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November 2021 Report 1095

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2020

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2020 image

In 2020, the overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States averaged 8.1 percent. However, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, jobless rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (11.7 percent), people categorized as being of Two or More Races (11.6 percent), and Blacks or African Americans (11.4 percent). For the year as a whole, the unemployment rates for Asians (8.7 percent) and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (8.9 percent) were not much different from the overall unemployment rate. The jobless rate was lower than the national rate for Whites (7.3 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 10.4 percent, was higher than the rate of 7.5 percent for non-Hispanics. (See table 1 and 2.)

The labor market downturn in 2020 reflected the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it. The effects of the pandemic on the job market, while widespread, varied across race and ethnicity groups. For example, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were disproportionally affected by the pandemic-induced recession in the spring of 2020, in part reflecting their overrepresentation in some of the hardest hit sectors of the economy.1 In addition to the effects of the pandemic, there are long-standing labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups. These differences are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2020.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (77 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders accounted for less than half a percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 25 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (14 percent), Vietnamese (9 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—17 percent—were classified as Other Asians, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Pakistani, Cambodian, Hmong, etc.—and those who were of two or more Asian groups (as calculated from the data in table 2).

People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race, made up 18 percent of the total labor force. Almost 9 in 10 Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent). Another 5 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (60 percent). Central Americans made up another 11 percent, about two-fifths of whom were Salvadorans. Nine percent of Hispanics in the labor force were Puerto Rican, and 8 percent were South American. People of Cuban and Dominican ethnicity each represented 4 percent of the Hispanic labor force. An additional 5 percent were classified as Other Hispanic or Latino. (See table 2.)

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, the percentage of the population either employed or unemployed—the labor force participation rate—was highest for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (66.7 percent in 2020), Hispanics (65.6 percent), and people of Two or More Races (64.4 percent). The participation rate for Asians was 62.7 percent; Whites, 61.8 percent; Blacks, 60.5 percent; and American Indians and Alaska Natives, 59.3 percent. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups (White, Black, Asian and Hispanic), Hispanics were more likely to engage in labor force activity than were the other groups, with a participation rate of 79.1 percent, and Blacks were the least likely, with a rate of 65.6 percent. The labor force participation rate for Asian adult men (74.0 percent) was higher than the rate for White adult men (70.3 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (60.7 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were Hispanics (58.8 percent), Asians (57.7 percent), and Whites (56.8 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Asians (19.2 percent) were less likely to participate in the labor force than were Whites (36.8 percent), Hispanics (32.4 percent), and Blacks (29.8 percent). (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment-population ratio (the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 52.4 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 60.8 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment-population ratio was 58.7 percent for Hispanics, 57.3 percent for Asians, 57.3 percent for Whites, 56.9 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, and 53.6 percent for Blacks. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics continued to have the highest employment-population ratio (71.8 percent). Black men had the lowest (58.0 percent), also continuing a longstanding employment pattern. The employment-population ratios for Asian adult men and White adult men were 68.3 percent and 65.6 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the major race and ethnicity groups: 54.4 percent for Blacks, 52.7 percent for Whites, 52.4 percent for Hispanics, and 52.3 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

The employment-population ratio among teenagers (16 to 19 years) continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (30.6 percent) was about 14 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (16.4 percent), 8 percentage points higher than for Black teens (22.6 percent), and about 5 percentage points higher than for Hispanic teens (25.5 percent).

Educational attainment

Among people 25 years and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent each for Whites, Blacks, and Asians. For Hispanics, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was 79 percent. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 67 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 43 percent of Whites, 34 percent of Blacks, and 24 percent of Hispanics. (See chart 2)

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For all major race and ethnicity groups, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than for other levels of educational attainment. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of people 25 years and older increased with educational attainment across all major race and ethnicity groups. Among full-time wage and salary workers, median usual weekly earnings for Blacks ($1,166) and Hispanics ($1,230) with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than for Whites ($1,433) and Asians ($1,650). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences.) (See table 17.)

Occupation

In 2020, 58 percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 43 percent of employed Whites, 35 percent of employed Blacks, and 26 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

Among employed men, 60 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 39 percent of Whites, 29 percent of Blacks, and 21 percent of Hispanics. About 18 percent of employed Black and Hispanic men worked in service occupations, compared with 11 percent and 12 percent of employed Asian and White men, respectively. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-six percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 11 percent of Black men, and 5 percent of Asian men. (See table 7.)

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 57 percent of Asian women, compared with 48 percent of White women, 40 percent of Black women, and 31 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 56 percent of Hispanics worked in two major occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 51 percent of Blacks, 45 percent of Whites, and 36 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 18 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters and paperhangers (51 percent), maids and housekeeping cleaners (46 percent), and construction laborers (46 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including home health aides (37 percent), transit and intercity bus drivers (37 percent), nursing assistants (35 percent), correctional officers and jailers (33 percent), and security guards and gaming surveillance officers (31 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupational categories, including manicurists and pedicurists (77 percent), software developers (34 percent), computer programmers (28 percent), and financial and investment analysts (21 percent). Whites made up 78 percent of all employed people, and accounted for 96 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; construction managers (91 percent); and wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives (89 percent). (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (20 percent) than were Whites (14 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (14 percent). Twenty-two percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White men (14 percent), Black men (12 percent), and Hispanic men (12 percent). Among employed women, Hispanics were more likely to work in leisure and hospitality (12 percent) than were Whites, Blacks, or Asians (8 percent each). A large share of employed women across all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (41 percent), Whites (37 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (31 percent). (See table 9.)

Family and parents

Asian families and Hispanic families were more likely to have at least one family member employed (85 percent and 84 percent, respectively) than were White families (78 percent) and Black families (76 percent). (See table 10.)

Families maintained by women accounted for 41 percent of Black families, 24 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 10 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (82 percent). In comparison, 72 percent of Black families, 76 percent of White families, and 78 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women were less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member. (As calculated from the data in table 10.)

Among mothers living with children under 18 years old, Black mothers were more likely to participate in the labor force (76.0 percent) than White mothers (71.3 percent), Asian mothers (64.3 percent), or Hispanic mothers (62.8 percent). (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers living with children under 18 years were much more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18 years. Labor force participation rates for these fathers were 93.4 percent for White men, 92.6 percent for Hispanic men, 92.5 percent for Asian men, and 86.0 percent for Black men.

