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October 2019 Report 1082

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018 image

In 2018, the overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States was 3.9 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, jobless rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.6 percent), Blacks or African Americans (6.5 percent), people categorized as being of Two or More Races (5.5 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (5.3 percent). Jobless rates were lower than the national rate for Asians (3.0 percent) and Whites (3.5 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 4.7 percent, was higher than the rate of 3.7 percent for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Estimates of these additional groups are not included in all tables because of their relatively small sample sizes.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2018.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (78 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders accounted for less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force (as computed from table 1).

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 24 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (15 percent), Vietnamese (11 percent), Koreans (7 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder (16 percent) were classified as Other Asians, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups (as computed from table 2). Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), 4 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. (See table 2.) By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans made up another 10 percent. Eight percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 9 percent were classified as Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino.

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (68.5 percent), people of Two or More Races (66.6 percent), and Hispanics (66.3 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates. American Indians and Alaska Natives (59.6 percent) had the lowest rate. The participation rate for Asians was 63.5 percent; Whites, 62.8 percent; and Blacks, 62.3 percent. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.2 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups, while Blacks (68.0 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (74.9 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (71.8 percent). Among adult women (20 years and older), Blacks (62.4 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were Hispanics (59.4 percent), Asians (58.6 percent), and Whites (57.6 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Asians (19.6 percent) were less likely to participate in the labor force than were Whites (37.2 percent), Hispanics (32.5 percent), and Blacks (30.5 percent). (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 55.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 64.9 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 58.3 percent for Blacks, 60.7 percent for Whites, 61.6 percent for Asians, 62.9 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, and 63.2 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (77.1 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Black men (63.7 percent) had the lowest, also continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 72.8 percent and 69.5 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the major race and ethnicity groups: 59.0 percent for Blacks, 56.9 percent for Asians, 56.6 percent for Hispanics, and 55.8 percent for Whites. (See table 3.)

The employment–population ratio among teenagers (16 to 19 years) continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (33.0 percent) was about 15 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (17.9 percent), about 9 percentage points higher than for Black teens (23.8 percent), and about 5 percentage points higher than for Hispanic teens (27.8 percent).

Educational attainment

Among people 25 years and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent each for Whites, Blacks, and Asians. Seventy-six percent of Hispanics in the labor force had attained at least a high school diploma. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 63 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 41 percent of Whites, 31 percent of Blacks, and 21 percent of Hispanics (computed from table 6 and chart 2).

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For almost all major race and ethnicity groups, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were generally lower than for other levels of educational attainment. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of people 25 years and older increased with educational attainment across all major race and ethnicity groups. Among full-time wage and salary workers, median usual weekly earnings for Blacks ($1,065) and Hispanics ($1,101) with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than Asians ($1,465) and Whites ($1,342). (See table 17.)

Occupation

Fifty-four percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 41 percent of employed Whites, 31 percent of employed Blacks, and 22 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

Among employed men, 55 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 37 percent of Whites, 26 percent of Blacks, and 19 percent of Hispanics. About 20 percent of employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas 13 percent of both employed Asian and White men worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-eight percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 12 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. (See table 7.)

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 53 percent of Asian women, compared with 45 percent of White women, 36 percent of Black women, and 27 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 61 percent of Hispanics worked in two occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 55 percent of Blacks, 48 percent of Whites, and 41 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 17 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters, construction and maintenance (55 percent); miscellaneous agricultural workers (53 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (49 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for more than one-quarter of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (36 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (31 percent); and licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (30 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers, but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (57 percent); software developers, applications and system software (35 percent); and physicians and surgeons (20 percent). Whites made up 78 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 96 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 92 percent of construction managers; and 90 percent of chief executives. (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (21 percent) than were Whites (14 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (4 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (13 percent). Twenty-one percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White men (13 percent), Hispanic men (11 percent), and Black men (11 percent). A large share of employed women across all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (40 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (30 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and parents

Eighty-eight percent of both Asian families and Hispanic families had an employed family member. By contrast, White and Black families were less likely to have an employed family member: 80 percent and 79 percent, respectively.

Families maintained by women (no opposite-sex spouse present) accounted for 42 percent of Black families, 25 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 76 percent of Black families, 78 percent of White families, and 80 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women were less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member. (See table 10.)

Among mothers with children under 18 years old, Black mothers (77.2 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White mothers (71.2 percent), Asian mothers (65.0 percent), or Hispanic mothers (63.9 percent). (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 years were much more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18 years. Labor force participation rates for these fathers were 93.9 percent for White men, 93.8 percent for Hispanic men, 93.4 percent for Asian men, and 89.0 percent for Black men.

Unemployment

Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.6 percent) and Blacks (6.5 percent) had the highest unemployment rates, and the rate was lowest for Asians (3.0 percent). The jobless rates were 3.5 percent for Whites, 4.7 percent for Hispanics, 5.3 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and 5.5 percent for individuals of Two or More Races. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

Among adults (20 years and older), the jobless rate for Black men (6.2 percent) was higher than that for Black women (5.6 percent). By contrast, adult Hispanic men (3.8 percent) had a lower rate than adult Hispanic women (4.7 percent). For Asians and Whites, the rates for adult men and women showed little or no difference. Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, at 21.9 percent, compared with 14.5 percent for Hispanics, 11.3 percent for Whites, and 8.9 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

Unemployed Asians and Blacks experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Asians and Blacks was 10.9 weeks and 10.8 weeks, respectively, whereas the figure for Whites was 8.8 weeks and Hispanics, 8.2 weeks. (See table 13.)

Of the 6.3 million unemployed, 47 percent were job losers (workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (31 percent), job leavers (13 percent), and new entrants (10 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, 49 percent of Whites and 49 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 46 percent of Blacks and 38 percent of Asians. Sixteen percent of unemployed Asians, 12 percent of unemployed Hispanics, 11 percent of unemployed Blacks, and 8 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

As computed from table 15, Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force, and 23 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who

  • were not in the labor force
  • wanted to work and were available to work
  • had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.

Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 78 percent of the labor force versus 67 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (27 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2018 were $680 for Hispanics, $694 for Blacks, $916 for Whites, and $1,095 for Asians. The earnings for White men ($1,002), Black men ($735), and Hispanic men ($720) were 81 percent, 59 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian men ($1,241). The median earnings of White women ($817), Black women ($654), and Hispanic women ($617) were 87 percent, 70 percent, and 66 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($937). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.) (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men and White men working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group), at $1,732 and $1,488, respectively, were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,174) and Black men ($1,164) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were relatively close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $528 for Asians, $517 for Whites, $490 for Blacks, and $489 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Gender and race Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

Men

124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

Women

133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

White

200,221 125,815 62.8 121,461 60.7 4,354 3.5 74,407

Men

97,933 68,082 69.5 65,702 67.1 2,380 3.5 29,850

Women

102,289 57,732 56.4 55,759 54.5 1,973 3.4 44,556

Black

32,761 20,414 62.3 19,091 58.3 1,322 6.5 12,347

Men

14,964 9,694 64.8 9,018 60.3 676 7.0 5,270

Women

17,797 10,720 60.2 10,073 56.6 646 6.0 7,077

Asian

15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

Men

7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

Women

8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,881 1,716 59.6 1,603 55.6 113 6.6 1,165

