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November 2023 Report 1105

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2022

Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2022 image

In 2022, the labor market continued to rebound from the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States declined by 1.7 percentage points to 3.6 percent from 2021 to 2022. This rate differed little from its pre-pandemic value of 3.7 percent in 2019. However, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups in 2022. Among the race groups, jobless rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.2 percent), Blacks or African Americans (6.1 percent), and people categorized as being of Two or More Races (5.5 percent). The unemployment rate for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (4.0 percent) was little different from the overall unemployment rate in 2022. The jobless rates for Asians (2.8 percent) and Whites (3.2 percent) were lower than the national rate. The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity was 4.3 percent, compared with the rate of 3.5 percent for non-Hispanics. (See tables 1 and 2.)

There are long-standing labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups. These differences are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in age distribution; educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives; Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders; people who are of Two or More Races; detailed Asian groups; and detailed Hispanic groups. However, because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. See the technical notes for definitions of terms and concepts used in this report. Additional information about the CPS can be found at: www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2022.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (77 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 7 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders accounted for about half a percent. People who were of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 25 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (15 percent), Vietnamese (10 percent), Koreans (7 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—18 percent—were classified as Other Asians, including individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Pakistani, Cambodian, Hmong, and others—and those who were of two or more Asian groups. (See table 2.)

People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race, made up 19 percent of the total labor force in 2022. Almost 9 in 10 Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent). Another 5 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. Most Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (60 percent). Central Americans made up another 11 percent, about one-third of whom were Salvadorans. Eight percent of Hispanics in the labor force were Puerto Rican, and 8 percent were South American. People of Cuban and Dominican ethnicity represented 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the Hispanic labor force. An additional 4 percent were classified as Other Hispanic or Latino. (See table 2.)

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups in 2022, the percentage of the population either employed or unemployed—the labor force participation rate—was highest for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (66.6 percent), Hispanics (66.3 percent), and people who are of Two or More Races (65.3 percent). The participation rate for Asians was 64.5 percent; Blacks, 62.2 percent; Whites, 62.0 percent; and American Indians and Alaska Natives, 59.7 percent. (See tables 1, 2, and chart 1.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups (White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic), Hispanics were the most likely to be in the labor force, with a participation rate of 79.5 percent, and Blacks were the least likely, with a rate of 68.0 percent. The labor force participation rate was 74.9 percent and 70.1 percent for Asian adult men and White adult men, respectively. Among adult women, Blacks (62.0 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were Hispanics (59.9 percent), Asians (59.5 percent), and Whites (57.1 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Whites were more likely to participate in the labor force than were other groups, with a participation rate of 39.0 percent, followed by Hispanic teens (33.2 percent) and Black teens (29.8 percent). Asian teens were the least likely to participate in the labor force at 23.0 percent. (See table 3.)

Employment

Among the race and ethnicity groups, the employment-population ratio (the number of employed people as a percentage of the population) ranged from a high of 63.9 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders to a low of 56.0 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The employment-population ratio was 63.5 percent for Hispanics, 62.7 percent for Asians, 61.7 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, 60.0 percent for Whites, and 58.4 percent for Blacks. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics continued to have the highest employment-population ratio (76.5 percent). Black men had the lowest (64.1 percent), also continuing a longstanding employment pattern. The employment-population ratios for Asian adult men and White adult men were 72.9 percent and 68.0 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios continued to show less variation compared with their male counterparts across the major race and ethnicity groups: 58.5 percent for Blacks, 58.0 percent for Asians, 57.4 percent for Hispanics, and 55.4 percent for Whites. (See table 3.)

The employment-population ratio among teenagers (16 to 19 years) continued to be higher for Whites than for Asians, Blacks, or Hispanics. The ratio for White teens (35.2 percent) is about 14.0 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (20.8 percent), 11.0 percentage points higher than for Black teens (24.5 percent), and about 6.0 percentage points higher than for Hispanic teens (29.3 percent).

Educational attainment

Among people 25 years and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 93 percent each for Whites, Blacks, and Asians in 2022. For Hispanics, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was 80 percent. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 68 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 44 percent of Whites, 34 percent of Blacks, and 25 percent of Hispanics. (See table 6 and chart 2.)

Higher levels of educational attainment are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For all major race and ethnicity groups except Asians, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than the rates for those with lower levels of educational attainment. For Asians, the unemployment rate for those with an associate’s degree was little different from the rate for those with a bachelor’s degree and higher. (See table 6.) Individuals with higher levels of education are also more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. For example, median earnings of people 25 years and older increased with educational attainment across all the major race and ethnicity groups. (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences.) (See table 17.)

Occupation

In 2022, 58 percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 43 percent of employed Whites, 35 percent of employed Blacks, and 25 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

Among employed men, 59 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 39 percent of Whites, 29 percent of Blacks, and 22 percent of Hispanics. In addition, 18 percent of Black and Hispanic men worked in service occupations, compared with 12 percent of White men and 11 percent of Asian men. Employed Black men (28 percent) and Hispanic men (21 percent) also were more likely than White men (17 percent) and Asian men (12 percent) to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-seven percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of employed White men, 10 percent of employed Black men, and 4 percent of employed Asian men. (See table 7.)

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 57 percent of Asian women worked in these occupations, compared with 48 percent of White women, 40 percent of Black women, and 30 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 57 percent of Hispanics worked in two major occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 50 percent of Blacks, 44 percent of Whites, and 36 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 19 percent of total employment. However, they were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters and paperhangers (59 percent), construction laborers (51 percent), maids and housekeeping cleaners (51 percent), landscaping and groundskeeping workers (47 percent), and carpenters (42 percent). Blacks made up 13 percent of all employed workers, but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including nursing assistants (36 percent), security guards and gambling surveillance officers (35 percent), and home health aides (33 percent). Asians accounted for 7 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupational categories, including manicurists and pedicurists (65 percent), software developers (36 percent), computer programmers (21 percent), and taxi drivers (20 percent). Whites comprised 77 percent of all employed people and accounted for 95 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; construction managers (90 percent); and carpenters (89 percent). (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (22 percent) than were Whites (14 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (4 percent). Employed Black men were more likely to work in transportation and utilities (16 percent) than were Hispanics (9 percent), Whites (8 percent), and Asians (8 percent). Twenty-two percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White men (14 percent), Black men (12 percent), and Hispanic men (12 percent). (See table 9.)

A large share of employed women across all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (40 percent), Whites (35 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (29 percent). Similar in trend to their male counterparts, a higher share of Asian women (16 percent) worked in professional and business services compared with White women (12 percent), Hispanic women (12 percent), and Black women (9 percent). Hispanic women were more likely to work in leisure and hospitality (13 percent) than were White women (10 percent), Asian women (9 percent), and Black women (8 percent).

Family and parents

Asian families and Hispanic families were more likely to have at least one family member employed (88 percent and 87 percent, respectively) in 2022, than were Black families (80 percent) and White families (79 percent). (See table 10.)

Families maintained by women accounted for 41 percent of Black families, 25 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (88 percent). By comparison, 82 percent of Hispanic families, 79 percent of White families, and 76 percent of Black families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by men were more likely than married-couple families or families maintained by women to have an employed family member. (See table 10.)

Among mothers living with children under 18 years old, Black mothers were more likely to participate in the labor force (77.9 percent) than were White mothers (72.3 percent), Asian mothers (70.3 percent), and Hispanic mothers (64.1 percent). (See table 11.)