Unemployment

In 2020, the overall unemployment rate for the United States averaged 8.1 percent, but the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. The unemployment rate averaged 11.7 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives, 11.6 percent for people of Two or More Races, 11.4 percent for Blacks, 8.9 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 8.7 percent for Asians, and 7.3 percent for Whites. The unemployment rate was 10.4 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Blacks were the most likely to be jobless (with an unemployment rate of 11.6 percent), while Whites (6.7 percent) were the least likely. The jobless rate for Asian men (7.7 percent) was lower than the rate for Hispanic men (9.2 percent). Among adult women, the unemployment rate for Whites (7.3 percent) was lower than for Asians (9.5 percent), Blacks (10.4 percent), and Hispanics (10.9 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Blacks and Hispanics had the highest unemployment rates, at 24.1 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively, compared with 16.6 percent for Whites and 14.9 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

Unemployed Asians and Blacks experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Hispanics and Whites. The median duration of unemployment for Asians and Blacks was 11.2 weeks and 11.0 weeks, respectively, whereas the figures for Hispanics and Whites were 9.6 weeks and 9.3 weeks, respectively. (See table 13.)

Of the 12.9 million people unemployed in 2020, 76 percent were job losers (workers who were on temporary layoff, lost their jobs permanently, or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (15 percent), job leavers (5 percent), and new entrants (4 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, about 78 percent of Asians, 77 percent of Whites, and 77 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 71 percent of Blacks. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

As calculated from the data in table 15, Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force, and 23 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force; wanted to work and were available to work; and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 77 percent of the labor force versus 66 percent of the marginally attached.

Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (26 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2020 were $758 for Hispanics, $794 for Blacks, $1,003 for Whites, and $1,310 for Asians. The earnings for White men ($1,110), Black men ($830), and Hispanic men ($797) were 77 percent, 57 percent, and 55 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian men ($1,447). The median earnings of White women ($905), Black women ($764), and Hispanic women ($705) were 79 percent, 67 percent, and 62 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($1,143). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.) (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men and White men working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group), at $1,883 and $1,599, respectively, were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,316) and Black men ($1,232) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity group were relatively close for service occupations: $600 for Asians, $578 for Whites, $551 for Blacks, and $535 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were considerably higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Notes

1 Sean M. Smith, Roxanna Edwards, and Hao C. Duong, "Unemployment rises in 2020, as the country battles the COVID-19 pandemic," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 2021, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2021.12.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2020 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Gender and race Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

260,329 160,742 61.7 147,795 56.8 12,947 8.1 99,587

Men

125,922 85,204 67.7 78,560 62.4 6,644 7.8 40,718

Women

134,407 75,538 56.2 69,234 51.5 6,304 8.3 58,869

White

201,306 124,431 61.8 115,341 57.3 9,090 7.3 76,875

Men

98,456 67,171 68.2 62,446 63.4 4,725 7.0 31,285

Women

102,850 57,260 55.7 52,895 51.4 4,365 7.6 45,590

Black

33,344 20,177 60.5 17,873 53.6 2,304 11.4 13,167

Men

15,250 9,542 62.6 8,392 55.0 1,150 12.1 5,708

Women

18,094 10,635 58.8 9,481 52.4 1,155 10.9 7,459

Asian

16,467 10,331 62.7 9,437 57.3 894 8.7 6,136

Men

7,708 5,468 70.9 5,041 65.4 427 7.8 2,240

Women

8,759 4,863 55.5 4,396 50.2 467 9.6 3,896

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,963 1,759 59.3 1,552 52.4 206 11.7 1,205

Men

1,450 947 65.3 828 57.1 119 12.5 503

Women

1,513 812 53.6 724 47.8 88 10.8 702

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

915 610 66.7 556 60.8 54 8.9 305

Men

443 320 72.2 291 65.7 29 9.0 123

Women

472 290 61.5 265 56.1 25 8.7 182

Two or More Races

5,334 3,435 64.4 3,036 56.9 399 11.6 1,899

Men

2,615 1,757 67.2 1,562 59.7 195 11.1 858

Women

2,718 1,678 61.7 1,473 54.2 204 12.2 1,041

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2020 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

