8.9 9.0 7.2 6.4 8.2

1999

4.2 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.6 3.8 8.0 8.2 7.8 6.4 5.6 7.6

2000

4.0 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.6 7.6 8.0 7.1 3.6 3.6 3.6 5.7 5.0 6.8

2001

4.7 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 8.6 9.3 8.1 4.5 4.5 4.4 6.6 5.9 7.5

2002

5.8 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.3 4.9 10.2 10.7 9.8 5.9 6.1 5.7 7.5 7.2 8.0

2003

6.0 6.3 5.7 5.2 5.6 4.8 10.8 11.6 10.2 6.0 6.2 5.7 7.7 7.2 8.4

2004

5.5 5.6 5.4 4.8 5.0 4.7 10.4 11.1 9.8 4.4 4.5 4.3 7.0 6.5 7.6

2005

5.1 5.1 5.1 4.4 4.4 4.4 10.0 10.5 9.5 4.0 4.0 3.9 6.0 5.4 6.9

2006

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 8.9 9.5 8.4 3.0 3.0 3.1 5.2 4.8 5.9

2007

4.6 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.0 8.3 9.1 7.5 3.2 3.1 3.4 5.6 5.3 6.1

2008

5.8 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.5 4.9 10.1 11.4 8.9 4.0 4.1 3.7 7.6 7.6 7.7

2009

9.3 10.3 8.1 8.5 9.4 7.3 14.8 17.5 12.4 7.3 7.9 6.6 12.1 12.5 11.5

2010

9.6 10.5 8.6 8.7 9.6 7.7 16.0 18.4 13.8 7.5 7.8 7.1 12.5 12.7 12.3

2011

8.9 9.4 8.5 7.9 8.3 7.5 15.8 17.8 14.1 7.0 6.8 7.3 11.5 11.2 11.8

2012

8.1 8.2 7.9 7.2 7.4 7.0 13.8 15.0 12.8 5.9 5.8 6.1 10.3 9.9 10.9

2013

7.4 7.6 7.1 6.5 6.8 6.2 13.1 14.2 12.1 5.2 5.6 4.8 9.1 8.8 9.5

2014

6.2 6.3 6.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 11.3 12.2 10.5 5.0 5.3 4.6 7.4 6.8 8.2

2015

5.3 5.4 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.5 9.6 10.3 8.9 3.8 4.0 3.7 6.6 6.3 7.1

2016

4.9 4.9 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.2 8.4 9.1 7.8 3.6 3.5 3.9 5.8 5.4 6.3

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12A. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

10.5 11.2 9.6 7.7 6.9 8.6 9.1 9.3 8.9

2004

9.6 9.7 9.4 6.1 6.8 5.4 8.7 8.7 8.7

2005

9.3 8.7 10.1 4.3 4.8 3.9 8.0 7.9 8.2

2006

7.9 7.9 8.0 5.3 6.3 4.3 6.7 7.3 6.0

2007

8.1 7.9 8.4 4.8 5.4 4.3 7.1 7.4 6.8

2008

9.9 10.8 8.8 6.4 7.7 4.9 9.5 10.1 8.7

2009

13.3 15.5 10.8 10.8 11.6 10.0 13.6 14.2 12.9

2010

15.1 17.3 12.7 12.0 13.6 10.4 13.6 14.2 13.0

2011

14.6 15.4 13.7 10.4 11.4 9.3 13.6 14.0 13.1

2012

12.3 11.9 12.7 11.8 12.4 11.2 11.9 12.1 11.5

2013

12.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 11.1 9.3 11.0 11.4 10.5

2014

11.3 11.9 10.6 6.1 5.7 6.6 10.2 10.9 9.5

2015

9.9 11.1 8.5 5.7 5.7 5.6 8.4 8.1 8.7

2016

8.9 9.2 8.7 4.4 4.3 4.5 7.5 7.6 7.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Unemployed people by duration of unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Duration of unemployment Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (in thousands)

