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December 2020 Report 1088

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2019

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2019 image

In 2019, the overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States was 3.7 percent, however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, jobless rates were higher than the national rate for Blacks or African Americans (6.1 percent), American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.1 percent), and people categorized as being of Two or More Races (5.3 percent). Jobless rates were lower than the national rate for Asians (2.7 percent), Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (3.2 percent), and Whites (3.3 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 4.3 percent, was higher than the rate of 3.5 percent for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2019.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (77 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders accounted for less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 24 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (14 percent), Vietnamese (11 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—17 percent—was classified as Other Asians, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, and Cambodian—and those who were of two or more Asian groups. (As calculated from the data in table 2.)

People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race, made up 18 percent of the total labor force. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), Black (5 percent), and Asian (1 percent). By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans made up another 10 percent, over a third of whom were Salvadorans. Eight percent of Hispanics in the labor force were Puerto Rican, and 7 percent were South American. People of Cuban and Dominican ethnicity each represented 4 percent of the Hispanic labor force. An additional 5 percent were classified as Other Hispanic or Latino. (See table 2.)

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (68.4 percent), people of Two or More Races (67.1 percent), and Hispanics (66.8 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates. The participation rate for Asians was 64.0 percent; Whites, 63.0 percent; Blacks, 62.5 percent; and American Indians and Alaska Natives, 60.8 percent. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.2 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups, and Blacks (68.1 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (75.1 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (71.8 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (62.5 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were Hispanics (60.4 percent), Asians (59.3 percent), and Whites (57.9 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Asians (21.6 percent) were less likely to participate in the labor force than were Whites (37.5 percent), Hispanics (32.2 percent), and Blacks (30.1 percent). (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 57.1 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 66.2 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 63.9 percent for Hispanics, 63.6 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, 62.3 percent for Asians, 61.0 percent for Whites, and 58.7 percent for Blacks. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (77.4 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Black men (64.0 percent) had the lowest, also continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian adult men and White adult men were 73.1 percent and 69.6 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the major race and ethnicity groups: 59.4 percent for Blacks, 57.9 percent for Hispanics, 57.8 percent for Asians, and 56.2 percent for Whites. (See table 3.)

The employment-population ratio among teenagers (16 to 19 years) continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (33.2 percent) was about 13 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (19.8 percent), about 9 percentage points higher than for Black teens (23.9 percent), and about 6 percentage points higher than for Hispanic teens (27.2 percent).

Educational attainment

Among people 25 years and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent each for Whites, Blacks, and Asians. Seventy-seven percent of Hispanics in the labor force had attained at least a high school diploma. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 65 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 41 percent of Whites, 32 percent of Blacks, and 22 percent of Hispanics. (As calculated from the data in table 6 and chart 2.)

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For almost all major race and ethnicity groups, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than for other levels of educational attainment. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of people 25 years and older increased with educational attainment across almost all major race and ethnicity groups. Among full-time wage and salary workers, median usual weekly earnings for Blacks ($1,110) and Hispanics ($1,155) with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than for Whites ($1,380) and Asians ($1,579). (See table 17.)

Occupation

Fifty-five percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 41 percent of employed Whites, 32 percent of employed Blacks, and 23 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

Among employed men, 57 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 38 percent of Whites, 26 percent of Blacks, and 19 percent of Hispanics. About 20 percent of employed Black and Hispanic men worked in service occupations, compared with 13 percent and 12 percent of employed White and Asian men, respectively. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material-moving occupations. Twenty-seven percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 11 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. (See table 7.)

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 53 percent of Asian women, compared with 46 percent of White women, 37 percent of Black women, and 29 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 60 percent of Hispanics worked in two major occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 54 percent of Blacks, 47 percent of Whites, and 40 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 18 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters, construction and maintenance (56 percent); miscellaneous agricultural workers (54 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (49 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (37 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (30 percent); and taxi drivers and chauffeurs (30 percent). Asians accounted for 7 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (59 percent); software developers, applications and system software (38 percent); and physicians and surgeons (18 percent). Whites made up 78 percent of all employed people, and accounted for 97 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; construction managers (91 percent); and carpenters (89 percent). (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (21 percent) than were Whites (14 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (14 percent). Twenty-two percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White men (14 percent), Black men (12 percent), and Hispanic men (12 percent). A large share of employed women across all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (41 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (31 percent), and Hispanics (31 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and parents

Eighty-eight percent of both Asian families and Hispanic families had at least one family member employed. About 80 percent of White and Black families had at least one family member employed.

Families maintained by women (no opposite-sex spouse present) accounted for 41 percent of Black families, 25 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 77 percent of Black families, 79 percent of White families, and 83 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women were less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member. (As calculated from the data in table 10.)

Among mothers with children under 18 years old, Black mothers (77.6 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White mothers (71.9 percent), Asian mothers (65.8 percent), or Hispanic mothers (64.9 percent). (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 years were much more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18 years. Labor force participation rates for these fathers were 94.1 percent for White men, 93.8 percent for Asian men, 93.8 percent for Hispanic men, and 88.6 percent for Black men.

Unemployment

In 2019, the unemployment rate averaged 6.1 percent for Blacks, 6.1 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives, 5.3 percent for people of Two or More Races, 3.3 percent for Whites, 3.2 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and 2.7 percent for Asians. The unemployment rate was 4.3 percent for Hispanics. With the exception of Whites, the remaining groups experienced unemployment rates that were the lowest in the history of each series. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Blacks were the most likely to be jobless (with an unemployment rate of 6.0 percent), while Asians (2.6 percent) were the least likely. The jobless rate for White men (3.0 percent) was lower than the rate for Hispanic men (3.5 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (5.1 percent) were also the most likely to be jobless, while Asians (2.5 percent) were the least likely. The jobless rate for White women (3.0 percent) was lower than the rate for Hispanic women (4.1 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, at 20.7 percent, compared with 15.4 percent for Hispanics, 11.5 percent for Whites, and 8.2 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

Unemployed Blacks and Asians experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Blacks and Asians was 10.8 weeks and 9.7 weeks, respectively, whereas the figure was 8.6 weeks for Whites and Hispanics. (See table 13.)

Of the 6.0 million people unemployed in 2019, 46 percent were job losers (workers who were on temporary layoff, lost their jobs permanently, or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (30 percent), job leavers (14 percent), and new entrants (10 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, 48 percent of Whites and 47 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 43 percent of Blacks and 41 percent of Asians. Sixteen percent of unemployed Asians, 12 percent of unemployed Hispanics, 11 percent of unemployed Blacks, and 9 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

As calculated from the data in table 15, Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force, and 23 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force; wanted to work and were available to work; and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 77 percent of the labor force versus 67 percent of the marginally attached.

Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (29 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them.

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2019 were $706 for Hispanics, $735 for Blacks, $945 for Whites, and $1,174 for Asians. The earnings for White men ($1,036), Black men ($769), and Hispanic men ($747) were 78 percent, 58 percent, and 56 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian men ($1,336). The median earnings of White women ($840), Black women ($704), and Hispanic women ($642) were 82 percent, 69 percent, and 63 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($1,025). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.) (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men and White men working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group), at $1,851 and $1,549, respectively, were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,251) and Black men ($1,174) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were relatively close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $576 for Asians, $540 for Whites, $523 for Blacks, and $511 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were considerably higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2019 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Gender and race Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

259,175 163,539 63.1 157,538 60.8 6,001 3.7 95,636

Men

125,353 86,687 69.2 83,460 66.6 3,227 3.7 38,667

Women

133,822 76,852 57.4 74,078 55.4 2,774 3.6 56,970

White

200,827 126,600 63.0 122,441 61.0 4,159 3.3 74,227

Men

98,220 68,367 69.6 66,100 67.3 2,266 3.3 29,853

Women

102,607 58,233 56.8 56,341 54.9 1,893 3.2 44,374

Black

33,036 20,632 62.5 19,381 58.7 1,251 6.1 12,404

Men

15,102 9,790 64.8 9,145 60.6 645 6.6 5,312

Women

17,934 10,842 60.5 10,236 57.1 607 5.6 7,092

Asian

16,351 10,460 64.0 10,179 62.3 280 2.7 5,891

Men

7,666 5,502 71.8 5,353 69.8 149 2.7 2,164

Women

8,685 4,958 57.1 4,826 55.6 132 2.7 3,727

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,832 1,721 60.8 1,617 57.1 104 6.1 1,110