260,329 160,742 61.7 147,795 56.8 12,947 8.1 99,587

Men

125,922 85,204 67.7 78,560 62.4 6,644 7.8 40,718

Women

134,407 75,538 56.2 69,234 51.5 6,304 8.3 58,869

Asian

16,467 10,331 62.7 9,437 57.3 894 8.7 6,136

Men

7,708 5,468 70.9 5,041 65.4 427 7.8 2,240

Women

8,759 4,863 55.5 4,396 50.2 467 9.6 3,896

Asian Indian

3,795 2,564 67.5 2,397 63.2 166 6.5 1,232

Chinese

3,667 2,279 62.1 2,077 56.6 201 8.8 1,389

Filipino

2,359 1,457 61.8 1,316 55.8 141 9.7 902

Japanese

864 504 58.3 465 53.8 39 7.7 361

Korean

1,306 785 60.1 726 55.6 59 7.5 521

Vietnamese

1,623 946 58.3 843 52.0 103 10.9 676

Other Asian

2,852 1,796 63.0 1,612 56.5 184 10.2 1,056

Hispanic or Latino

44,182 28,970 65.6 25,952 58.7 3,018 10.4 15,213

Men

21,981 16,455 74.9 14,857 67.6 1,598 9.7 5,527

Women

22,201 12,515 56.4 11,095 50.0 1,421 11.4 9,686

Mexican

26,393 17,278 65.5 15,568 59.0 1,710 9.9 9,116

Men

13,279 10,021 75.5 9,093 68.5 929 9.3 3,258

Women

13,114 7,257 55.3 6,475 49.4 782 10.8 5,858

Puerto Rican

4,019 2,491 62.0 2,200 54.7 291 11.7 1,527

Men

1,957 1,311 67.0 1,146 58.5 165 12.6 646

Women

2,062 1,180 57.2 1,054 51.1 126 10.7 882

Cuban

2,086 1,303 62.5 1,181 56.6 122 9.4 783

Men

1,063 756 71.1 691 64.9 65 8.6 308

Women

1,022 547 53.5 490 47.9 57 10.4 475

Central American

4,478 3,122 69.7 2,768 61.8 354 11.3 1,356

Men

2,288 1,841 80.5 1,662 72.6 179 9.7 447

Women

2,190 1,281 58.5 1,106 50.5 175 13.7 909

Salvadoran

1,675 1,176 70.2 1,034 61.7 142 12.1 500

Men

841 676 80.3 600 71.3 76 11.2 165

Women

834 500 59.9 434 52.0 66 13.3 334

Other Central American

2,803 1,946 69.5 1,735 61.9 212 10.9 856

Men

1,447 1,165 80.5 1,062 73.4 103 8.9 282

Women

1,355 781 57.6 672 49.6 109 13.9 574

South American

3,228 2,281 70.7 2,051 63.5 229 10.1 947

Men

1,532 1,220 79.7 1,111 72.5 109 9.0 311

Women

1,697 1,061 62.5 941 55.4 120 11.3 636

Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino

3,978 2,495 62.7 2,184 54.9 311 12.5 1,483

Men

1,862 1,306 70.1 1,155 62.0 150 11.5 557

Women

2,116 1,190 56.2 1,029 48.6 161 13.5 926

Dominican

1,651 1,050 63.6 884 53.6 166 15.8 601

Men

714 506 70.8 431 60.3 75 14.9 208

Women

937 544 58.1 454 48.5 91 16.6 392

Other Hispanic or Latino

2,327 1,445 62.1 1,300 55.8 145 10.1 883

Men

1,148 800 69.7 725 63.1 75 9.4 348

Women

1,179 645 54.7 575 48.7 70 10.9 534

Hispanic or Latino

44,182 28,970 65.6 25,952 58.7 3,018 10.4 15,213

Men

21,981 16,455 74.9 14,857 67.6 1,598 9.7 5,527

Women

22,201 12,515 56.4 11,095 50.0 1,421 11.4 9,686

White Hispanic or Latino

39,218 25,727 65.6 23,092 58.9 2,634 10.2 13,491

Men

19,535 14,689 75.2 13,283 68.0 1,406 9.6 4,845

Women

19,683 11,037 56.1 9,809 49.8 1,229 11.1 8,646

Black Hispanic or Latino

2,070 1,332 64.3 1,173 56.6 159 12.0 738

Men

961 668 69.5 588 61.2 80 12.0 293

Women

1,109 663 59.8 584 52.7 79 11.9 445

Asian Hispanic or Latino

480 330 68.8 295 61.5 35 10.6 150

Men

242 183 75.5 168 69.5 14 7.9 59

Women

238 148 61.9 127 53.4 20 13.8 91

Non-Hispanic or Latino

216,147 131,773 61.0 121,843 56.4 9,929 7.5 84,374

Men

103,941 68,749 66.1 63,703 61.3 5,046 7.3 35,191

Women

112,206 63,023 56.2 58,140 51.8 4,883 7.7 49,183

White non-Hispanic or Latino

162,089 98,704 60.9 92,248 56.9 6,456 6.5 63,384

Men

78,921 52,481 66.5 49,162 62.3 3,319 6.3 26,440

Women

83,167 46,223 55.6 43,086 51.8 3,137 6.8 36,944

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

31,274 18,845 60.3 16,700 53.4 2,145 11.4 12,429

Men

14,289 8,873 62.1 7,804 54.6 1,070 12.1 5,416

Women

16,985 9,972 58.7 8,896 52.4 1,076 10.8 7,013

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

15,987 10,001 62.6 9,142 57.2 859 8.6 5,986

Men

7,466 5,285 70.8 4,872 65.3 413 7.8 2,180

Women

8,521 4,716 55.3 4,269 50.1 446 9.5 3,805

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

Total, 16 years and older

260,329 160,742 61.7 147,795 56.8 12,947 8.1 99,587

16 to 19 years

16,567 5,720 34.5 4,695 28.3 1,025 17.9 10,846

20 years and older

243,762 155,022 63.6 143,100 58.7 11,922 7.7 88,740

20 to 24 years

20,918 14,487 69.3 12,497 59.7 1,990 13.7 6,431

25 to 54 years

126,045 102,630 81.4 95,331 75.6 7,298 7.1 23,416

55 to 64 years

42,191 27,293 64.7 25,454 60.3 1,839 6.7 14,898

65 years and older

54,608 10,613 19.4 9,818 18.0 795 7.5 43,995

Men, 16 years and older

125,922 85,204 67.7 78,560 62.4 6,644 7.8 40,718

16 to 19 years

8,373 2,859 34.1 2,333 27.9 526 18.4 5,514

20 years and older

117,549 82,345 70.1 76,227 64.8 6,118 7.4 35,204

20 to 24 years

10,448 7,417 71.0 6,401 61.3 1,016 13.7 3,032

25 to 54 years

62,218 54,675 87.9 50,890 81.8 3,785 6.9 7,543

55 to 64 years

20,327 14,382 70.8 13,467 66.2 916 6.4 5,945

65 years and older

24,556 5,871 23.9 5,470 22.3 401 6.8 18,685

Women, 16 years and older

134,407 75,538 56.2 69,234 51.5 6,304 8.3 58,869

16 to 19 years

8,194 2,861 34.9 2,361 28.8 500 17.5 5,333

20 years and older

126,213 72,677 57.6 66,873 53.0 5,804 8.0 53,536

20 to 24 years

10,470 7,070 67.5 6,096 58.2 974 13.8 3,400

25 to 54 years

63,828 47,955 75.1 44,442 69.6 3,513 7.3 15,873

55 to 64 years

21,864 12,911 59.1 11,987 54.8 924 7.2 8,953

65 years and older

30,052 4,742 15.8 4,348 14.5 394 8.3 25,310

White

Total, 16 years and older

201,306 124,431 61.8 115,341 57.3 9,090 7.3 76,875

16 to 19 years

12,151 4,467 36.8 3,723 30.6 744 16.6 7,683

20 years and older

189,156 119,964 63.4 111,617 59.0 8,346 7.0 69,192

20 to 24 years

15,335 10,951 71.4 9,633 62.8 1,318 12.0 4,384

25 to 54 years

94,426 77,804 82.4 72,797 77.1 5,007 6.4 16,621

55 to 64 years

33,772 22,278 66.0 20,889 61.9 1,389 6.2 11,495

65 years and older

45,623 8,930 19.6 8,298 18.2 633 7.1 36,692

Men, 16 years and older

98,456 67,171 68.2 62,446 63.4 4,725 7.0 31,285

16 to 19 years

6,173 2,267 36.7 1,876 30.4 391 17.3 3,906

20 years and older

92,283 64,903 70.3 60,570 65.6 4,334 6.7 27,380

20 to 24 years

7,712 5,676 73.6 5,008 64.9 668 11.8 2,035

25 to 54 years

47,317 42,224 89.2 39,577 83.6 2,648 6.3 5,093

55 to 64 years

16,480 11,971 72.6 11,270 68.4 701 5.9 4,509

65 years and older

20,775 5,032 24.2 4,715 22.7 317 6.3 15,743

