April 2017 Report 1065

Women in the labor force: a databook

Women in the labor force: a databook image

Over the past 70 years, women’s participation in labor force activities has greatly expanded. Immediately following World War II, less than one-third of women were in the labor force. However, women soon began to participate in greater numbers, and their labor force participation rose rapidly from the 1960s through the 1980s before slowing in the 1990s. Women reached the peak of their labor force participation in 1999, with a rate of 60.0 percent. Since then, labor force participation among women has declined, to 56.7 percent in 2015. In addition, a large share of women work full time and year-round. Over time, women have increasingly attained higher levels of education: among women ages 25 to 64 who are in the labor force, the proportion with a college degree more than tripled from 1970 to 2015, increasing from 11 percent to 41 percent. Women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings also have grown over time. In 1979, women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned; in 2015, women’s earnings were 81 percent of men’s. This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 56.7 percent in 2015, down from 57.0 percent in 2014. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was little changed at 69.1 percent in 2015. (See table 2.)

In 2015, the unemployment rate for women was 5.2 percent. The rate for men was 5.4 percent. Both figures were 0.9 percentage point lower than in 2014. Women’s jobless rates varied by race and ethnicity. Asian women had the lowest rate (3.7 percent), followed by White (4.5 percent), Hispanic (7.1 percent), and Black (8.9 percent) women. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Divorced women had a higher labor force participation rate than married women, 62.7 percent versus 58.1 percent in 2015. By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.4 percent) than divorced men (65.1 percent). (See table 4.)

Among mothers, the labor force participation rate was higher for those with children 6 to 17 years old than for those with younger children. In March 2015, the rate for women with children 6 to 17 years old was 74.6 percent. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 63.9 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was lower, at 61.4 percent. (See table 5; data were collected in the 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers have higher labor force participation rates than married mothers. In March 2015, 75.1 percent of unmarried mothers with children under 18 years old were in the labor force, compared with 67.6 percent of married mothers with children in the same age range. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 69.9 percent in March 2015, down from 70.8 percent in 2014. (See table 7; data were collected in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past 45 years. In 2015, 41 percent of this group held a Bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. About 6 percent of women had less than a high school diploma (that is, did not graduate from high school) in 2015, down from 34 percent in 1970. (See table 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

In 2015, women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 18 percent of software developers, 28 percent of chief executives, and 35 percent of lawyers were women, whereas 89 percent of registered nurses, 81 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 60 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (50 percent and 44 percent, respectively) in 2015 than were Black (35 percent) and Hispanic (27 percent) women. Meanwhile, Hispanic (32 percent) and Black (28 percent) women were more likely than Asian and White women (20 percent each) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

In 2015, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors: financial activities (53 percent), education and health services (75 percent), leisure and hospitality (51 percent), and other services (52 percent). However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (25 percent), mining (13 percent), construction (9 percent), manufacturing (29 percent), and transportation and utilities (23 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2015, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $726, which represented 81 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($895). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($877) and Whites ($743) than for Blacks ($615) and Hispanics ($566). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks and Hispanics (90 percent each) than for Whites (81 percent) and Asians (78 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

In 2015, female full-time wage and salary workers ages 25 and older with only a high school diploma had median usual weekly earnings of $586, which represented 83 percent of the earnings of women with an associate’s degree ($703) and 55 percent of the earnings of women with a bachelor’s degree or higher ($1,064). (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2015 for female chief executives ($1,836), pharmacists ($1,811), and lawyers ($1,717). (See table 18.)

In 2015, 4 percent of all women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 3 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 10 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2015, 25 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2015. This rate has gradually trended up over time, though it has leveled off in recent years. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2014, 61 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 74 percent in 2014. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 53 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2014, compared with 44 percent in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 19 percent of married-couple families in 2014, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24A and 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

In 2014, working wives contributed 36 percent of their families’ incomes, up by 9 percentage points from 1970, when wives’ earnings accounted for 27 percent of their families’ total income. The proportion of wives earning more than their husbands also has grown: in 1987, 18 percent of working wives earned more than their working spouses; in 2014, the proportion was 28 percent. (See tables 25 and 26; data were collected in the 1971, 1988, and 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among workers who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2014, more women (5.1 million) than men (4.4 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 7.2 percent for women and 5.5 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were considerably more likely than White or Asian women to be among the working poor. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 14.6 percent and 12.6 percent, respectively, compared with 5.9 percent for White women and 4.6 percent for Asian women. (See table 27; data are from the 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2013 through December 2015, 3.2 million workers ages 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2016: the reemployment rate for women was 64 percent, compared with 67 percent for men. Among displaced workers, women and men were equally likely to be unemployed in January 2016, at 16 percent. About 20 percent of displaced women had left the labor force in January 2016, compared with 18 percent for men. (See table 28; data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2016, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for women declined to 4.0 years from 4.5 years in January 2014. For men, median tenure also declined; it was 4.3 years in January 2016, compared with 4.7 years in January 2014. (See table 29; data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 3.0 million youth ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2015, about 2.1 million (69 percent) were enrolled in college in October. For 2015 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 73 percent for young women and 66 percent for young men. (See table 30.)

Female college students were more likely to be in the labor force (49.8 percent) than their male counterparts (45.4 percent). Labor force participation rates for female and male high school students were similar to one another (22.5 percent and 20.2 percent, respectively). (See table 31.)

In October 2015, the unemployment rates for youth ages 16 to 24 not enrolled in school who did not have a high school diploma were 22.6 percent for young women and 27.0 percent for young men. In contrast, the jobless rates of young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 7.7 percent and 4.5 percent, respectively.

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2015, 5.3 percent of employed women held more than one job. The rate for men was lower, at 4.5 percent. (See table 32.)

In 2015, 4.9 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.7 percent of their male counterparts. In 2015, 39 percent of the self-employed were women, compared with 27 percent in 1976. (See table 33.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were somewhat less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2015 (52.9 percent, compared with 57.4 percent). Foreign-born women had an unemployment rate of 5.6 percent, compared with 5.1 percent for native-born women. Foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (78.2 percent) than native-born men (67.3 percent). (See table 34.)

Union membership

In 2015, 10.6 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.5 percent for their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2015 was lower than in 1983, but the rate has fallen much more for men over the 1983–2015 period. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 35.)

Veterans

There were 1.2 million female veterans in the labor force in 2015. This represents about 12 percent of the 10.8 million veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces. The unemployment rate for female veterans was 5.4 percent in 2015. (See table 36.)

Women with disabilities

Of the 16.0 million women with disabilities in 2015, 2.7 million, or 16.7 percent, were in the labor force. About half of women with disabilities were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.1 percent, compared with 28.1 percent for those ages 16 to 64. For women with a disability who were age 16 and older, the unemployment rate was 10.8 percent, twice that for women without a disability (5.0 percent). (See table 37.)

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2015 annual averages (Number in thousands)
Age Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

16 years and older

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

16 to 19 years

16,619 5,700 34.3 4,734 28.5 966 16.9 10,919

16 to 17 years

8,852 1,987 22.5 1,624 18.3 363 18.3 6,864

18 to 19 years

7,767 3,713 47.8 3,110 40.0 603 16.2 4,055

20 to 24 years

21,971 15,523 70.7 14,022 63.8 1,501 9.7 6,448

25 to 54 years

125,109 101,152 80.9 96,638 77.2 4,515 4.5 23,957

25 to 34 years

42,771 34,647 81.0 32,742 76.6 1,905 5.5 8,125

25 to 29 years

21,716 17,494 80.6 16,437 75.7 1,057 6.0 4,223

30 to 34 years

21,055 17,153 81.5 16,305 77.4 848 4.9 3,902

35 to 44 years

39,701 32,603 82.1 31,252 78.7 1,351 4.1 7,098

35 to 39 years

19,885 16,267 81.8 15,559 78.2 708 4.4 3,618

40 to 44 years

19,816 16,336 82.4 15,693 79.2 643 3.9 3,479

45 to 54 years

42,637 33,902 79.5 32,643 76.6 1,259 3.7 8,734

45 to 49 years

20,531 16,640 81.0 16,024 78.0 616 3.7 3,891

50 to 54 years

22,106 17,262 78.1 16,619 75.2 643 3.7 4,844

55 to 64 years

40,594 25,954 63.9 24,975 61.5 978 3.8 14,640

55 to 59 years

21,524 15,395 71.5 14,818 68.8 576 3.7 6,129

60 to 64 years

19,070 10,559 55.4 10,157 53.3 402 3.8 8,511

65 years and older

46,509 8,801 18.9 8,465 18.2 337 3.8 37,708

65 to 69 years

15,976 5,124 32.1 4,926 30.8 198 3.9 10,852

70 to 74 years

11,329 2,104 18.6 2,021 17.8 83 3.9 9,225

75 years and older

19,203 1,573 8.2 1,517 7.9 56 3.5 17,630

Women

 

16 years and older

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

16 to 19 years

8,189 2,815 34.4 2,380 29.1 435 15.5 5,374

16 to 17 years

4,342 991 22.8 825 19.0 166 16.7 3,351

18 to 19 years

3,847 1,824 47.4 1,555 40.4 269 14.8 2,023

20 to 24 years

10,959 7,485 68.3 6,849 62.5 636 8.5 3,474

25 to 54 years

63,684 46,926 73.7 44,786 70.3 2,140 4.6 16,758

25 to 34 years

21,629 15,871 73.4 14,996 69.3 874 5.5 5,758

25 to 29 years

10,938 8,076 73.8 7,596 69.4 480 5.9 2,862

30 to 34 years

10,691 7,795 72.9 7,400 69.2 394 5.1 2,896

35 to 44 years

20,257 15,047 74.3 14,391 71.0 656 4.4 5,210

35 to 39 years

10,129 7,454 73.6 7,115 70.2 339 4.5 2,675

40 to 44 years

10,128 7,593 75.0 7,276 71.8 317 4.2 2,536

45 to 54 years

21,798 16,009 73.4 15,399 70.6 610 3.8 5,789

45 to 49 years

10,470 7,801 74.5 7,491 71.6 310 4.0 2,669

50 to 54 years

11,328 8,208 72.5 7,907 69.8 300 3.7 3,121

55 to 64 years

21,076 12,326 58.5 11,884 56.4 442 3.6 8,749

55 to 59 years

11,103 7,362 66.3 7,105 64.0 257 3.5 3,740

60 to 64 years

9,973 4,964 49.8 4,779 47.9 185 3.7 5,009

65 years and older

25,792 3,957 15.3 3,804 14.7 153 3.9 21,835

65 to 69 years

8,487 2,370 27.9 2,275 26.8 95 4.0 6,117

70 to 74 years

6,106 913 14.9 880 14.4 33 3.6 5,194

75 years and older

11,199 674 6.0 649 5.8 25 3.7 10,525

Men

 