7,751 5,345 1,655 349 1,548

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

30.5 32.1 25.5 28.6 33.4

5 to 14 weeks

28.7 29.1 27.3 28.7 28.9

15 to 26 weeks

14.9 14.7 15.5 15.7 14.8

27 weeks and over

25.9 24.1 31.7 26.9 22.8

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.5 26.3 31.8 27.9 24.3

Median duration, in weeks

10.6 10.0 13.4 11.4 9.6

Men, 16 years and older (in thousands)

4,187 2,952 845 176 833

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

29.7 31.2 25.2 27.1 34.8

5 to 14 weeks

28.2 28.1 27.5 30.0 28.1

15 to 26 weeks

14.9 15.0 14.4 14.9 14.3

27 weeks and over

27.1 25.8 32.9 28.0 22.8

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

29.3 28.6 33.2 28.0 23.7

Median duration, in weeks

11.2 10.6 13.4 11.6 9.4

Women, 16 years and older (in thousands)

3,564 2,393 810 172 715

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than 5 weeks

31.3 33.3 25.8 30.2 31.8

5 to 14 weeks

29.3 30.4 27.0 27.4 29.8

15 to 26 weeks

15.0 14.3 16.7 16.6 15.5

27 weeks and over

24.4 22.1 30.5 25.7 22.9

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.4 23.5 30.4 27.8 25.0

Median duration, in weeks

10.1 9.4 13.3 11.3 9.9

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Unemployed people by reason for unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Reason for unemployment Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

7,751 5,345 1,655 349 1,548

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.2 50.2 44.6 41.8 49.3

On temporary layoff

12.5 14.4 7.4 7.4 15.1

Not on temporary layoff

35.8 35.8 37.2 34.4 34.2

Permanent job losers

25.4 26.1 24.0 25.6 21.4

Persons who completed temporary jobs

10.4 9.7 13.2 8.8 12.8

Job leavers

11.1 11.5 9.3 12.3 9.0

Reentrants

30.1 28.8 32.9 31.1 28.5

New entrants

10.6 9.5 13.3 14.7 13.2

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

4,187 2,952 845 176 833

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

53.3 55.8 47.4 45.0 57.1

On temporary layoff

13.4 15.3 8.1 5.8 17.2

Not on temporary layoff

39.9 40.5 39.3 39.1 39.9

Permanent job losers

28.0 29.1 25.2 28.3 24.5

Persons who completed temporary jobs

11.9 11.4 14.0 10.8 15.4

Job leavers

9.9 10.4 7.7 13.0 7.9

Reentrants

26.5 25.1 30.2 28.8 23.5

New entrants

10.3 8.7 14.8 13.2 11.6

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,564 2,393 810 172 715

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

42.3 43.3 41.7 38.6 40.3

On temporary layoff

11.3 13.4 6.7 9.0 12.7

Not on temporary layoff

31.0 30.0 35.0 29.6 27.6

Permanent job losers

22.3 22.4 22.7 22.8 17.7

Persons who completed temporary jobs

8.7 7.6 12.3 6.7 9.9

Job leavers

12.5 12.9 11.0 11.6 10.3

Reentrants

34.3 33.3 35.7 33.5 34.3

New entrants

10.9 10.5 11.7 16.3 15.1

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. People in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian labor force(1) Not in the labor force
Total Want a job Do not want a job now
Total Searched for work in previous year, but not in past 4 weeks
Total Marginally attached (available to work now)(2)
Total Discouraged workers(3) Other(4)

Total

               

Total, 16 years and older

159,187 94,351 5,849 2,434 1,804 553 1,250 88,502

16 to 24 years

21,202 17,232 1,780 787 530 130 400 15,452

25 to 54 years

102,248 23,513 2,481 1,128 841 267 573 21,032

55 years and older

35,737 53,606 1,587 519 433 156 277 52,018

Men, 16 years and older

84,755 37,743 2,733 1,211 960 345 615 35,009

16 to 24 years

10,949 8,423 927 422 299 86 213 7,496

25 to 54 years

54,726 7,085 1,050 520 430 163 267 6,035

55 years and older

19,079 22,235 757 269 232 96 136 21,478

Women, 16 years and older

74,432 56,608 3,116 1,222 843 208 635 53,492

16 to 24 years

10,253 8,809 854 364 231 44 187 7,956

25 to 54 years

47,522 16,428 1,432 608 411 104 307 14,996

55 years and older

16,657 31,371 830 250 201 60 141 30,540

White

               