Women, 16 years and older

102,850 57,260 55.7 52,895 51.4 4,365 7.6 45,590

16 to 19 years

5,978 2,200 36.8 1,847 30.9 353 16.0 3,778

20 years and older

96,872 55,060 56.8 51,048 52.7 4,013 7.3 41,812

20 to 24 years

7,623 5,275 69.2 4,625 60.7 650 12.3 2,348

25 to 54 years

47,109 35,580 75.5 33,221 70.5 2,359 6.6 11,529

55 to 64 years

17,292 10,307 59.6 9,619 55.6 688 6.7 6,986

65 years and older

24,848 3,898 15.7 3,582 14.4 316 8.1 20,950

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

33,344 20,177 60.5 17,873 53.6 2,304 11.4 13,167

16 to 19 years

2,419 720 29.8 546 22.6 173 24.1 1,699

20 years and older

30,925 19,458 62.9 17,326 56.0 2,131 11.0 11,468

20 to 24 years

3,079 2,005 65.1 1,600 52.0 404 20.2 1,074

25 to 54 years

17,404 13,588 78.1 12,205 70.1 1,384 10.2 3,816

55 to 64 years

5,140 2,902 56.5 2,652 51.6 250 8.6 2,238

65 years and older

5,302 962 18.2 869 16.4 93 9.7 4,339

Men, 16 years and older

15,250 9,542 62.6 8,392 55.0 1,150 12.1 5,708

16 to 19 years

1,197 322 26.9 242 20.2 81 25.0 875

20 years and older

14,053 9,220 65.6 8,150 58.0 1,069 11.6 4,833

20 to 24 years

1,485 987 66.4 777 52.3 210 21.2 498

25 to 54 years

8,069 6,465 80.1 5,770 71.5 695 10.8 1,604

55 to 64 years

2,332 1,318 56.5 1,203 51.6 116 8.8 1,013

65 years and older

2,167 449 20.7 401 18.5 49 10.8 1,718

Women, 16 years and older

18,094 10,635 58.8 9,481 52.4 1,155 10.9 7,459

16 to 19 years

1,221 397 32.5 305 24.9 93 23.3 824

20 years and older

16,873 10,238 60.7 9,176 54.4 1,062 10.4 6,635

20 to 24 years

1,594 1,018 63.9 824 51.7 195 19.1 576

25 to 54 years

9,335 7,123 76.3 6,434 68.9 688 9.7 2,212

55 to 64 years

2,809 1,584 56.4 1,450 51.6 134 8.5 1,225

65 years and older

3,134 513 16.4 468 14.9 45 8.7 2,621

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

16,467 10,331 62.7 9,437 57.3 894 8.7 6,136

16 to 19 years

921 177 19.2 151 16.4 26 14.9 744

20 years and older

15,546 10,154 65.3 9,287 59.7 867 8.5 5,392

20 to 24 years

1,341 727 54.2 605 45.1 122 16.8 614

25 to 54 years

9,342 7,418 79.4 6,867 73.5 551 7.4 1,924

55 to 64 years

2,216 1,475 66.6 1,335 60.2 141 9.5 741

65 years and older

2,647 534 20.2 480 18.2 53 10.0 2,113

Men, 16 years and older

7,708 5,468 70.9 5,041 65.4 427 7.8 2,240

16 to 19 years

448 97 21.7 84 18.7 13 13.6 351

20 years and older

7,260 5,371 74.0 4,957 68.3 414 7.7 1,889

20 to 24 years

669 345 51.6 284 42.5 61 17.7 324

25 to 54 years

4,433 3,960 89.3 3,709 83.7 251 6.3 473

55 to 64 years

1,019 774 76.0 702 68.9 72 9.3 245

65 years and older

1,139 291 25.6 262 23.0 29 9.9 847

Women, 16 years and older

8,759 4,863 55.5 4,396 50.2 467 9.6 3,896

16 to 19 years

473 80 16.9 67 14.1 13 16.5 393

20 years and older

8,286 4,783 57.7 4,330 52.3 454 9.5 3,503

20 to 24 years

672 382 56.8 321 47.7 61 16.0 290

25 to 54 years

4,909 3,458 70.4 3,159 64.3 300 8.7 1,451

55 to 64 years

1,197 701 58.5 633 52.8 68 9.7 496

65 years and older

1,508 243 16.1 218 14.5 25 10.1 1,265

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

44,182 28,970 65.6 25,952 58.7 3,018 10.4 15,213

16 to 19 years

4,017 1,303 32.4 1,026 25.5 277 21.2 2,714

20 years and older

40,166 27,667 68.9 24,925 62.1 2,741 9.9 12,499

20 to 24 years

4,791 3,418 71.3 2,904 60.6 513 15.0 1,373

25 to 54 years

25,266 19,880 78.7 18,080 71.6 1,800 9.1 5,386

55 to 64 years

5,252 3,417 65.1 3,091 58.9 326 9.5 1,835

65 years and older

4,857 952 19.6 850 17.5 102 10.7 3,905

Men, 16 years and older

21,981 16,455 74.9 14,857 67.6 1,598 9.7 5,527

16 to 19 years

2,031 671 33.1 524 25.8 147 21.9 1,360

20 years and older

19,950 15,783 79.1 14,333 71.8 1,451 9.2 4,167

20 to 24 years

2,411 1,820 75.5 1,568 65.0 252 13.8 591

25 to 54 years

12,852 11,472 89.3 10,507 81.8 965 8.4 1,379

55 to 64 years

2,566 1,939 75.6 1,759 68.5 180 9.3 627

65 years and older

2,122 552 26.0 499 23.5 54 9.7 1,569

Women, 16 years and older

22,201 12,515 56.4 11,095 50.0 1,421 11.4 9,686

16 to 19 years

1,986 632 31.8 502 25.3 130 20.5 1,354

20 years and older

20,215 11,884 58.8 10,593 52.4 1,291 10.9 8,332

20 to 24 years

2,380 1,598 67.1 1,336 56.1 261 16.4 782

25 to 54 years

12,414 8,408 67.7 7,573 61.0 835 9.9 4,006

55 to 64 years

2,686 1,478 55.0 1,332 49.6 145 9.8 1,208

65 years and older

2,735 400 14.6 352 12.9 48 12.1 2,335

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2020 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

2017

62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4

2018

62.9 69.1 57.1 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.8 60.2 63.5 71.6 56.4 66.3 75.7 57.0

2019

63.1 69.2 57.4 63.0 69.6 56.8 62.5 64.8 60.5 64.0 71.8 57.1 66.8 75.9 57.7

2020

61.7 67.7 56.2 61.8 68.2 55.7 60.5 62.6 58.8 62.7 70.9 55.5 65.6 74.9 56.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4a. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–20 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

2017

60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

2018

59.6 63.7 55.6 68.5 74.1 63.1 66.6 71.1 62.5

2019

60.8 65.1 56.7 68.4 73.9 63.2 67.1 70.9 63.5

2020

59.3 65.3 53.6 66.7 72.2 61.5 64.4 67.2 61.7

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2020 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

2017

60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2

2018

60.4 66.3 54.9 60.7 67.1 54.5 58.3 60.3 56.6 61.6 69.4 54.7 63.2 72.4 54.1

2019

60.8 66.6 55.4 61.0 67.3 54.9 58.7 60.6 57.1 62.3 69.8 55.6 63.9 72.9 55.0

2020

56.8 62.4 51.5 57.3 63.4 51.4 53.6 55.0 52.4 57.3 65.4 50.2 58.7 67.6 50.0

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5a. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2020 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

2017

55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

2018

55.6 59.3 52.1 64.9 70.3 59.7 62.9 66.8 59.3

2019

57.1 60.9 53.5 66.2 71.5 61.2 63.6 67.0 60.3

2020

52.4 57.1 47.8 60.8 65.7 56.1 56.9 59.7 54.2

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total, 25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college1
Some college,
no degree
Associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher2