Across all the race and ethnicity groups, fathers living with children under 18 years were much more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18 years. The labor force participation rates for these fathers were 93.7 percent for White men, 93.2 percent for Hispanic men, 92.9 percent for Asian men, and 88.4 percent for Black men.

Unemployment

The overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States declined by 1.7 percentage points to 3.6 percent from 2021 to 2022, rebounding from the recession caused by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pre-pandemic jobless rate was 3.7 percent in 2019. But the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. In 2022, the unemployment rate averaged 6.2 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives; 6.1 percent for Blacks; 5.5 percent for people of Two or More Races; 4.0 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders; 3.2 percent for Whites; and 2.8 percent for Asians. The unemployment rate was 4.3 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Blacks were the most likely to be jobless (with an unemployment rate of 5.8 percent), while Whites (3.0 percent) and Asians (2.7 percent) were the least likely. The jobless rate for Hispanic men was 3.8 percent. Among adult women, the unemployment rate for Asians (2.6 percent) was little different than the rate for Whites (2.9 percent). The rates for Hispanics (4.1 percent) and Blacks (5.6 percent) were higher than for the other groups. Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), the unemployment rate was 17.7 percent for Blacks, 11.5 percent for Hispanics, 9.7 percent for Whites, and 9.6 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

Unemployed Asians and Blacks experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Hispanics and Whites. The median duration of unemployment for Asians and Blacks was 10.5 weeks and 10.4 weeks, respectively, whereas the figure was 7.9 weeks each for Whites and Hispanics. (See table 13.)

Of the 6.0 million people unemployed in 2022, 46.1 percent were job losers (defined as workers who were on temporary layoff, lost their jobs permanently, or who had completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (31.5 percent), job leavers (14.3 percent), and new entrants (8.0 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, 47.8 percent of Hispanics, 47.6 percent of Whites, 45.5 percent of Blacks, and 39.1 percent of Asians were job losers. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force and 24 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force in 2022. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force; wanted to work and were available to work; and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportional to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: they comprised 77 percent of the labor force and 65 percent of the marginally attached.

Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (27 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians in 2022. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2022 were $823 for Hispanics, $878 for Blacks, $1,085 for Whites, and $1,401 for Asians. The earnings for White men ($1,172), Black men ($921), and Hispanic men ($887) were 75 percent, 59 percent, and 57 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian men ($1,559). The median earnings of White women ($973), Black women ($835), and Hispanic women ($761) were 79 percent, 68 percent, and 62 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($1,234). (These earnings comparisons are broad and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, specialization, and educational attainment.) (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for most of the major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men ($1,994) and White men ($1,730) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group) were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,434) and Black men ($1,395) in the same occupational group. However, median usual weekly earnings of White men ($790) and Asian men ($763) working full-time in service occupations were relatively close to the earnings of Black men ($703) and Hispanic men ($699) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for women also holds for most of the major occupational groups. Median usual weekly earnings of Asian women ($1,631) and White women ($1,284) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations were higher than the earnings of Hispanic women ($1,142) and Black women ($1,127) in the same occupational group. By contrast, median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity group were relatively close for service occupations: $661 for Asians, $644 for Whites, $632 for Blacks, and $613 for Hispanics.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by sex and race, 2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Sex and race Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

263,973 164,287 62.2 158,291 60.0 5,996 3.6 99,686

Men

128,617 87,421 68.0 84,203 65.5 3,218 3.7 41,197

Women

135,356 76,866 56.8 74,089 54.7 2,778 3.6 58,490

White

203,214 125,957 62.0 121,908 60.0 4,049 3.2 77,257

Men

100,122 68,162 68.1 65,924 65.8 2,238 3.3 31,959

Women

103,093 57,794 56.1 55,984 54.3 1,811 3.1 45,298

Black

34,131 21,236 62.2 19,937 58.4 1,300 6.1 12,895

Men

15,740 10,259 65.2 9,617 61.1 642 6.3 5,480

Women

18,392 10,977 59.7 10,319 56.1 658 6.0 7,415

Asian

16,933 10,921 64.5 10,615 62.7 306 2.8 6,012

Men

8,013 5,775 72.1 5,610 70.0 165 2.9 2,238

Women

8,920 5,146 57.7 5,006 56.1 140 2.7 3,774

American Indian and Alaska Native

3,060 1,826 59.7 1,713 56.0 113 6.2 1,234

Men

1,488 974 65.5 911 61.2 63 6.5 514

Women

1,572 852 54.2 802 51.0 50 5.9 720

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

1,117 744 66.6 714 63.9 30 4.0 374

Men

535 393 73.5 376 70.3 17 4.3 142

Women

582 351 60.2 338 58.0 13 3.6 232

Two or More Races

5,518 3,603 65.3 3,404 61.7 199 5.5 1,914

Men

2,720 1,857 68.3 1,764 64.8 93 5.0 864

Women

2,797 1,747 62.4 1,641 58.6 106 6.1 1,051

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, sex, and race, 2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