Total, 16 years and older

124,658 73,557 4,087 1,629 1,191 360 831 69,469

16 to 24 years

16,171 12,118 1,205 515 333 83 250 10,913

25 to 54 years

78,650 17,136 1,671 735 546 165 381 15,464

55 years and older

29,837 44,303 1,211 379 312 112 200 43,092

Men, 16 years and older

67,564 29,297 1,912 808 632 224 407 27,385

16 to 24 years

8,476 5,870 639 282 192 55 137 5,231

25 to 54 years

42,929 4,912 702 337 275 102 173 4,211

55 years and older

16,158 18,515 572 190 164 67 98 17,943

Women, 16 years and older

57,095 44,260 2,175 821 559 135 424 42,084

16 to 24 years

7,695 6,248 566 234 141 28 113 5,682

25 to 54 years

35,721 12,223 970 398 270 63 208 11,253

55 years and older

13,679 25,788 639 189 147 45 103 25,149

Black or African American

               

Total, 16 years and older

19,637 12,252 1,110 530 426 146 280 11,142

16 to 24 years

2,988 2,860 371 187 147 38 109 2,489

25 to 54 years

13,248 3,543 489 253 201 79 122 3,055

55 years and older

3,400 5,849 251 90 77 28 49 5,598

Men, 16 years and older

9,315 5,209 513 260 221 89 132 4,696

16 to 24 years

1,442 1,426 179 93 77 24 53 1,247

25 to 54 years

6,255 1,431 220 121 106 49 56 1,211

55 years and older

1,619 2,352 114 47 39 17 23 2,238

Women, 16 years and older

10,321 7,043 597 269 205 57 148 6,446

16 to 24 years

1,546 1,434 192 94 71 14 56 1,242

25 to 54 years

6,994 2,112 269 132 96 30 65 1,844

55 years and older

1,782 3,497 136 43 38 12 26 3,361

Asian

               

Total, 16 years and older

9,562 5,559 343 142 92 23 69 5,216

16 to 24 years

896 1,302 84 38 19 2 16 1,218

25 to 54 years

6,851 1,858 185 74 48 10 38 1,673

55 years and older

1,814 2,399 74 30 25 11 14 2,325

Men, 16 years and older

5,091 1,973 153 71 51 14 37 1,820

16 to 24 years

466 634 45 21 10 2 8 589

25 to 54 years

3,683 424 65 32 24 4 21 359

55 years and older

942 915 42 19 16 8 8 872

Women, 16 years and older

4,471 3,586 190 71 41 9 32 3,396

16 to 24 years

430 668 38 18 9 1 8 630

25 to 54 years

3,168 1,434 120 42 24 6 17 1,314

55 years and older

872 1484 32 11 9 2 7 1452

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

               

Total, 16 years and older

26,797 13,900 1,181 444 318 94 224 12,718

16 to 24 years

4,563 3,926 426 173 122 30 92 3,499

25 to 54 years

18,754 5,026 551 212 147 45 102 4,475

55 years and older

3,480 4,948 204 59 49 20 29 4,744

Men, 16 years and older

15,396 4,870 501 199 156 52 105 4,369

16 to 24 years

2,469 1,847 214 88 67 18 48 1,633

25 to 54 years

10,951 1,126 195 85 66 23 43 931

55 years and older

1,976 1,898 93 27 24 10 14 1,804

Women, 16 years and older

11,401 9,029 680 245 161 42 119 8,349

16 to 24 years

2,094 2,079 213 85 55 11 44 1,866

25 to 54 years

7,803 3,900 356 128 81 21 59 3,544

55 years and older

1,504 3,050 111 32 25 9 16 2,940
Footnotes:

(1) The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.