16 years and older

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

16 to 19 years

8,430 2,885 34.2 2,354 27.9 531 18.4 5,545

16 to 17 years

4,509 997 22.1 799 17.7 197 19.8 3,513

18 to 19 years

3,920 1,888 48.2 1,555 39.7 333 17.6 2,032

20 to 24 years

11,012 8,038 73.0 7,173 65.1 865 10.8 2,974

25 to 54 years

61,425 54,226 88.3 51,851 84.4 2,374 4.4 7,199

25 to 34 years

21,142 18,776 88.8 17,746 83.9 1,030 5.5 2,366

25 to 29 years

10,778 9,418 87.4 8,841 82.0 577 6.1 1,360

30 to 34 years

10,364 9,358 90.3 8,905 85.9 454 4.8 1,006

35 to 44 years

19,444 17,556 90.3 16,861 86.7 695 4.0 1,887

35 to 39 years

9,757 8,813 90.3 8,444 86.6 369 4.2 944

40 to 44 years

9,687 8,743 90.3 8,417 86.9 327 3.7 944

45 to 54 years

20,839 17,893 85.9 17,245 82.8 649 3.6 2,945

45 to 49 years

10,061 8,839 87.9 8,533 84.8 306 3.5 1,222

50 to 54 years

10,778 9,054 84.0 8,712 80.8 343 3.8 1,723

55 to 64 years

19,518 13,627 69.8 13,092 67.1 536 3.9 5,891

55 to 59 years

10,421 8,032 77.1 7,713 74.0 319 4.0 2,389

60 to 64 years

9,097 5,595 61.5 5,378 59.1 217 3.9 3,502

65 years and older

20,717 4,845 23.4 4,661 22.5 184 3.8 15,872

65 to 69 years

7,489 2,754 36.8 2,652 35.4 103 3.7 4,735

70 to 74 years

5,223 1,192 22.8 1,141 21.9 50 4.2 4,031

75 years and older

8,004 898 11.2 868 10.8 31 3.4 7,106

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

1948

103,068 60,621 58.8 58,343 56.6 2,276 3.8 42,447

1949

103,994 61,286 58.9 57,651 55.4 3,637 5.9 42,708

1950

104,995 62,208 59.2 58,918 56.1 3,288 5.3 42,787

1951

104,621 62,017 59.2 59,961 57.3 2,055 3.3 42,604

1952

105,231 62,138 59.0 60,250 57.3 1,883 3.0 43,093

1953

107,056 63,015 58.9 61,179 57.1 1,834 2.9 44,041

1954

108,321 63,643 58.8 60,109 55.5 3,532 5.5 44,678

1955

109,683 65,023 59.3 62,170 56.7 2,852 4.4 44,660

1956

110,954 66,552 60.0 63,799 57.5 2,750 4.1 44,402

1957

112,265 66,929 59.6 64,071 57.1 2,859 4.3 45,336

1958

113,727 67,639 59.5 63,036 55.4 4,602 6.8 46,088

1959

115,329 68,369 59.3 64,630 56.0 3,740 5.5 46,960

1960

117,245 69,628 59.4 65,778 56.1 3,852 5.5 47,617

1961

118,771 70,459 59.3 65,746 55.4 4,714 6.7 48,312

1962

120,153 70,614 58.8 66,702 55.5 3,911 5.5 49,539

1963

122,416 71,833 58.7 67,762 55.4 4,070 5.7 50,583

1964

124,485 73,091 58.7 69,305 55.7 3,786 5.2 51,394

1965

126,513 74,455 58.9 71,088 56.2 3,366 4.5 52,058

1966

128,058 75,770 59.2 72,895 56.9 2,875 3.8 52,288

1967

129,874 77,347 59.6 74,372 57.3 2,975 3.8 52,527

1968

132,028 78,737 59.6 75,920 57.5 2,817 3.6 53,291

1969

134,335 80,734 60.1 77,902 58.0 2,832 3.5 53,602

1970

137,085 82,771 60.4 78,678 57.4 4,093 4.9 54,315

1971

140,216 84,382 60.2 79,367 56.6 5,016 5.9 55,834

1972

144,126 87,034 60.4 82,153 57.0 4,882 5.6 57,091

1973

147,096 89,429 60.8 85,064 57.8 4,365 4.9 57,667

1974

150,120 91,949 61.3 86,794 57.8 5,156 5.6 58,171

1975

153,153 93,775 61.2 85,846 56.1 7,929 8.5 59,377

1976

156,150 96,158 61.6 88,752 56.8 7,406 7.7 59,991

1977

159,033 99,009 62.3 92,017 57.9 6,991 7.1 60,025

1978

161,910 102,251 63.2 96,048 59.3 6,202 6.1 59,659

1979

164,863 104,962 63.7 98,824 59.9 6,137 5.8 59,900

1980

167,745 106,940 63.8 99,303 59.2 7,637 7.1 60,806

1981

170,130 108,670 63.9 100,397 59.0 8,273 7.6 61,460

1982

172,271 110,204 64.0 99,526 57.8 10,678 9.7 62,067

1983

174,215 111,550 64.0 100,834 57.9 10,717 9.6 62,665

1984

176,383 113,544 64.4 105,005 59.5 8,539 7.5 62,839

1985

178,206 115,461 64.8 107,150 60.1 8,312 7.2 62,744

1986

180,587 117,834 65.3 109,597 60.7 8,237 7.0 62,752

1987

182,753 119,865 65.6 112,440 61.5 7,425 6.2 62,888

1988

184,613 121,669 65.9 114,968 62.3 6,701 5.5 62,944

1989

186,393 123,869 66.5 117,342 63.0 6,528 5.3 62,523

1990

189,164 125,840 66.5 118,793 62.8 7,047 5.6 63,324

1991

190,925 126,346 66.2 117,718 61.7 8,628 6.8 64,578

1992

192,805 128,105 66.4 118,492 61.5 9,613 7.5 64,700

1993

194,838 129,200 66.3 120,259 61.7 8,940 6.9 65,638

1994

196,814 131,056 66.6 123,060 62.5 7,996 6.1 65,758

1995

198,584 132,304 66.6 124,900 62.9 7,404 5.6 66,280

1996

200,591 133,943 66.8 126,708 63.2 7,236 5.4 66,647

1997

203,133 136,297 67.1 129,558 63.8 6,739 4.9 66,837

1998

205,220 137,673 67.1 131,463 64.1 6,210 4.5 67,547

1999

207,753 139,368 67.1 133,488 64.3 5,880 4.2 68,385

2000

212,577 142,583 67.1 136,891 64.4 5,692 4.0 69,994

2001

215,092 143,734 66.8 136,933 63.7 6,801 4.7 71,359

2002

217,570 144,863 66.6 136,485 62.7 8,378 5.8 72,707

2003

221,168 146,510 66.2 137,736 62.3 8,774 6.0 74,658

2004

223,357 147,401 66.0 139,252 62.3 8,149 5.5 75,956

2005

226,082 149,320 66.0 141,730 62.7 7,591 5.1 76,762

2006

228,815 151,428 66.2 144,427 63.1 7,001 4.6 77,387

2007

231,867 153,124 66.0 146,047 63.0 7,078 4.6 78,743

2008

233,788 154,287 66.0 145,362 62.2 8,924 5.8 79,501

2009

235,801 154,142 65.4 139,877 59.3 14,265 9.3 81,659

2010

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

2011

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

2012

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

2013

245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 58.6 11,460 7.4 90,290

2014

247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 59.0 9,617 6.2 92,025

2015

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

Women

 

1948

53,071 17,335 32.7 16,617 31.3 717 4.1 35,737

1949

53,670 17,788 33.1 16,723 31.2 1,065 6.0 35,883

1950

54,270 18,389 33.9 17,340 32.0 1,049 5.7 35,881

1951

54,895 19,016 34.6 18,181 33.1 834 4.4 35,879

1952

55,529 19,269 34.7 18,568 33.4 698 3.6 36,261

1953

56,305 19,382 34.4 18,749 33.3 632 3.3 36,924

1954

56,925 19,678 34.6 18,490 32.5 1,188 6.0 37,247

1955

57,574 20,548 35.7 19,551 34.0 998 4.9 37,026

1956

58,228 21,461 36.9 20,419 35.1 1,039 4.8 36,769

1957

58,951 21,732 36.9 20,714 35.1 1,018 4.7 37,218

1958

59,690 22,118 37.1 20,613 34.5 1,504 6.8 37,574

1959

60,534 22,483 37.1 21,164 35.0 1,320 5.9 38,053

1960

61,582 23,240 37.7 21,874 35.5 1,366 5.9 38,343

1961

62,484 23,806 38.1 22,090 35.4 1,717 7.2 38,679

1962

63,321 24,014 37.9 22,525 35.6 1,488 6.2 39,308

1963

64,494 24,704 38.3 23,105 35.8 1,598 6.5 39,791

1964

65,637 25,412 38.7 23,831 36.3 1,581 6.2 40,225

1965

66,731 26,200 39.3 24,748 37.1 1,452 5.5 40,531

1966

67,795 27,299 40.3 25,976 38.3 1,324 4.8 40,496

1967

68,968 28,360 41.1 26,893 39.0 1,468 5.2 40,608

1968

70,179 29,204 41.6 27,807 39.6 1,397 4.8 40,976

1969

71,436 30,513 42.7 29,084 40.7 1,429 4.7 40,924

1970

72,782 31,543 43.3 29,688 40.8 1,855 5.9 41,239

1971

74,274 32,202 43.4 29,976 40.4 2,227 6.9 42,072

1972

76,290 33,479 43.9 31,257 41.0 2,222 6.6 42,811

1973

77,804 34,804 44.7 32,715 42.0 2,089 6.0 43,000

1974

79,312 36,211 45.7 33,769 42.6 2,441 6.7 43,101

1975

80,860 37,475 46.3 33,989 42.0 3,486 9.3 43,386

1976

82,390 38,983 47.3 35,615 43.2 3,369 8.6 43,406

1977

83,840 40,613 48.4 37,289 44.5 3,324 8.2 43,227

1978

85,334 42,631 50.0 39,569 46.4 3,061 7.2 42,703

1979

86,843 44,235 50.9 41,217 47.5 3,018 6.8 42,608

1980

88,348 45,487 51.5 42,117 47.7 3,370 7.4 42,861

1981

89,618 46,696 52.1 43,000 48.0 3,696 7.9 42,922

1982

90,748 47,755 52.6 43,256 47.7 4,499 9.4 42,993

1983

91,684 48,503 52.9 44,047 48.0 4,457 9.2 43,181

1984

92,778 49,709 53.6 45,915 49.5 3,794 7.6 43,068

1985

93,736 51,050 54.5 47,259 50.4 3,791 7.4 42,686

1986

94,789 52,413 55.3 48,706 51.4 3,707 7.1 42,376

1987

95,853 53,658 56.0 50,334 52.5 3,324 6.2 42,195

1988

96,756 54,742 56.6 51,696 53.4 3,046 5.6 42,014

1989

97,630 56,030 57.4 53,027 54.3 3,003 5.4 41,601

1990

98,787 56,829 57.5 53,689 54.3 3,140 5.5 41,957

1991

99,646 57,178 57.4 53,496 53.7 3,683 6.4 42,468

1992

100,535 58,141 57.8 54,052 53.8 4,090 7.0 42,394

1993

101,506 58,795 57.9 54,910 54.1 3,885 6.6 42,711

1994

102,460 60,239 58.8 56,610 55.3 3,629 6.0 42,221

1995

103,406 60,944 58.9 57,523 55.6 3,421 5.6 42,462

1996

104,385 61,857 59.3 58,501 56.0 3,356 5.4 42,528

1997

105,418 63,036 59.8 59,873 56.8 3,162 5.0 42,382

1998

106,462 63,714 59.8 60,771 57.1 2,944 4.6 42,748

1999

108,031 64,855 60.0 62,042 57.4 2,814 4.3 43,175

2000

110,613 66,303 59.9 63,586 57.5 2,717 4.1 44,310

2001

111,811 66,848 59.8 63,737 57.0 3,111 4.7 44,962

2002

112,985 67,363 59.6 63,582 56.3 3,781 5.6 45,621

2003

114,733 68,272 59.5 64,404 56.1 3,868 5.7 46,461

2004

115,647 68,421 59.2 64,728 56.0 3,694 5.4 47,225

2005

116,931 69,288 59.3 65,757 56.2 3,531 5.1 47,643

2006

118,210 70,173 59.4 66,925 56.6 3,247 4.6 48,037

2007

119,694 70,988 59.3 67,792 56.6 3,196 4.5 48,707

2008

120,675 71,767 59.5 67,876 56.2 3,891 5.4 48,908

2009

121,665 72,019 59.2 66,208 54.4 5,811 8.1 49,646

2010

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

2011

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

2012

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

2013

127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 53.2 5,146 7.1 54,401

2014

128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 53.5 4,426 6.1 55,159

2015

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

Men

 

1948

49,996 43,286 86.6 41,725 83.5 1,559 3.6 6,710

1949

50,321 43,498 86.4 40,925 81.3 2,572 5.9 6,825

1950

50,725 43,819 86.4 41,578 82.0 2,239 5.1 6,906

1951

49,727 43,001 86.3 41,780 84.0 1,221 2.8 6,725

1952

49,700 42,869 86.3 41,682 83.9 1,185 2.8 6,832

1953

50,750 43,633 86.0 42,430 83.6 1,202 2.8 7,117

1954

51,395 43,965 85.5 41,619 81.0 2,344 5.3 7,431

1955

52,109 44,475 85.4 42,621 81.8 1,854 4.2 7,634

1956

52,723 45,091 85.5 43,379 82.3 1,711 3.8 7,633

1957

53,315 45,197 84.8 43,357 81.3 1,841 4.1 8,118

1958

54,033 45,521 84.2 42,423 78.5 3,098 6.8 8,514

1959

54,793 45,886 83.7 43,466 79.3 2,420 5.2 8,907

1960

55,662 46,388 83.3 43,904 78.9 2,486 5.4 9,274

1961

56,286 46,653 82.9 43,656 77.6 2,997 6.4 9,633

1962

56,831 46,600 82.0 44,177 77.7 2,423 5.2 10,231

1963

57,921 47,129 81.4 44,657 77.1 2,472 5.2 10,792

1964

58,847 47,679 81.0 45,474 77.3 2,205 4.6 11,169

1965

59,782 48,255 80.7 46,340 77.5 1,914 4.0 11,527

1966

60,262 48,471 80.4 46,919 77.9 1,551 3.2 11,792

1967

60,905 48,987 80.4 47,479 78.0 1,508 3.1 11,919

1968

61,847 49,533 80.1 48,114 77.8 1,419 2.9 12,315

1969

62,898 50,221 79.8 48,818 77.6 1,403 2.8 12,677

1970

64,304 51,228 79.7 48,990 76.2 2,238 4.4 13,076

1971

65,942 52,180 79.1 49,390 74.9 2,789 5.3 13,762

1972

67,835 53,555 78.9 50,896 75.0 2,659 5.0 14,280

1973

69,292 54,624 78.8 52,349 75.5 2,275 4.2 14,667

1974

70,808 55,739 78.7 53,024 74.9 2,714 4.9 15,069

1975

72,291 56,299 77.9 51,857 71.7 4,442 7.9 15,993

1976

73,759 57,174 77.5 53,138 72.0 4,036 7.1 16,585

1977

75,193 58,396 77.7 54,728 72.8 3,667 6.3 16,797

1978

76,576 59,620 77.9 56,479 73.8 3,142 5.3 16,956

1979

78,020 60,726 77.8 57,607 73.8 3,120 5.1 17,293

1980

79,398 61,453 77.4 57,186 72.0 4,267 6.9 17,945

1981

80,511 61,974 77.0 57,397 71.3 4,577 7.4 18,537

1982

81,523 62,450 76.6 56,271 69.0 6,179 9.9 19,073

1983

82,531 63,047 76.4 56,787 68.8 6,260 9.9 19,484

1984

83,605 63,835 76.4 59,091 70.7 4,744 7.4 19,771

1985

84,469 64,411 76.3 59,891 70.9 4,521 7.0 20,058

1986

85,798 65,422 76.3 60,892 71.0 4,530 6.9 20,376

1987

86,899 66,207 76.2 62,107 71.5 4,101 6.2 20,692

1988

87,857 66,927 76.2 63,273 72.0 3,655 5.5 20,930

1989

88,762 67,840 76.4 64,315 72.5 3,525 5.2 20,923

1990

90,377 69,011 76.4 65,104 72.0 3,906 5.7 21,367

1991

91,278 69,168 75.8 64,223 70.4 4,946 7.2 22,110

1992

92,270 69,964 75.8 64,440 69.8 5,523 7.9 22,306

1993

93,332 70,404 75.4 65,349 70.0 5,055 7.2 22,927

1994

94,355 70,817 75.1 66,450 70.4 4,367 6.2 23,538

1995

95,178 71,360 75.0 67,377 70.8 3,983 5.6 23,818

1996

96,206 72,087 74.9 68,207 70.9 3,880 5.4 24,119

1997

97,715 73,261 75.0 69,685 71.3 3,577 4.9 24,454

1998

98,758 73,959 74.9 70,693 71.6 3,266 4.4 24,799

1999

99,722 74,512 74.7 71,446 71.6 3,066 4.1 25,210

2000

101,964 76,280 74.8 73,305 71.9 2,975 3.9 25,684

2001

103,282 76,886 74.4 73,196 70.9 3,690 4.8 26,396

2002

104,585 77,500 74.1 72,903 69.7 4,597 5.9 27,085

2003

106,435 78,238 73.5 73,332 68.9 4,906 6.3 28,197

2004

107,710 78,980 73.3 74,524 69.2 4,456 5.6 28,730

2005

109,151 80,033 73.3 75,973 69.6 4,059 5.1 29,119

2006

110,605 81,255 73.5 77,502 70.1 3,753 4.6 29,350

2007

112,173 82,136 73.2 78,254 69.8 3,882 4.7 30,036

2008

113,113 82,520 73.0 77,486 68.5 5,033 6.1 30,593

2009

114,136 82,123 72.0 73,670 64.5 8,453 10.3 32,013

2010

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

2011

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

2012

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

2013

118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 64.4 6,314 7.6 35,889

2014

119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 64.9 5,190 6.3 36,865

2015

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

White

 