263,973 164,287 62.2 158,291 60.0 5,996 3.6 99,686

Men

128,617 87,421 68.0 84,203 65.5 3,218 3.7 41,197

Women

135,356 76,866 56.8 74,089 54.7 2,778 3.6 58,490

Asian

16,933 10,921 64.5 10,615 62.7 306 2.8 6,012

Men

8,013 5,775 72.1 5,610 70.0 165 2.9 2,238

Women

8,920 5,146 57.7 5,006 56.1 140 2.7 3,774

Asian Indian

3,862 2,711 70.2 2,639 68.3 72 2.7 1,151

Chinese

3,884 2,400 61.8 2,336 60.1 64 2.7 1,484

Filipino

2,444 1,593 65.2 1,543 63.1 50 3.2 851

Japanese

875 500 57.2 491 56.2 9 1.8 374

Korean

1,167 732 62.7 711 60.9 21 2.9 435

Vietnamese

1,727 1,072 62.1 1,043 60.4 28 2.7 655

Other Asian

2,975 1,913 64.3 1,853 62.3 60 3.1 1,062

Hispanic or Latino

46,171 30,601 66.3 29,299 63.5 1,302 4.3 15,570

Men

23,084 17,368 75.2 16,654 72.1 715 4.1 5,716

Women

23,087 13,233 57.3 12,646 54.8 587 4.4 9,854

Mexican

27,692 18,422 66.5 17,626 63.6 796 4.3 9,271

Men

14,048 10,713 76.3 10,265 73.1 448 4.2 3,335

Women

13,644 7,709 56.5 7,361 53.9 348 4.5 5,935

Puerto Rican

4,175 2,449 58.7 2,310 55.3 139 5.7 1,725

Men

2,002 1,275 63.7 1,196 59.7 79 6.2 728

Women

2,172 1,175 54.1 1,114 51.3 61 5.2 998

Cuban

2,188 1,394 63.7 1,352 61.8 42 3.0 793

Men

1,120 785 70.1 761 68.0 24 3.1 334

Women

1,068 609 57.0 591 55.4 18 2.9 459

Central American

4,670 3,315 71.0 3,185 68.2 130 3.9 1,355

Men

2,387 1,970 82.5 1,903 79.7 67 3.4 417

Women

2,283 1,345 58.9 1,282 56.2 63 4.7 938

Salvadoran

1,459 1,053 72.1 1,016 69.6 37 3.5 406

Men

714 595 83.3 575 80.5 20 3.4 119

Women

745 458 61.5 442 59.3 16 3.6 287

Other Central American

3,211 2,263 70.5 2,169 67.6 93 4.1 948

Men

1,673 1,375 82.2 1,328 79.4 47 3.4 298

Women

1,537 887 57.7 841 54.7 46 5.2 650

South American

3,564 2,529 71.0 2,446 68.6 84 3.3 1,035

Men

1,717 1,345 78.3 1,301 75.8 44 3.3 372

Women

1,848 1,184 64.1 1,145 62.0 40 3.4 663

Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino

3,882 2,491 64.2 2,380 61.3 111 4.4 1,390

Men

1,810 1,280 70.7 1,227 67.8 53 4.1 530

Women

2,072 1,211 58.5 1,153 55.6 58 4.8 861

Dominican

1,820 1,161 63.8 1,087 59.7 74 6.4 660

Men

819 566 69.2 530 64.8 36 6.4 253

Women

1,001 594 59.3 556 55.5 38 6.4 407

Other Hispanic or Latino

2,061 1,330 64.5 1,294 62.8 37 2.8 731

Men

991 714 72.0 697 70.3 17 2.3 277

Women

1,071 617 57.6 597 55.7 20 3.3 454

Hispanic or Latino

46,171 30,601 66.3 29,299 63.5 1,302 4.3 15,570

Men

23,084 17,368 75.2 16,654 72.1 715 4.1 5,716

Women

23,087 13,233 57.3 12,646 54.8 587 4.4 9,854

White Hispanic or Latino

40,861 27,128 66.4 26,008 63.6 1,120 4.1 13,733

Men

20,446 15,482 75.7 14,862 72.7 620 4.0 4,964

Women

20,415 11,645 57.0 11,145 54.6 500 4.3 8,769

Black Hispanic or Latino

2,275 1,453 63.9 1,362 59.9 91 6.2 822

Men

1,105 756 68.5 706 63.9 51 6.7 348

Women

1,170 696 59.5 656 56.1 40 5.8 473

Asian Hispanic or Latino

559 369 66.0 357 63.8 12 3.2 190

Men

284 213 75.0 209 73.6 4 1.9 71

Women

274 155 56.6 147 53.7 8 5.0 119

Non-Hispanic or Latino

217,802 133,686 61.4 128,992 59.2 4,694 3.5 84,117

Men

105,533 70,053 66.4 67,549 64.0 2,504 3.6 35,481

Women

112,269 63,633 56.7 61,443 54.7 2,190 3.4 48,636

White non-Hispanic or Latino

162,353 98,829 60.9 95,900 59.1 2,929 3.0 63,524

Men

79,675 52,680 66.1 51,062 64.1 1,618 3.1 26,995

Women

82,678 46,149 55.8 44,838 54.2 1,311 2.8 36,529

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

31,857 19,784 62.1 18,575 58.3 1,209 6.1 12,073

Men

14,635 9,503 64.9 8,912 60.9 591 6.2 5,132

Women

17,222 10,281 59.7 9,663 56.1 618 6.0 6,942

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

16,374 10,552 64.4 10,259 62.7 294 2.8 5,822

Men

7,728 5,562 72.0 5,401 69.9 161 2.9 2,167

Women

8,645 4,991 57.7 4,858 56.2 133 2.7 3,655

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by sex, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not
in
labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