(2) People marginally attached to the labor force are those who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.

(3) Discouraged workers are people marginally attached to the labor force who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks school or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.

(4) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as childcare and transportation problems, as well as a small number for which reason nonparticipation was not ascertained.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979-2016 annual averages
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

         

1979

$241 $248 $199 $194

1980

262 269 212 209

1981

284 291 235 223

1982

302 310 245 240

1983

313 320 261 250

1984

326 336 269 259

1985

344 356 277 270

1986

359 371 291 277

1987

374 384 301 285

1988

385 395 314 290

1989

399 409 319 298

1990

412 424 329 304

1991

426 442 348 312

1992

440 458 357 321

1993

459 475 369 331

1994

467 484 371 324

1995

479 494 383 329

1996

490 506 387 339

1997

503 519 400 351

1998

523 545 426 370

1999

549 573 445 385

2000

576 590 474 615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

Men

         

1979

292 298 227 219

1980

313 320 244 234

1981

340 350 268 251

1982

364 375 278 269

1983

379 387 294 274

1984

392 401 303 287

1985

407 418 305 296

1986

419 433 319 299

1987

434 450 327 306

1988

449 465 348 308

1989

468 482 348 315

1990

481 494 361 318

1991

493 506 375 323

1992

501 514 380 339

1993

510 524 392 346

1994

522 547 400 343

1995

538 566 411 350

1996

557 580 412 356

1997

579 595 432 371

1998

598 615 468 390

1999

618 638 488 406

2000

641 662 510 685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

Women

         

1979

182 184 169 157

1980

201 203 185 172

1981

219 221 206 190

1982

239 242 217 203

1983

252 254 232 215

1984

265 268 241 223

1985

277 281 252 230

1986

291 294 264 241

1987

303 307 276 251

1988

315 318 288 260

1989

328 334 301 269

1990

346 353 308 278

1991

366 373 323 292

1992

380 387 335 302

1993

393 401 348 313

1994

399 408 346 305

1995

406 415 355 305

1996

418 428 362 316

1997

431 444 375 318

1998

456 468 400 337

1999

473 483 409 348

2000

493 502 429 547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

Women's earnings as a percent of men's

         

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 25 years and older

$885 $912 $715 $1,069 $664

Less than a high school diploma

504 510 467 502 492

High school graduates, no college(1)

692 717 592 630 621

Some college, no degree

756 781 667 739 699

Associate's degree

819 851 707 786 753

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,259 1,274 990 1,429 1,127

Men, 25 years and older

969 996 751 1,190 697

Less than a high school diploma

551 567 496 568 518

High school graduates, no college(1)

769 806 626 683 679

Some college, no degree

861 892 740 828 771

Associate's degree

951 975 816 825 879

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,464 1,491 1,052 1,600 1,246

Women, 25 years and older

784 806 677 940 609

Less than a high school diploma

423 421 422 461 413

High school graduates, no college(1)

599 610 539 592 550

Some college, no degree

665 682 610 681 618

Associate's degree

720 734 649 760 662

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,101 1,115 960 1,262 988
Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

$832 $862 $678 $1,021 $624

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,188 1,202 966 1,483 1,012

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,284 1,317 1,037 1,509 1,079

Management occupations

1,370 1,387 1,101 1,645 1,100

Business and financial operations occupations

1,161 1,172 970 1,335 1,017

Professional and related occupations

1,141 1,143 916 1,471 971

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,443 1,423 1,105 1,658 1,251

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,482 1,469 1,170 1,690 1,317

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,209 1,226 1,024 1,352 1,010