Men

1,383 901 65.1 842 60.9 59 6.5 483

Women

1,448 821 56.7 775 53.5 46 5.6 628

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

963 659 68.4 638 66.2 21 3.2 304

Men

470 347 73.9 336 71.5 11 3.3 123

Women

493 312 63.2 302 61.2 10 3.2 181

Two or More Races

5,165 3,467 67.1 3,283 63.6 184 5.3 1,699

Men

2,512 1,780 70.9 1,683 67.0 97 5.4 731

Women

2,654 1,686 63.5 1,599 60.3 87 5.2 968

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

259,175 163,539 63.1 157,538 60.8 6,001 3.7 95,636

Men

125,353 86,687 69.2 83,460 66.6 3,227 3.7 38,667

Women

133,822 76,852 57.4 74,078 55.4 2,774 3.6 56,970

Asian

16,351 10,460 64.0 10,179 62.3 280 2.7 5,891

Men

7,666 5,502 71.8 5,353 69.8 149 2.7 2,164

Women

8,685 4,958 57.1 4,826 55.6 132 2.7 3,727

Asian Indian

3,709 2,535 68.3 2,470 66.6 64 2.5 1,174

Chinese

3,688 2,284 61.9 2,227 60.4 58 2.5 1,403

Filipino

2,277 1,500 65.9 1,455 63.9 45 3.0 777

Japanese

902 518 57.4 506 56.1 12 2.3 384

Korean

1,280 786 61.4 771 60.3 15 1.9 494

Vietnamese

1,756 1,100 62.6 1,076 61.2 24 2.2 657

Other Asian

2,739 1,737 63.4 1,674 61.1 62 3.6 1,003

Hispanic or Latino

43,507 29,053 66.8 27,805 63.9 1,248 4.3 14,454

Men

21,660 16,439 75.9 15,782 72.9 657 4.0 5,221

Women

21,846 12,614 57.7 12,023 55.0 591 4.7 9,232

Mexican

26,251 17,611 67.1 16,836 64.1 775 4.4 8,640

Men

13,265 10,198 76.9 9,795 73.8 403 4.0 3,068

Women

12,985 7,413 57.1 7,041 54.2 372 5.0 5,573

Puerto Rican

3,941 2,448 62.1 2,325 59.0 124 5.0 1,493

Men

1,915 1,297 67.7 1,222 63.8 75 5.8 618

Women

2,026 1,151 56.8 1,102 54.4 49 4.2 875

Cuban

2,043 1,304 63.8 1,265 62.0 39 3.0 738

Men

1,004 708 70.5 685 68.3 22 3.2 296

Women

1,039 596 57.4 580 55.8 16 2.7 442

Central American

4,254 3,032 71.3 2,917 68.6 114 3.8 1,223

Men

2,159 1,769 82.0 1,712 79.3 57 3.2 390

Women

2,096 1,262 60.2 1,205 57.5 57 4.5 833

Salvadoran

1,608 1,158 72.0 1,120 69.7 38 3.3 450

Men

817 661 81.0 640 78.4 22 3.3 155

Women

791 496 62.7 480 60.7 16 3.3 295

Other Central American

2,647 1,874 70.8 1,798 67.9 76 4.1 773

Men

1,342 1,108 82.5 1,072 79.9 36 3.2 234

Women

1,305 766 58.7 726 55.6 41 5.3 538

South American

3,072 2,175 70.8 2,097 68.3 78 3.6 897

Men

1,485 1,175 79.2 1,140 76.8 36 3.1 309

Women

1,587 999 63.0 957 60.3 42 4.2 588

Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino

3,946 2,484 62.9 2,365 59.9 119 4.8 1,462

Men

1,832 1,292 70.5 1,227 67.0 64 5.0 541

Women

2,114 1,192 56.4 1,138 53.8 55 4.6 921

Dominican

1,590 1,028 64.7 969 60.9 60 5.8 561

Men

698 506 72.6 477 68.4 29 5.7 191

Women

892 522 58.5 491 55.1 31 5.9 370

Other Hispanic or Latino

2,356 1,456 61.8 1,396 59.3 59 4.1 901

Men

1,135 785 69.2 750 66.1 35 4.5 349

Women

1,222 670 54.9 646 52.9 24 3.5 551

Hispanic or Latino

43,507 29,053 66.8 27,805 63.9 1,248 4.3 14,454

Men

21,660 16,439 75.9 15,782 72.9 657 4.0 5,221

Women

21,846 12,614 57.7 12,023 55.0 591 4.7 9,232

White Hispanic or Latino

38,660 25,817 66.8 24,716 63.9 1,101 4.3 12,843

Men

19,286 14,703 76.2 14,123 73.2 580 3.9 4,583

Women

19,375 11,114 57.4 10,593 54.7 521 4.7 8,261

Black Hispanic or Latino

2,095 1,350 64.4 1,277 61.0 72 5.4 745

Men

971 669 68.9 636 65.5 33 5.0 302

Women

1,124 680 60.5 641 57.1 39 5.7 444

Asian Hispanic or Latino

451 300 66.5 292 64.8 8 2.6 151

Men

224 163 73.0 158 70.4 6 3.6 60

Women

227 137 60.1 135 59.2 2 1.5 91

Non-Hispanic or Latino

215,668 134,486 62.4 129,733 60.2 4,753 3.5 81,183

Men

103,693 70,248 67.7 67,679 65.3 2,569 3.7 33,445

Women

111,975 64,238 57.4 62,054 55.4 2,183 3.4 47,738

White non-Hispanic or Latino

162,167 100,783 62.1 97,725 60.3 3,058 3.0 61,384

Men

78,935 53,664 68.0 51,977 65.8 1,686 3.1 25,271

Women

83,232 47,119 56.6 45,748 55.0 1,371 2.9 36,113

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

30,941 19,282 62.3 18,103 58.5 1,179 6.1 11,659

Men

14,131 9,120 64.5 8,509 60.2 611 6.7 5,010

Women

16,810 10,162 60.5 9,594 57.1 568 5.6 6,648

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

15,900 10,160 63.9 9,887 62.2 273 2.7 5,740

Men

7,443 5,339 71.7 5,196 69.8 143 2.7 2,104

Women

8,457 4,821 57.0 4,691 55.5 130 2.7 3,636

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Age, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