Total

Total, 16 years and older

263,973 164,287 62.2 158,291 60.0 5,996 3.6 99,686

16 to 19 years

17,071 6,275 36.8 5,600 32.8 675 10.8 10,796

20 years and older

246,902 158,012 64.0 152,691 61.8 5,321 3.4 88,890

20 to 24 years

20,886 14,817 70.9 13,778 66.0 1,039 7.0 6,068

25 to 54 years

127,162 104,837 82.4 101,578 79.9 3,259 3.1 22,325

55 to 64 years

42,145 27,460 65.2 26,761 63.5 699 2.5 14,685

65 years and older

56,710 10,897 19.2 10,574 18.6 323 3.0 45,812

Men, 16 years and older

128,617 87,421 68.0 84,203 65.5 3,218 3.7 41,197

16 to 19 years

8,653 3,145 36.3 2,794 32.3 351 11.2 5,508

20 years and older

119,965 84,276 70.3 81,409 67.9 2,867 3.4 35,689

20 to 24 years

10,413 7,625 73.2 7,032 67.5 593 7.8 2,789

25 to 54 years

63,122 55,902 88.6 54,191 85.9 1,712 3.1 7,220

55 to 64 years

20,591 14,624 71.0 14,248 69.2 376 2.6 5,968

65 years and older

25,838 6,125 23.7 5,938 23.0 187 3.1 19,713

Women, 16 years and older

135,356 76,866 56.8 74,089 54.7 2,778 3.6 58,490

16 to 19 years

8,419 3,130 37.2 2,806 33.3 324 10.4 5,289

20 years and older

126,937 73,736 58.1 71,283 56.2 2,453 3.3 53,201

20 to 24 years

10,472 7,193 68.7 6,746 64.4 446 6.2 3,280

25 to 54 years

64,039 48,934 76.4 47,387 74.0 1,548 3.2 15,105

55 to 64 years

21,554 12,837 59.6 12,514 58.1 323 2.5 8,717

65 years and older

30,872 4,772 15.5 4,636 15.0 136 2.9 26,100

White

Total, 16 years and older

203,214 125,957 62.0 121,908 60.0 4,049 3.2 77,257

16 to 19 years

12,488 4,867 39.0 4,398 35.2 470 9.7 7,621

20 years and older

190,726 121,089 63.5 117,510 61.6 3,579 3.0 69,636

20 to 24 years

15,312 11,141 72.8 10,483 68.5 659 5.9 4,170

25 to 54 years

94,865 78,726 83.0 76,590 80.7 2,136 2.7 16,138

55 to 64 years

33,543 22,208 66.2 21,678 64.6 530 2.4 11,336

65 years and older

47,007 9,014 19.2 8,759 18.6 255 2.8 37,993

Men, 16 years and older

100,122 68,162 68.1 65,924 65.8 2,238 3.3 31,959

16 to 19 years

6,362 2,424 38.1 2,181 34.3 244 10.1 3,938

20 years and older

93,759 65,738 70.1 63,743 68.0 1,995 3.0 28,021

20 to 24 years

7,683 5,776 75.2 5,387 70.1 389 6.7 1,906

25 to 54 years

47,776 42,774 89.5 41,613 87.1 1,161 2.7 5,002

55 to 64 years

16,603 12,006 72.3 11,717 70.6 289 2.4 4,597

65 years and older

21,698 5,182 23.9 5,027 23.2 155 3.0 16,516

Women, 16 years and older

103,093 57,794 56.1 55,984 54.3 1,811 3.1 45,298

16 to 19 years

6,126 2,443 39.9 2,217 36.2 226 9.3 3,683

20 years and older

96,967 55,352 57.1 53,767 55.4 1,585 2.9 41,615

20 to 24 years

7,629 5,365 70.3 5,096 66.8 269 5.0 2,264

25 to 54 years

47,088 35,952 76.4 34,977 74.3 975 2.7 11,136

55 to 64 years

16,941 10,202 60.2 9,961 58.8 241 2.4 6,739

65 years and older

25,309 3,832 15.1 3,733 14.7 100 2.6 21,477

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

34,131 21,236 62.2 19,937 58.4 1,300 6.1 12,895

16 to 19 years

2,482 739 29.8 608 24.5 131 17.7 1,743

20 years and older

31,649 20,497 64.8 19,328 61.1 1,169 5.7 11,153

20 to 24 years

3,070 2,099 68.4 1,848 60.2 251 12.0 971

25 to 54 years

17,703 14,277 80.6 13,514 76.3 763 5.3 3,426

55 to 64 years

5,210 3,059 58.7 2,951 56.6 109 3.6 2,150

65 years and older

5,666 1,062 18.7 1,016 17.9 45 4.3 4,605

Men, 16 years and older

15,740 10,259 65.2 9,617 61.1 642 6.3 5,480

16 to 19 years

1,231 393 31.9 323 26.3 70 17.7 838

20 years and older

14,508 9,866 68.0 9,294 64.1 572 5.8 4,642

20 to 24 years

1,480 1,028 69.5 901 60.9 127 12.4 452

25 to 54 years

8,279 6,849 82.7 6,478 78.2 371 5.4 1,431

55 to 64 years

2,395 1,474 61.5 1,419 59.3 55 3.7 922

65 years and older

2,353 516 21.9 496 21.1 20 3.9 1,838

Women, 16 years and older

18,392 10,977 59.7 10,319 56.1 658 6.0 7,415

16 to 19 years

1,251 346 27.7 285 22.8 61 17.7 904

20 years and older

17,141 10,631 62.0 10,034 58.5 596 5.6 6,511

20 to 24 years

1,590 1,071 67.3 947 59.5 124 11.6 519

25 to 54 years

9,424 7,428 78.8 7,036 74.7 393 5.3 1,995

55 to 64 years

2,814 1,585 56.3 1,531 54.4 54 3.4 1,229

65 years and older

3,313 546 16.5 520 15.7 25 4.7 2,767

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

16,933 10,921 64.5 10,615 62.7 306 2.8 6,012

16 to 19 years

895 206 23.0 187 20.8 20 9.6 689

20 years and older

16,037 10,715 66.8 10,429 65.0 286 2.7 5,323

20 to 24 years

1,336 750 56.1 691 51.7 60 7.9 586

25 to 54 years

9,513 7,798 82.0 7,622 80.1 176 2.3 1,715

55 to 64 years

2,312 1,567 67.8 1,531 66.2 37 2.3 745

65 years and older

2,876 599 20.8 585 20.4 14 2.3 2,277

Men, 16 years and older

8,013 5,775 72.1 5,610 70.0 165 2.9 2,238

16 to 19 years

447 105 23.4 93 20.9 11 10.6 342

20 years and older

7,566 5,671 74.9 5,517 72.9 154 2.7 1,896

20 to 24 years

674 383 56.8 346 51.3 37 9.6 291

25 to 54 years

4,575 4,165 91.0 4,074 89.0 91 2.2 411

55 to 64 years

1,067 812 76.1 792 74.2 20 2.5 255

65 years and older

1,250 311 24.9 305 24.4 6 1.9 939

Women, 16 years and older

8,920 5,146 57.7 5,006 56.1 140 2.7 3,774

16 to 19 years

449 102 22.7 93 20.7 9 8.6 347

20 years and older

8,471 5,044 59.5 4,912 58.0 132 2.6 3,427

20 to 24 years

663 367 55.5 345 52.0 23 6.2 295

25 to 54 years

4,938 3,633 73.6 3,548 71.9 85 2.3 1,305

55 to 64 years

1,245 756 60.7 739 59.4 17 2.2 490

65 years and older

1,626 288 17.7 280 17.2 8 2.7 1,338

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

46,171 30,601 66.3 29,299 63.5 1,302 4.3 15,570

16 to 19 years

4,269 1,416 33.2 1,253 29.3 163 11.5 2,852

20 years and older

41,903 29,185 69.7 28,046 66.9 1,139 3.9 12,717

20 to 24 years

4,918 3,582 72.8 3,329 67.7 253 7.1 1,336

25 to 54 years

25,988 20,836 80.2 20,118 77.4 718 3.4 5,151

55 to 64 years

5,679 3,740 65.8 3,610 63.6 129 3.5 1,940

65 years and older

5,318 1,027 19.3 988 18.6 38 3.7 4,291

Men, 16 years and older

23,084 17,368 75.2 16,654 72.1 715 4.1 5,716

16 to 19 years

2,165 745 34.4 657 30.3 89 11.9 1,420

20 years and older

20,919 16,623 79.5 15,997 76.5 626 3.8 4,296

20 to 24 years

2,464 1,935 78.5 1,787 72.5 148 7.7 530

25 to 54 years

13,256 11,940 90.1 11,565 87.2 375 3.1 1,316

55 to 64 years

2,826 2,138 75.6 2,060 72.9 77 3.6 688

65 years and older

2,372 610 25.7 585 24.7 25 4.1 1,762

Women, 16 years and older

23,087 13,233 57.3 12,646 54.8 587 4.4 9,854

16 to 19 years

2,103 671 31.9 596 28.3 75 11.1 1,432

20 years and older

20,984 12,562 59.9 12,049 57.4 513 4.1 8,421

20 to 24 years

2,453 1,647 67.1 1,543 62.9 105 6.4 806

25 to 54 years

12,731 8,896 69.9 8,554 67.2 343 3.9 3,835

55 to 64 years

2,854 1,602 56.1 1,550 54.3 52 3.3 1,251

65 years and older

2,945 417 14.1 403 13.7 13 3.2 2,529

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Labor force participation rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2022 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

1973

60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

1974

61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

1975

61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

1976

61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

1977

62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

1978

63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

1979

63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

1980

63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

1981

63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

1982

64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

1983

64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

1984

64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

1985

64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

1986

65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

1987

65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

1988

65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

1989

66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

1990

66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

1991

66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

1992

66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

1993

66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

1994

66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

1995

66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

1996

66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

1997

67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

1998

67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

1999

67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

2000

67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

2001

66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

2002

66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

2003

66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

2004

66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

2005

66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

2006

66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

2007

66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

2008

66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

2009

65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

2010

64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

2011

64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

2012

63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

2013

63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

2014

62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

2015

62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

2016

62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

2017

62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4

2018

62.9 69.1 57.1 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.8 60.2 63.5 71.6 56.4 66.3 75.7 57.0

2019

63.1 69.2 57.4 63.0 69.6 56.8 62.5 64.8 60.5 64.0 71.8 57.1 66.8 75.9 57.7

2020

61.7 67.7 56.2 61.8 68.2 55.7 60.5 62.6 58.8 62.7 70.9 55.5 65.6 74.9 56.4

2021

61.7 67.6 56.1 61.5 67.9 55.4 60.9 63.5 58.8 63.8 71.8 56.8 65.5 75.4 55.8

2022

62.2 68.0 56.8 62.0 68.1 56.1 62.2 65.2 59.7 64.5 72.1 57.7 66.3 75.2 57.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4a. Labor force participation rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2022 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

2004

63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

2005

63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

2006

63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

2007

63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

2008

63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

2009

59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

2010

57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

2011

59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

2012

59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

2013

59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

2014

60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

2015

60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

2016

61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

2017

60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

2018

59.6 63.7 55.6 68.5 74.1 63.1 66.6 71.1 62.5

2019

60.8 65.1 56.7 68.4 73.9 63.2 67.1 70.9 63.5

2020

59.3 65.3 53.6 66.7 72.2 61.5 64.4 67.2 61.7

2021

60.5 66.2 55.0 66.9 70.9 62.9 65.4 68.2 62.6

2022

59.7 65.5 54.2 66.6 73.5 60.2 65.3 68.3 62.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment-population ratios by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2022 annual averages (Percent)
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