Total, 16 years and older

196,868 123,607 62.8 117,944 59.9 5,662 4.6 73,261

16 to 19 years

12,323 4,487 36.4 3,824 31.0 662 14.8 7,836

20 to 24 years

16,171 11,755 72.7 10,784 66.7 970 8.3 4,416

25 to 54 years

95,856 78,300 81.7 75,276 78.5 3,024 3.9 17,556

55 to 64 years

33,005 21,534 65.2 20,783 63.0 751 3.5 11,471

65 years and older

39,513 7,531 19.1 7,276 18.4 255 3.4 31,982

Women, 16 years and older

100,720 56,589 56.2 54,052 53.7 2,537 4.5 44,132

16 to 19 years

6,040 2,178 36.1 1,891 31.3 288 13.2 3,862

20 to 24 years

8,007 5,589 69.8 5,200 64.9 390 7.0 2,418

25 to 54 years

48,024 35,472 73.9 34,078 71.0 1,393 3.9 12,553

55 to 64 years

16,938 10,045 59.3 9,695 57.2 351 3.5 6,893

65 years and older

21,711 3,304 15.2 3,188 14.7 116 3.5 18,407

Men, 16 years and older

96,147 67,018 69.7 63,892 66.5 3,126 4.7 29,129

16 to 19 years

6,282 2,308 36.7 1,934 30.8 375 16.2 3,974

20 to 24 years

8,164 6,165 75.5 5,585 68.4 581 9.4 1,999

25 to 54 years

47,831 42,829 89.5 41,198 86.1 1,630 3.8 5,003

55 to 64 years

16,067 11,489 71.5 11,088 69.0 400 3.5 4,579

65 years and older

17,802 4,227 23.7 4,088 23.0 139 3.3 13,575

Black or African American

 

Total, 16 years and older

31,386 19,318 61.5 17,472 55.7 1,846 9.6 12,068

16 to 19 years

2,491 701 28.1 502 20.1 199 28.4 1,790

20 to 24 years

3,425 2,337 68.2 1,953 57.0 384 16.4 1,089

25 to 54 years

16,545 12,984 78.5 11,924 72.1 1,061 8.2 3,561

55 to 64 years

4,718 2,584 54.8 2,433 51.6 151 5.8 2,134

65 years and older

4,207 711 16.9 660 15.7 51 7.2 3,496

Women, 16 years and older

17,118 10,218 59.7 9,308 54.4 911 8.9 6,899

16 to 19 years

1,254 376 29.9 276 22.0 99 26.4 879

20 to 24 years

1,764 1,192 67.6 1,017 57.7 174 14.6 572

25 to 54 years

8,998 6,880 76.5 6,333 70.4 547 8.0 2,118

55 to 64 years

2,588 1,381 53.4 1,319 51.0 62 4.5 1,207

65 years and older

2,515 391 15.6 363 14.4 28 7.2 2,123

Men, 16 years and older

14,268 9,099 63.8 8,164 57.2 935 10.3 5,169

16 to 19 years

1,237 326 26.3 226 18.2 100 30.8 911

20 to 24 years

1,662 1,145 68.9 936 56.3 209 18.3 517

25 to 54 years

7,547 6,105 80.9 5,591 74.1 514 8.4 1,442

55 to 64 years

2,130 1,204 56.5 1,115 52.3 89 7.4 927

65 years and older

1,692 320 18.9 297 17.5 23 7.2 1,372

Asian

 

Total, 16 years and older

14,420 9,053 62.8 8,706 60.4 347 3.8 5,366

16 to 19 years

833 172 20.6 147 17.7 25 14.4 661

20 to 24 years

1,293 682 52.8 625 48.4 57 8.4 610

25 to 54 years

8,317 6,476 77.9 6,283 75.5 193 3.0 1,842

55 to 64 years

1,960 1,315 67.1 1,263 64.4 53 4.0 644

65 years and older

2,017 408 20.2 388 19.3 20 4.8 1,609

Women, 16 years and older

7,683 4,242 55.2 4,086 53.2 156 3.7 3,441

16 to 19 years

428 89 20.8 79 18.4 10 11.4 339

20 to 24 years

637 335 52.6 307 48.2 28 8.4 302

25 to 54 years

4,407 2,988 67.8 2,894 65.7 93 3.1 1,419

55 to 64 years

1,077 652 60.5 633 58.8 19 2.9 425

65 years and older

1,135 179 15.8 174 15.3 6 3.2 956

Men, 16 years and older

6,737 4,811 71.4 4,620 68.6 191 4.0 1,925

16 to 19 years

406 83 20.5 69 16.9 15 17.7 322

20 to 24 years

656 347 53.0 318 48.6 29 8.4 308

25 to 54 years

3,911 3,488 89.2 3,389 86.7 99 2.9 423

55 to 64 years

883 664 75.1 630 71.3 34 5.1 219

65 years and older

882 229 25.9 215 24.4 14 6.1 653

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Total, 16 years and older

39,617 26,126 65.9 24,400 61.6 1,726 6.6 13,491

16 to 19 years

3,705 1,144 30.9 922 24.9 221 19.3 2,562

20 to 24 years

4,697 3,365 71.6 3,027 64.4 338 10.0 1,332

25 to 54 years

23,262 18,315 78.7 17,326 74.5 989 5.4 4,948

55 to 64 years

4,255 2,666 62.7 2,523 59.3 143 5.4 1,589

65 years and older

3,698 637 17.2 601 16.3 36 5.6 3,061

Women, 16 years and older

19,872 11,072 55.7 10,289 51.8 783 7.1 8,800

16 to 19 years

1,820 533 29.3 436 23.9 98 18.3 1,287

20 to 24 years

2,301 1,514 65.8 1,372 59.6 142 9.4 787

25 to 54 years

11,452 7,593 66.3 7,120 62.2 473 6.2 3,859

55 to 64 years

2,205 1,151 52.2 1,091 49.5 60 5.2 1,054

65 years and older

2,094 280 13.4 270 12.9 11 3.9 1,813

Men, 16 years and older

19,745 15,054 76.2 14,111 71.5 943 6.3 4,691

16 to 19 years

1,886 610 32.4 487 25.8 124 20.3 1,275

20 to 24 years

2,396 1,851 77.3 1,655 69.1 196 10.6 545

25 to 54 years

11,810 10,722 90.8 10,206 86.4 516 4.8 1,089

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,515 73.9 1,432 69.9 83 5.5 535

65 years and older

1,604 356 22.2 331 20.7 25 7.0 1,248

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

Married, spouse present

125,178 82,383 65.8 79,935 63.9 2,448 3.0 42,795

Unmarried, total

125,623 74,747 59.5 68,898 54.8 5,848 7.8 50,876

Never married

76,296 49,541 64.9 45,147 59.2 4,394 8.9 26,755

Other martial status

49,327 25,206 51.1 23,751 48.2 1,455 5.8 24,121

Divorced

25,720 16,377 63.7 15,484 60.2 893 5.5 9,343

Separated

8,783 5,856 66.7 5,436 61.9 420 7.2 2,927

Widowed

14,823 2,973 20.1 2,831 19.1 142 4.8 11,850

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

Married, spouse present

62,203 36,135 58.1 34,997 56.3 1,138 3.1 26,067

Unmarried, total

67,497 37,374 55.4 34,706 51.4 2,669 7.1 30,123

Never married

36,145 22,738 62.9 20,881 57.8 1,857 8.2 13,408

Other martial status

31,352 14,637 46.7 13,825 44.1 812 5.5 16,715

Divorced

15,003 9,402 62.7 8,927 59.5 475 5.1 5,601

Separated

4,820 3,036 63.0 2,801 58.1 235 7.7 1,784

Widowed

11,529 2,199 19.1 2,097 18.2 101 4.6 9,331

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

Married, spouse present

62,975 46,248 73.4 44,938 71.4 1,310 2.8 16,727

Unmarried, total

58,126 37,373 64.3 34,193 58.8 3,180 8.5 20,753

Never married

40,151 26,803 66.8 24,267 60.4 2,537 9.5 13,348

Other martial status

17,975 10,569 58.8 9,926 55.2 643 6.1 7,405

Divorced

10,718 6,975 65.1 6,557 61.2 417 6.0 3,743

Separated

3,963 2,820 71.2 2,635 66.5 185 6.6 1,143

Widowed

3,294 774 23.5 734 22.3 40 5.2 2,520

Note: Separated includes married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2015 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Women, 16 years and older

129,342 73,380 56.7 69,636 53.8 3,744 5.1 55,962

With children under 18 years old

35,911 25,107 69.9 23,841 66.4 1,265 5.0 10,805

With children 6 to 17, none younger

20,192 15,059 74.6 14,437 71.5 622 4.1 5,133

With children under 6 years old

15,719 10,048 63.9 9,405 59.8 643 6.4 5,671

With children under 3 years old

8,953 5,494 61.4 5,119 57.2 375 6.8 3,459

With no children under 18 years old

93,431 48,273 51.7 45,794 49.0 2,479 5.1 45,158

Men, 16 years and older

120,738 83,108 68.8 77,987 64.6 5,121 6.2 37,630

With children under 18 years old

27,198 25,244 92.8 24,318 89.4 925 3.7 1,954

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,468 14,191 91.7 13,685 88.5 506 3.6 1,277

With children under 6 years old

11,730 11,053 94.2 10,634 90.7 419 3.8 677

With children under 3 years old

6,777 6,401 94.5 6,160 90.9 241 3.8 376

With no children under 18 years old

93,540 57,864 61.9 53,668 57.4 4,196 7.3 35,676

White

 

Women, 16 years and older

100,535 56,565 56.3 54,098 53.8 2,467 4.4 43,970

With children under 18 years old

27,158 18,889 69.6 18,126 66.7 763 4.0 8,269

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,328 11,401 74.4 11,015 71.9 386 3.4 3,928

With children under 6 years old

11,829 7,488 63.3 7,111 60.1 377 5.0 4,341

With children under 3 years old

6,787 4,129 60.8 3,895 57.4 234 5.7 2,658

With no children under 18 years old

73,378 37,677 51.3 35,972 49.0 1,704 4.5 35,701

Men, 16 years and older

95,899 66,783 69.6 63,144 65.8 3,639 5.4 29,116

With children under 18 years old

21,972 20,572 93.6 19,873 90.4 700 3.4 1,399

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,534 11,592 92.5 11,201 89.4 391 3.4 942

With children under 6 years old

9,438 8,980 95.1 8,672 91.9 309 3.4 458

With children under 3 years old

5,493 5,239 95.4 5,055 92.0 184 3.5 254

With no children under 18 years old

73,927 46,210 62.5 43,271 58.5 2,939 6.4 27,717

Black or African American

 

Women, 16 years and older

17,054 10,095 59.2 9,151 53.7 944 9.3 6,959

With children under 18 years old

4,914 3,748 76.3 3,361 68.4 387 10.3 1,166

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,797 2,221 79.4 2,039 72.9 182 8.2 576

With children under 6 years old

2,117 1,527 72.1 1,321 62.4 206 13.5 590

With children under 3 years old

1,199 818 68.3 706 58.9 112 13.7 380

With no children under 18 years old

12,140 6,347 52.3 5,791 47.7 557 8.8 5,793

Men, 16 years and older

14,203 8,929 62.9 7,910 55.7 1,019 11.4 5,274

With children under 18 years old

2,382 2,072 87.0 1,940 81.5 131 6.3 310

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,374 1,179 85.8 1,110 80.8 69 5.8 196

With children under 6 years old

1,007 893 88.6 831 82.4 62 7.0 114

With children under 3 years old

588 524 89.1 493 83.9 31 5.9 64

With no children under 18 years old

11,822 6,858 58.0 5,969 50.5 888 13.0 4,964

Asian

 

Women, 16 years and older

7,622 4,219 55.3 4,092 53.7 127 3.0 3,403

With children under 18 years old

2,468 1,529 62.0 1,492 60.4 38 2.5 939

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,365 934 68.5 912 66.8 22 2.4 430

With children under 6 years old

1,103 595 53.9 580 52.5 15 2.6 508

With children under 3 years old

600 311 51.9 302 50.4 9 2.8 289

With no children under 18 years old

5,154 2,690 52.2 2,600 50.5 89 3.3 2,464

Men, 16 years and older

6,803 4,839 71.1 4,647 68.3 192 4.0 1,964

With children under 18 years old

2,000 1,870 93.5 1,821 91.1 49 2.6 129

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,097 1,019 92.9 990 90.3 29 2.8 78

With children under 6 years old

903 852 94.3 831 92.0 20 2.4 51

With children under 3 years old

487 452 92.7 443 90.9 8 1.9 36

With no children under 18 years old

4,803 2,968 61.8 2,826 58.8 143 4.8 1,835

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Women, 16 years and older

19,722 10,866 55.1 10,079 51.1 787 7.2 8,855

With children under 18 years old

7,603 4,686 61.6 4,358 57.3 327 7.0 2,917

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,058 2,737 67.5 2,600 64.1 137 5.0 1,321

With children under 6 years old

3,545 1,948 55.0 1,758 49.6 190 9.7 1,596

With children under 3 years old

1,888 954 50.6 847 44.9 107 11.2 933

With no children under 18 years old

12,119 6,181 51.0 5,721 47.2 460 7.4 5,938

Men, 16 years and older

19,601 14,860 75.8 13,793 70.4 1,067 7.2 4,740

With children under 18 years old

5,391 5,049 93.6 4,813 89.3 236 4.7 342

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,856 2,637 92.3 2,516 88.1 120 4.6 220

With children under 6 years old

2,535 2,412 95.2 2,297 90.6 115 4.8 123

With children under 3 years old

1,388 1,329 95.8 1,254 90.3 75 5.7 59

With no children under 18 years old

14,209 9,812 69.1 8,980 63.2 832 8.5 4,398

Note: Children are "own" children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2015 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest child Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

129,342 73,380 56.7 69,636 53.8 3,744 5.1 55,962

With children under 18 years old

35,911 25,107 69.9 23,841 66.4 1,265 5.0 10,805

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

20,192 15,059 74.6 14,437 71.5 622 4.1 5,133

With children under 6 years old

15,719 10,048 63.9 9,405 59.8 643 6.4 5,671

With children under 3 years old

8,953 5,494 61.4 5,119 57.2 375 6.8 3,459

With no children under 18 years old

93,431 48,273 51.7 45,794 49.0 2,479 5.1 45,158

Total, married, spouse present

 

Total women, 16 years and older

62,171 36,388 58.5 35,314 56.8 1,074 3.0 25,783

With children under 18 years old

24,822 16,779 67.6 16,305 65.7 474 2.8 8,043

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

13,977 10,126 72.4 9,851 70.5 275 2.7 3,851

With children under 6 years old

10,845 6,653 61.3 6,454 59.5 198 3.0 4,192

With children under 3 years old

6,316 3,760 59.5 3,633 57.5 127 3.4 2,556

With no children under 18 years old

37,350 19,609 52.5 19,009 50.9 600 3.1 17,741

Total, other marital statuses1

 