Total, 16 years and older

259,175 163,539 63.1 157,538 60.8 6,001 3.7 95,636

16 to 19 years

16,693 5,896 35.3 5,150 30.9 746 12.7 10,796

20 years and older

242,482 157,642 65.0 152,388 62.8 5,254 3.3 84,840

20 to 24 years

21,055 15,196 72.2 14,172 67.3 1,024 6.7 5,860

25 to 54 years

126,281 104,180 82.5 100,976 80.0 3,204 3.1 22,102

55 to 64 years

42,241 27,603 65.3 26,893 63.7 710 2.6 14,638

65 years and older

52,905 10,663 20.2 10,347 19.6 317 3.0 42,241

Men, 16 years and older

125,353 86,687 69.2 83,460 66.6 3,227 3.7 38,667

16 to 19 years

8,445 2,950 34.9 2,543 30.1 408 13.8 5,495

20 years and older

116,908 83,737 71.6 80,917 69.2 2,819 3.4 33,172

20 to 24 years

10,530 7,789 74.0 7,187 68.3 602 7.7 2,741

25 to 54 years

62,304 55,531 89.1 53,845 86.4 1,686 3.0 6,773

55 to 64 years

20,335 14,547 71.5 14,187 69.8 361 2.5 5,787

65 years and older

23,740 5,869 24.7 5,699 24.0 170 2.9 17,871

Women, 16 years and older

133,822 76,852 57.4 74,078 55.4 2,774 3.6 56,970

16 to 19 years

8,247 2,946 35.7 2,607 31.6 339 11.5 5,301

20 years and older

125,574 73,906 58.9 71,470 56.9 2,435 3.3 51,668

20 to 24 years

10,525 7,406 70.4 6,985 66.4 421 5.7 3,119

25 to 54 years

63,977 48,648 76.0 47,131 73.7 1,517 3.1 15,329

55 to 64 years

21,906 13,056 59.6 12,706 58.0 350 2.7 8,850

65 years and older

29,165 4,795 16.4 4,648 15.9 147 3.1 24,370

White

Total, 16 years and older

200,827 126,600 63.0 122,441 61.0 4,159 3.3 74,227

16 to 19 years

12,247 4,594 37.5 4,067 33.2 528 11.5 7,653

20 years and older

188,580 122,006 64.7 118,374 62.8 3,631 3.0 66,575

20 to 24 years

15,427 11,395 73.9 10,739 69.6 656 5.8 4,032

25 to 54 years

94,893 79,027 83.3 76,857 81.0 2,170 2.7 15,866

55 to 64 years

33,915 22,599 66.6 22,046 65.0 553 2.4 11,316

65 years and older

44,346 8,986 20.3 8,733 19.7 253 2.8 35,360

Men, 16 years and older

98,220 68,367 69.6 66,100 67.3 2,266 3.3 29,853

16 to 19 years

6,227 2,330 37.4 2,030 32.6 299 12.8 3,897

20 years and older

91,993 66,037 71.8 64,070 69.6 1,967 3.0 25,956

20 to 24 years

7,769 5,930 76.3 5,543 71.3 387 6.5 1,839

25 to 54 years

47,539 42,920 90.3 41,766 87.9 1,154 2.7 4,618

55 to 64 years

16,532 12,130 73.4 11,840 71.6 290 2.4 4,403

65 years and older

20,153 5,057 25.1 4,921 24.4 136 2.7 15,096

Women, 16 years and older

102,607 58,233 56.8 56,341 54.9 1,893 3.2 44,374

16 to 19 years

6,020 2,265 37.6 2,036 33.8 228 10.1 3,755

20 years and older

96,587 55,968 57.9 54,304 56.2 1,664 3.0 40,619

20 to 24 years

7,658 5,465 71.4 5,196 67.8 269 4.9 2,193

25 to 54 years

47,354 36,106 76.2 35,090 74.1 1,016 2.8 11,248

55 to 64 years

17,382 10,469 60.2 10,206 58.7 263 2.5 6,913

65 years and older

24,193 3,928 16.2 3,812 15.8 116 3.0 20,264

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

33,036 20,632 62.5 19,381 58.7 1,251 6.1 12,404

16 to 19 years

2,463 741 30.1 588 23.9 153 20.7 1,722

20 years and older

30,573 19,891 65.1 18,793 61.5 1,098 5.5 10,682

20 to 24 years

3,104 2,186 70.4 1,935 62.3 251 11.5 918

25 to 54 years

17,317 13,861 80.0 13,164 76.0 697 5.0 3,456

55 to 64 years

5,095 2,905 57.0 2,799 54.9 106 3.6 2,190

65 years and older

5,058 939 18.6 895 17.7 44 4.6 4,119

Men, 16 years and older

15,102 9,790 64.8 9,145 60.6 645 6.6 5,312

16 to 19 years

1,222 336 27.5 262 21.4 74 22.0 886

20 years and older

13,881 9,454 68.1 8,883 64.0 571 6.0 4,426

20 to 24 years

1,499 1,062 70.9 916 61.1 147 13.8 436

25 to 54 years

8,018 6,635 82.8 6,277 78.3 358 5.4 1,383

55 to 64 years

2,311 1,336 57.8 1,291 55.8 45 3.4 976

65 years and older

2,053 421 20.5 400 19.5 21 5.0 1,631

Women, 16 years and older

17,934 10,842 60.5 10,236 57.1 607 5.6 7,092

16 to 19 years

1,241 405 32.7 326 26.3 79 19.6 836

20 years and older

16,693 10,437 62.5 9,910 59.4 527 5.1 6,256

20 to 24 years

1,605 1,124 70.0 1,019 63.5 105 9.3 482

25 to 54 years

9,300 7,227 77.7 6,887 74.1 339 4.7 2,073

55 to 64 years

2,783 1,569 56.4 1,508 54.2 61 3.9 1,214

65 years and older

3,005 518 17.2 495 16.5 22 4.3 2,487

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

16,351 10,460 64.0 10,179 62.3 280 2.7 5,891

16 to 19 years

978 211 21.6 194 19.8 17 8.2 767

20 years and older

15,373 10,249 66.7 9,986 65.0 263 2.6 5,124

20 to 24 years

1,353 730 54.0 688 50.8 42 5.8 623

25 to 54 years

9,304 7,479 80.4 7,303 78.5 176 2.3 1,824

55 to 64 years

2,183 1,489 68.2 1,458 66.8 32 2.1 694

65 years and older

2,533 550 21.7 537 21.2 14 2.5 1,983

Men, 16 years and older

7,666 5,502 71.8 5,353 69.8 149 2.7 2,164

16 to 19 years

478 106 22.1 96 20.2 9 8.6 372

20 years and older

7,189 5,396 75.1 5,257 73.1 140 2.6 1,792

20 to 24 years

672 340 50.6 320 47.7 20 5.8 332

25 to 54 years

4,423 3,989 90.2 3,895 88.0 95 2.4 434

55 to 64 years

996 778 78.1 760 76.3 18 2.3 219

65 years and older

1,097 290 26.4 282 25.7 7 2.6 807

Women, 16 years and older

8,685 4,958 57.1 4,826 55.6 132 2.7 3,727

16 to 19 years

500 106 21.1 97 19.4 8 7.8 395

20 years and older

8,185 4,852 59.3 4,729 57.8 124 2.5 3,332

20 to 24 years

681 390 57.3 367 54.0 23 5.8 291

25 to 54 years

4,880 3,490 71.5 3,409 69.9 81 2.3 1,390

55 to 64 years

1,187 712 60.0 698 58.8 14 2.0 475

65 years and older

1,436 261 18.1 254 17.7 6 2.3 1,176

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

43,507 29,053 66.8 27,805 63.9 1,248 4.3 14,454

16 to 19 years

3,989 1,283 32.2 1,085 27.2 198 15.4 2,706

20 years and older

39,517 27,770 70.3 26,720 67.6 1,050 3.8 11,748

20 to 24 years

4,760 3,472 73.0 3,242 68.1 230 6.6 1,287

25 to 54 years

25,061 20,076 80.1 19,398 77.4 679 3.4 4,985

55 to 64 years

5,081 3,321 65.4 3,217 63.3 104 3.1 1,760

65 years and older

4,615 900 19.5 862 18.7 37 4.2 3,715

Men, 16 years and older

21,660 16,439 75.9 15,782 72.9 657 4.0 5,221

16 to 19 years

2,020 682 33.7 578 28.6 104 15.3 1,339

20 years and older

19,640 15,757 80.2 15,204 77.4 553 3.5 3,883

20 to 24 years

2,401 1,851 77.1 1,717 71.5 133 7.2 551

25 to 54 years

12,749 11,520 90.4 11,178 87.7 341 3.0 1,229

55 to 64 years

2,470 1,874 75.9 1,816 73.5 58 3.1 596

65 years and older

2,020 513 25.4 492 24.4 21 4.1 1,507

Women, 16 years and older

21,846 12,614 57.7 12,023 55.0 591 4.7 9,232

16 to 19 years

1,969 602 30.6 508 25.8 94 15.6 1,367

20 years and older

19,877 12,012 60.4 11,516 57.9 497 4.1 7,865

20 to 24 years

2,358 1,622 68.8 1,525 64.7 97 6.0 736

25 to 54 years

12,313 8,557 69.5 8,219 66.8 337 3.9 3,756

55 to 64 years

2,612 1,447 55.4 1,401 53.6 46 3.2 1,164

65 years and older

2,595 387 14.9 370 14.3 17 4.3 2,208

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2019 annual averages [Percent]
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

2017

62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4

2018

62.9 69.1 57.1 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.8 60.2 63.5 71.6 56.4 66.3 75.7 57.0

2019

63.1 69.2 57.4 63.0 69.6 56.8 62.5 64.8 60.5 64.0 71.8 57.1 66.8 75.9 57.7
Table 4a. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2019 annual averages [Percent]
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

2017

60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

2018

59.6 63.7 55.6 68.5 74.1 63.1 66.6 71.1 62.5

2019

60.8 65.1 56.7 68.4 73.9 63.2 67.1 70.9 63.5

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2019 annual averages [Percent]
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

2017

60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2

2018

60.4 66.3 54.9 60.7 67.1 54.5 58.3 60.3 56.6 61.6 69.4 54.7 63.2 72.4 54.1

2019

60.8 66.6 55.4 61.0 67.3 54.9 58.7 60.6 57.1 62.3 69.8 55.6 63.9 72.9 55.0
Table 5a. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2019 annual averages [Percent]
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

2017

55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

2018

55.6 59.3 52.1 64.9 70.3 59.7 62.9 66.8 59.3

2019

57.1 60.9 53.5 66.2 71.5 61.2 63.6 67.0 60.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total, 25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some college,
no degree
Associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

Total

Civilian noninstitutional population

221,427 21,627 62,460 34,711 22,802 79,827

Civilian labor force

142,446 9,976 36,162 21,592 15,829 58,889

Percent of population

64.3 46.1 57.9 62.2 69.4 73.8

Employed

138,216 9,441 34,837 20,882 15,400 57,655

Employment-population ratio

62.4 43.7 55.8 60.2 67.5 72.2

Unemployed

4,230 535 1,324 709 429 1,234

Unemployment rate

3.0 5.4 3.7 3.3 2.7 2.1

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

106,378 10,832 31,429 16,557 10,022 37,538

Civilian labor force

75,947 6,356 21,277 11,503 7,597 29,214

Percent of population

71.4 58.7 67.7 69.5 75.8 77.8

Employed

73,731 6,047 20,512 11,161 7,406 28,605

Employment-population ratio

69.3 55.8 65.3 67.4 73.9 76.2

Unemployed

2,217 309 765 342 191 609

Unemployment rate

2.9 4.9 3.6 3.0 2.5 2.1

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,049 10,795 31,030 18,154 12,780 42,290