Community and social services occupations

919 937 820 1,101 854

Legal occupations

1,431 1,428 1,174 1,728 993

Education, training, and library occupations

984 1,002 847 1,049 865

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,040 1,032 924 1,174 849

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,104 1,119 892 1,386 970

Service occupations

523 536 495 545 493

Healthcare support occupations

525 548 497 584 541

Protective service occupations

809 890 681 646 782

Food preparation and serving related occupations

465 467 422 524 454

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

510 515 485 552 484

Personal care and service occupations

505 512 471 515 487

Sales and office occupations

698 713 623 743 613

Sales and related occupations

744 782 584 719 596

Office and administrative support occupations

679 684 644 756 623

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

786 796 741 753 624

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

520 531 466 408 488

Construction and extraction occupations

784 792 755 740 639

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

861 879 747 799 713

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

665 685 602 635 557

Production occupations

668 691 566 650 543

Transportation and material-moving occupations

662 678 628 615 573

Men, 16 years and older

915 942 718 1,151 663

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,420 1,427 1,124 1,661 1,169

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,491 1,513 1,198 1,682 1,161

Management occupations

1,539 1,551 1,260 1,839 1,169

Business and financial operations occupations

1,373 1,392 1,122 1,536 1,143

Professional and related occupations

1,364 1,359 1,061 1,653 1,180

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,518 1,508 1,146 1,728 1,291

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,529 1,506 1,296 1,774 1,403

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,319 1,279 1,276 1,542 1,032

Community and social services occupations

1,004 1,030 836 1,242 929

Legal occupations

1,904 1,911 1,573 2,378 1,654

Education, training, and library occupations

1,154 1,165 1,036 1,297 1,059

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,139 1,151 938 1,236 907

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,332 1,359 992 1,569 1,215

Service occupations

595 610 524 599 517

Healthcare support occupations

602 619 538 618 677

Protective service occupations

854 923 689 624 808

Food preparation and serving related occupations

491 493 424 582 481

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

548 561 501 596 507

Personal care and service occupations

613 642 545 609 554

Sales and office occupations

805 841 640 827 665

Sales and related occupations

904 943 673 845 677

Office and administrative support occupations

708 721 619 778 658

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

794 805 741 779 639

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

544 560 453 399 503

Construction and extraction occupations

786 795 752 759 645

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

863 881 745 809 720

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

704 723 622 671 600

Production occupations

723 752 589 698 603

Transportation and material-moving occupations

685 699 649 620 598

Women, 16 years and older

749 766 641 902 586

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,027 1,036 892 1,315 894

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,099 1,116 960 1,330 943

Management occupations

1,148 1,157 1,003 1,426 933

Business and financial operations occupations

1,018 1,033 903 1,169 953

Professional and related occupations

998 1,003 838 1,305 863

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,325 1,267 1,031 1,543 1,079

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,207 1,218 941 1,296 1,066

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,119 1,146 933 1,135 995

Community and social services occupations

880 888 807 1,058 838

Legal occupations

1,152 1,139 1,008 1,548 850

Education, training, and library occupations

933 951 772 986 808

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

951 936 913 1,168 767

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,036 1,048 865 1,331 871

Service occupations

487 488 475 514 460

Healthcare support occupations

519 539 491 565 522

Protective service occupations

688 712 631 671 744

Food preparation and serving related occupations

434 437 420 477 418

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

454 450 457 526 421

Personal care and service occupations

482 485 443 498 478

Sales and office occupations

649 658 618 688 588

Sales and related occupations

590 611 503 551 514

Office and administrative support occupations

669 672 654 743 610

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

580 569 754 486 458

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

465 469 527 411 422

Construction and extraction occupations

639 616 886 421 489

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

783 772 889 612 581

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

531 531 528 585 451

Production occupations

527 526 526 582 455

Transportation and material-moving occupations

540 544 533 593 440

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. Earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Upon request, the information presented here is available to individuals who are sensory impaired. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

For more information on the data provided in this report, contact the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics. Email: cpsinfo@bls.gov; Telephone: (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Civilian noninstitutional population. Making up the civilian noninstitutional population are people 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

Employed. Employed people include all those who, during the survey reference week (which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or businesses because of illness, vacation, a labor dispute, or some other reason also are counted as employed.