Total

Civilian noninstitutional population

222,844 19,900 62,121 34,076 23,251 83,495

Civilian labor force

140,535 8,930 34,741 20,766 15,636 60,463

Percent of population

63.1 44.9 55.9 60.9 67.2 72.4

Employed

130,603 7,888 31,606 19,037 14,532 57,538

Employment-population ratio

58.6 39.6 50.9 55.9 62.5 68.9

Unemployed

9,933 1,041 3,135 1,728 1,103 2,925

Unemployment rate

7.1 11.7 9.0 8.3 7.1 4.8

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

107,101 10,112 31,393 16,489 10,136 38,971

Civilian labor force

74,928 5,737 20,686 11,162 7,464 29,880

Percent of population

70.0 56.7 65.9 67.7 73.6 76.7

Employed

69,826 5,130 18,910 10,297 6,966 28,522

Employment-population ratio

65.2 50.7 60.2 62.4 68.7 73.2

Unemployed

5,102 606 1,776 865 497 1,357

Unemployment rate

6.8 10.6 8.6 7.7 6.7 4.5

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,743 9,789 30,728 17,587 13,115 44,524

Civilian labor force

65,607 3,193 14,055 9,604 8,172 30,584

Percent of population

56.7 32.6 45.7 54.6 62.3 68.7

Employed

60,776 2,758 12,696 8,740 7,566 29,016

Employment-population ratio

52.5 28.2 41.3 49.7 57.7 65.2

Unemployed

4,830 435 1,359 864 606 1,568

Unemployment rate

7.4 13.6 9.7 9.0 7.4 5.1

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

173,821 15,059 48,448 26,441 18,702 65,171

Civilian labor force

109,013 7,047 26,970 15,844 12,499 46,653

Percent of population

62.7 46.8 55.7 59.9 66.8 71.6

Employed

101,984 6,304 24,822 14,648 11,688 44,522

Employment-population ratio

58.7 41.9 51.2 55.4 62.5 68.3

Unemployed

7,028 743 2,148 1,196 812 2,130

Unemployment rate

6.4 10.5 8.0 7.5 6.5 4.6

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

84,571 7,850 24,639 12,898 8,305 30,880

Civilian labor force

59,227 4,702 16,430 8,676 6,118 23,301

Percent of population

70.0 59.9 66.7 67.3 73.7 75.5

Employed

55,562 4,264 15,185 8,068 5,736 22,309

Employment-population ratio

65.7 54.3 61.6 62.6 69.1 72.2

Unemployed

3,665 438 1,245 608 382 992

Unemployment rate

6.2 9.3 7.6 7.0 6.2 4.3

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

89,249 7,209 23,809 13,543 10,397 34,291

Civilian labor force

49,785 2,346 10,540 7,168 6,381 23,351

Percent of population

55.8 32.5 44.3 52.9 61.4 68.1

Employed

46,422 2,041 9,637 6,580 5,951 22,213

Employment-population ratio

52.0 28.3 40.5 48.6 57.2 64.8

Unemployed

3,363 305 903 588 429 1,139

Unemployment rate

6.8 13.0 8.6 8.2 6.7 4.9

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,846 2,942 9,124 5,127 2,885 7,768

Civilian labor force

17,453 1,050 5,133 3,297 2,025 5,948

Percent of population

62.7 35.7 56.3 64.3 70.2 76.6

Employed

15,726 881 4,466 2,938 1,843 5,597

Employment-population ratio

56.5 30.0 48.9 57.3 63.9 72.1

Unemployed

1,727 169 666 358 182 351

Unemployment rate

9.9 16.1 13.0 10.9 9.0 5.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,568 1,409 4,563 2,341 1,105 3,149

Civilian labor force

8,233 555 2,778 1,590 817 2,493

Percent of population

65.5 39.4 60.9 67.9 73.9 79.1

Employed

7,373 462 2,413 1,418 755 2,325

Employment-population ratio

58.7 32.8 52.9 60.6 68.3 73.8

Unemployed

860 93 365 172 62 168

Unemployment rate

10.4 16.7 13.1 10.8 7.6 6.7

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,278 1,533 4,561 2,786 1,780 4,618

Civilian labor force

9,220 495 2,355 1,706 1,208 3,456

Percent of population

60.3 32.3 51.6 61.2 67.9 74.8

Employed

8,353 419 2,053 1,520 1,088 3,273

Employment-population ratio

54.7 27.3 45.0 54.6 61.1 70.9

Unemployed

867 76 302 186 120 183

Unemployment rate

9.4 15.4 12.8 10.9 10.0 5.3

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,205 1,083 2,511 1,094 873 8,645

Civilian labor force

9,427 448 1,378 680 569 6,353

Percent of population

66.4 41.4 54.9 62.2 65.2 73.5

Employed

8,682 374 1,189 607 513 6,000

Employment-population ratio

61.1 34.5 47.3 55.5 58.8 69.4

Unemployed

745 75 189 73 56 353

Unemployment rate

7.9 16.6 13.7 10.7 9.8 5.6

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,591 416 1,113 552 392 4,118

Civilian labor force

5,026 233 721 394 275 3,403

Percent of population

76.3 55.9 64.8 71.4 70.1 82.6

Employed

4,673 190 628 361 247 3,248

Employment-population ratio

70.9 45.6 56.4 65.3 63.1 78.9

Unemployed

353 43 93 34 27 156

Unemployment rate

7.0 18.5 12.9 8.5 9.9 4.6

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,614 666 1,398 542 481 4,528

Civilian labor force

4,402 216 657 286 294 2,949

Percent of population

57.8 32.4 47.0 52.8 61.2 65.1

Employed

4,009 184 561 247 265 2,752

Employment-population ratio

52.7 27.6 40.1 45.5 55.2 60.8

Unemployed

392 31 96 39 29 197

Unemployment rate

8.9 14.6 14.6 13.7 9.8 6.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,375 8,966 11,018 4,918 3,072 7,401

Civilian labor force

24,249 5,107 7,477 3,553 2,304 5,808

Percent of population

68.5 57.0 67.9 72.2 75.0 78.5

Employed

22,021 4,535 6,724 3,231 2,103 5,427

Employment-population ratio

62.3 50.6 61.0 65.7 68.5 73.3

Unemployed

2,228 572 753 321 201 381

Unemployment rate

9.2 11.2 10.1 9.0 8.7 6.6

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,539 4,615 5,783 2,377 1,401 3,363

Civilian labor force

13,963 3,387 4,647 1,911 1,178 2,841

Percent of population

79.6 73.4 80.4 80.4 84.0 84.5

Employed

12,764 3,057 4,218 1,757 1,074 2,657

Employment-population ratio

72.8 66.2 72.9 73.9 76.7 79.0

Unemployed

1,199 329 429 154 103 183

Unemployment rate

8.6 9.7 9.2 8.1 8.8 6.5

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,836 4,351 5,235 2,541 1,670 4,038