Total women, 16 years and older

67,171 36,992 55.1 34,322 51.1 2,670 7.2 30,179

With children under 18 years old

11,090 8,328 75.1 7,536 68.0 791 9.5 2,762

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

6,216 4,933 79.4 4,586 73.8 347 7.0 1,283

With children under 6 years old

4,874 3,395 69.6 2,950 60.5 444 13.1 1,479

With children under 3 years old

2,637 1,734 65.7 1,486 56.4 247 14.3 903

With no children under 18 years old

56,081 28,664 51.1 26,785 47.8 1,879 6.6 27,417

White, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

100,535 56,565 56.3 54,098 53.8 2,467 4.4 43,970

With children under 18 years old

27,158 18,889 69.6 18,126 66.7 763 4.0 8,269

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

15,328 11,401 74.4 11,015 71.9 386 3.4 3,928

With children under 6 years old

11,829 7,488 63.3 7,111 60.1 377 5.0 4,341

With children under 3 years old

6,787 4,129 60.8 3,895 57.4 234 5.7 2,658

With no children under 18 years old

73,378 37,677 51.3 35,972 49.0 1,704 4.5 35,701

White, married, spouse present

 

Total women, 16 years and older

51,597 29,966 58.1 29,129 56.5 836 2.8 21,632

With children under 18 years old

20,079 13,605 67.8 13,247 66.0 357 2.6 6,474

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

11,286 8,189 72.6 7,984 70.7 205 2.5 3,098

With children under 6 years old

8,793 5,416 61.6 5,263 59.9 153 2.8 3,377

With children under 3 years old

5,176 3,100 59.9 3,003 58.0 98 3.1 2,076

With no children under 18 years old

31,518 16,361 51.9 15,882 50.4 479 2.9 15,157

White, other marital statuses1

 

Total women, 16 years and older

48,938 26,600 54.4 24,969 51.0 1,631 6.1 22,338

With children under 18 years old

7,079 5,284 74.6 4,878 68.9 406 7.7 1,795

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,042 3,212 79.5 3,030 75.0 182 5.7 830

With children under 6 years old

3,036 2,072 68.2 1,848 60.9 224 10.8 965

With children under 3 years old

1,610 1,028 63.8 892 55.4 136 13.2 582

With no children under 18 years old

41,859 21,316 50.9 20,091 48.0 1,225 5.7 20,544

Black or African American, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

17,054 10,095 59.2 9,151 53.7 944 9.3 6,959

With children under 18 years old

4,914 3,748 76.3 3,361 68.4 387 10.3 1,166

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,797 2,221 79.4 2,039 72.9 182 8.2 576

With children under 6 years old

2,117 1,527 72.1 1,321 62.4 206 13.5 590

With children under 3 years old

1,199 818 68.3 706 58.9 112 13.7 380

With no children under 18 years old

12,140 6,347 52.3 5,791 47.7 557 8.8 5,793

Black or African American, married, spouse present

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,485 2,874 64.1 2,740 61.1 134 4.7 1,611

With children under 18 years old

1,779 1,336 75.1 1,268 71.3 67 5.0 443

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,072 846 78.9 807 75.3 39 4.6 226

With children under 6 years old

707 490 69.3 462 65.3 28 5.7 217

With children under 3 years old

410 268 65.3 250 61.1 18 6.6 142

With no children under 18 years old

2,706 1,538 56.9 1,471 54.4 67 4.4 1,167

Black or African American, other marital statuses1

 

Total women, 16 years and older

12,569 7,221 57.4 6,412 51.0 809 11.2 5,348

With children under 18 years old

3,135 2,412 77.0 2,092 66.7 320 13.3 722

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,725 1,375 79.7 1,233 71.5 142 10.4 350

With children under 6 years old

1,410 1,037 73.5 860 61.0 177 17.1 373

With children under 3 years old

789 550 69.8 456 57.8 94 17.1 238

With no children under 18 years old

9,435 4,809 51.0 4,319 45.8 489 10.2 4,626

Asian, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

7,622 4,219 55.3 4,092 53.7 127 3.0 3,403

With children under 18 years old

2,468 1,529 62.0 1,492 60.4 38 2.5 939

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,365 934 68.5 912 66.8 22 2.4 430

With children under 6 years old

1,103 595 53.9 580 52.5 15 2.6 508

With children under 3 years old

600 311 51.9 302 50.4 9 2.8 289

With no children under 18 years old

5,154 2,690 52.2 2,600 50.5 89 3.3 2,464

Asian, married, spouse present

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,452 2,536 57.0 2,472 55.5 65 2.5 1,916

With children under 18 years old

2,133 1,284 60.2 1,253 58.8 31 2.4 849

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,171 781 66.7 760 64.9 20 2.6 391

With children under 6 years old

962 504 52.4 493 51.2 11 2.1 458

With children under 3 years old

523 263 50.3 258 49.4 5 1.9 260

With no children under 18 years old

2,319 1,252 54.0 1,218 52.5 33 2.7 1,067

Asian, other marital statuses1

 

Total women, 16 years and older

3,170 1,683 53.1 1,620 51.1 62 3.7 1,488

With children under 18 years old

335 245 73.1 238 71.1 7 2.7 90

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

194 154 79.4 152 78.4 2 1.2 40

With children under 6 years old

142 91 64.4 87 61.2 5 5.1 50

With children under 3 years old

77 48 - 44 - 4 - 29

With no children under 18 years old

2,835 1,438 50.7 1,382 48.7 56 3.9 1,398

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

19,722 10,866 55.1 10,079 51.1 787 7.2 8,855

With children under 18 years old

7,603 4,686 61.6 4,358 57.3 327 7.0 2,917

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,058 2,737 67.5 2,600 64.1 137 5.0 1,321

With children under 6 years old

3,545 1,948 55.0 1,758 49.6 190 9.7 1,596

With children under 3 years old

1,888 954 50.6 847 44.9 107 11.2 933

With no children under 18 years old

12,119 6,181 51.0 5,721 47.2 460 7.4 5,938

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present

 

Total women, 16 years and older

8,747 4,638 53.0 4,399 50.3 239 5.2 4,109

With children under 18 years old

4,885 2,687 55.0 2,554 52.3 133 4.9 2,198

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,610 1,572 60.3 1,514 58.0 58 3.7 1,037

With children under 6 years old

2,275 1,115 49.0 1,040 45.7 75 6.7 1,160

With children under 3 years old

1,227 557 45.4 509 41.5 49 8.7 670

With no children under 18 years old

3,862 1,950 50.5 1,844 47.8 106 5.4 1,912

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses1

 

Total women, 16 years and older

10,975 6,228 56.8 5,680 51.8 548 8.8 4,746

With children under 18 years old

2,718 1,998 73.5 1,804 66.4 194 9.7 720

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,448 1,165 80.4 1,086 75.0 79 6.8 284

With children under 6 years old

1,269 833 65.7 718 56.6 115 13.8 436

With children under 3 years old

661 397 60.1 339 51.3 58 14.7 264

With no children under 18 years old

8,257 4,230 51.2 3,876 46.9 354 8.4 4,027

1 Includes never-married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.

Note: Children are own children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, and other related and unrelated children. Details for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2015 (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian labor force Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

With children under age 18

 

1975

14,616 47.4 13,069 1,548 11.0

1976

15,073 48.8 13,725 1,346 8.9

1977

15,669 50.8 14,276 1,393 8.9

1978

16,385 53.0 15,142 1,242 7.6

1979

16,883 54.5 15,624 1,259 7.7

1980

17,790 56.6 16,526 1,264 7.1

1981

18,422 58.1 16,952 1,471 8.0

1982

18,744 58.5 16,854 1,890 10.1

1983

18,924 58.9 16,792 2,131 11.3

1984

19,555 60.5 17,782 1,773 9.1

1985

20,041 62.1 18,306 1,735 8.7

1986

20,620 62.8 18,922 1,698 8.2

1987

21,422 64.7 19,798 1,624 7.6

1988

21,545 65.1 20,141 1,404 6.5

1989

21,936 65.7 20,647 1,289 5.9

1990

22,196 66.7 20,865 1,331 6.0

1991

22,327 66.6 20,774 1,552 7.0

1992

22,756 67.2 21,052 1,704 7.5

1993

23,063 66.9 21,521 1,541 6.7

1994

24,191 68.4 22,467 1,724 7.1

1995

24,695 69.7 23,195 1,500 6.1

1996

24,720 70.2 23,386 1,334 5.4

1997

25,604 72.1 24,082 1,522 5.9

1998

25,647 72.3 24,209 1,438 5.6

1999

25,472 72.1 24,307 1,165 4.6

2000

25,795 72.9 24,693 1,102 4.3

2001

26,269 72.7 25,030 1,239 4.7

2002

26,140 72.2 24,612 1,529 5.8

2003

26,202 71.7 24,598 1,603 6.1

2004

25,913 70.7 24,413 1,501 5.8

2005

25,941 70.5 24,564 1,377 5.3

2006

26,009 70.6 24,728 1,281 4.9

2007

26,834 71.3 25,646 1,188 4.4

2008

25,930 71.2 24,637 1,294 5.0

2009

26,122 71.6 24,079 2,043 7.8

2010

25,783 71.3 23,510 2,273 8.8

2011

25,376 70.9 23,109 2,266 8.9

2012

25,384 70.9 23,366 2,018 7.9

2013

25,112 70.3 23,121 1,991 7.9

2014

25,209 70.8 23,542 1,667 6.6

2015

25,107 69.9 23,841 1,265 5.0

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

 

1975

8,917 54.9 8,218 700 7.9

1976

9,388 56.2 8,769 621 6.6

1977

10,040 58.3 9,389 650 6.5

1978

10,401 60.0 9,845 556 5.3

1979

10,646 61.6 10,030 615 5.8

1980

11,252 64.3 10,640 612 5.4

1981

11,490 65.5 10,725 765 6.7

1982

11,377 65.8 10,440 936 8.2

1983

11,340 66.3 10,303 1,037 9.1

1984

11,538 68.1 10,739 799 6.9

1985

11,826 69.9 10,984 842 7.1

1986

12,075 70.4 11,320 756 6.3

1987

12,438 72.0 11,661 778 6.3

1988

12,683 73.3 12,042 641 5.1

1989

12,800 74.2 12,168 632 4.9

1990

12,799 74.7 12,133 666 5.2

1991

12,691 74.4 12,017 674 5.3

1992

13,183 75.9 12,391 793 6.0

1993

13,441 75.4 12,757 684 5.1

1994

13,863 76.0 13,074 789 5.7

1995

14,300 76.4 13,608 691 4.8

1996

14,427 77.2 13,794 633 4.4

1997

14,993 78.1 14,282 711 4.7

1998

15,028 78.4 14,370 658 4.4

1999

15,150 78.5 14,633 516 3.4

2000

15,479 79.0 14,931 549 3.5

2001

15,839 79.4 15,220 619 3.9

2002

15,948 78.6 15,171 777 4.9

2003

15,993 78.7 15,166 828 5.2

2004

15,782 77.5 15,006 776 4.9

2005

15,594 76.9 14,930 663 4.3

2006

15,579 76.9 14,949 630 4.0

2007

15,940 77.7 15,341 599 3.8

2008

15,479 77.5 14,842 636 4.1

2009

15,625 78.2 14,562 1,063 6.8

2010

15,247 77.2 14,058 1,189 7.8

2011

14,973 76.5 13,842 1,131 7.6

2012

14,922 76.0 13,908 1,014 6.8

2013

14,941 74.8 13,909 1,032 6.9

2014

15,227 75.8 14,389 838 5.5

2015

15,059 74.6 14,437 622 4.1

With children under age 6

 

1975

5,699 39.0 4,851 848 14.9

1976

5,684 40.1 4,957 727 12.8

1977

5,629 41.2 4,887 742 13.2

1978

5,983 44.0 5,297 687 11.5

1979

6,238 45.7 5,594 644 10.3

1980

6,538 46.8 5,886 652 10.0

1981

6,933 48.9 6,227 706 10.2

1982

7,367 49.9 6,414 953 12.9

1983

7,583 50.5 6,489 1,094 14.4

1984

8,017 52.1 7,043 974 12.1

1985

8,215 53.5 7,322 893 10.9

1986

8,545 54.4 7,602 943 11.0

1987

8,983 56.7 8,137 846 9.4

1988

8,862 56.1 8,099 763 8.6

1989

9,136 56.7 8,478 657 7.2

1990

9,397 58.2 8,732 664 7.1

1991

9,636 58.4 8,758 878 9.1

1992

9,573 58.0 8,662 911 9.5

1993

9,621 57.9 8,764 857 8.9

1994

10,328 60.3 9,394 935 9.0

1995

10,395 62.3 9,587 809 7.8

1996

10,293 62.3 9,592 701 6.8

1997

10,610 65.0 9,800 810 7.6

1998

10,619 65.2 9,839 780 7.3

1999

10,322 64.4 9,674 648 6.3

2000

10,316 65.3 9,763 553 5.4

2001

10,430 64.4 9,810 620 5.9

2002

10,193 64.1 9,441 752 7.4

2003

10,209 62.9 9,433 776 7.6

2004

10,131 62.2 9,407 724 7.1

2005

10,347 62.6 9,634 714 6.9

2006

10,430 63.0 9,779 651 6.2

2007

10,894 63.5 10,305 589 5.4

2008

10,452 63.6 9,794 657 6.3

2009

10,497 63.6 9,517 980 9.3

2010

10,536 64.2 9,452 1,085 10.3

2011

10,403 64.2 9,268 1,135 10.9

2012

10,462 64.7 9,458 1,004 9.6

2013

10,171 64.7 9,212 958 9.4

2014

9,982 64.3 9,153 829 8.3

2015

10,048 63.9 9,405 643 6.4

With children under age 3

 