Unemployed. The unemployed are people who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work (except if they had a temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Duration of unemployment. The duration of unemployment is the length of time (through the reference week) that people classified as unemployed had been looking for work. For people on layoff, the duration of unemployment is the number of full weeks they had been on layoff. Mean duration is the arithmetic average computed from single weeks of unemployment; median duration is the midpoint of a distribution of weeks of unemployment.

Reason for unemployment. Unemployment also is categorized according to the status of individuals at the time they began to look for work. The reasons for unemployment are divided into four major categories:

  1. Job losers, comprising (a) people on temporary layoff, who have been given a date to return to work or who expect to return within 6 months (people on layoff need not be looking for work to qualify as unemployed), (b) permanent job losers, whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work, and (c) people who completed temporary jobs, who began looking for work after the jobs ended.
  2. Job leavers, people who quit or otherwise terminated their employment voluntarily and immediately began looking for work.
  3. Reentrants, people who previously worked but who were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job search.
  4. New entrants, people who had never worked.

Civilian labor force. This group comprises all people classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the criteria described above.

Unemployment rate. This rate is the number unemployed as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

Labor force participation rate. This rate is the labor force as a percentage of the population.

Employment–population ratio. This ratio is the number of employed as a percentage of the population.

Not in the labor force. Making up this group are all people in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed. People marginally attached to the labor force are those individuals who are not in the labor force but who wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months). They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, were not looking for work because they believed that no jobs were available for them.

Occupation and industry. Information on occupation and industry applies to the job held during the reference week. People with two or more jobs are classified into the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The occupational and industry classification of CPS data is based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system and the 2012 Census industrial classification system, which are derived from the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) and the 2012 North American Industry Classification (NAICS), respectively.[1]

White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget guidelines, these terms are used to describe the race of people. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. (Previously, people identified a group as their main race.) People who identified themselves as Asian are further classified as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian. The Other Asian category includes both individuals of groups not listed—such as Pakistani, Hmong, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups. Estimates for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and people of Two or More Races are not shown separately in all tables because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of publication quality. In the enumeration process, race is determined by the household respondent.[2]

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This term refers to people who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. These individuals are further classified by detailed Hispanic ethnicity. Previous versions of this report presented data for the following detailed Hispanic ethnicity categories: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic or Latino. The latter two categories were expanded in 2014 into additional categories: Central American, which includes the two subcategories of Salvadoran and Other Central American (excluding Salvadorans); South American; and Other Hispanic or Latino, which includes the two subcategories of Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino (excluding Dominicans). People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.[3]

Usual weekly earnings. Usual weekly earnings data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job, in the case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, or hourly) are converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Data refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers (excluding all self-employed people, regardless of whether their businesses were incorporated).

Median earnings. Median earnings figures indicate the numerical value that divides the earnings distribution into two equal parts, one part having values above the median and the other having values below the median. The medians shown in this publication are calculated by linear interpolation of the $50 centered interval within which each median falls.

Family. A family is defined as a group of two or more people residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such people are considered members of one family. The race or ethnicity of families is determined by that of the householder: the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The count of families is for “primary” families only—that is, the householder and all other people related to and residing with the householder. Families comprise those without children as well as those with children under 18 years and are defined as follows:

  • Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex married couples only.
  • Families maintained by women and families maintained by men are each made up of householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse. The household may or may not include a same-sex spouse or an unmarried domestic partner (of either sex).

Children. Data on children refer to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling error and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information from all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data.[4]

 



[1] Additional information about these classifications is available online; see “Historical comparability of occupation and industry data from the Current Population Survey,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 6, 2016), www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

[2] More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available on the BLS website; see Mary Bowler, Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

[3] More information on the 2003 changes in the questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available online; see Bowler, Ilg, Miller, Robison, and Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey.”

[4] A more detailed discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and of information on estimating standard errors is available online; see “Reliability of estimates from the CPS,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 16, 2017), www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.