Civilian labor force

10,286 1,720 2,830 1,641 1,127 2,967

Percent of population

57.7 39.5 54.1 64.6 67.4 73.5

Employed

9,257 1,478 2,506 1,474 1,029 2,770

Employment-population ratio

51.9 34.0 47.9 58.0 61.6 68.6

Unemployed

1,029 242 324 168 98 198

Unemployment rate

10.0 14.1 11.5 10.2 8.7 6.7

1 Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
2 Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 annual averages
Occupation and gender Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

147,795 115,341 17,873 9,437 25,952

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.1 43.4 34.7 58.2 25.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.4 19.2 13.4 19.3 11.4

Management occupations

12.6 13.4 8.3 11.4 7.6

Business and financial operations occupations

5.8 5.8 5.1 7.9 3.7

Professional and related occupations

24.7 24.2 21.4 38.9 14.1

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.8 3.2 2.8 13.6 1.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.1 2.1 1.1 4.6 1.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.1 1.1 0.6 2.6 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.8 1.7 3.0 1.0 1.4

Legal occupations

1.3 1.4 0.9 1.1 0.6

Education, training, and library occupations

6.0 6.3 5.0 4.6 3.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.2 1.4 1.9 1.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6.5 6.3 6.5 9.5 3.5

Service occupations

15.5 14.5 21.7 13.7 22.0

Healthcare support occupations

3.2 2.7 6.8 3.1 3.7

Protective service occupations

2.0 2.0 3.3 0.8 1.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.4 4.2 5.1 4.4 6.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.4 3.4 4.0 1.7 7.4

Personal care and service occupations

2.3 2.1 2.5 3.6 2.1

Sales and office occupations

20.1 20.3 20.9 16.0 19.8

Sales and related occupations

9.6 9.9 8.4 8.3 9.3

Office and administrative support occupations

10.5 10.4 12.5 7.7 10.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.0 10.0 5.6 3.0 16.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.7 0.8 0.3 0.2 1.7

Construction and extraction occupations

5.2 5.9 3.0 1.3 10.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.1 3.4 2.4 1.5 3.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

12.3 11.8 17.1 9.2 16.7

Production occupations

5.1 5.1 5.6 4.5 6.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.2 6.7 11.5 4.7 9.8

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

78,560 62,446 8,392 5,041 14,857

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.1 39.3 28.5 59.6 21.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.1 20.2 12.4 19.7 10.6

Management occupations

14.1 15.1 8.6 13.0 7.7

Business and financial operations occupations

5.0 5.1 3.9 6.7 2.9

Professional and related occupations

20.0 19.1 16.1 39.9 10.5

Computer and mathematical occupations

5.3 4.6 4.0 18.2 2.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.4 3.4 1.6 6.3 2.0

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 0.6 2.6 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.0 1.9 0.6 0.6

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.5 0.8 0.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.0 3.0 2.8 3.1 1.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.9 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

3.1 2.9 3.0 6.7 1.7

Service occupations

12.5 11.8 17.6 10.6 17.6

Healthcare support occupations

0.9 0.7 1.9 1.4 0.9

Protective service occupations

2.9 2.9 4.3 1.2 2.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

3.8 3.5 5.1 4.3 6.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.9 3.8 4.8 1.8 7.1

Personal care and service occupations

1.0 0.8 1.5 1.8 0.9

Sales and office occupations

14.6 14.6 15.4 13.5 13.5

Sales and related occupations

9.2 9.6 7.5 8.3 7.9

Office and administrative support occupations

5.4 5.0 7.9 5.1 5.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.0 17.5 11.2 5.0 26.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.0 1.1 0.4 0.2 2.3

Construction and extraction occupations

9.4 10.4 6.1 2.2 17.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.6 6.0 4.7 2.5 6.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.7 16.9 27.1 11.4 21.4

Production occupations

6.9 7.0 7.9 4.8 8.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

10.8 9.9 19.3 6.5 13.3

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

69,234 52,895 9,481 4,396 11,095

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

47.5 48.4 40.2 56.6 31.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.5 18.1 14.2 18.8 12.4

Management occupations

10.8 11.5 8.0 9.4 7.5

Business and financial operations occupations

6.7 6.6 6.1 9.4 4.9

Professional and related occupations

30.0 30.3 26.0 37.8 19.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.0 1.6 1.8 8.5 0.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.8 0.6 0.6 2.6 0.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.1 0.6 2.5 0.6

Community and social service occupations

2.7 2.6 4.0 1.4 2.4

Legal occupations

1.4 1.5 1.2 1.5 0.9

Education, training, and library occupations

9.5 10.2 7.0 6.4 6.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.3 2.4 1.3 2.3 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

10.3 10.3 9.5 12.7 5.9

Service occupations

18.8 17.6 25.3 17.3 27.9

Healthcare support occupations

5.9 5.0 11.1 5.2 7.6

Protective service occupations

1.0 0.9 2.4 0.3 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.2 5.1 5.2 4.6 7.8

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.0 3.0 3.4 1.5 7.9

Personal care and service occupations

3.8 3.7 3.4 5.8 3.7

Sales and office occupations

26.3 27.0 25.7 18.8 28.1

Sales and related occupations

10.0 10.2 9.2 8.2 11.3

Office and administrative support occupations

16.3 16.8 16.5 10.7 16.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.1 1.2 0.7 0.6 2.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

6.2 5.8 8.1 6.7 10.4

Production occupations

3.1 2.9 3.5 4.1 5.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.1 2.9 4.7 2.6 5.2

Note: Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system, derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total
employed
Percent of total employed
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over

147,795 78.0 12.1 6.4 17.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,644 78.7 9.7 8.6 10.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,143 81.7 8.8 6.7 10.9

Management occupations

18,564 83.4 8.0 5.8 10.7

Chief executives

1,669 88.0 4.3 5.4 7.4

General and operations managers

1,057 84.4 7.1 4.5 12.4

Legislators

25 - - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

56 80.5 14.7 3.9 3.5

Marketing managers

554 84.1 5.5 7.6 9.9

Sales managers

521 87.6 5.8 4.2 7.6

Public relations and fundraising managers

95 91.0 4.3 2.3 7.6

Administrative services managers

65 83.4 9.5 6.5 16.9

Facilities managers

134 90.1 4.9 2.4 12.6

Computer and information systems managers

744 75.5 7.0 15.5 5.2

Financial managers

1,309 79.4 9.7 8.2 9.9

Compensation and benefits managers

18 - - - -

Human resources managers

287 81.0 12.0 4.9 14.0

Training and development managers

52 85.4 9.2 0.2 10.1

Industrial production managers

272 84.3 5.9 7.2 13.5

Purchasing managers

212 83.2 12.1 3.1 7.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

300 79.3 10.7 6.1 17.2

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

901 96.3 0.7 0.8 4.3

Construction managers

966 91.4 3.3 2.9 14.5

Education and childcare administrators

948 79.5 14.3 3.3 12.0

Architectural and engineering managers

171 84.2 3.4 9.5 4.7

Food service managers

1,092 77.7 9.8 9.4 19.8

Funeral home managers

10 - - - -

Entertainment and recreation managers

40 - - - -

Lodging managers

123 74.8 12.4 10.4 11.2

Medical and health services managers

711 77.6 13.3 5.6 11.5

Natural sciences managers

16 - - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

24 - - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

781 84.7 8.6 3.5 12.9

Social and community service managers

424 75.9 18.3 2.1 10.3

Emergency management directors

12 - - - -

Personal service managers, all other

2 - - - -

Managers, all other

4,969 83.2 8.1 5.9 10.4

Business and financial operations occupations

8,578 78.0 10.5 8.7 11.2

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

36 - - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10 - - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