Men

1,415 901 63.7 840 59.3 62 6.9 513

Women

1,466 815 55.6 763 52.1 52 6.3 651

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

960 657 68.5 622 64.9 35 5.3 302

Men

468 347 74.1 329 70.3 18 5.2 121

Women

491 310 63.1 293 59.7 17 5.4 181

Two or More Races

5,006 3,336 66.6 3,151 62.9 185 5.5 1,670

Men

2,427 1,725 71.1 1,622 66.8 103 6.0 702

Women

2,579 1,611 62.5 1,529 59.3 82 5.1 968

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

Men

124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

Women

133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

Asian

15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

Men

7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

Women

8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

Asian Indian

3,460 2,385 68.9 2,318 67.0 67 2.8 1,075

Chinese

3,720 2,268 61.0 2,207 59.3 61 2.7 1,452

Filipino

2,353 1,534 65.2 1,486 63.2 47 3.1 819

Japanese

917 509 55.5 495 54.0 14 2.7 408

Korean

1,182 712 60.2 694 58.8 17 2.4 470

Vietnamese

1,699 1,081 63.6 1,056 62.2 25 2.3 618

Other Asian

2,630 1,649 62.7 1,575 59.9 74 4.5 981

Hispanic or Latino

42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

Men

21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

Women

21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

Mexican

26,031 17,312 66.5 16,497 63.4 815 4.7 8,718

Men

13,204 10,107 76.5 9,667 73.2 439 4.3 3,097

Women

12,827 7,205 56.2 6,830 53.2 376 5.2 5,621

Puerto Rican

3,938 2,408 61.2 2,272 57.7 136 5.7 1,529

Men

1,875 1,266 67.5 1,193 63.6 73 5.8 609

Women

2,063 1,142 55.4 1,080 52.3 63 5.5 920

Cuban

1,905 1,181 62.0 1,139 59.8 41 3.5 725

Men

940 660 70.3 636 67.7 24 3.6 279

Women

966 520 53.9 503 52.1 17 3.3 446

Central American

4,053 2,934 72.4 2,815 69.4 119 4.1 1,119

Men

2,082 1,725 82.9 1,664 80.0 61 3.5 356

Women

1,972 1,209 61.3 1,150 58.3 58 4.8 763

Salvadoran

1,610 1,175 73.0 1,131 70.2 44 3.8 435

Men

805 661 82.2 638 79.3 23 3.5 143

Women

806 514 63.7 493 61.1 21 4.1 292

Other Central American

2,443 1,759 72.0 1,684 68.9 75 4.3 684

Men

1,277 1,064 83.3 1,026 80.3 38 3.6 213

Women

1,166 695 59.6 658 56.4 37 5.4 471

South American

2,887 2,022 70.0 1,936 67.0 86 4.2 866

Men

1,352 1,062 78.6 1,025 75.8 37 3.5 290

Women

1,535 959 62.5 910 59.3 49 5.1 576

Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino

3,920 2,479 63.2 2,353 60.0 126 5.1 1,441

Men

1,835 1,292 70.4 1,232 67.1 61 4.7 543

Women

2,085 1,187 56.9 1,121 53.8 65 5.5 898

Dominican

1,592 1,019 64.0 963 60.5 56 5.5 572

Men

705 492 69.7 466 66.1 25 5.2 213

Women

886 528 59.5 497 56.0 31 5.8 359

Other Hispanic or Latino

2,328 1,460 62.7 1,390 59.7 70 4.8 868

Men

1,130 801 70.9 765 67.8 35 4.4 329

Women

1,198 659 55.0 624 52.1 34 5.2 539

Hispanic or Latino

42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

Men

21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

Women

21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

White Hispanic or Latino

37,989 25,147 66.2 23,992 63.2 1,156 4.6 12,841

Men

18,963 14,408 76.0 13,802 72.8 606 4.2 4,554

Women

19,026 10,739 56.4 10,190 53.6 549 5.1 8,287

Black Hispanic or Latino

1,899 1,248 65.8 1,177 62.0 72 5.7 650

Men

874 620 70.9 584 66.8 36 5.8 254

Women

1,025 629 61.4 593 57.9 35 5.6 396

Asian Hispanic or Latino

436 293 67.3 280 64.4 13 4.4 142

Men

221 160 72.2 153 69.3 7 4.1 61

Women

214 134 62.3 127 59.3 6 4.7 81

Non-Hispanic or Latino

215,057 133,739 62.2 128,749 59.9 4,990 3.7 81,318

Men

103,391 69,983 67.7 67,280 65.1 2,703 3.9 33,408

Women

111,666 63,756 57.1 61,468 55.0 2,288 3.6 47,910

White non-Hispanic or Latino

162,232 100,667 62.1 97,469 60.1 3,198 3.2 61,565

Men

78,970 53,674 68.0 51,900 65.7 1,774 3.3 25,296

Women

83,262 46,993 56.4 45,569 54.7 1,424 3.0 36,269

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

30,862 19,166 62.1 17,915 58.0 1,251 6.5 11,696

Men

14,090 9,075 64.4 8,435 59.9 640 7.1 5,016

Women

16,772 10,091 60.2 9,480 56.5 611 6.1 6,681

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

15,526 9,843 63.4 9,552 61.5 292 3.0 5,682

Men

7,250 5,187 71.5 5,035 69.4 152 2.9 2,063

Women

8,276 4,657 56.3 4,517 54.6 140 3.0 3,619

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

Total, 16 years and older

257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

16 to 19 years

16,765 5,885 35.1 5,126 30.6 759 12.9 10,879

20 years and older

241,026 156,190 64.8 150,635 62.5 5,555 3.6 84,836

20 to 24 years

21,239 15,099 71.1 14,051 66.2 1,048 6.9 6,140

25 to 54 years

126,390 103,705 82.1 100,314 79.4 3,391 3.3 22,685

55 to 64 years

42,114 27,354 65.0 26,565 63.1 789 2.9 14,760

65 years and older

51,283 10,032 19.6 9,705 18.9 327 3.3 41,251

Men, 16 years and older

124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

16 to 19 years

8,493 2,909 34.2 2,487 29.3 422 14.5 5,585

20 years and older

116,185 83,188 71.6 80,211 69.0 2,976 3.6 32,997

20 to 24 years

10,639 7,786 73.2 7,190 67.6 596 7.7 2,853

25 to 54 years

62,294 55,440 89.0 53,673 86.2 1,768 3.2 6,854

55 to 64 years

20,263 14,436 71.2 14,001 69.1 435 3.0 5,827

65 years and older

22,988 5,525 24.0 5,348 23.3 177 3.2 17,464

Women, 16 years and older

133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

16 to 19 years

8,272 2,977 36.0 2,639 31.9 338 11.3 5,295

20 years and older

124,841 73,002 58.5 70,424 56.4 2,578 3.5 51,839

20 to 24 years

10,600 7,312 69.0 6,861 64.7 452 6.2 3,288

25 to 54 years

64,096 48,264 75.3 46,641 72.8 1,623 3.4 15,831

55 to 64 years

21,851 12,918 59.1 12,564 57.5 354 2.7 8,933

65 years and older

28,295 4,508 15.9 4,358 15.4 150 3.3 23,787

White

Total, 16 years and older

200,221 125,815 62.8 121,461 60.7 4,354 3.5 74,407

16 to 19 years

12,318 4,576 37.2 4,060 33.0 516 11.3 7,741

20 years and older

187,904 121,238 64.5 117,401 62.5 3,837 3.2 66,666

20 to 24 years

15,557 11,383 73.2 10,697 68.8 685 6.0 4,174

25 to 54 years

95,354 78,888 82.7 76,608 80.3 2,280 2.9 16,467

55 to 64 years

33,900 22,464 66.3 21,855 64.5 610 2.7 11,435

65 years and older

43,094 8,504 19.7 8,241 19.1 262 3.1 34,590

Men, 16 years and older

97,933 68,082 69.5 65,702 67.1 2,380 3.5 29,850

16 to 19 years

6,271 2,270 36.2 1,983 31.6 286 12.6 4,001

20 years and older

91,662 65,812 71.8 63,719 69.5 2,094 3.2 25,849

20 to 24 years

7,848 5,951 75.8 5,561 70.9 390 6.6 1,897

25 to 54 years

47,744 43,034 90.1 41,819 87.6 1,215 2.8 4,710

55 to 64 years

16,515 12,031 72.8 11,692 70.8 339 2.8 4,485

65 years and older

19,554 4,796 24.5 4,647 23.8 149 3.1 14,758

Women, 16 years and older

102,289 57,732 56.4 55,759 54.5 1,973 3.4 44,556

16 to 19 years

6,047 2,307 38.1 2,077 34.3 230 10.0 3,740

20 years and older

96,242 55,426 57.6 53,682 55.8 1,743 3.1 40,816

20 to 24 years

7,709 5,432 70.5 5,137 66.6 295 5.4 2,277

25 to 54 years

47,610 35,853 75.3 34,789 73.1 1,065 3.0 11,756

55 to 64 years

17,384 10,434 60.0 10,163 58.5 271 2.6 6,951

65 years and older

23,540 3,707 15.7 3,594 15.3 113 3.0 19,832

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

32,761 20,414 62.3 19,091 58.3 1,322 6.5 12,347

16 to 19 years

2,499 763 30.5 596 23.8 167 21.9 1,736