1975

2,824 34.3 2,326 500 17.7

1976

2,702 34.1 2,285 418 15.5

1977

2,795 35.4 2,371 424 15.2

1978

3,179 39.4 2,768 411 12.9

1979

3,380 41.1 2,979 401 11.9

1980

3,565 41.9 3,167 398 11.2

1981

3,826 44.3 3,380 446 11.7

1982

4,133 45.6 3,542 591 14.3

1983

4,233 46.0 3,551 682 16.1

1984

4,401 47.6 3,839 562 12.8

1985

4,601 49.5 4,089 513 11.1

1986

4,786 50.8 4,227 559 11.7

1987

5,064 52.9 4,570 494 9.8

1988

4,947 52.4 4,477 470 9.5

1989

5,053 52.4 4,671 381 7.5

1990

5,216 53.6 4,823 393 7.5

1991

5,417 54.5 4,868 550 10.1

1992

5,329 54.5 4,776 553 10.4

1993

5,349 53.9 4,857 492 9.2

1994

5,724 57.1 5,165 559 9.8

1995

5,650 58.7 5,172 478 8.5

1996

5,619 59.0 5,222 397 7.1

1997

5,839 61.8 5,366 473 8.1

1998

5,882 62.2 5,454 428 7.3

1999

5,645 60.7 5,285 359 6.4

2000

5,670 61.0 5,350 320 5.6

2001

5,743 60.7 5,350 393 6.8

2002

5,600 60.5 5,160 440 7.9

2003

5,568 58.7 5,112 456 8.2

2004

5,401 57.3 4,983 417 7.7

2005

5,704 58.9 5,299 405 7.1

2006

5,842 59.9 5,458 384 6.6

2007

6,006 60.1 5,679 327 5.5

2008

5,754 59.6 5,380 374 6.5

2009

5,960 61.1 5,401 559 9.4

2010

5,878 61.1 5,240 638 10.9

2011

5,639 60.9 5,006 633 11.2

2012

5,529 60.7 4,960 569 10.3

2013

5,448 62.1 4,937 511 9.4

2014

5,358 61.8 4,870 487 9.1

2015

5,494 61.4 5,119 375 6.8

With no children under age 18

 

1975

22,365 45.1 20,381 1,984 8.9

1976

23,327 45.7 21,389 1,938 8.3

1977

24,385 46.4 22,348 2,037 8.4

1978

25,362 47.0 23,631 1,731 6.8

1979

26,962 48.6 25,285 1,677 6.2

1980

27,144 48.1 25,375 1,769 6.5

1981

27,992 48.7 25,934 2,059 7.4

1982

28,351 48.6 26,041 2,311 8.2

1983

28,856 48.7 26,373 2,483 8.6

1984

29,684 49.3 27,652 2,032 6.8

1985

30,850 50.4 28,814 2,036 6.6

1986

31,112 50.5 29,107 2,005 6.4

1987

31,538 50.5 29,688 1,850 5.9

1988

32,490 51.2 30,911 1,580 4.9

1989

33,255 51.9 31,761 1,495 4.5

1990

33,942 52.3 32,391 1,551 4.6

1991

34,047 52.0 32,167 1,880 5.5

1992

34,487 52.3 32,481 2,006 5.8

1993

34,495 52.1 32,476 2,020 5.9

1994

35,455 53.1 33,345 2,110 6.0

1995

35,843 52.9 34,054 1,789 5.0

1996

36,509 53.0 34,698 1,811 5.0

1997

37,295 53.6 35,572 1,723 4.6

1998

38,253 54.1 36,680 1,573 4.1

1999

39,314 54.3 37,587 1,727 4.4

2000

40,142 54.8 38,408 1,733 4.3

2001

40,996 54.4 39,363 1,633 4.0

2002

41,278 54.0 39,038 2,241 5.4

2003

42,039 54.1 39,667 2,372 5.6

2004

42,289 53.8 40,000 2,289 5.4

2005

42,677 53.5 40,570 2,107 4.9

2006

43,392 53.6 41,440 1,952 4.5

2007

44,039 53.9 42,279 1,760 4.0

2008

45,585 54.3 43,417 2,168 4.8

2009

45,649 53.8 42,343 3,306 7.2

2010

46,098 53.5 42,256 3,842 8.3

2011

46,198 53.0 42,569 3,629 7.9

2012

47,222 52.6 43,494 3,728 7.9

2013

47,607 52.3 44,294 3,313 7.0

2014

48,076 52.1 44,980 3,096 6.4

2015

48,273 51.7 45,794 2,479 5.1

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

165,702 127,106 76.7 121,613 73.4 5,493 4.3 38,596

Less than a high school diploma

17,071 10,317 60.4 9,482 55.5 835 8.1 6,754

High school graduates, no college

45,962 32,982 71.8 31,148 67.8 1,835 5.6 12,980

Some college or associate's degree

45,307 35,220 77.7 33,621 74.2 1,600 4.5 10,087

College graduates, total

57,362 48,586 84.7 47,362 82.6 1,223 2.5 8,776

Bachelor's degree

36,840 30,839 83.7 29,993 81.4 846 2.7 6,001

Advanced degree

20,522 17,747 86.5 17,370 84.6 377 2.1 2,775

Master's degree

15,210 13,018 85.6 12,711 83.6 307 2.4 2,192

Professional degree

2,559 2,251 88.0 2,219 86.7 33 1.4 308

Doctoral degree

2,754 2,478 90.0 2,440 88.6 38 1.5 276

Women

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

84,760 59,252 69.9 56,670 66.9 2,582 4.4 25,507

Less than a high school diploma

7,949 3,613 45.5 3,258 41.0 355 9.8 4,336

High school graduates, no college

21,806 13,727 62.9 12,960 59.4 767 5.6 8,079

Some college or associate's degree

24,328 17,566 72.2 16,742 68.8 824 4.7 6,762

College graduates, total

30,676 24,347 79.4 23,711 77.3 636 2.6 6,330

Bachelor's degree

19,494 15,191 77.9 14,749 75.7 442 2.9 4,303

Advanced degree

11,183 9,156 81.9 8,962 80.1 194 2.1 2,027

Master's degree

8,821 7,184 81.4 7,023 79.6 161 2.2 1,637

Professional degree

1,160 940 81.0 927 79.9 14 1.4 220

Doctoral degree

1,201 1,032 85.9 1,013 84.3 19 1.9 169

Men

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

80,943 67,853 83.8 64,943 80.2 2,910 4.3 13,089

Less than a high school diploma

9,122 6,704 73.5 6,224 68.2 480 7.2 2,418

High school graduates, no college

24,156 19,256 79.7 18,188 75.3 1,068 5.5 4,900

Some college or associate's degree

20,979 17,654 84.2 16,879 80.5 775 4.4 3,324

College graduates, total

26,685 24,239 90.8 23,652 88.6 587 2.4 2,446

Bachelor's degree

17,346 15,648 90.2 15,244 87.9 404 2.6 1,698

Advanced degree

9,340 8,591 92.0 8,408 90.0 183 2.1 748

Master's degree

6,388 5,834 91.3 5,688 89.0 146 2.5 554

Professional degree

1,399 1,311 93.7 1,292 92.4 19 1.4 88

Doctoral degree

1,553 1,446 93.1 1,428 91.9 19 1.3 107

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–2015
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total High school College
Less than 4 years 4 years, no college 1 to 3 years 4 years or more

Total

 

1970

61,765 100.0 36.1 38.1 11.8 14.1

1971

62,344 100.0 34.5 38.4 12.3 14.8

1972

63,704 100.0 33.3 38.8 12.4 15.5

1973

64,775 100.0 30.9 39.7 13.0 16.4

1974

66,527 100.0 29.3 39.5 13.7 17.5

1975

67,774 100.0 27.5 39.7 14.4 18.3

1976

69,243 100.0 25.8 39.6 15.2 19.4

1977

71,324 100.0 24.9 39.2 15.7 20.2

1978

73,504 100.0 23.7 39.2 16.5 20.6

1979

75,781 100.0 21.8 39.5 17.3 21.3

1980

78,010 100.0 20.6 39.8 17.6 22.0

1981

80,273 100.0 19.7 40.6 17.7 22.0

1982

81,516 100.0 18.8 40.8 17.3 23.1

1983

83,615 100.0 17.8 39.9 18.1 24.2

1984

86,001 100.0 16.7 40.2 18.4 24.7

1985

88,424 100.0 15.9 40.2 19.0 24.9

1986

90,500 100.0 15.5 40.2 19.5 24.8

1987

92,966 100.0 14.9 40.2 19.7 25.3

1988

94,870 100.0 14.7 39.9 19.7 25.7

1989

97,318 100.0 14.0 39.6 20.0 26.4

1990

99,175 100.0 13.4 39.5 20.7 26.4

1991

100,480 100.0 13.0 39.4 21.1 26.5

Women

 

1970

22,462 100.0 33.5 44.3 10.9 11.2

1971

22,804 100.0 32.2 44.2 11.9 11.8

1972

23,606 100.0 30.7 45.1 11.8 12.4

1973

24,158 100.0 28.4 45.9 12.4 13.3

1974

25,203 100.0 26.7 45.3 13.4 14.6

1975

26,146 100.0 26.5 45.5 13.9 14.1

1976

27,166 100.0 24.0 45.1 14.7 16.2

1977

28,369 100.0 22.8 45.1 15.2 16.9

1978

29,738 100.0 22.0 44.9 16.1 17.0

1979

31,151 100.0 20.1 45.0 17.1 17.8

1980

32,593 100.0 18.4 45.4 17.4 18.7

1981

33,910 100.0 17.4 46.1 17.9 18.6

1982

34,870 100.0 16.6 45.6 18.3 19.5

1983

35,712 100.0 15.6 44.8 18.8 20.9

1984

37,234 100.0 14.5 44.9 18.9 21.7

1985

38,779 100.0 13.7 44.4 19.9 22.0

1986

39,767 100.0 13.2 44.3 20.3 22.2

1987

41,105 100.0 12.5 44.0 20.7 22.8

1988

42,254 100.0 12.4 43.3 21.2 23.1

1989

43,650 100.0 11.9 42.9 20.9 24.3

1990

44,699 100.0 11.3 42.4 21.9 24.5

1991

45,315 100.0 10.9 41.6 22.2 25.2

Men

 

1970

39,303 100.0 37.5 34.5 12.2 15.7

1971

39,539 100.0 35.9 35.1 12.5 16.5

1972

40,098 100.0 34.8 35.1 12.8 17.3

1973

40,617 100.0 32.4 36.0 13.4 18.2

1974

41,344 100.0 30.8 36.0 13.9 19.3

1975

41,628 100.0 28.9 36.1 14.8 20.2

1976

42,077 100.0 27.0 36.0 15.5 21.5

1977

42,954 100.0 26.3 35.3 16.1 22.3

1978

43,766 100.0 24.8 35.3 16.9 23.0

1979

44,630 100.0 23.0 35.7 17.5 23.8

1980

45,417 100.0 22.2 35.7 17.7 24.3

1981

46,363 100.0 21.5 36.5 17.4 24.6

1982

47,144 100.0 20.3 36.8 17.5 25.5

1983

47,903 100.0 19.4 36.3 17.7 26.6

1984

48,767 100.0 18.4 36.7 18.0 26.9

1985

49,647 100.0 17.7 36.9 18.3 27.1

1986

50,733 100.0 17.2 37.0 18.9 26.9

1987

51,860 100.0 16.8 37.1 18.9 27.2

1988

52,616 100.0 16.5 37.3 18.5 27.8

1989

53,668 100.0 15.7 36.9 19.2 28.2

1990

54,476 100.0 15.1 37.2 19.7 28.0

1991

55,165 100.0 14.7 37.5 20.2 27.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–2015
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college1 Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher2

Total

 

1992

103,018 100.0 12.1 35.7 25.6 26.6

1993

104,237 100.0 11.3 35.1 26.6 27.0

1994

105,610 100.0 10.8 33.9 27.7 27.6

1995

107,032 100.0 10.4 33.2 28.1 28.3

1996

108,932 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.8 28.7

1997

110,945 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.5 29.0

1998

111,932 100.0 10.5 32.4 27.4 29.8

1999

113,095 100.0 10.0 31.8 27.6 30.5

2000

115,750 100.0 10.1 31.4 27.8 30.7

2001

116,893 100.0 10.1 30.9 28.0 31.0

2002

118,028 100.0 10.0 30.7 27.7 31.6

2003

119,621 100.0 9.9 30.3 27.6 32.1

2004

120,135 100.0 9.7 30.1 27.7 32.4

2005

121,752 100.0 9.8 29.9 27.8 32.5

2006

123,550 100.0 9.7 29.6 27.7 33.0

2007

125,104 100.0 9.3 29.2 27.7 33.8

2008

126,011 100.0 9.0 28.8 28.0 34.2

2009

126,247 100.0 9.0 28.6 28.0 34.4

2010

126,237 100.0 8.9 28.6 27.9 34.6

2011

125,508 100.0 8.7 28.0 28.0 35.3

2012

125,963 100.0 8.4 27.4 28.2 36.0

2013

125,892 100.0 8.2 27.1 28.0 36.7

2014

126,269 100.0 8.0 26.7 27.9 37.3

2015

127,106 100.0 8.1 25.9 27.7 38.2

Women

 

1992

46,589 100.0 10.3 37.4 27.3 25.0

1993

47,245 100.0 9.3 36.6 28.4 25.7

1994

48,405 100.0 9.0 35.0 29.8 26.2

1995

49,247 100.0 8.8 34.1 30.2 26.9

1996

50,240 100.0 8.8 33.6 29.9 27.8

1997

51,261 100.0 8.7 33.5 29.4 28.4

1998

51,678 100.0 8.8 32.7 29.4 29.2

1999

52,525 100.0 8.5 32.1 29.5 29.9

2000

53,749 100.0 8.5 31.6 29.8 30.1

2001

54,229 100.0 8.4 31.0 30.2 30.4

2002

54,710 100.0 8.1 30.6 29.9 31.3

2003

55,596 100.0 7.9 30.0 29.9 32.2

2004

55,616 100.0 7.7 29.4 30.2 32.6

2005

56,322 100.0 7.7 28.7 30.2 33.3

2006

57,201 100.0 7.6 28.3 30.2 33.9

2007

57,791 100.0 7.1 27.9 30.1 34.9

2008

58,465 100.0 6.9 27.2 30.4 35.6

2009

58,787 100.0 7.0 26.7 30.3 36.0

2010

58,808 100.0 6.8 26.4 30.3 36.4

2011

58,520 100.0 6.7 25.8 30.4 37.1

2012

59,031 100.0 6.5 25.0 30.4 38.1

2013

58,812 100.0 6.3 24.6 30.1 39.0

2014

58,983 100.0 6.1 24.1 29.8 40.0

2015

59,252 100.0 6.1 23.2 29.6 41.1

Men

 