178 82.8 9.7 5.8 14.9

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

230 81.1 11.9 3.9 11.3

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

350 71.6 19.8 4.5 15.0

Compliance officers

305 75.4 12.0 7.5 8.6

Cost estimators

121 93.7 2.9 2.0 14.1

Human resources workers

832 76.9 13.0 5.8 15.1

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

74 84.6 11.2 2.2 9.7

Training and development specialists

115 82.1 13.2 2.7 14.1

Logisticians

147 82.6 11.8 4.4 20.6

Project management specialists

715 77.5 12.3 7.9 11.1

Management analysts

997 77.8 8.4 11.9 9.3

Meeting, convention, and event planners

118 85.8 7.7 4.8 11.9

Fundraisers

99 85.0 3.7 8.4 7.4

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

438 82.8 6.5 8.1 9.1

Business operations specialists, all other

308 72.6 12.4 11.3 9.7

Accountants and auditors

1,696 77.3 9.5 11.2 10.2

Property appraisers and assessors

86 96.5 2.3 1.2 6.0

Budget analysts

60 69.6 13.9 7.6 14.9

Credit analysts

30 - - - -

Financial and investment analysts

351 68.5 7.8 21.0 10.2

Personal financial advisors

514 78.5 7.9 10.7 8.2

Insurance underwriters

102 78.6 9.3 6.2 11.9

Financial examiners

25 - - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

400 79.0 13.1 4.7 12.4

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

61 76.6 14.5 5.8 15.9

Tax preparers

96 81.9 13.9 3.9 17.4

Other financial specialists

82 71.0 15.5 7.7 9.0

Professional and related occupations

36,502 76.5 10.5 10.1 10.1

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,603 65.4 9.1 23.0 8.4

Computer and information research scientists

42 - - - -

Computer systems analysts

594 68.0 9.7 18.7 8.1

Information security analysts

137 79.8 11.9 6.9 15.8

Computer programmers

417 63.9 6.3 28.3 6.6

Software developers

1,883 57.5 6.2 34.1 5.9

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

82 57.6 12.0 29.6 9.2

Web developers

104 79.3 3.7 16.2 5.9

Web and digital interface designers

70 81.7 5.9 9.9 15.8

Computer support specialists

660 72.2 13.0 10.7 11.6

Database administrators and architects

121 62.1 5.9 30.1 5.6

Network and computer systems administrators

238 77.3 9.0 11.8 7.8

Computer network architects

107 67.8 14.8 15.5 16.1

Computer occupations, all other

792 67.3 13.3 15.8 11.2

Actuaries

32 - - - -

Mathematicians

3 - - - -

Operations research analysts

156 77.5 13.6 8.6 9.5

Statisticians

61 60.4 7.9 28.0 2.0

Other mathematical science occupations

103 63.6 9.3 25.7 6.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,169 78.0 6.0 13.6 10.6

Architects, except landscape and naval

190 78.8 7.2 12.5 8.5

Landscape architects

27 - - - -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

45 - - - -

Aerospace engineers

129 83.3 6.8 9.1 10.5

Agricultural engineers

7 - - - -

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

22 - - - -

Chemical engineers

70 81.5 1.5 13.9 10.0

Civil engineers

422 81.9 3.9 13.6 12.4

Computer hardware engineers

89 54.6 5.4 39.2 14.5

Electrical and electronics engineers

268 76.1 5.4 17.2 8.9

Environmental engineers

33 - - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

225 74.7 5.2 19.1 5.9

Marine engineers and naval architects

16 - - - -

Materials engineers

53 83.5 5.3 9.4 7.1

Mechanical engineers

357 80.4 5.0 11.5 6.7

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17 - - - -

Nuclear engineers

10 - - - -

Petroleum engineers

15 - - - -

Engineers, all other

560 72.3 7.5 17.7 10.0

Architectural and civil drafters

38 - - - -

Other drafters

95 90.4 1.8 6.6 22.9

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

82 79.5 8.8 7.1 15.4

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

344 76.5 9.0 8.7 16.4

Surveying and mapping technicians

56 89.6 3.2 3.0 6.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,627 75.1 6.5 14.9 8.5