1972

57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

1973

57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

1974

57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

1975

56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

1976

56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

1977

57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

1978

59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

1979

59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

1980

59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

1981

59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

1982

57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

1983

57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

1984

59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

1985

60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

1986

60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

1987

61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

1988

62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

1989

63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

1990

62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

1991

61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

1992

61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

1993

61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

1994

62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

1995

62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

1996

63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

1997

63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

1998

64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

1999

64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

2000

64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

2001

63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

2002

62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

2003

62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

2004

62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

2005

62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

2006

63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

2007

63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

2008

62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

2009

59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

2010

58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

2011

58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

2012

58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

2013

58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

2014

59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

2015

59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

2016

59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

2017

60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2

2018

60.4 66.3 54.9 60.7 67.1 54.5 58.3 60.3 56.6 61.6 69.4 54.7 63.2 72.4 54.1

2019

60.8 66.6 55.4 61.0 67.3 54.9 58.7 60.6 57.1 62.3 69.8 55.6 63.9 72.9 55.0

2020

56.8 62.4 51.5 57.3 63.4 51.4 53.6 55.0 52.4 57.3 65.4 50.2 58.7 67.6 50.0

2021

58.4 63.9 53.2 58.6 64.6 52.8 55.7 57.7 54.1 60.6 68.3 53.9 61.1 70.5 51.8

2022

60.0 65.5 54.7 60.0 65.8 54.3 58.4 61.1 56.1 62.7 70.0 56.1 63.5 72.1 54.8

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5a. Employment-population ratios by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003–2022 annual averages (Percent)
Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2003

57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

2004

57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

2005

57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

2006

58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

2007

58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

2008

57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

2009

51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

2010

49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

2011

50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

2012

52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

2013

51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

2014

54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

2015

54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

2016

55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

2017

55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

2018

55.6 59.3 52.1 64.9 70.3 59.7 62.9 66.8 59.3

2019

57.1 60.9 53.5 66.2 71.5 61.2 63.6 67.0 60.3

2020

52.4 57.1 47.8 60.8 65.7 56.1 56.9 59.7 54.2

2021

55.5 60.9 50.5 62.2 64.9 59.6 60.0 61.7 58.4

2022

56.0 61.2 51.0 63.9 70.3 58.0 61.7 64.8 58.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 20002–002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Total, 25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some college,
no degree
Associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

Total

Civilian noninstitutional population

226,016 19,789 63,707 32,938 23,601 85,981

Civilian labor force

143,195 8,988 35,919 20,042 15,601 62,644

Percent of population

63.4 45.4 56.4 60.8 66.1 72.9

Employed

138,913 8,498 34,497 19,348 15,175 61,394

Employment-population ratio

61.5 42.9 54.2 58.7 64.3 71.4

Unemployed

4,281 490 1,422 694 427 1,250

Unemployment rate

3.0 5.5 4.0 3.5 2.7 2.0

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

109,551 10,195 32,541 15,873 10,502 40,441

Civilian labor force

76,651 5,867 21,463 10,724 7,554 31,043

Percent of population

70.0 57.5 66.0 67.6 71.9 76.8

Employed

74,376 5,565 20,655 10,374 7,348 30,434

Employment-population ratio

67.9 54.6 63.5 65.4 70.0 75.3

Unemployed

2,275 302 808 350 206 609

Unemployment rate

3.0 5.1 3.8 3.3 2.7 2.0

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,465 9,594 31,165 17,066 13,099 45,540

Civilian labor force

66,544 3,122 14,456 9,318 8,048 31,601

Percent of population

57.1 32.5 46.4 54.6 61.4 69.4

Employed

64,537 2,934 13,842 8,974 7,827 30,960

Employment-population ratio

55.4 30.6 44.4 52.6 59.8 68.0

Unemployed

2,007 188 614 344 221 641

Unemployment rate

3.0 6.0 4.2 3.7 2.7 2.0

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

175,414 15,018 49,356 25,504 18,663 66,872

Civilian labor force

109,948 7,143 27,443 15,211 12,151 48,001

Percent of population

62.7 47.6 55.6 59.6 65.1 71.8

Employed

107,027 6,800 26,511 14,754 11,853 47,108

Employment-population ratio

61.0 45.3 53.7 57.9 63.5 70.4

Unemployed

2,921 342 931 456 297 894

Unemployment rate

2.7 4.8 3.4 3.0 2.4 1.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

86,077 7,921 25,421 12,490 8,459 31,785

Civilian labor force

59,962 4,804 16,788 8,342 6,058 23,969

Percent of population

69.7 60.7 66.0 66.8 71.6 75.4

Employed

58,356 4,593 16,236 8,100 5,904 23,523

Employment-population ratio

67.8 58.0 63.9 64.9 69.8 74.0

Unemployed

1,605 211 553 241 154 446

Unemployment rate

2.7 4.4 3.3 2.9 2.5 1.9

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

89,338 7,097 23,935 13,014 10,204 35,088

Civilian labor force

49,986 2,338 10,654 6,869 6,093 24,032

Percent of population

56.0 32.9 44.5 52.8 59.7 68.5

Employed

48,671 2,207 10,276 6,654 5,949 23,585

Employment-population ratio

54.5 31.1 42.9 51.1 58.3 67.2

Unemployed

1,315 131 378 215 144 448

Unemployment rate

2.6 5.6 3.6 3.1 2.4 1.9

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,579 2,810 9,550 5,048 3,107 8,064

Civilian labor force

18,398 1,048 5,596 3,274 2,197 6,284

Percent of population

64.4 37.3 58.6 64.8 70.7 77.9

Employed

17,481 945 5,228 3,099 2,102 6,106

Employment-population ratio

61.2 33.7 54.7 61.4 67.7 75.7

Unemployed

917 102 368 175 95 178

Unemployment rate

5.0 9.8 6.6 5.3 4.3 2.8

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,028 1,404 4,801 2,215 1,232 3,377

Civilian labor force

8,838 611 3,055 1,537 902 2,733

Percent of population

67.8 43.5 63.6 69.4 73.2 80.9

Employed

8,393 545 2,864 1,460 862 2,662

Employment-population ratio

64.4 38.8 59.7 65.9 70.0 78.8

Unemployed

445 67 191 77 40 71

Unemployment rate

5.0 10.9 6.2 5.0 4.4 2.6

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,551 1,406 4,749 2,834 1,875 4,687

Civilian labor force

9,560 436 2,540 1,736 1,296 3,551

Percent of population

61.5 31.1 53.5 61.3 69.1 75.8

Employed

9,087 401 2,364 1,639 1,240 3,444

Employment-population ratio

58.4 28.5 49.8 57.8 66.1 73.5

Unemployed

472 36 177 98 55 107

Unemployment rate

4.9 8.2 7.0 5.6 4.3 3.0

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,701 1,098 2,566 1,110 958 8,969

Civilian labor force

9,964 397 1,479 711 637 6,740

Percent of population

67.8 36.2 57.6 64.1 66.5 75.2

Employed

9,738 386 1,439 687 626 6,601

Employment-population ratio

66.2 35.1 56.1 61.9 65.4 73.6

Unemployed

226 11 40 24 11 140

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.9 2.7 3.4 1.7 2.1

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,892 431 1,104 553 404 4,401