1992

56,428 100.0 13.7 34.2 24.3 27.8

1993

56,992 100.0 12.9 33.9 25.1 28.1

1994

57,205 100.0 12.4 33.0 25.9 28.8

1995

57,784 100.0 11.8 32.4 26.3 29.4

1996

58,692 100.0 12.2 32.3 26.1 29.4

1997

59,684 100.0 12.2 32.4 25.9 29.6

1998

60,255 100.0 12.0 32.1 25.6 30.3

1999

60,570 100.0 11.4 31.6 26.0 31.0

2000

62,001 100.0 11.5 31.2 26.1 31.2

2001

62,664 100.0 11.5 30.9 26.2 31.4

2002

63,318 100.0 11.6 30.8 25.8 31.8

2003

64,025 100.0 11.7 30.6 25.6 32.1

2004

64,519 100.0 11.5 30.7 25.6 32.3

2005

65,430 100.0 11.5 30.9 25.7 31.9

2006

66,350 100.0 11.5 30.6 25.5 32.3

2007

67,313 100.0 11.2 30.4 25.6 32.9

2008

67,546 100.0 10.9 30.2 25.9 33.0

2009

67,460 100.0 10.8 30.3 25.9 33.0

2010

67,429 100.0 10.6 30.6 25.8 33.0

2011

66,989 100.0 10.4 30.0 26.0 33.7

2012

66,932 100.0 10.0 29.6 26.2 34.1

2013

67,081 100.0 9.8 29.2 26.2 34.7

2014

67,287 100.0 9.8 29.1 26.2 35.0

2015

67,853 100.0 9.9 28.4 26.0 35.7

1 Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

2 Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2014 and 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and gender Year
2014 2015
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

146,305 100.0 148,834 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

56,050 38.3 57,960 38.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

23,171 15.8 24,108 16.2

Professional and related occupations

32,879 22.5 33,852 22.7

Service occupation

25,854 17.7 25,896 17.4

Sales and office occupations

33,416 22.8 33,598 22.6

Sales and related occupations

15,646 10.7 15,700 10.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,771 12.1 17,897 12.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,537 9.3 13,733 9.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,022 .7 1,073 .7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,637 5.2 7,652 5.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,879 3.3 5,008 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,448 11.9 17,647 11.9

Production occupations

8,438 5.8 8,522 5.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,010 6.2 9,125 6.1

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

68,613 100.0 69,703 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28,931 42.2 29,871 42.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

10,129 14.8 10,519 15.1

Professional and related occupations

18,801 27.4 19,351 27.8

Service occupation

14,651 21.4 14,686 21.1

Sales and office occupations

20,655 30.1 20,659 29.6

Sales and related occupations

7,697 11.2 7,741 11.1

Office and administrative support occupations

12,958 18.9 12,918 18.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

598 .9 642 .9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

229 .3 260 .4

Construction and extraction occupations

197 .3 207 .3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

172 .3 175 .3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

3,778 5.5 3,846 5.5

Production occupations

2,364 3.4 2,452 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,414 2.1 1,394 2.0

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

77,692 100.0 79,131 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

27,119 34.9 28,090 35.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

13,041 16.8 13,589 17.2

Professional and related occupations

14,078 18.1 14,501 18.3

Service occupation

11,203 14.4 11,209 14.2

Sales and office occupations

12,761 16.4 12,939 16.4

Sales and related occupations

7,948 10.2 7,960 10.1

Office and administrative support occupations

4,813 6.2 4,980 6.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,939 16.7 13,091 16.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

792 1.0 813 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,440 9.6 7,445 9.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,707 6.1 4,833 6.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,670 17.6 13,801 17.4

Production occupations

6,074 7.8 6,070 7.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,596 9.8 7,731 9.8

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

148,834 46.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,960 51.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,108 43.6

Management occupations

16,994 39.2

Chief executives

1,517 27.9

General and operations managers

899 27.6

Legislators

13

Advertising and promotions managers

67 53.6

Marketing and sales managers

1,006 43.2

Public relations and fundraising managers

61 59.2

Administrative services managers

195 47.7

Computer and information systems managers

652 27.2

Financial managers

1,197 49.6

Compensation and benefits managers

23

Human resources managers

290 73.3

Training and development managers

41

Industrial production managers

280 18.3

Purchasing managers

198 44.8

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

263 21.1

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,052 23.9

Construction managers

737 6.7

Education administrators

928 65.7

Architectural and engineering managers

110 7.4

Food service managers

1,192 47.1

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

23

Lodging managers

159 53.5

Medical and health services managers

636 73.7

Natural sciences managers

25

Postmasters and mail superintendents

24

Property, real estate, and community association managers

685 50.9

Social and community service managers

378 67.4

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,315 34.3

Business and financial operations occupations

7,114 54.3

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

46

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

190 52.7

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

280 49.7

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

321 55.3

Compliance officers

246 49.0

Cost estimators

112 17.8

Human resources workers

662 74.0

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

68 73.0

Training and development specialists

118 62.1

Logisticians

117 40.9

Management analysts

848 39.7

Meeting, convention, and event planners

159 78.6

Fundraisers

77 73.4

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

261 58.8

Business operations specialists, all other

213 56.7

Accountants and auditors

1,732 59.7

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

76 39.3

Budget analysts

44

Credit analysts

21

Financial analysts

322 43.0

Personal financial advisors

498 37.9

Insurance underwriters

107 58.6

Financial examiners

15

Credit counselors and loan officers

332 54.6

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

58 65.5

Tax preparers

109 61.4

Financial specialists, all other

71 54.6

Professional and related occupations

33,852 57.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,369 24.7

Computer and information research scientists

24

Computer systems analysts

552 34.2

Information security analysts

70 19.7

Computer programmers

480 21.0

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,353 17.9

Web developers

204 34.3

Computer support specialists

475 26.4

Database administrators

93 38.0

Network and computer systems administrators

218 15.9

Computer network architects

114 12.1

Computer occupations, all other

547 24.3

Actuaries

21

Mathematicians

6

Operations research analysts

123 50.7

Statisticians

86 52.9

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,954 15.1

Architects, except naval

203 25.7

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

38

Aerospace engineers

138 11.3

Agricultural engineers

6

Biomedical engineers

16

Chemical engineers

84 14.7

Civil engineers

360 12.6

Computer hardware engineers

72 12.8

Electrical and electronics engineers

302 12.5

Environmental engineers

40

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

214 20.2

Marine engineers and naval architects

11

Materials engineers

40

Mechanical engineers

323 8.3

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15

Nuclear engineers

6

Petroleum engineers

44

Engineers, all other

440 13.6

Drafters

133 21.2

Engineering technicians, except drafters

403 20.3

Surveying and mapping technicians

65 5.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,404 46.6

Agricultural and food scientists

25

Biological scientists

86 42.6

Conservation scientists and foresters

25

Medical scientists

157 54.9

Life scientists, all other

1

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

12

Chemists and materials scientists

99 36.1

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

92 27.5

Physical scientists, all other

232 41.4

Economists

34

Survey researchers

0

Psychologists

193 70.3

Sociologists

1

Urban and regional planners

25

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

45

Agricultural and food science technicians

25

Biological technicians

18

Chemical technicians

82 40.0

Geological and petroleum technicians

21

Nuclear technicians

3

Social science research assistants

4

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

203 53.9

Community and social service occupations

2,596 65.3

Counselors

802 71.4

Social workers

765 83.8

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

99 55.4

Social and human service assistants

194 82.6

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

117 70.8

Clergy

469 20.6

Directors, religious activities and education

78 57.8

Religious workers, all other

73 59.0

Legal occupations

1,803 50.2

Lawyers

1,160 34.5

Judicial law clerks

13

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

58 39.0

Paralegals and legal assistants

400 85.4

Miscellaneous legal support workers

172 76.4

Education, training, and library occupations

8,908 73.4

Postsecondary teachers

1,341 46.5

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

695 96.8

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,152 80.7

Secondary school teachers

1,144 59.2

Special education teachers

330 87.5

Other teachers and instructors

876 62.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

53 60.1

Librarians

166 83.0

Library technicians

31

Teacher assistants

960 91.4

Other education, training, and library workers

161 73.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,051 47.6

Artists and related workers

222 56.9

Designers

899 54.9

Actors

49

Producers and directors

169 36.9

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

296 36.1

Dancers and choreographers

19

Musicians, singers, and related workers

202 34.5

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

41

Announcers

55 16.5

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

68 46.7

Public relations specialists

147 61.3

Editors

160 51.0

Technical writers

68 58.2

Writers and authors

208 59.4

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

84 67.9

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

119 9.2

Photographers

180 49.9

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

64 14.8

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,766 75.1

Chiropractors

75 29.5

Dentists

196 25.9

Dietitians and nutritionists

108 94.6

Optometrists

39

Pharmacists

282 57.0

Physicians and surgeons

1,007 37.9

Physician assistants

74 72.6

Podiatrists

15

Audiologists

16

Occupational therapists

116 88.0

Physical therapists

274 72.1

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

108 66.8

Speech-language pathologists

158 98.6

Exercise physiologists

5

Therapists, all other

189 80.9

Veterinarians

90 60.5

Registered nurses

2,973 89.4

Nurse anesthetists

27

Nurse midwives

7

Nurse practitioners

149 90.8

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

17

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

327 76.1

Dental hygienists

177 96.4

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

322 73.7

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

220 32.9

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

626 81.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

670 90.1

Medical records and health information technicians

200 89.6

Opticians, dispensing

52 60.4

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

117 67.5

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

108 52.7

Service occupations

25,896 56.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,514 87.6

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,032 89.4

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

23

Physical therapist assistants and aides

68 67.7

Massage therapists

189 77.9

Dental assistants

286 94.1

Medical assistants

524 90.7

Medical transcriptionists

42

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

38

Phlebotomists

106 84.1

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

170 69.6

Protective service occupations

3,109 21.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

52 31.4

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

110 12.8

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

49

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

81 23.2

Firefighters

293 5.9

Fire inspectors

19

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

443 23.8

Detectives and criminal investigators

144 27.2

Fish and game wardens

6

Parking enforcement workers

10

Police and sheriff’s patrol officers

688 13.6

Transit and railroad police

1

Animal control workers

5

Private detectives and investigators

100 38.4

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

869 22.0

Crossing guards

57 59.8

Transportation security screeners

38

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

144 43.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,142 54.5

Chefs and head cooks

415 19.6

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

527 57.4

Cooks

2,091 39.9

Food preparation workers

858 59.1

Bartenders

451 59.8

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

420 63.4

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

233 66.7

Waiters and waitresses

2,057 70.1

Food servers, nonrestaurant

190 70.9

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

321 44.2

Dishwashers

281 21.3

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

293 82.1

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,716 41.1

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

293 40.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

215 6.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,263 34.3

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,510 89.3

Pest control workers

85 4.7

Grounds maintenance workers

1,349 6.4

Personal care and service occupations

5,415 76.8

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

168 46.6

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

185 71.0

Animal trainers

54 50.9

Nonfarm animal caretakers

252 67.9

Gaming services workers

89 52.2

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

44

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

221 39.2

Embalmers and funeral attendants

9

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

35

Barbers

116 22.1

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

707 94.2

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

324 85.3

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

76 16.1

Tour and travel guides

54 54.3

Childcare workers

1,206 94.9

Personal care aides

1,251 85.1

Recreation and fitness workers

429 61.6

Residential advisors

38

Personal care and service workers, all other

149 49.8

Sales and office occupations

33,598 61.5

Sales and related occupations

15,700 49.3

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,245 44.0

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,242 28.7

Cashiers

3,246 72.5

Counter and rental clerks

109 50.9

Parts salespersons

124 12.4

Retail salespersons

3,346 49.4

Advertising sales agents

200 49.7

Insurance sales agents

615 51.2

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

258 26.2

Travel agents

89 75.9

Sales representatives, services, all other

479 34.8

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,281 27.9

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

68 70.7

Real estate brokers and sales agents

906 55.5

Sales engineers

42

Telemarketers

60 64.3

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

156 67.0

Sales and related workers, all others

236 46.8

Office and administrative support occupations

17,897 72.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,474 68.3

Switchboard operators, including answering service

16

Telephone operators

34

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

168 68.3

Billing and posting clerks

473 90.1

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,182 89.8

Gaming cage workers

14

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

138 89.3

Procurement clerks

40

Tellers

357 87.3

Financial clerks, all other

69 63.3

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

3

Court, municipal, and license clerks

71 87.0

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

52 72.9

Customer service representatives

2,271 65.1

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

74 77.3

File clerks

203 82.2

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

156 59.5

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

151 83.2

Library assistants, clerical

98 77.3

Loan interviewers and clerks

139 83.5

New accounts clerks

26

Order clerks

84 65.6

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

59 82.9

Receptionists and information clerks

1,232 90.6

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

111 61.3

Information and record clerks, all other

127 76.9

Cargo and freight agents

21

Couriers and messengers

235 14.3

Dispatchers

277 56.3

Meter readers, utilities

41

Postal service clerks

130 46.0

Postal service mail carriers

320 41.2

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

64 50.0

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

286 55.0

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

575 29.5

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,529 35.8

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

72 57.8

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,870 94.5

Computer operators

69 46.8

Data entry keyers

281 74.3

Word processors and typists

103 92.1

Desktop publishers

1

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

287 77.1

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

81 59.4

Office clerks, general

1,288 82.3

Office machine operators, except computer

37

Proofreaders and copy markers

8

Statistical assistants

17

Office and administrative support workers, all other

477 77.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,733 4.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,073 24.2

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

54 21.2

Agricultural inspectors

18

Animal breeders

8

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

97 61.7

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

789 21.9

Fishers and related fishing workers

39

Hunters and trappers

0

Forest and conservation workers

18

Logging workers

51 2.8

Construction and extraction occupations

7,652 2.7

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

712 3.3

Boilermakers

20

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

172 .7

Carpenters

1,281 1.8

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

156 1.7

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

54 .2

Construction laborers

1,649 2.9

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

12

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

357 1.9

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

151 1.6

Electricians

773 2.3

Glaziers

47

Insulation workers

49

Painters, construction and maintenance

572 5.7

Paperhangers

1

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

573 .7

Plasterers and stucco masons

28

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

10

Roofers

221 2.3

Sheet metal workers

122 4.5

Structural iron and steel workers

58 2.2

Solar photovoltaic installers

11

Helpers, construction trades

52 1.3

Construction and building inspectors

90 9.9

Elevator installers and repairers

30

Fence erectors

34

Hazardous materials removal workers

42

Highway maintenance workers

103 2.0

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

11

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

12

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

32

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

34

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

29

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

9

Mining machine operators

67 2.5

Roof bolters, mining

2

Roustabouts, oil and gas

9

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

64 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,008 3.5

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

262 6.1

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

241 13.2

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

158 8.5

Avionics technicians

5

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

23

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

20

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

18

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

38

Security and fire alarm systems installers

74 3.8

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

140 5.2

Automotive body and related repairers

154 .6

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

924 1.5

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

345 .1

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

233 .0

Small engine mechanics

54 3.1

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

81 1.9

Control and valve installers and repairers

29

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

408 1.7

Home appliance repairers

53 3.8

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

425 3.6

Maintenance and repair workers, general

527 3.2

Maintenance workers, machinery

29

Millwrights

57 3.3

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

119 1.2

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

177 6.0

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

66 4.8

Wind turbine service technicians

4

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

48

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

21

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

5

Riggers

10

Signal and track switch repairers

8

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

28

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

200 5.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,647 21.8

Production occupations

8,522 28.8

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

817 18.6

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

14

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

133 51.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

11

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

32

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,026 38.6

Bakers

231 60.8

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

302 25.7

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

14

Food batchmakers

101 72.3

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

13

Food processing workers, all other

135 34.2

Computer control programmers and operators

88 3.9

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

15

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

82 21.6

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and and plastic

5

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51 10.3

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

11

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

0

Machinists

363 6.7

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

30

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

46

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1

Tool and die makers

47

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

615 4.2

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Layout workers, metal and plastic