Civilian labor force

66,499 3,619 14,884 10,089 8,232 29,675

Percent of population

57.8 33.5 48.0 55.6 64.4 70.2

Employed

64,485 3,394 14,325 9,722 7,994 29,051

Employment-population ratio

56.1 31.4 46.2 53.6 62.6 68.7

Unemployed

2,014 226 559 367 237 625

Unemployment rate

3.0 6.2 3.8 3.6 2.9 2.1

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

173,154 16,426 48,922 27,043 18,194 62,569

Civilian labor force

110,611 7,906 28,081 16,474 12,500 45,649

Percent of population

63.9 48.1 57.4 60.9 68.7 73.0

Employed

107,636 7,519 27,183 15,992 12,190 44,752

Employment-population ratio

62.2 45.8 55.6 59.1 67.0 71.5

Unemployed

2,975 387 898 483 310 897

Unemployment rate

2.7 4.9 3.2 2.9 2.5 2.0

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

84,224 8,457 24,821 13,028 8,130 29,788

Civilian labor force

60,107 5,219 16,916 8,985 6,134 22,853

Percent of population

71.4 61.7 68.2 69.0 75.4 76.7

Employed

58,527 4,988 16,389 8,749 5,993 22,407

Employment-population ratio

69.5 59.0 66.0 67.2 73.7 75.2

Unemployed

1,580 231 526 236 141 446

Unemployment rate

2.6 4.4 3.1 2.6 2.3 2.0

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

88,929 7,969 24,101 14,015 10,064 32,781

Civilian labor force

50,504 2,687 11,166 7,489 6,365 22,796

Percent of population

56.8 33.7 46.3 53.4 63.3 69.5

Employed

49,109 2,531 10,794 7,243 6,197 22,345

Employment-population ratio

55.2 31.8 44.8 51.7 61.6 68.2

Unemployed

1,395 156 372 247 169 451

Unemployment rate

2.8 5.8 3.3 3.3 2.6 2.0

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,470 3,062 9,055 5,167 2,885 7,300

Civilian labor force

17,705 1,142 5,337 3,438 2,121 5,667

Percent of population

64.5 37.3 58.9 66.5 73.5 77.6

Employed

16,858 1,029 5,007 3,275 2,041 5,506

Employment-population ratio

61.4 33.6 55.3 63.4 70.7 75.4

Unemployed

847 113 330 163 80 161

Unemployment rate

4.8 9.9 6.2 4.7 3.8 2.8

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,382 1,419 4,463 2,343 1,125 3,032

Civilian labor force

8,392 610 2,834 1,636 878 2,434

Percent of population

67.8 42.9 63.5 69.8 78.1 80.3

Employed

7,968 553 2,646 1,560 845 2,364

Employment-population ratio

64.3 39.0 59.3 66.6 75.1 78.0

Unemployed

424 56 188 76 33 70

Unemployment rate

5.1 9.3 6.6 4.7 3.8 2.9

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,088 1,643 4,592 2,824 1,761 4,269

Civilian labor force

9,313 533 2,503 1,802 1,243 3,233

Percent of population

61.7 32.4 54.5 63.8 70.6 75.7

Employed

8,891 476 2,361 1,715 1,196 3,143

Employment-population ratio

58.9 29.0 51.4 60.7 67.9 73.6

Unemployed

423 57 141 87 47 91

Unemployment rate

4.5 10.6 5.6 4.8 3.8 2.8

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,020 1,255 2,421 1,146 956 8,243

Civilian labor force

9,519 483 1,411 754 670 6,202

Percent of population

67.9 38.4 58.3 65.8 70.1 75.2

Employed

9,298 468 1,384 734 653 6,059

Employment-population ratio

66.3 37.3 57.2 64.1 68.3 73.5

Unemployed

221 15 27 20 17 142

Unemployment rate

2.3 3.0 1.9 2.7 2.5 2.3

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,517 483 1,074 542 431 3,986

Civilian labor force

5,056 248 753 401 335 3,319

Percent of population

77.6 51.3 70.1 74.0 77.9 83.3

Employed

4,937 238 739 390 327 3,243

Employment-population ratio

75.8 49.2 68.8 72.0 75.9 81.3

Unemployed

120 10 14 11 8 76

Unemployment rate

2.4 4.2 1.8 2.7 2.5 2.3

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,504 773 1,346 603 525 4,256

Civilian labor force

4,462 235 658 353 334 2,882

Percent of population

59.5 30.4 48.9 58.5 63.7 67.7

Employed

4,361 230 645 344 326 2,816

Employment-population ratio

58.1 29.8 47.9 57.0 62.1 66.2

Unemployed

101 4 13 9 8 66

Unemployment rate

2.3 1.8 2.0 2.6 2.5 2.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,758 9,651 10,838 4,754 2,822 6,692

Civilian labor force

24,297 5,660 7,639 3,531 2,169 5,299

Percent of population

69.9 58.6 70.5 74.3 76.8 79.2

Employed

23,477 5,411 7,394 3,411 2,097 5,164

Employment-population ratio

67.5 56.1 68.2 71.8 74.3 77.2

Unemployed

820 248 245 120 71 135

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.4 3.2 3.4 3.3 2.6

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,239 4,933 5,707 2,336 1,244 3,019

Civilian labor force

13,907 3,729 4,650 1,900 1,055 2,573

Percent of population

80.7 75.6 81.5 81.3 84.8 85.2

Employed

13,487 3,590 4,522 1,844 1,024 2,507

Employment-population ratio

78.2 72.8 79.2 79.0 82.3 83.0

Unemployed

420 138 128 56 32 66

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.6

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,519 4,719 5,131 2,418 1,579 3,672

Civilian labor force

10,391 1,931 2,989 1,632 1,113 2,725

Percent of population

59.3 40.9 58.3 67.5 70.5 74.2

Employed

9,991 1,821 2,872 1,567 1,074 2,657

Employment-population ratio

57.0 38.6 56.0 64.8 68.0 72.3

Unemployed

400 110 117 64 39 69

Unemployment rate

3.8 5.7 3.9 3.9 3.5 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

157,538 122,441 19,381 10,179 27,805

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

40.8 41.4 31.9 55.0 23.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.1 18.1 11.7 18.5 10.1

Management occupations

12.1 13.0 7.6 11.4 7.3

Business and financial operations occupations

5.1 5.1 4.1 7.1 2.7

Professional and related occupations

23.6 23.3 20.2 36.6 13.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.4 2.9 2.4 12.2 1.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.1 2.1 1.2 4.3 1.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.1 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.6 2.8 1.0 1.3

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.8 1.2 0.7

Education, training, and library occupations

6.0 6.3 5.0 4.9 3.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.2 1.3 1.9 1.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6.1 6.0 6.2 9.1 3.1