20 years and older

30,262 19,651 64.9 18,496 61.1 1,155 5.9 10,611

20 to 24 years

3,172 2,173 68.5 1,940 61.2 234 10.8 998

25 to 54 years

17,205 13,776 80.1 13,016 75.7 760 5.5 3,429

55 to 64 years

5,037 2,846 56.5 2,728 54.2 117 4.1 2,191

65 years and older

4,848 856 17.7 812 16.7 44 5.2 3,992

Men, 16 years and older

14,964 9,694 64.8 9,018 60.3 676 7.0 5,270

16 to 19 years

1,241 367 29.6 273 22.0 94 25.7 874

20 years and older

13,723 9,327 68.0 8,745 63.7 582 6.2 4,396

20 to 24 years

1,535 1,046 68.1 913 59.5 133 12.7 490

25 to 54 years

7,932 6,560 82.7 6,191 78.0 369 5.6 1,373

55 to 64 years

2,282 1,343 58.9 1,281 56.1 62 4.6 939

65 years and older

1,974 379 19.2 361 18.3 18 4.7 1,595

Women, 16 years and older

17,797 10,720 60.2 10,073 56.6 646 6.0 7,077

16 to 19 years

1,257 395 31.4 322 25.6 73 18.4 862

20 years and older

16,539 10,324 62.4 9,751 59.0 573 5.6 6,215

20 to 24 years

1,636 1,128 68.9 1,027 62.7 101 8.9 509

25 to 54 years

9,273 7,216 77.8 6,825 73.6 391 5.4 2,057

55 to 64 years

2,755 1,503 54.5 1,448 52.5 55 3.7 1,252

65 years and older

2,875 478 16.6 451 15.7 26 5.5 2,397

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

16 to 19 years

928 182 19.6 166 17.9 16 8.9 746

20 years and older

15,034 9,955 66.2 9,666 64.3 288 2.9 5,079

20 to 24 years

1,368 719 52.6 660 48.2 59 8.2 649

25 to 54 years

9,117 7,285 79.9 7,106 77.9 179 2.5 1,832

55 to 64 years

2,160 1,472 68.1 1,434 66.4 38 2.6 689

65 years and older

2,389 478 20.0 467 19.5 11 2.4 1,910

Men, 16 years and older

7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

16 to 19 years

459 91 19.8 85 18.5 6 7.0 368

20 years and older

7,012 5,255 74.9 5,103 72.8 152 2.9 1,756

20 to 24 years

685 363 53.0 330 48.2 33 9.0 322

25 to 54 years

4,324 3,879 89.7 3,787 87.6 93 2.4 445

55 to 64 years

976 761 77.9 739 75.7 22 2.9 216

65 years and older

1,026 253 24.6 248 24.1 5 2.0 774

Women, 16 years and older

8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

16 to 19 years

469 91 19.4 81 17.3 10 10.8 378

20 years and older

8,022 4,699 58.6 4,563 56.9 136 2.9 3,323

20 to 24 years

683 357 52.2 330 48.3 27 7.4 327

25 to 54 years

4,792 3,406 71.1 3,319 69.3 87 2.6 1,386

55 to 64 years

1,184 711 60.1 695 58.7 16 2.3 473

65 years and older

1,362 226 16.6 219 16.1 6 2.8 1,137

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

16 to 19 years

3,938 1,280 32.5 1,094 27.8 186 14.5 2,658

20 years and older

38,795 27,056 69.7 25,918 66.8 1,138 4.2 11,740

20 to 24 years

4,744 3,399 71.6 3,160 66.6 239 7.0 1,345

25 to 54 years

24,745 19,725 79.7 18,998 76.8 727 3.7 5,021

55 to 64 years

4,892 3,113 63.6 2,982 61.0 131 4.2 1,779

65 years and older

4,414 819 18.6 778 17.6 42 5.1 3,595

Men, 16 years and older

21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

16 to 19 years

1,998 649 32.5 545 27.3 104 16.0 1,349

20 years and older

19,289 15,464 80.2 14,873 77.1 591 3.8 3,825

20 to 24 years

2,402 1,841 76.6 1,705 71.0 136 7.4 561

25 to 54 years

12,596 11,375 90.3 11,018 87.5 356 3.1 1,221

55 to 64 years

2,374 1,776 74.8 1,704 71.8 73 4.1 598

65 years and older

1,917 472 24.6 446 23.3 26 5.5 1,445

Women, 16 years and older

21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

16 to 19 years

1,940 631 32.5 549 28.3 82 12.9 1,309

20 years and older

19,507 11,592 59.4 11,045 56.6 547 4.7 7,915

20 to 24 years

2,342 1,558 66.5 1,456 62.1 103 6.6 784

25 to 54 years

12,149 8,350 68.7 7,980 65.7 370 4.4 3,800

55 to 64 years

2,518 1,337 53.1 1,278 50.8 58 4.4 1,181

65 years and older

2,497 347 13.9 331 13.3 16 4.5 2,150

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

2017

62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4

2018

62.9 69.1 57.1 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.8 60.2 63.5 71.6 56.4 66.3 75.7 57.0
Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

2017

60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

2018

59.6 63.7 55.6 68.5 74.1 63.1 66.6 71.1 62.5

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

2017

60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2

2018

60.4 66.3 54.9 60.7 67.1 54.5 58.3 60.3 56.6 61.6 69.4 54.7 63.2 72.4 54.1
Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

2017

55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

2018

55.6 59.3 52.1 64.9 70.3 59.7 62.9 66.8 59.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total, 25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some college,
no degree
Associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

Total

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,787 22,250 62,592 34,880 22,525 77,540

Civilian labor force

141,091 10,278 36,010 21,937 15,649 57,217

Percent of population

64.2 46.2 57.5 62.9 69.5 73.8

Employed

136,584 9,701 34,550 21,128 15,209 55,995

Employment-population ratio

62.1 43.6 55.2 60.6 67.5 72.2

Unemployed

4,507 576 1,461 808 440 1,222

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.6 4.1 3.7 2.8 2.1

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

105,546 11,110 31,216 16,679 9,829 36,711

Civilian labor force

75,401 6,537 21,145 11,667 7,383 28,670

Percent of population

71.4 58.8 67.7 70.0 75.1 78.1

Employed

73,021 6,201 20,294 11,279 7,182 28,066

Employment-population ratio

69.2 55.8 65.0 67.6 73.1 76.5

Unemployed

2,380 336 850 388 202 604

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.1 4.0 3.3 2.7 2.1

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,241 11,140 31,375 18,201 12,696 40,829

Civilian labor force

65,689 3,741 14,866 10,269 8,266 28,548

Percent of population

57.5 33.6 47.4 56.4 65.1 69.9

Employed

63,563 3,501 14,256 9,850 8,028 27,929

Employment-population ratio

55.6 31.4 45.4 54.1 63.2 68.4

Unemployed

2,127 240 610 420 238 619

Unemployment rate

3.2 6.4 4.1 4.1 2.9 2.2

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

172,347 16,900 49,050 27,256 18,021 61,121

Civilian labor force

109,855 8,126 27,859 16,818 12,383 44,669

Percent of population

63.7 48.1 56.8 61.7 68.7 73.1

Employed

106,704 7,713 26,870 16,281 12,067 43,772

Employment-population ratio

61.9 45.6 54.8 59.7 67.0 71.6

Unemployed

3,152 413 989 537 316 897

Unemployment rate

2.9 5.1 3.5 3.2 2.5 2.0

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

83,814 8,726 24,591 13,211 7,979 29,306

Civilian labor force

59,861 5,385 16,703 9,201 5,962 22,611

Percent of population

71.4 61.7 67.9 69.6 74.7 77.2

Employed

58,158 5,138 16,122 8,930 5,814 22,153

Employment-population ratio

69.4 58.9 65.6 67.6 72.9 75.6

Unemployed

1,703 247 581 271 148 458

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.6 3.5 2.9 2.5 2.0

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

88,534 8,174 24,458 14,044 10,042 31,815

Civilian labor force

49,994 2,741 11,156 7,617 6,421 22,058

Percent of population

56.5 33.5 45.6 54.2 63.9 69.3

Employed

48,546 2,575 10,748 7,351 6,253 21,619

Employment-population ratio

54.8 31.5 43.9 52.3 62.3 68.0

Unemployed

1,448 167 408 266 168 439

Unemployment rate

2.9 6.1 3.7 3.5 2.6 2.0

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,091 3,139 8,927 5,174 2,838 7,011