5

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

23

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

6

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

376 22.5

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

180 20.0

Print binding and finishing workers

20

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

192 60.8

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

34

Sewing machine operators

196 74.8

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

7

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

83 82.2

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

3

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

4

Upholsterers

40

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

16

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

60 7.9

Furniture finishers

15

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

29

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

24

Woodworkers, all other

31

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

33

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

81 3.4

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

89 4.4

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

36

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

63 13.0

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

86 11.0

Cutting workers

64 16.7

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

28

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

7

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

752 37.3

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

44

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

110 48.6

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

250 49.9

Painting workers

151 12.9

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

33

Semiconductor processors

1

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

4

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4

Etchers and engravers

19

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

27

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

30

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

944 25.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,125 15.3

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

205 18.1

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

140 9.4

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

30

Flight attendants

86 74.9

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

550 47.1

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,469 5.1

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

446 14.6

Motor vehicle operators, all other

51 9.4

Locomotive engineers and operators

50 3.5

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

6

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

52 7.7

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

11

Ship and boat captains and operators

35

Ship engineers

6

Bridge and lock tenders

5

Parking lot attendants

91 10.0

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

99 11.0

Transportation inspectors

29

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

22

Other transportation workers

43

Conveyor operators and tenders

7

Crane and tower operators

76 3.4

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

35

Hoist and winch operators

6

Industrial truck and tractor operators

589 7.1

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

338 11.1

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,908 17.6

Machine feeders and offbearers

33

Packers and packagers, hand

505 51.9

Pumping station operators

23

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

97 10.4

Mine shuttle car operators

1

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

5

Material moving workers, all other

43

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Occupation White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,052 9,308 4,086 10,289

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.0 35.2 50.2 26.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.6 11.7 17.5 9.7

Professional and related occupations

28.4 23.6 32.6 16.9

Service occupations

19.8 27.7 20.0 31.8

Sales and office occupations

30.1 29.2 23.2 30.4

Sales and related occupations

11.2 10.7 10.2 12.2

Office and administrative support occupations

18.9 18.5 13.0 18.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.0 .6 .4 2.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

.4 .1 .2 1.2

Construction and extraction occupations

.3 .2 .1 .6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

.3 .2 .2 .3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.1 7.3 6.2 9.1

Production occupations

3.2 4.1 5.4 5.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

1.9 3.2 0.8 3.2

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2014 and 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and gender Year
2014 2015
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

146,305 100.0 148,834 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,237 1.5 2,422 1.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,088 .7 917 .6

Construction

9,813 6.7 9,935 6.7

Manufacturing

15,100 10.3 15,338 10.3

Durable goods

9,542 6.5 9,709 6.5

Nondurable goods

5,559 3.8 5,629 3.8

Wholesale and retail trade

20,251 13.8 20,320 13.7

Wholesale trade

3,642 2.5 3,635 2.4

Retail trade

16,609 11.4 16,686 11.2

Transportation and utilities

7,581 5.2 7,726 5.2

Transportation and warehousing

6,377 4.4 6,459 4.3

Utilities

1,204 .8 1,267 .9

Information

3,115 2.1 2,988 2.0

Financial activities

9,871 6.7 10,087 6.8

Finance and insurance

6,956 4.8 7,081 4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,915 2.0 3,005 2.0

Professional and business services

17,004 11.6 17,409 11.7

Professional and technical services

10,327 7.1 10,625 7.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,677 4.6 6,784 4.6

Education and health services

32,830 22.4 33,678 22.6

Educational services

13,253 9.1 13,601 9.1

Health care and social assistance

19,577 13.4 20,077 13.5

Hospitals

6,586 4.5 6,698 4.5

Health services, except hospitals

9,930 6.8 10,165 6.8

Social assistance

3,060 2.1 3,213 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

13,489 9.2 13,821 9.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,082 2.1 3,184 2.1

Accommodation and food services

10,407 7.1 10,637 7.1

Other services

7,169 4.9 7,264 4.9

Other services, except private households

6,349 4.3 6,466 4.3

Private households

820 .6 798 .5

Public administration

6,757 4.6 6,928 4.7

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

68,613 100.0 69,703 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

552 .8 597 .9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

145 .2 120 .2

Construction

872 1.3 929 1.3

Manufacturing

4,420 6.4 4,456 6.4

Durable goods

2,407 3.5 2,384 3.4

Nondurable goods

2,014 2.9 2,073 3.0

Wholesale and retail trade

9,113 13.3 9,098 13.1

Wholesale trade

1,099 1.6 1,071 1.5

Retail trade

8,013 11.7 8,027 11.5

Transportation and utilities

1,744 2.5 1,749 2.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,470 2.1 1,466 2.1

Utilities

274 .4 283 .4

Information

1,209 1.8 1,169 1.7

Financial activities

5,254 7.7 5,345 7.7

Finance and insurance

3,906 5.7 3,942 5.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,348 2.0 1,403 2.0

Professional and business services

7,012 10.2 7,149 10.3

Professional and technical services

4,396 6.4 4,469 6.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,616 3.8 2,680 3.8

Education and health services

24,507 35.7 25,125 36.0

Educational services

9,129 13.3 9,373 13.4

Health care and social assistance

15,379 22.4 15,752 22.6

Hospitals

4,979 7.3 5,055 7.3

Health services, except hospitals

7,805 11.4 7,974 11.4

Social assistance

2,594 3.8 2,723 3.9

Leisure and hospitality

6,934 10.1 7,066 10.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,440 2.1 1,466 2.1

Accommodation and food services

5,493 8.0 5,599 8.0

Other services

3,785 5.5 3,764 5.4

Other services, except private households

3,028 4.4 3,023 4.3

Private households

757 1.1 741 1.1

Public administration

3,066 4.5 3,136 4.5

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

77,692 100.0 79,131 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,685 2.2 1,826 2.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

943 1.2 798 1.0

Construction

8,941 11.5 9,006 11.4

Manufacturing

10,680 13.7 10,882 13.8

Durable goods

7,135 9.2 7,325 9.3

Nondurable goods

3,545 4.6 3,556 4.5

Wholesale and retail trade

11,138 14.3 11,222 14.2

Wholesale trade

2,542 3.3 2,564 3.2

Retail trade

8,595 11.1 8,659 10.9

Transportation and utilities

5,838 7.5 5,977 7.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,907 6.3 4,993 6.3

Utilities

930 1.2 983 1.2

Information

1,906 2.5 1,819 2.3

Financial activities

4,617 5.9 4,742 6.0

Finance and insurance

3,050 3.9 3,139 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,567 2.0 1,602 2.0

Professional and business services

9,992 12.9 10,259 13.0

Professional and technical services

5,932 7.6 6,156 7.8

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,061 5.2 4,103 5.2

Education and health services

8,322 10.7 8,553 10.8

Educational services

4,124 5.3 4,229 5.3

Health care and social assistance

4,198 5.4 4,325 5.5

Hospitals

1,607 2.1 1,643 2.1

Health services, except hospitals

2,125 2.7 2,191 2.8

Social assistance

466 0.6 490 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

6,555 8.4 6,755 8.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,642 2.1 1,717 2.2

Accommodation and food services

4,914 6.3 5,038 6.4

Other services

3,384 4.4 3,500 4.4

Other services, except private households

3,321 4.3 3,443 4.4

Private households

64 .1 58 .1

Public administration

3,691 4.8 3,792 4.8

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

148,834 46.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,422 24.6

Crop production

1,219 23.7

Animal production and aquaculture

847 26.2

Forestry, except logging

49

Logging

83 3.5

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

56 11.6

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

168 35.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

917 13.1

Oil and gas extraction

103 18.3

Coal mining

68 5.2

Metal ore mining

45

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

86 10.6

Not specified type of mining

7

Support activities for mining

609 13.2

Construction

9,935 9.3

Manufacturing

15,338 29.1

Durable goods

9,709 24.6

Nonmetallic mineral products

456 18.3

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

23

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

24

Glass and glass product manufacturing

148 21.4

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

180 10.7

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

82 18.2

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,726 18.2

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

303 11.0

Aluminum production and processing

68 20.7

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

60 22.5

Foundries

88 12.4

Metal forgings and stampings

64 22.0

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

39

Structural metals and boiler, tank and shipping container manufacturing

375 19.0

Machine shops; turned products; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

300 15.7

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

67 17.1

Ordnance

49

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

283 23.0

Not specified metal industries

30

Machinery manufacturing

1,270 20.8

Agricultural implement manufacturing

132 22.0

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

203 17.7

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

72 27.5

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

138 15.3

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

61 22.2

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

654 21.9

Not specified machinery manufacturing

10

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,171 30.7

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

212 30.2

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

127 23.1

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

220 31.7

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

612 32.1

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

377 31.3

Household appliance manufacturing

87 33.2

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

290 30.7

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,366 24.5

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,284 26.7

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

734 23.4

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

102 19.7

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

39

Ship and boat building

157 15.0

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

50 29.5

Wood products manufacturing

411 12.7

Sawmills and wood preservation

119 5.2

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

45

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

37

Miscellaneous wood products

209 14.7

Furniture and fixtures manufacturing

425 24.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,507 33.9

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

585 36.9

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

110 32.6

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

531 33.6

Not specified manufacturing industries

281 28.8

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,629 36.8

Food manufacturing

1,753 39.7

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

142 29.7

Sugar and confectionery products

80 45.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

173 32.0

Dairy product manufacturing

136 30.1

Animal slaughtering and processing

510 36.3

Retail bakeries

256 65.4

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

199 37.5

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

201 36.4

Not specified food industries

54 38.7

Beverages and tobacco products manufacturing

282 28.2

Beverage manufacturing

254 25.6

Tobacco manufacturing

28

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

627 53.8

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

14

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

109 41.4

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

13

Carpet and rug mills

77 40.5

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

88 49.2

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

16

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

247 67.3

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

7

Footwear manufacturing

41

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

16

Paper manufacturing and printing

890 29.6

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

206 12.6

Paperboard container manufacturing

92 29.9

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

83 26.9

Printing and related support activities

509 36.9

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

206 21.6

Petroleum refining

183 22.1

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

24

Chemicals manufacturing

1,367 37.0

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

162 29.5

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

37

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

521 49.2

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

71 21.6

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

146 45.6

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

430 24.7

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

504 28.9

Plastics product manufacturing

372 30.7

Tire manufacturing

56 11.9

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

76 33.0

Wholesale and retail trade

20,320 44.8

Wholesale trade

3,635 29.5

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

162 20.5

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

79 34.1

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

171 17.5

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

338 33.7

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

53 24.8

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

217 28.1

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

139 23.3

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

368 24.3

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

102 13.9

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

97 44.4

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

54 32.6

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

226 45.2

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

121 46.2

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

842 27.0

Farm product raw materials merchant wholesalers

73 25.3

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

108 30.0

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

116 20.5

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

61 31.2

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

184 40.9

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

66 39.9

Not specified wholesale trade

57 27.5

Retail trade

16,686 48.1

Automobile dealers

1,321 21.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

153 19.9

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

530 13.8

Furniture and home furnishings stores

554 43.7

Household appliance stores

65 21.7

Electronics stores

588 31.0

Building material and supplies dealers

982 30.1

Hardware stores

199 34.9

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

267 27.9

Grocery stores

2,784 48.5

Specialty food stores

249 47.0

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

137 31.0

Pharmacies and drug stores

913 66.2

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

395 68.0

Gasoline stations

533 50.7

Clothing stores

1,055 73.7

Shoe stores

177 51.5

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

183 64.5

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

499 42.3

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

63 66.6

Musical instrument and supplies stores

43

Book stores and news dealers

112 64.5

Department stores and discount stores

2,090 60.4

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

569 60.2

Retail florists

100 63.9

Office supplies and stationery stores

153 39.7

Used merchandise stores

272 63.3

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

108 77.5

Miscellaneous retail stores

472 51.8

Electronic shopping

285 44.1

Electronic auctions

29

Mail-order houses

85 65.2

Vending machine operators

57 22.7

Fuel dealers

83 25.4

Other direct selling establishments

171 73.8

Not specified retail trade

407 50.7

Transportation and utilities

7,726 22.6

Transportation and warehousing

6,459 22.7

Air transportation

539 33.7

Rail transportation

246 6.6

Water transportation

68 25.9

Truck transportation

2,018 11.4

Bus service and urban transit

481 39.3

Taxi and limousine service

337 12.6

Pipeline transportation

49

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

31

Services incidental to transportation

819 26.8

Postal Service

658 40.9

Couriers and messengers

748 17.7

Warehousing and storage

465 32.0

Utilities

1,267 22.4

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

661 22.1

Natural gas distribution

128 26.4

Electric and gas, and other combinations

85 28.9

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

270 20.4

Sewage treatment facilities

92 11.1

Not specified utilities

31

Information

2,988 39.1

Newspaper publishers

191 51.2

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

264 55.3

Software publishers

91 30.3

Motion pictures and video industries

398 39.0

Sound recording industries

53 28.4

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

593 29.3

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

114 33.0

Wired telecommunications carriers

502 31.5

Other telecommunications services

430 34.3

Data processing, hosting, and related services

104 42.0

Libraries and archives

196 76.5

Other information services

50 32.6

Financial activities

10,087 53.0

Finance and insurance

7,081 55.7

Banking and related activities

2,051 61.9

Savings institutions, including credit unions

220 68.6

Nondepository credit and related activities

998 50.6

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,082 36.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,730 59.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,005 46.7