Service occupations

17.1 15.9 23.8 15.8 24.2

Healthcare support occupations

2.4 2.0 5.2 1.9 2.6

Protective service occupations

2.0 1.9 3.3 0.7 1.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.3 5.0 6.0 5.7 8.1

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.6 3.6 4.4 1.6 7.9

Personal care and service occupations

3.8 3.4 5.0 5.9 3.9

Sales and office occupations

21.2 21.3 22.3 17.0 20.6

Sales and related occupations

9.9 10.2 9.0 8.2 9.4

Office and administrative support occupations

11.3 11.1 13.3 8.8 11.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.1 10.1 5.7 3.1 16.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.7 0.8 0.3 0.2 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5.3 5.9 3.1 1.3 10.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.1 3.3 2.3 1.6 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11.8 11.3 16.2 9.1 15.4

Production occupations

5.4 5.4 5.9 5.1 7.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.4 5.9 10.4 4.0 8.3

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

83,460 66,100 9,145 5,353 15,782

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

37.1 37.5 26.0 56.6 19.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.1 19.2 11.0 18.6 9.9

Management occupations

13.7 14.7 7.9 12.7 7.8

Business and financial operations occupations

4.4 4.5 3.2 5.8 2.1

Professional and related occupations

19.0 18.2 14.9 38.1 9.5

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.8 4.1 3.3 16.5 2.0

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.3 3.3 1.8 6.4 1.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.9 0.5 2.1 0.4

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.0 1.8 0.7 0.7

Legal occupations

1.1 1.2 0.5 0.9 0.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.0 3.0 2.7 3.5 1.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.9 2.7 2.5 6.1 1.5

Service occupations

13.7 12.8 19.6 11.7 19.0

Healthcare support occupations

0.6 0.5 1.5 0.7 0.6

Protective service occupations

2.9 2.8 4.5 1.1 2.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.6 4.1 5.9 5.4 7.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.0 4.0 5.1 1.7 7.3

Personal care and service occupations

1.6 1.4 2.6 2.9 1.5

Sales and office occupations

15.8 15.7 17.4 14.3 14.4

Sales and related occupations

9.6 9.9 8.1 8.5 7.9

Office and administrative support occupations

6.2 5.7 9.2 5.8 6.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.3 17.7 11.3 5.5 27.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.0 1.2 0.4 0.3 2.5

Construction and extraction occupations

9.6 10.6 6.4 2.4 18.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.6 6.0 4.5 2.9 6.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.2 16.4 25.8 11.8 20.1

Production occupations

7.3 7.3 8.3 5.5 8.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.9 9.1 17.5 6.3 11.8

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

74,078 56,341 10,236 4,826 12,023

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.9 46.1 37.2 53.3 28.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.1 16.7 12.3 18.3 10.3

Management occupations

10.2 10.9 7.4 9.8 6.7

Business and financial operations occupations

5.8 5.8 4.9 8.5 3.6

Professional and related occupations

28.8 29.3 24.9 34.9 18.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.9 1.5 1.6 7.4 0.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.7 0.6 0.5 2.0 0.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 0.5 2.1 0.6

Community and social service occupations

2.5 2.4 3.7 1.2 2.1

Legal occupations

1.4 1.4 1.1 1.5 1.0

Education, training, and library occupations

9.4 10.2 7.0 6.5 6.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.4 0.9 2.0 1.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.9 9.8 9.5 12.4 5.3

Service occupations

21.0 19.5 27.6 20.2 31.1

Healthcare support occupations

4.4 3.7 8.5 3.2 5.2

Protective service occupations

0.9 0.8 2.1 0.3 0.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.2 6.1 6.1 5.9 9.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.3 3.2 3.8 1.6 8.6

Personal care and service occupations

6.2 5.7 7.0 9.2 7.0

Sales and office occupations

27.3 27.9 26.7 20.0 28.7

Sales and related occupations

10.3 10.4 9.8 7.9 11.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17.0 17.5 17.0 12.2 17.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.0 1.2 0.7 0.4 2.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 1.3

Construction and extraction occupations

0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.8 5.3 7.7 6.1 9.3

Production occupations

3.3 3.1 3.7 4.6 5.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.5 2.3 4.0 1.5 3.7

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total
employed
Percent of total employed
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

157,538 77.7 12.3 6.5 17.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,218 79.0 9.6 8.7 10.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,981 82.1 8.4 7.0 10.4