Civilian labor force

5,288 205 769 397 297 3,620

Percent of population

76.7 47.5 69.7 71.8 73.6 82.2

Employed

5,171 198 750 383 293 3,547

Employment-population ratio

75.0 45.9 68.0 69.3 72.4 80.6

Unemployed

117 7 19 14 5 73

Unemployment rate

2.2 3.5 2.5 3.5 1.6 2.0

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,809 668 1,462 557 554 4,568

Civilian labor force

4,677 193 709 315 340 3,121

Percent of population

59.9 28.8 48.5 56.4 61.3 68.3

Employed

4,568 188 688 304 333 3,054

Employment-population ratio

58.5 28.2 47.1 54.6 60.2 66.9

Unemployed

109 4 21 10 6 67

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.2 3.0 3.3 1.8 2.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

36,985 9,168 12,084 4,756 3,121 7,856

Civilian labor force

25,603 5,213 8,328 3,434 2,327 6,300

Percent of population

69.2 56.9 68.9 72.2 74.6 80.2

Employed

24,717 4,964 8,016 3,317 2,258 6,162

Employment-population ratio

66.8 54.1 66.3 69.7 72.4 78.4

Unemployed

886 250 312 117 69 138

Unemployment rate

3.5 4.8 3.7 3.4 3.0 2.2

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,455 4,777 6,470 2,277 1,337 3,593

Civilian labor force

14,688 3,510 5,217 1,807 1,095 3,059

Percent of population

79.6 73.5 80.6 79.3 81.9 85.1

Employed

14,210 3,358 5,040 1,753 1,065 2,994

Employment-population ratio

77.0 70.3 77.9 77.0 79.6 83.3

Unemployed

478 152 177 54 30 65

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.3 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.1

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,530 4,391 5,614 2,479 1,784 4,263

Civilian labor force

10,915 1,703 3,111 1,627 1,232 3,241

Percent of population

58.9 38.8 55.4 65.6 69.1 76.0

Employed

10,507 1,606 2,976 1,564 1,193 3,168

Employment-population ratio

56.7 36.6 53.0 63.1 66.9 74.3

Unemployed

408 98 135 63 39 74

Unemployment rate

3.7 5.7 4.3 3.9 3.2 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 7. Employed people by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2022 annual averages
Occupation and sex Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

158,291 121,908 19,937 10,615 29,299

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.0 43.4 35.0 58.0 25.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.5 19.4 13.8 20.2 11.3

Management occupations

12.8 13.5 9.1 12.6 7.9

Business and financial operations occupations

5.8 5.8 4.7 7.7 3.4

Professional and related occupations

24.5 24.1 21.1 37.7 14.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.9 3.3 2.8 13.0 1.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 2.2 1.1 4.5 1.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.1 0.6 3.0 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.9 1.8 2.8 1.0 1.4

Legal occupations

1.2 1.3 0.8 0.9 0.7

Education, training, and library occupations

5.8 6.1 5.2 4.7 3.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.3 1.4 1.8 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6.2 6.0 6.4 8.9 3.1

Service occupations

16.1 15.1 21.4 14.6 22.9

Healthcare support occupations

3.1 2.5 6.4 3.4 3.6

Protective service occupations

1.9 1.8 3.2 0.8 1.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.0 4.7 5.5 5.0 7.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.5 3.6 3.9 1.6 7.7

Personal care and service occupations

2.5 2.4 2.4 3.7 2.5

Sales and office occupations

19.2 19.4 20.0 15.4 18.5

Sales and related occupations

9.0 9.3 7.9 7.7 8.5

Office and administrative support occupations

10.2 10.0 12.1 7.7 10.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.0 10.1 5.3 2.6 16.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.6 0.7 0.2 0.2 1.5

Construction and extraction occupations

5.3 6.0 3.0 1.3 11.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.1 3.4 2.1 1.1 3.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

12.7 12.0 18.3 9.4 16.6

Production occupations

5.2 5.1 6.2 4.6 6.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.5 6.9 12.1 4.9 9.8

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

84,203 65,924 9,617 5,610 16,654

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.2 39.4 29.4 59.0 21.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.2 20.2 13.4 20.8 11.1

Management occupations

14.3 15.2 9.8 14.3 8.6

Business and financial operations occupations

4.9 5.1 3.6 6.5 2.5

Professional and related occupations

20.0 19.2 16.0 38.2 10.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

5.4 4.7 3.7 17.0 2.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.5 3.5 1.8 6.7 1.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.1 1.1 0.5 2.9 0.5

Community and social service occupations

1.1 1.1 1.9 0.8 0.8

Legal occupations

1.0 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.4

Education, training, and library occupations

2.9 2.9 2.8 3.2 1.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 2.2 1.9 1.5 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.8 2.6 2.7 5.5 1.5

Service occupations

13.0 12.1 18.3 10.9 17.9

Healthcare support occupations

0.9 0.7 2.0 1.6 0.8

Protective service occupations

2.8 2.7 4.4 1.4 2.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.4 3.9 5.9 4.7 7.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.8 3.9 4.6 1.6 7.0

Personal care and service occupations

1.1 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.1

Sales and office occupations

14.0 13.9 14.4 13.7 12.0

Sales and related occupations

8.6 8.9 6.9 7.7 6.7

Office and administrative support occupations

5.4 5.0 7.5 6.0 5.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.0 17.7 10.2 4.4 27.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.9 1.0 0.4 0.2 1.9

Construction and extraction occupations

9.6 10.7 5.9 2.2 19.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.5 6.1 3.9 1.9 6.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.9 16.8 27.7 12.1 21.1

Production occupations

6.9 6.8 8.4 4.9 7.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

11.0 10.0 19.3 7.2 13.3

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

74,089 55,984 10,319 5,006 12,646

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

47.4 48.1 40.2 56.9 30.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.8 18.3 14.2 19.6 11.6

Management occupations

11.0 11.6 8.5 10.6 7.0

Business and financial operations occupations

6.7 6.8 5.6 9.0 4.6

Professional and related occupations

29.6 29.8 26.0 37.3 18.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.2 1.7 2.0 8.5 1.0

Architecture and engineering occupations

0.8 0.7 0.5 2.1 0.5

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.1 0.6 3.0 0.6

Community and social service occupations

2.7 2.6 3.8 1.3 2.2

Legal occupations

1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.1

Education, training, and library occupations

9.1 9.8 7.4 6.4 6.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.3 2.5 1.1 2.1 1.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

10.0 9.9 9.7 12.8 5.2

Service occupations

19.6 18.6 24.4 18.8 29.4

Healthcare support occupations

5.6 4.7 10.5 5.5 7.2

Protective service occupations

1.0 0.8 2.1 0.3 0.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.7 5.7 5.1 5.3 8.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.2 3.3 3.3 1.6 8.5

Personal care and service occupations

4.1 4.1 3.4 6.0 4.3

Sales and office occupations

25.2 25.8 25.2 17.4 27.1

Sales and related occupations

9.6 9.8 8.8 7.7 10.8

Office and administrative support occupations

15.6 16.0 16.5 9.7 16.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.1 1.2 0.7 0.5 2.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