Civilian labor force

17,478 1,126 5,343 3,479 2,079 5,451

Percent of population

64.5 35.9 59.8 67.2 73.2 77.7

Employed

16,556 1,009 4,986 3,276 1,994 5,291

Employment-population ratio

61.1 32.1 55.8 63.3 70.3 75.5

Unemployed

922 117 357 203 84 161

Unemployment rate

5.3 10.4 6.7 5.8 4.1 2.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,188 1,404 4,399 2,320 1,137 2,927

Civilian labor force

8,281 567 2,862 1,630 873 2,348

Percent of population

67.9 40.4 65.1 70.3 76.8 80.2

Employed

7,832 505 2,661 1,543 840 2,283

Employment-population ratio

64.3 35.9 60.5 66.5 73.8 78.0

Unemployed

449 63 201 87 34 65

Unemployment rate

5.4 11.0 7.0 5.3 3.9 2.8

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,903 1,735 4,528 2,854 1,701 4,084

Civilian labor force

9,197 559 2,481 1,849 1,205 3,103

Percent of population

61.7 32.2 54.8 64.8 70.9 76.0

Employed

8,724 504 2,325 1,733 1,155 3,007

Employment-population ratio

58.5 29.1 51.3 60.7 67.9 73.6

Unemployed

473 54 156 116 50 96

Unemployment rate

5.1 9.7 6.3 6.3 4.2 3.1

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,666 1,218 2,549 1,171 914 7,814

Civilian labor force

9,235 493 1,504 770 641 5,827

Percent of population

67.6 40.5 59.0 65.8 70.2 74.6

Employed

9,006 479 1,468 752 621 5,687

Employment-population ratio

65.9 39.3 57.6 64.2 68.0 72.8

Unemployed

229 14 36 19 20 139

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.9 2.4 2.5 3.1 2.4

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,327 457 1,133 572 386 3,779

Civilian labor force

4,892 250 800 416 297 3,130

Percent of population

77.3 54.7 70.6 72.7 76.8 82.8

Employed

4,773 242 781 406 285 3,060

Employment-population ratio

75.4 52.8 68.9 71.0 73.9 81.0

Unemployed

119 9 19 10 11 70

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.4 2.4 2.5 3.9 2.2

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,339 761 1,416 600 528 4,035

Civilian labor force

4,343 243 704 355 345 2,697

Percent of population

59.2 31.9 49.7 59.2 65.3 66.8

Employed

4,233 237 687 346 336 2,627

Employment-population ratio

57.7 31.2 48.5 57.7 63.7 65.1

Unemployed

110 6 17 9 8 70

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,051 9,737 10,637 4,734 2,745 6,198

Civilian labor force

23,657 5,753 7,439 3,469 2,085 4,911

Percent of population

69.5 59.1 69.9 73.3 75.9 79.2

Employed

22,758 5,488 7,145 3,341 2,012 4,770

Employment-population ratio

66.8 56.4 67.2 70.6 73.3 77.0

Unemployed

899 265 293 128 72 141

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.6 3.9 3.7 3.5 2.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,887 5,038 5,538 2,345 1,172 2,794

Civilian labor force

13,623 3,828 4,528 1,881 982 2,404

Percent of population

80.7 76.0 81.8 80.2 83.8 86.0

Employed

13,168 3,679 4,369 1,822 951 2,346

Employment-population ratio

78.0 73.0 78.9 77.7 81.2 84.0

Unemployed

455 149 159 58 31 57

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.9 3.5 3.1 3.2 2.4

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,164 4,698 5,099 2,390 1,573 3,404

Civilian labor force

10,034 1,925 2,911 1,588 1,102 2,508

Percent of population

58.5 41.0 57.1 66.5 70.1 73.7

Employed

9,589 1,809 2,776 1,519 1,061 2,424

Employment-population ratio

55.9 38.5 54.4 63.6 67.4 71.2

Unemployed

444 116 134 69 41 84

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.0 4.6 4.4 3.7 3.3

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

155,761 121,461 19,091 9,832 27,012

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

40.1 40.8 31.3 53.7 22.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.6 17.5 11.1 18.0 9.4

Management occupations

11.7 12.6 7.2 11.0 6.9

Business and financial operations occupations

4.9 4.9 3.9 7.0 2.4

Professional and related occupations

23.5 23.3 20.2 35.7 13.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.3 2.8 2.3 11.5 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.1 2.1 1.1 4.0 1.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 0.6 2.0 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.6 2.9 1.1 1.2

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.7 0.9 0.7

Education, training, and library occupations

6.0 6.2 5.2 5.0 3.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.3 1.3 1.9 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6.0 5.8 6.2 9.5 3.0

Service occupations

17.2 15.9 24.4 16.5 24.3

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 1.9 5.0 2.1 2.5

Protective service occupations

2.1 1.9 3.4 0.8 1.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.3 5.0 6.4 5.4 7.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.8 3.7 4.6 1.8 8.4

Personal care and service occupations

3.8 3.4 5.1 6.4 3.9

Sales and office occupations

21.5 21.6 22.4 16.8 20.6

Sales and related occupations

10.1 10.4 9.1 8.6 9.6

Office and administrative support occupations

11.3 11.2 13.3 8.2 11.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.3 10.3 5.8 3.3 17.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.7 0.8 0.2 0.3 1.9

Construction and extraction occupations

5.4 6.0 3.1 1.4 11.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.2 3.4 2.5 1.7 3.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11.9 11.4 16.1 9.6 15.7

Production occupations

5.5 5.4 6.1 5.1 7.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.4 5.9 10.0 4.5 8.2

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

82,698 65,702 9,018 5,188 15,418

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

36.6 37.1 25.9 54.9 18.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.5 18.6 10.8 18.2 9.1

Management occupations

13.3 14.3 7.6 12.3 7.2

Business and financial operations occupations

4.2 4.3 3.2 5.9 1.9

Professional and related occupations

19.1 18.5 15.1 36.7 9.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.6 4.0 3.0 15.9 1.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.3 3.3 1.8 6.1 1.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 0.6 2.0 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.0 1.8 0.9 0.6

Legal occupations

1.1 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.5

Education, training, and library occupations

3.0 3.0 2.8 3.5 1.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.8 2.6 2.8 6.1 1.5