Management occupations

18,985 83.6 7.8 6.1 10.7

Chief executives

1,602 88.8 4.1 5.8 6.2

General and operations managers

1,058 86.4 6.6 3.5 12.5

Legislators

19 - - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

55 89.5 0.7 7.0 9.0

Marketing and sales managers

1,184 86.1 6.1 5.6 8.9

Public relations and fundraising managers

73 89.8 8.0 0.4 1.4

Administrative services managers

184 83.9 10.5 3.2 10.9

Computer and information systems managers

654 72.7 9.6 15.8 4.7

Financial managers

1,194 80.2 8.5 9.4 11.4

Compensation and benefits managers

24 - - - -

Human resources managers

321 77.8 11.1 7.1 10.1

Training and development managers

46 - - - -

Industrial production managers

274 87.2 5.4 5.5 10.9

Purchasing managers

227 75.1 14.4 5.9 10.0

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

281 85.1 9.6 2.4 17.3

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

962 96.6 0.9 1.0 5.7

Construction managers

994 90.9 3.5 2.5 13.9

Education administrators

958 78.6 15.3 3.3 11.8

Architectural and engineering managers

154 81.5 6.0 11.8 6.7

Food service managers

1,249 76.3 9.8 9.6 19.8

Funeral service managers

13 - - - -

Gaming managers

19 - - - -

Lodging managers

162 80.9 7.0 9.3 14.6

Medical and health services managers

677 79.0 12.7 5.7 11.8

Natural sciences managers

15 - - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

30 - - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

780 83.6 8.9 4.5 12.8

Social and community service managers

470 79.9 12.3 3.2 10.6

Emergency management directors

7 - - - -

Managers, all other

5,299 83.4 7.5 6.8 10.3

Business and financial operations occupations

7,996 78.4 9.9 9.0 9.5

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

47 - - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

16 - - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

226 87.0 6.9 3.5 14.6

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

279 82.5 9.9 4.2 10.3

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

318 73.6 19.5 4.4 9.5

Compliance officers

298 80.7 10.2 6.1 10.5

Cost estimators

127 90.0 3.1 5.8 8.1

Human resources workers

770 75.7 13.8 7.1 13.8

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

51 76.0 19.0 3.7 6.0

Training and development specialists

125 77.3 15.4 4.0 10.6

Logisticians

154 77.1 15.5 2.7 8.2

Management analysts

950 76.1 7.5 13.7 8.6

Meeting, convention, and event planners

146 82.0 8.8 7.4 11.9

Fundraisers

93 89.3 5.1 2.5 5.2

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

369 80.6 5.9 11.4 7.2

Business operations specialists, all other

269 75.8 10.3 10.9 10.5

Accountants and auditors

1,964 77.1 8.5 12.0 8.9

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

84 93.2 2.7 4.1 8.3

Budget analysts

51 64.6 19.3 12.2 3.6

Credit analysts

28 - - - -

Financial analysts

345 77.8 8.6 11.7 8.3

Personal financial advisors

551 82.2 6.9 8.6 6.3

Insurance underwriters

105 87.0 5.9 5.4 6.2

Financial examiners

21 - - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

403 81.7 12.2 4.2 11.6

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

53 58.8 25.8 12.8 12.1

Tax preparers

97 77.5 16.6 5.6 15.2

Financial specialists, all other

57 68.6 17.9 8.7 15.9

Professional and related occupations

37,237 76.7 10.5 10.0 9.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,352 65.7 8.7 23.1 7.8

Computer and information research scientists

24 - - - -

Computer systems analysts

663 67.8 9.7 20.3 8.3

Information security analysts

125 74.6 16.6 7.6 12.9

Computer programmers

454 67.8 8.5 21.8 8.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,815 54.0 5.8 37.7 5.1

Web developers

193 77.6 6.7 12.0 4.6

Computer support specialists

547 74.2 10.5 12.7 11.3

Database administrators

106 72.0 6.8 16.7 6.2

Network and computer systems administrators

199 77.2 9.7 11.7 8.5

Computer network architects

106 76.1 13.1 10.3 14.1

Computer occupations, all other

808 70.5 12.7 14.1 9.7

Actuaries

33 - - - -

Mathematicians

3 - - - -

Operations research analysts

152 80.5 6.8 8.3 9.7

Statisticians

101 69.6 8.2 21.1 7.7

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

22 - - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,305 77.5 6.8 13.3 9.2

Architects, except naval

208 82.6 6.3 8.8 8.5

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

48 - - - -

Aerospace engineers

134 78.0 6.5 14.5 7.3

Agricultural engineers

6 - - - -

Biomedical engineers

25 - - - -

Chemical engineers

87 75.6 4.0 17.1 2.4

Civil engineers

475 80.3 5.9 12.2 8.4

Computer hardware engineers

77 54.3 5.7 38.4 10.2

Electrical and electronics engineers

285 71.3 7.3 19.9 8.7

Environmental engineers

25 - - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

245 80.7 7.9 9.4 5.9

Marine engineers and naval architects

12 - - - -

Materials engineers

44 - - - -

Mechanical engineers

351 80.4 5.1 11.6 8.4

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 - - - -

Nuclear engineers

8 - - - -

Petroleum engineers

24 - - - -

Engineers, all other

582 71.8 5.4 20.6 9.8

Drafters

113 90.8 3.5 2.7 14.7

Engineering technicians, except drafters

496 76.5 12.1 8.3 12.7

Surveying and mapping technicians

53 86.3 6.6 3.5 10.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,485 76.9 6.3 14.4 9.5

Agricultural and food scientists

37 - - - -

Biological scientists

104 81.0 3.4 14.4 8.7

Conservation scientists and foresters

20 - - - -

Medical scientists

170 64.1 7.3 27.8 8.8

Life scientists, all other

2 - - - -

Astronomers and physicists

17 - - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

10 - - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

97 75.7 7.0 13.7 8.2

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

119 85.1 4.8 7.4 12.4

Physical scientists, all other

298 68.3 3.4 25.7 7.1

Economists

35 - - - -

Survey researchers

0 - - - -

Psychologists

234 89.9 5.8 3.5 10.3

Sociologists

2 - - - -

Urban and regional planners

25 - - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39 - - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