0.5 0.5 0.3 0.2 1.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

6.8 6.3 9.5 6.5 10.7

Production occupations

3.3 3.0 4.2 4.2 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.5 3.2 5.3 2.3 5.2

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2022 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total
employed
Percent of total employed
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over

158,291 77.0 12.6 6.7 18.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

68,099 77.7 10.2 9.0 10.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

29,350 80.4 9.4 7.3 11.3

Management occupations

20,199 81.6 9.0 6.6 11.5

Chief executives

1,780 85.9 5.9 6.7 6.8

General and operations managers

1,165 82.4 9.1 5.3 11.5

Legislators

14 - - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

68 80.3 13.8 4.4 8.9

Marketing managers

656 83.9 6.8 7.5 11.4

Sales managers

566 88.3 5.9 3.5 11.3

Public relations and fundraising managers

131 87.4 8.9 2.9 7.5

Administrative services managers

69 82.1 9.4 4.8 17.3

Facilities managers

129 92.0 6.1 1.1 17.8

Computer and information systems managers

764 72.6 7.8 16.5 7.5

Financial managers

1,380 78.5 9.6 9.3 10.1

Compensation and benefits managers

18 - - - -

Human resources managers

295 81.5 12.0 4.0 11.6

Training and development managers

63 86.4 6.2 6.6 4.4

Industrial production managers

281 84.0 6.7 6.7 12.9

Purchasing managers

234 78.2 11.5 7.5 8.4

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

351 85.1 8.9 3.4 17.2

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

946 94.8 1.5 0.6 6.6

Construction managers

1,057 89.8 5.3 2.6 16.2

Education and childcare administrators

988 78.0 16.3 4.0 9.8

Architectural and engineering managers

202 76.5 6.7 14.3 9.6

Food service managers

1,153 71.2 13.0 11.2 19.5

Funeral home managers

8 - - - -

Entertainment and recreation managers

65 87.4 7.1 1.6 8.6

Lodging managers

113 75.4 6.6 12.9 8.4

Medical and health services managers

797 74.6 16.0 7.3 9.0

Natural sciences managers

28 - - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

26 - - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

835 83.1 9.9 4.3 11.0

Social and community service managers

434 78.1 12.7 4.7 12.8

Emergency management directors

22 - - - -

Personal service managers, all other

6 - - - -

Managers, all other

5,557 80.9 8.9 7.0 12.5

Business and financial operations occupations

9,152 77.9 10.2 8.9 11.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

39 - - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

4 - - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

179 85.2 6.8 3.4 15.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

266 82.3 7.2 7.4 7.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

365 75.2 16.0 5.7 13.2

Compliance officers

294 76.5 13.7 5.6 16.5

Cost estimators

140 91.9 1.1 4.2 9.0

Human resources workers

936 77.0 14.0 6.2 16.2

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

65 52.1 32.0 9.4 16.3

Training and development specialists

157 78.7 13.2 4.9 13.1

Logisticians

169 74.0 18.0 5.4 16.3

Project management specialists

841 78.3 9.0 9.3 7.7

Management analysts

1,045 76.2 8.5 12.6 6.5

Meeting, convention, and event planners

159 78.9 14.0 3.7 12.5

Fundraisers

76 91.8 0.3 3.9 9.3

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

455 79.6 5.8 11.1 9.9

Business operations specialists, all other

409 78.6 10.9 7.0 12.4

Accountants and auditors

1,652 76.1 9.7 11.7 9.7

Property appraisers and assessors

100 92.4 4.2 2.7 7.8

Budget analysts

48 - - - -

Credit analysts

51 72.8 6.9 11.3 9.3

Financial and investment analysts

387 74.7 8.0 14.2 12.2

Personal financial advisors

543 82.7 6.3 9.5 8.4

Insurance underwriters

105 83.5 13.2 2.3 13.0

Financial examiners

19 - - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

391 77.2 12.2 6.1 13.2

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

71 83.5 9.8 5.8 15.0

Tax preparers

98 83.1 6.7 9.2 17.2

Other financial specialists

87 66.0 14.3 11.7 7.1

Professional and related occupations

38,749 75.7 10.9 10.3 10.6

Computer and mathematical occupations

6,171 65.1 9.1 22.3 8.6

Computer and information research scientists

41 - - - -

Computer systems analysts

501 68.8 12.7 15.3 9.4

Information security analysts

178 76.6 11.6 7.7 11.9

Computer programmers

457 69.5 5.5 21.4 8.0

Software developers

2,085 55.0 5.7 36.4 5.7

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

83 67.1 8.0 23.9 12.1

Web developers

79 80.2 0.8 10.2 20.4

Web and digital interface designers

89 79.1 7.2 9.1 9.0

Computer support specialists

704 71.2 11.3 12.5 12.9

Database administrators and architects

137 65.3 7.5 23.6 6.8

Network and computer systems administrators

217 75.1 9.5 11.9 9.1

Computer network architects

98 65.9 16.9 11.6 8.2

Computer occupations, all other

969 67.9 14.7 14.0 11.1

Actuaries

30 - - - -

Mathematicians

4 - - - -

Operations research analysts

135 68.7 17.6 9.2 11.3

Statisticians

51 56.9 6.4 35.3 2.7

Other mathematical science occupations

314 74.1 5.7 17.5 7.0

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,464 77.3 6.6 13.9 10.3

Architects, except landscape and naval

182 87.7 4.6 7.0 8.3

Landscape architects

32 - - - -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

43 - - - -

Aerospace engineers

173 80.9 3.8 12.4 9.6

Agricultural engineers

4 - - - -

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

24 - - - -

Chemical engineers

75 70.2 7.8 13.5 7.3

Civil engineers

482 76.1 6.5 15.8 12.2

Computer hardware engineers

90 53.9 9.3 34.1 7.0

Electrical and electronics engineers

296 71.4 6.0 21.5 5.8

Environmental engineers

47 - - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

221 73.5 7.1 16.8 6.1

Marine engineers and naval architects

8 - - - -

Materials engineers

48 - - - -

Mechanical engineers

403 79.4 3.6 14.9 11.9

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

3 - - - -

Nuclear engineers

11 - - - -

Petroleum engineers

18 - - - -

Engineers, all other

631 74.7 7.1 15.2 8.9

Architectural and civil drafters

46 - - - -

Other drafters

80 88.2 5.1 6.7 12.6

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

90 74.6 12.6 8.1 17.3

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

374 76.6 11.0 10.1 13.7

Surveying and mapping technicians

83 89.2 8.5 0.0 11.5

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,840 73.3 6.1 17.1 8.2

Agricultural and food scientists

19 - - - -

Biological scientists

110 80.4 5.7 11.8 3.5

Conservation scientists and foresters

29 - - - -

Medical scientists

147 47.6 9.3 41.1 4.2

Life scientists, all other

13 - - - -

Astronomers and physicists

26 - - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

12 - - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

78 67.5 8.3 21.8 9.1

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

33 - - - -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

43 - - - -

Physical scientists, all other

442 62.6 5.0 29.4 6.4

Economists

29 - - - -

Survey researchers

2 - - - -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

13 - - - -

School psychologists

48 - - - -

Other psychologists

154 87.3 5.8 3.2 8.1

Sociologists

3 - - - -

Urban and regional planners

35 - - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