Service occupations

13.8 12.8 20.3 12.7 19.0

Healthcare support occupations

0.6 0.4 1.4 0.9 0.6

Protective service occupations

3.0 2.9 4.6 1.3 2.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.4 4.0 6.2 5.3 7.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.2 4.1 5.4 1.9 7.8

Personal care and service occupations

1.7 1.4 2.7 3.4 1.4

Sales and office occupations

15.7 15.6 17.3 13.9 13.9

Sales and related occupations

9.7 10.0 8.3 8.4 7.7

Office and administrative support occupations

6.1 5.6 9.0 5.5 6.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.6 18.1 11.5 5.7 28.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.0 1.2 0.3 0.3 2.4

Construction and extraction occupations

9.7 10.7 6.3 2.5 19.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.8 6.2 4.9 2.9 6.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.2 16.4 25.0 12.8 20.2

Production occupations

7.4 7.4 8.4 5.6 8.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.8 9.1 16.6 7.2 11.6

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

73,063 55,759 10,073 4,644 11,594

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.0 45.2 36.2 52.5 27.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.6 16.3 11.4 17.8 9.8

Management occupations

10.0 10.7 6.9 9.5 6.6

Business and financial operations occupations

5.6 5.6 4.5 8.2 3.2

Professional and related occupations

28.4 28.9 24.8 34.7 17.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.8 1.5 1.6 6.6 0.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.7 0.7 0.5 1.6 0.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 0.6 1.9 0.5

Community and social service occupations

2.4 2.3 3.8 1.3 1.9

Legal occupations

1.3 1.4 1.0 1.3 0.9

Education, training, and library occupations

9.3 10.1 7.3 6.5 6.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.4 0.7 2.2 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.7 9.6 9.3 13.3 4.9

Service occupations

21.1 19.6 28.0 20.8 31.4

Healthcare support occupations

4.3 3.7 8.2 3.5 5.0

Protective service occupations

1.0 0.8 2.3 0.3 0.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.2 6.1 6.5 5.6 9.1

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.3 3.3 3.8 1.8 9.2

Personal care and service occupations

6.3 5.7 7.3 9.7 7.2

Sales and office occupations

28.0 28.7 27.0 20.0 29.5

Sales and related occupations

10.7 10.9 9.8 8.8 12.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17.3 17.8 17.2 11.3 17.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.0 1.1 0.6 0.5 2.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 1.2

Construction and extraction occupations

0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.9 5.4 8.1 6.2 9.6

Production occupations

3.4 3.1 4.1 4.5 5.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.5 2.2 4.1 1.6 3.7

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total
employed
Percent of total employed
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

155,761 78.0 12.3 6.3 17.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,436 79.4 9.6 8.5 9.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,850 82.4 8.2 6.8 9.8