20 - - - -

Biological technicians

23 - - - -

Chemical technicians

56 80.1 10.6 6.3 12.2

Geological and petroleum technicians

20 - - - -

Nuclear technicians

3 - - - -

Social science research assistants

1 - - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

152 72.8 8.6 15.0 13.4

Community and social service occupations

2,717 72.9 20.1 3.6 13.0

Counselors

927 72.7 21.2 2.7 12.7

Social workers

823 69.6 23.0 3.7 14.3

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

97 70.6 26.7 0.4 15.8

Social and human service assistants

238 65.2 25.5 4.3 16.4

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

78 71.1 22.5 2.5 21.9

Clergy

413 79.1 12.2 5.9 7.7

Directors, religious activities and education

72 92.3 5.1 2.3 13.4

Religious workers, all other

69 89.6 5.1 4.7 8.3

Legal occupations

1,955 83.0 8.3 6.1 9.5

Lawyers

1,240 86.6 5.9 5.7 5.8

Judicial law clerks

7 - - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

70 81.5 13.4 4.8 8.6

Paralegals and legal assistants

444 77.1 11.8 6.7 17.7

Miscellaneous legal support workers

193 74.2 13.2 8.0 13.9

Education, training, and library occupations

9,455 81.7 10.2 5.3 11.0

Postsecondary teachers

1,386 75.3 7.0 15.1 8.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

655 75.8 15.7 5.2 14.9

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,604 84.7 10.2 2.6 10.2

Secondary school teachers

1,015 87.1 7.3 3.3 8.8

Special education teachers

331 85.2 9.2 3.5 6.5

Other teachers and instructors

1,017 78.4 11.7 6.1 11.6

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

48 - - - -

Librarians

179 87.8 6.0 3.2 9.8

Library technicians

33 - - - -

Teacher assistants

999 79.0 13.4 4.1 18.0

Other education, training, and library workers

189 82.4 12.6 3.5 12.2

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,285 82.8 7.7 5.9 11.6

Artists and related workers

248 86.8 4.5 3.8 11.1

Designers

983 82.2 5.7 9.0 11.0

Actors

40 - - - -

Producers and directors

186 86.7 6.4 3.5 8.0

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

345 81.1 9.3 4.3 10.8

Dancers and choreographers

23 - - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

202 78.9 12.4 3.9 9.7

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

50 86.4 5.0 0.3 7.3

Announcers

58 75.6 15.7 5.3 19.2

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

93 82.4 6.9 9.7 9.3

Public relations specialists

137 83.6 9.9 5.8 13.6

Editors

147 91.3 3.0 2.4 10.6

Technical writers

61 84.2 11.8 2.9 8.8

Writers and authors

225 89.6 5.9 3.4 4.8

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

118 67.8 14.6 11.2 35.3

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

119 78.3 9.1 7.9 14.0

Photographers

188 84.3 8.6 3.5 12.3

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

60 83.0 10.7 0.6 12.7

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

0 - - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,684 75.3 12.5 9.6 9.0

Chiropractors

61 86.1 2.8 5.3 6.4

Dentists

162 74.3 0.8 23.6 7.2

Dietitians and nutritionists

128 77.9 15.2 5.9 9.0

Optometrists

43 - - - -

Pharmacists

341 64.5 10.5 22.0 2.7

Physicians and surgeons

1,098 72.0 8.2 18.0 7.6

Physician assistants

131 84.3 4.5 6.8 8.6

Podiatrists

10 - - - -

Audiologists

14 - - - -

Occupational therapists

136 75.7 10.2 12.4 10.2

Physical therapists

304 76.4 5.9 14.1 4.0

Radiation therapists

16 - - - -

Recreational therapists

10 - - - -

Respiratory therapists

112 66.2 23.2 8.9 8.6

Speech-language pathologists

180 93.7 3.9 2.2 6.7

Exercise physiologists

2 - - - -

Therapists, all other

235 81.1 12.2 5.1 11.9

Veterinarians

104 89.8 0.0 6.1 1.6

Registered nurses

3,242 75.9 12.4 9.2 7.2

Nurse anesthetists

33 - - - -

Nurse midwives

10 - - - -

Nurse practitioners

225 76.6 12.2 9.9 2.6

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

35 - - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

323 71.1 15.3 10.0 13.0

Dental hygienists

208 88.2 5.1 5.0 11.3

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

398 76.7 12.8 5.8 9.7

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

206 86.6 10.5 0.8 11.5

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

710 74.7 15.6 5.4 16.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

687 67.0 27.0 3.3 13.8

Medical records and health information technicians

185 72.8 17.5 6.0 14.4

Opticians, dispensing

49 - - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

152 64.6 19.6 13.7 16.3

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

133 80.9 12.5 4.3 12.1

Service occupations

26,978 72.2 17.1 5.9 25.0

Healthcare support occupations

3,758 64.2 26.7 5.1 19.1

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,086 54.3 37.2 4.4 17.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

29 - - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

101 83.2 6.8 6.5 7.2

Massage therapists

183 72.3 8.8 13.1 11.1

Dental assistants

284 85.5 6.7 3.1 28.9

Medical assistants

596 75.1 15.3 4.8 29.0

Medical transcriptionists

41 - - - -

Pharmacy aides

49 - - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

59 97.2 2.1 0.4 3.7

Phlebotomists

124 70.5 24.6 2.9 14.9

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

206 64.7 25.7 7.1 13.7

Protective service occupations

3,128 73.9 20.3 2.2 15.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

44 - - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

83 89.2 7.6 0.4 5.6

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

42 - - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

78 69.8 20.7 2.2 11.3

Firefighters

318 86.7 8.5 1.3 11.6

Fire inspectors

21 - - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

372 60.5 34.2 1.7 12.3

Detectives and criminal investigators

164 82.7 12.7 1.9 8.4

Fish and game wardens

4 - - - -

Parking enforcement workers

4 - - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

716 82.9 12.6 1.5 17.0

Transit and railroad police

5 - - - -

Animal control workers

10 - - - -

Private detectives and investigators

97 72.6 23.5 3.0 17.7

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

937 62.9 29.6 3.5 18.8

Crossing guards

52 76.3 17.6 1.3 21.0

Transportation security screeners

43 - - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

139 87.7 6.4 0.7 14.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,378 73.7 13.9 6.9 27.0

Chefs and head cooks

474 63.0 14.3 16.4 26.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

597 76.7 14.9 4.8 22.6

Cooks

2,031 70.4 18.1 6.2 36.7

Food preparation workers

1,079 73.5 13.2 8.3 28.1

Bartenders

464 86.1 6.3 2.8 16.5

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

372 70.2 19.6 5.4 19.9

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

200 76.0 11.3 5.2 18.6

Waiters and waitresses

2,038 75.5 11.1 7.6 23.4

Food servers, nonrestaurant

191 68.4 19.2 6.6 21.6

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

338 77.1 12.6 6.2 34.2

Dishwashers

264 73.4 16.1 4.2 28.9

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

322 77.6 8.6 4.0 17.7

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

7 - - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,746 77.3 14.9 2.9 38.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

352 78.5 15.0 3.2 27.5

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

285 88.0 7.5 1.1 28.1

Janitors and building cleaners

2,265 74.0 18.2 3.4 31.6

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,475 72.2 17.4 4.1 49.2

Pest control workers

96 85.2 8.5 1.6 18.5

Grounds maintenance workers

1,273 86.0 8.2 0.9 43.6

Personal care and service occupations

5,968 69.4 16.1 10.1 18.2

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

211 82.7 9.1 4.1 10.3

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

213 72.4 4.5 19.8 13.0

Animal trainers

63 86.7 4.6 2.0 12.3

Nonfarm animal caretakers

296 88.8 5.0 2.1 12.5

Gaming services workers

93 40.5 19.6 27.3 12.2

Motion picture projectionists

1 - - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

38 - - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

210 79.6 10.8 5.4 15.5

Embalmers and funeral attendants

15 - - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

26 - - - -

Barbers

137 61.8 31.1 4.5 29.0

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

803 77.3 13.9 6.1 17.0

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

409 30.7 7.7 59.2 11.6

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

92 58.1 26.2 12.4 30.6

Tour and travel guides

61 82.3 1.7 5.5 5.3

Childcare workers

1,193 76.0 17.4 3.3 24.6

Personal care aides

1,458 60.2 25.1 8.4 21.6

Recreation and fitness workers

440 81.6 10.8 3.4 10.2

Residential advisors

30 - - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

178 73.8 14.3 7.0 18.1

Sales and office occupations

33,370 78.1 13.0 5.2 17.1

Sales and related occupations

15,582 79.8 11.2 5.4 16.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,232 81.0 9.5 5.5 14.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,247 86.2 6.5 5.7 14.4

Cashiers

3,164 69.2 17.9 7.3 24.1

Counter and rental clerks

97 72.8 18.3 6.6 15.8

Parts salespersons

142 84.9 10.4 1.3 19.8

Retail salespersons

3,105 78.9 12.4 4.5 18.7

Advertising sales agents

190 81.9 10.8 3.7 13.7

Insurance sales agents

595 81.2 10.1 5.6 13.4

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

231 85.9 5.4 7.5 11.9

Travel agents

82 81.6 9.5 7.1 6.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

557 85.2 7.7 5.0 12.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,281 88.8 5.9 3.9 10.9

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

62 79.5 11.3 3.1 16.0

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,095 85.0 7.9 5.2 10.7

Sales engineers

35 - - - -

Telemarketers

49 - - - -