57 86.4 1.9 8.2 4.9

Agricultural and food science technicians

42 - - - -

Biological technicians

24 - - - -

Chemical technicians

51 82.7 3.8 9.7 20.1

Environmental science and geoscience technicians

15 - - - -

Nuclear technicians

7 - - - -

Social science research assistants

5 - - - -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

320 75.1 7.8 11.4 9.8

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

79 78.2 7.6 9.4 18.2

Community and social service occupations

2,945 73.6 19.3 3.6 14.1

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

137 74.6 16.3 3.4 15.9

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

408 75.4 17.6 3.0 11.4

Marriage and family therapists

38 - - - -

Mental health counselors

195 82.4 14.9 1.1 10.6

Rehabilitation counselors

21 - - - -

Counselors, all other

248 76.1 19.1 1.6 13.3

Child, family, and school social workers

72 61.3 30.5 6.2 11.1

Healthcare social workers

89 69.3 23.5 5.8 13.9

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

24 - - - -

Social workers, all other

731 65.4 27.3 4.2 17.3

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

70 77.5 21.5 0.6 26.0

Social and human service assistants

228 67.8 25.0 1.8 16.9

Other community and social service specialists

112 70.9 20.4 2.7 21.7

Clergy

434 79.7 9.9 6.1 10.2

Directors, religious activities and education

68 91.0 7.8 1.1 9.5

Religious workers, all other

68 90.4 1.8 4.5 11.8

Legal occupations

1,861 84.1 8.5 4.9 10.9

Lawyers

1,141 87.8 6.3 3.8 6.5

Judicial law clerks

21 - - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

68 81.3 12.4 6.1 3.3

Paralegals and legal assistants

445 77.9 12.3 5.7 20.2

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

104 74.5 11.9 9.5 15.4

Legal support workers, all other

80 80.2 12.8 6.1 18.8

Education, training, and library occupations

9,220 80.4 11.2 5.4 11.7

Postsecondary teachers

1,087 79.5 7.5 10.8 8.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

645 74.6 16.7 4.1 13.5

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,336 82.5 11.1 3.9 11.2

Secondary school teachers

1,000 85.8 8.6 3.7 9.8

Special education teachers

369 84.6 10.8 1.4 9.4

Tutors

168 77.2 9.7 9.2 14.8

Other teachers and instructors

805 76.5 15.0 4.6 12.5

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

70 87.6 6.3 0.8 10.0

Librarians and media collections specialists

168 86.0 4.3 5.1 8.0

Library technicians

38 - - - -

Teaching assistants

1,380 76.1 12.1 8.2 17.2

Other educational instruction and library workers

155 74.6 17.7 3.2 11.9

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,441 82.8 8.3 5.5 12.7

Artists and related workers

324 83.9 6.1 5.7 14.5

Commercial and industrial designers

10 - - - -

Fashion designers

22 - - - -

Floral designers

58 90.0 5.5 1.6 21.5

Graphic designers

328 82.0 6.3 7.7 12.9

Interior designers

125 87.3 2.1 8.3 11.2

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

29 - - - -

Other designers

375 83.0 4.4 10.0 12.3

Actors

56 71.0 24.3 3.8 11.1

Producers and directors

185 82.9 11.6 3.2 9.3

Athletes and sports competitors

39 - - - -

Coaches and scouts

297 85.9 8.0 3.3 13.2

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

32 - - - -

Dancers and choreographers

22 - - - -

Music directors and composers

45 - - - -

Musicians and singers

165 78.1 13.6 6.6 8.6

Disc jockeys, except radio

27 - - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

42 - - - -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

21 - - - -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

88 79.8 13.1 3.0 8.8

Public relations specialists

120 81.4 12.2 2.4 11.9

Editors

104 91.5 2.6 3.5 3.0

Technical writers

53 87.6 0.0 9.5 9.2

Writers and authors

277 87.7 6.7 4.5 7.3

Interpreters and translators

94 69.3 10.3 15.5 35.8

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

32 - - - -

Media and communication workers, all other

28 - - - -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

118 82.0 8.5 2.3 12.3

Photographers

210 83.3 8.4 3.7 15.8

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

111 75.8 8.9 6.2 18.8

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1 - - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,808 74.4 12.9 9.7 9.3

Chiropractors

57 80.9 9.0 7.3 1.5

Dentists

140 76.9 7.7 14.0 7.1

Dietitians and nutritionists

141 74.9 18.1 3.1 9.6

Optometrists

42 - - - -

Pharmacists

375 68.1 10.6 18.7 6.9

Emergency medicine physicians

21 - - - -

Radiologists

26 - - - -

Other physicians

933 67.0 8.4 22.4 7.2

Surgeons

48 - - - -

Physician assistants

160 84.1 4.5 8.2 6.1

Podiatrists

13 - - - -

Audiologists

12 - - - -

Occupational therapists

149 86.2 5.4 8.3 6.1

Physical therapists

274 82.6 5.9 7.2 4.3

Radiation therapists

16 - - - -

Recreational therapists

14 - - - -

Respiratory therapists

104 79.4 12.8 6.6 12.7

Speech-language pathologists

171 93.9 4.0 0.5 2.7

Exercise physiologists

5 - - - -

Therapists, all other

254 80.7 14.6 2.4 14.0

Veterinarians

83 91.4 2.2 4.3 0.5

Registered nurses

3,363 73.6 14.5 8.9 8.1

Nurse anesthetists

37 - - - -

Nurse midwives

6 - - - -

Nurse practitioners

263 81.9 9.9 6.2 6.7

Acupuncturists

28 - - - -

Healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

15 - - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

333 69.0 12.0 14.9 13.5

Dental hygienists

217 91.4 2.5 5.6 12.7

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

46 - - - -

Diagnostic medical sonographers

93 79.9 4.8 14.7 10.9

Radiologic technologists and technicians

223 80.0 11.2 5.9 10.5

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

52 69.7 14.2 12.1 9.3

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

28 - - - -

Emergency medical technicians

139 82.4 9.1 5.3 15.6

Paramedics

107 90.9 1.6 6.7 9.0

Pharmacy technicians

355 66.1 19.0 10.1 17.3

Psychiatric technicians

91 61.0 31.6 4.2 19.8

Surgical technologists

93 70.2 22.6 2.1 13.1

Veterinary technologists and technicians

148 92.3 1.1 2.0 11.5

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

68 66.5 23.2 3.1 11.8

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

588 63.3 29.1 4.9 12.3

Medical records specialists

193 74.8 14.9 5.5 10.9

Opticians, dispensing

46 - - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

146 63.8 22.1 8.9 17.2

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

91 77.1 8.2 6.2 11.3

Service occupations

25,438 72.3 16.8 6.1 26.3

Healthcare support occupations

4,930 62.6 25.8 7.4 21.3

Home health aides

617 52.5 32.5 11.1 28.9

Personal care aides

1,407 60.8 26.2 8.0 21.0

Nursing assistants

1,236 55.4 36.0 5.6 15.3

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

59 56.7 30.0 3.7 18.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

25 - - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

77 84.2 5.7 4.7 7.6

Massage therapists

149 71.2 8.5 12.2 11.1

Dental assistants

327 77.5 9.8 9.0 28.3

Medical assistants

541 75.7 15.7 5.6 32.9

Medical transcriptionists

38 - - - -

Pharmacy aides

45 - - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

67 78.6 12.4 4.0 23.6

Phlebotomists

114 59.0 22.0 7.9 20.2

Other healthcare support workers

228 67.9 23.8 5.3 15.2

Protective service occupations

3,057 71.7 20.9 2.9 14.7

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

47