Management occupations

18,263 83.9 7.6 5.9 10.3

Chief executives

1,573 89.5 3.5 5.9 6.1

General and operations managers

1,037 84.5 7.5 4.8 10.5

Legislators

18 - - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

44 - - - -

Marketing and sales managers

1,083 85.8 6.7 5.4 9.7

Public relations and fundraising managers

69 85.8 10.7 3.1 3.1

Administrative services managers

161 85.4 7.4 3.0 13.0

Computer and information systems managers

623 77.0 5.8 14.3 6.6

Financial managers

1,231 81.7 8.1 7.4 9.4

Compensation and benefits managers

23 - - - -

Human resources managers

313 78.1 12.8 6.3 10.2

Training and development managers

58 86.3 10.1 0.0 15.5

Industrial production managers

264 85.7 6.3 6.0 12.5

Purchasing managers

219 85.3 9.0 4.0 10.7

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

303 84.9 7.2 4.4 13.7

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

991 96.1 0.9 1.4 5.1

Construction managers

1,021 91.8 3.1 2.4 15.3

Education administrators

955 79.0 14.4 3.4 10.5

Architectural and engineering managers

156 84.5 5.0 9.9 4.6

Food service managers

1,273 75.7 10.7 10.0 18.5

Funeral service managers

3 - - - -

Gaming managers

28 - - - -

Lodging managers

153 76.2 11.1 10.2 11.5

Medical and health services managers

639 80.9 11.5 5.0 9.0

Natural sciences managers

9 - - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

24 - - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

717 85.5 7.3 4.6 13.6

Social and community service managers

437 78.4 13.8 4.0 7.6

Emergency management directors

10 - - - -

Managers, all other

4,827 83.2 7.8 6.5 9.9

Business and financial operations occupations

7,587 78.8 9.8 9.1 8.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

54 79.3 7.5 11.0 12.2

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

12 - - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

193 80.7 10.7 5.7 11.1

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

244 84.3 8.0 5.0 7.6

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

344 74.9 19.1 3.7 10.9

Compliance officers

281 82.3 11.3 5.4 6.9

Cost estimators

117 93.3 1.9 4.0 10.5

Human resources workers

664 79.2 10.5 7.0 13.2

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

48 - - - -

Training and development specialists

120 76.2 15.3 2.9 8.7

Logisticians

128 75.7 12.1 8.1 10.1

Management analysts

944 77.6 8.3 12.3 6.5

Meeting, convention, and event planners

126 77.7 8.6 5.3 10.5

Fundraisers

96 86.9 7.7 3.2 5.4

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

355 81.8 5.8 11.6 11.4

Business operations specialists, all other

236 70.6 15.8 9.0 9.4

Accountants and auditors

1,929 75.8 9.3 12.7 7.6

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

84 83.9 10.7 4.0 4.2

Budget analysts

51 72.6 11.2 14.5 13.8

Credit analysts

26 - - - -

Financial analysts

307 76.1 8.1 14.1 5.5

Personal financial advisors

537 86.3 5.0 6.9 6.6

Insurance underwriters

119 80.7 13.7 5.3 6.2

Financial examiners

13 - - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

350 85.5 7.6 4.3 13.0

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

47 - - - -

Tax preparers

113 76.1 16.7 5.1 13.1

Financial specialists, all other

48 - - - -

Professional and related occupations

36,586 77.2 10.5 9.6 9.6

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,126 67.0 8.4 22.0 7.5

Computer and information research scientists

19 - - - -

Computer systems analysts

652 66.5 10.0 20.4 7.9

Information security analysts

97 76.8 12.3 8.5 6.8

Computer programmers

477 68.8 9.3 19.4 7.8

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,682 58.6 3.9 35.4 5.3

Web developers

208 81.5 5.4 8.9 7.2

Computer support specialists

566 72.4 12.6 12.0 9.8

Database administrators

108 71.3 8.2 16.7 9.5

Network and computer systems administrators

204 75.8 12.1 8.5 9.3

Computer network architects

114 73.0 9.4 14.7 9.9

Computer occupations, all other

732 72.1 11.4 14.9 9.5

Actuaries

33 - - - -

Mathematicians

3 - - - -

Operations research analysts

131 76.9 10.9 9.8 9.9

Statisticians

90 57.0 15.3 25.5 3.7

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

8 - - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,263 79.3 6.5 11.9 8.9

Architects, except naval

239 83.5 4.5 11.5 10.1

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

47 - - - -

Aerospace engineers

147 70.3 7.1 17.6 7.8

Agricultural engineers

5 - - - -

Biomedical engineers

11 - - - -

Chemical engineers

72 73.7 8.9 17.3 1.9

Civil engineers

456 84.8 4.4 9.3 7.9

Computer hardware engineers

71 58.0 6.9 30.9 14.1

Electrical and electronics engineers

269 70.2 8.4 17.8 8.1

Environmental engineers

36 - - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

246 83.2 4.9 9.0 7.4

Marine engineers and naval architects

17 - - - -

Materials engineers

41 - - - -

Mechanical engineers

333 80.0 3.5 15.0 5.5

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 - - - -

Nuclear engineers

14 - - - -

Petroleum engineers

27 - - - -

Engineers, all other

576 77.0 5.9 15.4 9.2

Drafters

133 88.5 4.8 4.6 11.0

Engineering technicians, except drafters

439 78.4 12.0 6.2 11.1

Surveying and mapping technicians

76 90.8 4.3 1.0 12.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,529 78.1 7.1 12.8 8.7

Agricultural and food scientists

37 - - - -

Biological scientists

104 83.6 1.6 13.7 3.6

Conservation scientists and foresters

22 - - - -

Medical scientists

169 68.8 9.5 20.7 8.6

Life scientists, all other

1 - - - -

Astronomers and physicists

20 - - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

12 - - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

118 78.1 4.2 16.8 7.7

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

100 90.4 7.8 1.1 8.4

Physical scientists, all other

305 65.9 4.7 26.0 6.1

Economists

36 - - - -

Survey researchers

3 - - - -

Psychologists

224 89.0 7.7 3.0 11.2

Sociologists

5 - - - -

Urban and regional planners

29 - - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

46 - - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

36 - - - -

Biological technicians

19 - - - -

Chemical technicians

68 85.7 8.9 3.0 17.6

Geological and petroleum technicians

12 - - - -

Nuclear technicians

10 - - - -

Social science research assistants

2 - - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

152 77.8 9.1 11.5 11.2

Community and social service occupations

2,680 71.8 20.4 3.9 12.1

Counselors

895 70.0 22.2 3.9 12.7

Social workers

835 68.9 23.6 3.5 13.4

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

104 69.3 27.0 0.6 15.9

Social and human service assistants

208 67.7 21.1 4.1 18.6

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

71 68.8 21.5 3.3 12.4

Clergy

415 80.3 12.5 4.3 6.4

Directors, religious activities and education

76 79.7 8.2 10.6 8.3

Religious workers, all other

76 88.3 6.9 4.0 5.1

Legal occupations

1,891 85.7 7.3 4.7 9.9

Lawyers

1,199 88.0 5.5 4.9 6.1

Judicial law clerks

13 - - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

80 85.4 13.3 1.2 6.7

Paralegals and legal assistants

444 79.1 11.3 5.3 18.5

Miscellaneous legal support workers

156 86.8 7.2 2.9 16.6

Education, training, and library occupations

9,313 81.5 10.6 5.2 10.7

Postsecondary teachers

1,417 75.7 7.9 13.7 7.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

716 75.8 16.0 4.0 14.5

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,421 83.5 11.1 3.3 10.3

Secondary school teachers

1,062 88.3 7.3 2.6 9.0

Special education teachers

369 87.8 8.5 1.6 7.6

Other teachers and instructors

905 78.8 11.4 6.1 10.5

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

45 - - - -

Librarians

178 85.5 6.6 4.7 8.4

Library technicians

33 - - - -

Teacher assistants

994 78.7 12.9 4.6 17.4

Other education, training, and library workers

173 79.1 12.8 5.4 14.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,362 83.6 7.4 5.5 11.8

Artists and related workers

232 82.7 6.0 5.8 9.6

Designers

984 86.5 3.7 7.2 13.1

Actors

36 - - - -

Producers and directors

201 83.6 11.3 2.3 7.1

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

359 81.9 10.7 2.4 11.8

Dancers and choreographers

24 - - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

202 75.9 15.1 5.9 10.5

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

68 68.3 11.3 9.7 8.0

Announcers

56 74.5 22.3 0.5 18.7

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

79 80.9 8.7 4.1 15.2

Public relations specialists

140 86.8 7.1 4.9 10.0

Editors

160 91.7 1.7 4.4 10.3

Technical writers

69 82.4 8.3 5.6 4.8

Writers and authors

227 89.1 5.4 4.0 4.5

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

111 72.9 6.0 16.0 24.9

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

120 80.6 11.5 5.7 16.3

Photographers

208 83.6 6.8 5.8 11.4

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

82 85.6 9.5 1.7 15.7

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5 - - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,420 75.2 12.6 9.9 8.5