Agricultural and food scientists

32 - - - -

Biological scientists

84 79.8 5.6 13.7 10.1

Conservation scientists and foresters

19 - - - -

Medical scientists

112 58.7 3.8 37.4 4.7

Life scientists, all other

6 - - - -

Astronomers and physicists

19 - - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

10 - - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

80 64.2 10.7 19.7 2.2

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

46 - - - -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

37 - - - -

Physical scientists, all other

336 61.3 6.4 30.1 6.2

Economists

26 - - - -

Survey researchers

5 - - - -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

18 - - - -

School psychologists

43 - - - -

Other psychologists

145 82.7 11.8 4.1 3.5

Sociologists

3 - - - -

Urban and regional planners

47 - - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

50 83.4 1.9 5.5 7.8

Agricultural and food science technicians

41 - - - -

Biological technicians

24 - - - -

Chemical technicians

68 82.5 10.3 5.0 12.1

Environmental science and geoscience technicians

21 - - - -

Nuclear technicians

7 - - - -

Social science research assistants

4 - - - -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

258 78.0 4.9 10.9 10.7

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

85 90.3 1.6 2.9 11.7

Community and social service occupations

2,717 72.7 19.9 3.4 13.5

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

130 70.2 25.4 1.7 16.8

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

343 73.0 19.0 4.0 14.8

Marriage and family therapists

40 - - - -

Mental health counselors

138 87.5 9.4 2.0 14.0

Rehabilitation counselors

28 - - - -

Counselors, all other

225 75.0 18.3 3.7 15.2

Child, family, and school social workers

62 65.3 26.8 0.6 21.3

Healthcare social workers

78 69.0 20.3 8.2 9.2

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

24 - - - -

Social workers, all other

673 64.4 25.7 3.7 15.0

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

105 66.6 26.9 0.7 12.8

Social and human service assistants

230 72.6 18.9 3.2 14.9

Other community and social service specialists

100 61.6 30.4 3.3 12.7

Clergy

420 82.3 11.7 3.8 7.8

Directors, religious activities and education

57 94.4 2.4 2.1 8.9

Religious workers, all other

64 77.7 13.4 6.2 11.7

Legal occupations

1,882 83.5 8.6 5.6 8.3

Lawyers

1,183 86.5 6.8 5.2 5.8

Judicial law clerks

21 - - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

78 74.4 16.6 5.7 6.2

Paralegals and legal assistants

416 79.9 10.3 6.8 15.1

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

101 76.4 11.5 9.2 7.8

Legal support workers, all other

83 73.2 17.6 2.9 10.1

Education, training, and library occupations

8,902 82.0 10.0 4.9 10.9

Postsecondary teachers

1,156 79.1 6.5 11.2 6.2

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

535 82.8 12.0 2.2 15.3

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,371 84.1 10.5 2.8 10.5

Secondary school teachers

963 87.0 7.7 3.0 8.9

Special education teachers

332 87.5 7.2 1.8 8.9

Tutors

195 75.9 12.4 7.5 16.0

Other teachers and instructors

687 79.1 11.6 6.2 9.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

57 94.6 0.6 4.4 7.6

Librarians and media collections specialists

176 83.1 9.5 3.5 9.9

Library technicians

34 - - - -

Teaching assistants

1,220 74.1 13.6 7.6 16.6

Other educational instruction and library workers

176 86.5 7.2 4.0 12.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,042 82.0 8.5 5.9 11.2

Artists and related workers

256 85.7 3.6 6.1 9.3

Commercial and industrial designers

11 - - - -

Fashion designers

34 - - - -

Floral designers

50 90.0 2.6 0.8 18.6

Graphic designers

295 83.0 6.7 7.8 14.4

Interior designers

131 79.7 6.7 10.6 7.6

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

24 - - - -

Other designers

375 79.2 6.3 11.1 11.5

Actors

29 - - - -

Producers and directors

181 83.8 6.1 6.7 8.7

Athletes and sports competitors

28 - - - -

Coaches and scouts

210 75.2 14.7 3.5 5.4

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

25 - - - -

Dancers and choreographers

7 - - - -

Music directors and composers

50 83.3 10.1 2.2 14.0

Musicians and singers

118 78.5 12.9 3.8 13.0

Disc jockeys, except radio

15 - - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

41 - - - -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

28 - - - -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

77 80.1 10.9 6.7 5.3

Public relations specialists

145 83.3 11.0 3.4 13.6

Editors

99 94.5 0.7 0.8 8.5

Technical writers

65 88.0 7.3 3.6 8.0

Writers and authors

242 85.1 7.9 4.3 2.4

Interpreters and translators

91 74.6 8.3 11.4 29.4

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

31 - - - -

Media and communication workers, all other

19 - - - -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

77 83.6 10.6 5.8 20.2

Photographers

186 84.9 6.7 5.6 10.0

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

100 74.5 16.3 5.8 18.5

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

2 - - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,559 75.6 12.1 9.4 9.4

Chiropractors

66 90.7 2.4 5.1 6.1

Dentists

173 78.8 1.4 16.6 5.5

Dietitians and nutritionists

106 74.7 15.5 8.2 9.9

Optometrists

42 - - - -

Pharmacists

327 67.9 8.3 20.0 3.4

Emergency medicine physicians

17 - - - -

Radiologists

25 - - - -

Other physicians

929 67.0 8.5 22.0 8.8

Surgeons

54 82.4 4.2 13.4 15.6

Physician assistants

141 79.9 6.3 12.3 7.9

Podiatrists

12 - - - -

Audiologists

20 - - - -

Occupational therapists

124 87.6 4.0 7.4 6.5

Physical therapists

281 77.8 5.2 15.0 4.4

Radiation therapists

10 - - - -

Recreational therapists

21 - - - -

Respiratory therapists

122 75.0 18.5 2.3 7.0

Speech-language pathologists

195 89.7 6.6 3.6 8.5

Exercise physiologists

6 - - - -

Therapists, all other

233 79.2 11.7 4.3 12.1

Veterinarians

83 91.9 0.0 5.7 7.0

Registered nurses

3,256 75.3 13.4 8.7 7.9

Nurse anesthetists

42 - - - -

Nurse midwives

5 - - - -

Nurse practitioners

218 86.2 9.1 3.2 6.3

Acupuncturists

23 - - - -

Healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

15 - - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

331 72.4 13.7 9.5 19.0

Dental hygienists

190 88.9 2.1 7.7 10.5

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

50 73.9 16.2 6.7 12.3

Diagnostic medical sonographers

90 79.3 9.3 5.5 5.1

Radiologic technologists and technicians

254 85.6 6.5 5.4 11.2

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

57 74.2 16.3 8.6 6.7

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

35 - - - -

Emergency medical technicians

141 82.4 11.9 4.0 11.4

Paramedics

78 93.2 3.9 2.8 8.5

Pharmacy technicians

336 72.8 15.0 7.2 17.6

Psychiatric technicians

67 67.6 24.2 1.4 12.1

Surgical technologists

108 80.9 14.9 2.5 17.3

Veterinary technologists and technicians

105 91.8 3.2 1.2 9.8

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

66 68.5 27.6 2.1 5.3

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

596 68.0 25.6 2.9 15.3

Medical records specialists

183 76.8 16.1 1.7 13.2

Opticians, dispensing

40 - - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

185 57.8 24.8 15.3 13.5

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

100 68.9 17.3 10.8 3.5

Service occupations

22,853 72.9 17.0 5.6 25.0

Healthcare support occupations

4,790 64.1 25.3 6.2 20.2

Home health aides

571 55.3 37.4 5.0 25.4

Personal care aides

1,282 62.6 22.2 9.4 21.4

Nursing assistants

1,364 57.0 35.2 4.7 13.7

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

55 51.4 37.2 1.2 8.7

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

37 - - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

78 88.6 6.6 3.7 5.8

Massage therapists

151 73.7 10.5 10.0 11.0

Dental assistants

288 85.8 5.5 4.3 31.7

Medical assistants

561 72.9 17.4 4.0 27.9

Medical transcriptionists

46 - - - -

Pharmacy aides

48 - - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

60 80.3 2.6 1.8 26.7

Phlebotomists

101 66.0 27.6 2.8 19.0

Other healthcare support workers

147 65.5 23.6 7.1 23.6

Protective service occupations

3,024 74.5 19.4 2.5 15.9

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

51 63.6 30.6 2.0 11.1

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

100 89.2 7.5 2.3 14.0

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

33 - - - -

First-line supervisors of security workers

68 70.5 20.9 3.9 11.6

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

7 - - - -

Firefighters

335 85.0 8.4 1.2 13.1

Fire inspectors

27 - - - -

Bailiffs

18 - - - -

Correctional officers and jailers

346 60.9 32.9 2.7 12.8

Detectives and criminal investigators

159 82.8 13.9 0.7 17.0

Fish and game wardens

4 - - - -

Parking enforcement workers

12 - - - -

Police officers

758 85.0 10.9 1.9 14.7

Animal control workers

8 - - - -

Private detectives and investigators

90 71.6 21.9 3.8 16.2

Security guards and gambling surveillance officers

800 61.0