Chiropractors

63 92.8 0.9 4.0 3.0

Dentists

162 79.0 1.6 17.6 4.3

Dietitians and nutritionists

104 78.6 9.6 9.1 9.6

Optometrists

54 84.9 2.1 9.1 8.5

Pharmacists

348 67.9 7.2 23.1 4.4

Physicians and surgeons

1,094 70.8 7.6 19.8 7.4

Physician assistants

132 90.3 2.9 5.1 8.2

Podiatrists

11 - - - -

Audiologists

10 - - - -

Occupational therapists

116 91.1 2.5 6.4 4.2

Physical therapists

286 76.4 7.4 14.3 4.3

Radiation therapists

16 - - - -

Recreational therapists

11 - - - -

Respiratory therapists

108 64.9 17.3 13.9 11.6

Speech-language pathologists

152 94.1 3.5 1.2 4.8

Exercise physiologists

5 - - - -

Therapists, all other

237 75.1 18.1 5.3 8.8

Veterinarians

102 92.9 0.0 4.1 2.3

Registered nurses

3,213 75.5 13.1 9.0 7.2

Nurse anesthetists

26 - - - -

Nurse midwives

3 - - - -

Nurse practitioners

212 79.1 11.2 8.8 2.6

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

40 - - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

318 70.0 18.6 8.5 12.9

Dental hygienists

178 88.3 5.6 3.8 8.6

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

346 79.5 11.8 5.6 14.7

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

214 84.3 11.9 2.2 13.9

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

694 75.5 14.1 6.9 15.0

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

658 62.0 30.4 5.1 11.5

Medical records and health information technicians

171 72.3 15.5 9.2 9.2

Opticians, dispensing

61 85.4 7.3 4.9 6.8

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

139 59.8 24.1 14.4 12.3

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

137 81.4 10.2 4.1 10.8

Service occupations

26,854 72.0 17.3 6.1 24.4

Healthcare support occupations

3,629 64.3 26.2 5.7 18.3

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,035 55.8 35.8 5.4 16.3

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

35 - - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

88 85.0 6.1 6.7 7.1

Massage therapists

155 73.7 9.2 10.2 13.9

Dental assistants

293 80.8 9.9 3.5 27.7

Medical assistants

570 74.1 15.3 4.5 28.6

Medical transcriptionists

44 - - - -

Pharmacy aides

34 - - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

56 84.5 7.0 2.8 9.4

Phlebotomists

115 72.7 16.9 7.6 19.6

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

204 63.5 26.4 8.6 11.9

Protective service occupations

3,203 73.5 20.1 2.4 13.8

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

45 - - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

88 88.8 9.2 0.4 9.4

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

49 - - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

86 72.5 22.1 1.8 8.7

Firefighters

306 87.1 8.9 1.1 7.4

Fire inspectors

23 - - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

406 67.0 29.0 1.2 13.7

Detectives and criminal investigators

164 85.3 10.2 1.0 11.2

Fish and game wardens

7 - - - -

Parking enforcement workers

4 - - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

728 81.7 12.7 2.1 13.5

Transit and railroad police

2 - - - -

Animal control workers

19 - - - -

Private detectives and investigators

96 78.2 15.7 3.3 20.2

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

958 60.0 30.7 3.9 16.8

Crossing guards

66 58.4 26.5 1.9 20.9

Transportation security screeners

41 - - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

117 85.2 6.5 4.0 9.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,220 73.2 14.8 6.5 25.9

Chefs and head cooks

427 61.0 17.2 16.6 26.6

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

563 74.5 17.8 2.8 16.8

Cooks

2,067 71.7 17.6 6.3 34.7

Food preparation workers

988 71.1 15.9 6.2 26.2

Bartenders

474 84.3 7.3 2.9 15.1

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

322 73.2 17.8 3.5 21.0

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

202 74.6 15.3 4.9 18.0

Waiters and waitresses

2,020 76.0 10.7 7.6 22.6

Food servers, nonrestaurant

226 61.2 25.5 8.4 22.2

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

309 73.1 13.5 6.0 29.2

Dishwashers

263 74.3 13.2 5.7 27.9

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

354 75.1 12.9 4.5 27.0

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

5 - - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,854 77.3 14.8 3.1 38.8

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

339 75.5 15.9 3.6 25.1

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

254 88.3 6.5 1.5 26.2

Janitors and building cleaners

2,342 73.0 19.1 3.5 32.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,512 74.1 16.1 4.5 49.3

Pest control workers

79 84.9 10.6 0.0 12.2

Grounds maintenance workers

1,328 86.5 7.5 1.0 45.0

Personal care and service occupations

5,947 69.2 16.3 10.5 17.8

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

187 79.8 10.4 4.1 10.2

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

208 69.5 11.9 17.8 9.5

Animal trainers

55 87.2 1.7 4.4 10.5

Nonfarm animal caretakers

268 92.1 3.8 1.8 9.8

Gaming services workers

102 49.7 10.6 30.3 6.7

Motion picture projectionists

1 - - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

35 - - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

210 80.5 7.7 5.5 16.8

Embalmers and funeral attendants

17 - - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

34 - - - -

Barbers

132 62.0 30.2 5.3 27.3

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

834 75.7 14.2 7.3 17.6

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

449 31.2 9.1 57.2 10.8

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

92 49.7 37.7 10.3 26.1

Tour and travel guides

65 85.0 6.4 2.9 13.4

Childcare workers

1,193 76.7 15.5 4.1 24.3

Personal care aides

1,354 62.3 24.6 8.3 22.4

Recreation and fitness workers

497 76.0 15.6 4.3 9.2

Residential advisors

41 - - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

171 72.2 17.8 5.4 15.3

Sales and office occupations

33,461 78.6 12.8 4.9 16.6

Sales and related occupations

15,806 80.2 11.0 5.3 16.3

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,366 80.8 10.2 5.3 13.9

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,257 84.7 6.9 6.4 15.0

Cashiers

3,200 70.3 17.3 6.6 24.5

Counter and rental clerks

114 71.4 20.4 5.8 24.6

Parts salespersons

127 82.2 9.2 2.8 19.3

Retail salespersons

3,147 78.7 12.6 5.1 18.2

Advertising sales agents

221 81.2 10.4 4.8 14.9

Insurance sales agents

619 83.3 8.7 5.3 11.6

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

231 85.6 6.3 6.8 11.9

Travel agents

79 77.9 17.7 4.4 9.9

Sales representatives, services, all other

516 89.0 6.5 2.9 7.5

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,273 90.8 4.1 2.9 11.2

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

60 79.0 8.8 7.2 13.4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,072 86.0 6.4 6.1 10.8

Sales engineers

34 - - - -

Telemarketers

58 69.3 23.3 3.7 22.9

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

158 86.1 10.6 1.3 22.8

Sales and related workers, all other

275 85.0 8.7 4.5 7.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,655 77.1 14.4 4.6 16.9

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,450 81.6 11.2 3.5 13.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

23 - - - -

Telephone operators

30 - - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

9 - - - -

Bill and account collectors

122 69.4 24.0 1.4 21.3

Billing and posting clerks

490 77.0 13.8 5.2 18.0

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,045 87.5 7.0 3.7 10.2

Gaming cage workers