Real estate

2,617 49.3

Rental and leasing services

389 28.9

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

174 29.9

Video tape and disk rental

11

Other consumer goods rental

92 32.5

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

111 20.8

Professional and business services

17,409 41.1

Professional and technical services

10,625 42.1

Legal services

1,595 54.0

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,095 59.0

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,521 24.8

Specialized design services

395 55.5

Computer systems design and related services

2,542 25.6

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,554 42.9

Scientific research and development services

572 45.7

Advertising, public relations, and related services

559 49.0

Veterinary services

349 80.7

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

443 52.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,784 39.5

Management of companies and enterprises

193 49.0

Employment services

978 53.2

Business support services

803 63.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

299 60.9

Investigation and security services

782 24.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,518 54.0

Landscaping services

1,356 8.4

Other administrative and other support services

300 48.6

Waste management and remediation services

552 18.6

Education and health services

33,678 74.6

Educational services

13,601 68.9

Elementary and secondary schools

8,892 75.4

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,792 55.1

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

107 53.2

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

811 64.0

Health care and social assistance

20,077 78.5

Hospitals

6,698 75.5

Health services, except hospitals

10,165 78.4

Offices of physicians

1,678 75.9

Offices of dentists

895 78.5

Offices of chiropractors

152 65.9

Offices of optometrists

141 78.2

Offices of other health practitioners

334 77.6

Outpatient care centers

1,623 76.8

Home health care services

1,379 89.2

Other health care services

1,331 68.0

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,830 84.9

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

802 73.8

Social assistance

3,213 84.8

Individual and family services

1,493 78.6

Community food and housing, and emergency services

113 65.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

115 63.6

Child day care services

1,492 94.0

Leisure and hospitality

13,821 51.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,184 46.1

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

879 43.0

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

353 46.7

Bowling centers

39

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,913 47.4

Accommodation and food services

10,637 52.6

Accommodation

1,571 57.5

Traveler accommodation

1,481 57.7

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

91 53.1

Food services and drinking places

9,066 51.8

Restaurants and other food services

8,835 51.8

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

231 52.4

Other services

7,264 51.8

Other services, except private households

6,466 46.8

Repair and maintenance

2,113 10.9

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,275 7.3

Car washes

167 12.4

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

141 22.6

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

328 6.7

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

200 31.0

Footwear and leather goods repair

1

Personal and laundry services

2,333 71.7

Barber shops

115 22.6

Beauty salons

908 91.9

Nail salons and other personal care services

496 73.2

Drycleaning and laundry services

255 62.4

Funeral homes and cemeteries and crematories

129 35.3

Other personal services

429 56.9

Membership associations and organizations

2,020 55.4

Religious organizations

1,093 46.8

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

717 67.0

Labor unions

66 42.2

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

144 68.8

Private households

798 92.8

Public administration

6,928 45.3

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,000 53.4

Public finance activities

322 62.9

Other general government and support

138 36.2

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,856 34.1

Administration of human resource programs

1,000 72.6

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

260 43.2

Administration of economic programs and space research

554 43.4

National security and international affairs

799 37.2

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Industry White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,052 9,308 4,086 10,289

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.0 0.1 0.1 1.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

.2 .1 .1 .1

Construction

1.5 .6 .6 1.4

Manufacturing

6.3 5.5 9.5 7.5

Durable goods manufacturing

3.4 2.8 5.5 3.2

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3.0 2.7 4.0 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

13.2 11.9 12.4 14.8

Wholesale trade

1.6 .9 1.7 1.9

Retail trade

11.6 11.0 10.7 12.9

Transportation and utilities

2.3 4.0 1.5 2.8

Transportation and warehousing

1.9 3.6 1.2 2.5

Utilities

.4 .4 .3 .3

Information

1.6 1.7 2.1 1.1

Financial activities

7.9 6.4 7.9 6.2

Finance and insurance

5.7 5.1 6.5 4.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.2 1.3 1.4 1.8

Professional and business services

10.6 7.9 12.3 11.2

Professional and technical services

6.7 3.5 9.8 4.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

3.8 4.4 2.4 7.0

Education and health services

35.7 41.4 31.5 28.9

Educational services

14.3 11.3 8.9 9.8

Health care and social assistance

21.3 30.1 22.6 19.1

Hospitals

7.0 8.2 8.9 4.7

Health services, except hospitals

10.6 16.2 11.1 10.0

Social assistance

3.7 5.6 2.6 4.4

Leisure and hospitality

10.0 9.7 10.7 14.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.2 1.4 2.0 1.7

Accommodation and food services

7.8 8.3 8.6 12.7

Other services

5.5 3.9 7.6 6.6

Other services, except private households

4.4 3.2 6.9 3.8

Private households

1.1 .7 .8 2.8

Public administration

4.1 6.8 3.7 3.9

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2015 annual averages
Year and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$241 $248 $199 - $194

1980

262 269 212 - 209

1981

284 291 235 - 223

1982

302 310 245 - 240

1983

313 320 261 - 250

1984

326 336 269 - 259

1985

344 356 277 - 270

1986

359 371 291 - 277

1987

374 384 301 - 285

1988

385 395 314 - 290

1989

399 409 319 - 298

1990

412 424 329 - 304

1991

426 442 348 - 312

1992

440 458 357 - 321

1993

459 475 369 - 331

1994

467 484 371 - 324

1995

479 494 383 - 329

1996

490 506 387 - 339

1997

503 519 400 - 351

1998

523 545 426 - 370

1999

549 573 445 - 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

Women

 

1979

$182 $184 $169 - $157

1980

201 203 185 - 172

1981

219 221 206 - 190

1982

239 242 217 - 203

1983

252 254 232 - 215

1984

265 268 241 - 223

1985

277 281 252 - 230

1986

291 294 264 - 241

1987

303 307 276 - 251

1988

315 318 288 - 260

1989

328 334 301 - 269

1990

346 353 308 - 278

1991

366 373 323 - 292

1992

380 387 335 - 302

1993

393 401 348 - 313

1994

399 408 346 - 305

1995

406 415 355 - 305

1996

418 428 362 - 316

1997

431 444 375 - 318

1998

456 468 400 - 337

1999

473 483 409 - 348

2000

493 502 429 $547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

Men

 

1979

$292 $298 $227 - $219

1980

313 320 244 - 234

1981

340 350 268 - 251

1982

364 375 278 - 269

1983

379 387 294 - 274

1984

392 401 303 - 287

1985

407 418 305 - 296

1986

419 433 319 - 299

1987

434 450 327 - 306

1988

449 465 348 - 308

1989

468 482 348 - 315

1990

481 494 361 - 318

1991

493 506 375 - 323

1992

501 514 380 - 339

1993

510 524 392 - 346

1994

522 547 400 - 343

1995

538 566 411 - 350

1996

557 580 412 - 356

1997

579 595 432 - 371

1998

598 615 468 - 390

1999

618 638 488 - 406

2000

641 662 510 $685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

 

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2015 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total employed (in thousands) Median weekly earnings

Total

 

Total

99,291 $860

Less than high school diploma

7,289 493

High school graduate or more

92,001 900

High school graduate, no college

25,221 678

Some college or associate's degree

26,801 762

Some college, no degree

15,894 738

Associate's degree

10,908 798

Occupational program

4,684 785

Academic program

6,224 809

Bachelor's degree and higher

39,979 1,230

Bachelor's degree

25,043 1,137

Master's degree

11,106 1,341

Professional degree

1,752 1,730

Doctoral degree

2,080 1,623

Women

 

Total

44,020 761

Less than high school diploma

2,255 418

High school graduate or more

41,766 787

High school graduate, no college

9,905 586

Some college or associate's degree

12,692 664

Some college, no degree

7,153 637

Associate's degree

5,539 703

Occupational program

2,199 678

Academic program

3,340 723

Bachelor's degree and higher

19,169 1,064

Bachelor's degree

11,748 975

Master's degree

5,885 1,160

Professional degree

721 1,451

Doctoral degree

814 1,442

Men

 

Total

55,270 $947

Less than high school diploma

5,035 520

High school graduate or more

50,236 1,001

High school graduate, no college

15,316 759

Some college or associate's degree

14,109 883

Some college, no degree

8,741 850

Associate's degree

5,368 931

Occupational program

2,485 915

Academic program

2,883 950

Bachelor's degree and higher

20,811 1,420

Bachelor's degree

13,295 1,304

Master's degree

5,220 1,566

Professional degree

1,030 1,888

Doctoral degree

1,266 1,758

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

109,080 $809 48,334 $726 60,746 $895 81.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

44,844 1,158 23,038 996 21,807 1,383 72.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18,422 1,258 8,404 1,073 10,018 1,436 74.7

Management occupations

12,480 1,351 5,147 1,139 7,332 1,486 76.6

Chief executives

1,046 2,041 283 1,836 763 2,251 81.6

General and operations managers

823 1,260 202 1,002 621 1,347 74.4

Legislators

8 4 5

Advertising and promotions managers

55 1,050 26 29

Marketing and sales managers

948 1,462 378 1,258 570 1,603 78.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

59 1,557 35 24

Administrative services managers

170 1,191 73 981 96 1,451 67.6

Computer and information systems managers

636 1,728 169 1,563 466 1,817 86.0

Financial managers

1,124 1,408 573 1,130 551 1,732 65.2

Compensation and benefits managers

23 16 7

Human resources managers

254 1,365 186 1,274 68 1,495 85.2

Training and development managers

37 20 17

Industrial production managers

267 1,485 45 221 1,528

Purchasing managers

193 1,348 84 1,226 109 1,404 87.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

276 966 52 749 224 1,006 74.5

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

129 769 23 106 847

Construction managers

471 1,329 42 429 1,357

Education administrators

778 1,423 496 1,252 282 1,585 79.0

Architectural and engineering managers

110 1,899 10 101 1,892

Food service managers

763 742 374 680 389 820 82.9

Funeral service managers

13 2 10

Gaming managers

19 6 13

Lodging managers

123 985 68 902 54 1,171 77.0

Medical and health services managers

592 1,210 438 1,156 154 1,422 81.3

Natural sciences managers

24 13 11

Postmasters and mail superintendents

20 10 10

Property, real estate, and community association managers

401 914 230 823 171 1,137 72.4

Social and community service managers

305 1,022 200 965 105 1,142 84.5

Emergency management directors

9 3 6

Managers, all other

2,803 1,408 1,085 1,213 1,717 1,525 79.5

Business and financial operations occupations

5,942 1,137 3,256 1,004 2,686 1,327 75.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

27 14 13

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11 2 9

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

142 926 69 985 73 886 111.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

260 1,009 124 986 136 1,020 96.7

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

317 963 176 824 141 1,134 72.7

Compliance officers

235 1,198 109 1,025 126 1,375 74.5

Cost estimators

95 1,232 12 83 1,264

Human resources workers

592 1,002 441 984 151 1,158 85.0

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

63 998 50 898 12

Training and development specialists

107 990 65 1,037 42

Logisticians

111 1,028 44 66 1,075

Management analysts

529 1,431 237 1,348 291 1,519 88.7

Meeting, convention, and event planners

117 859 90 840 27

Fundraisers

62 1,136 48 14

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

203 1,284 118 1,239 85 1,411 87.8

Business operations specialists, all other

186 1,090 112 969 74 1,461 66.3

Accountants and auditors

1,464 1,132 846 988 618 1,345 73.5

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

42 21 21

Budget analysts

44 28 17

Credit analysts

17 9 8

Financial analysts

295 1,426 127 1,171 168 1,680 69.7

Personal financial advisors

407 1,419 159 1,033 248 1,738 59.4

Insurance underwriters

106 1,149 63 956 44

Financial examiners

17 8 9

Credit counselors and loan officers

313 997 166 906 146 1,186 76.4

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

59 1,051 39 20

Tax preparers

56 892 37 19

Financial specialists, all other

66 1,162 40 25

Professional and related occupations

26,423 1,112 14,634 963 11,789 1,343 71.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,009 1,428 973 1,245 3,036 1,503 82.8

Computer and information research scientists

28 5 23

Computer systems analysts

499 1,389 173 1,256 325 1,462 85.9

Information security analysts

67 1,538 11 56 1,562

Computer programmers

450 1,438 93 1,302 357 1,501 86.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,287 1,682 232 1,415 1,054 1,751 80.8

Web developers

151 1,165 53 1,026 98 1,233 83.2

Computer support specialists

396 1,079 105 908 291 1,135 80.0

Database administrators

90 1,536 32 58 1,829

Network and computer systems administrators

208 1,242 28 179 1,266

Computer network architects

115 1,552 15 100 1,577

Computer occupations, all other

490 1,227 116 1,145 374 1,252 91.5

Actuaries

24 6 18

Mathematicians

6 0 6

Operations research analysts

122 1,441 63 1,325 59 1,574 84.2

Statisticians

76 1,275 39 37

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

1 0 1

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,656 1,424 383 1,257 2,272 1,452 86.6

Architects, except naval

138 1,441 31 106 1,492

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

29 6 23

Aerospace engineers

140 1,662 18 122 1,668

Agricultural engineers

5 0 5

Biomedical engineers

12 2 10

Chemical engineers

79 1,532 10 69 1,583

Civil engineers

316 1,460 41 275 1,474

Computer hardware engineers

72 1,876 10 62 1,871

Electrical and electronics engineers

283 1,778 37 246 1,819

Environmental engineers

35 9 26

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

205 1,447 37 168 1,430

Marine engineers and naval architects

9 0 9

Materials engineers

36 4 33

Mechanical engineers

316 1,534 23 294 1,550

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15 0 15

Nuclear engineers

5 2 3

Petroleum engineers

43 3 39

Engineers, all other

393 1,527 54 1,448 339 1,537 94.2

Drafters

114 977 23 91 977

Engineering technicians, except drafters

352 963 68 827 284 984 84.0

Surveying and mapping technicians

58 1,012 4 54 1,031

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,176 1,206 514 1,067 662 1,379 77.4

Agricultural and food scientists

22 10 12

Biological scientists

74 1,233 28 46

Conservation scientists and foresters

23 7 16

Medical scientists

151 1,250 84 1,082 68 1,362 79.4

Life scientists, all other

1 0 1

Astronomers and physicists

14 3 11

Atmospheric and space scientists

8 1 8

Chemists and materials scientists

93 1,432 33 61 1,496

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

90 1,423 25 65 1,740

Physical scientists, all other

189 1,553 68 1,170 121 1,770 66.1

Economists

29 12 17

Survey researchers

0 0 0

Psychologists

114 1,367 83 1,189 31

Sociologists

0 0 0

Urban and regional planners

22 9 13

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

37 19 19

Agricultural and food science technicians

28 7 21

Biological technicians

20 10 10

Chemical technicians

75 944 32 43

Geological and petroleum technicians

22 4 18

Nuclear technicians

2 0 2

Social science research assistants

3 3 0

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

157 846 78 780 79 1,001 77.9

Community and social service occupations

2,143 889 1,367 845 776 973 86.8

Counselors

635 904 451 902 184 908 99.3

Social workers

677 877 549 862 127 943 91.4

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

85 967 43 42

Social and human service assistants

173 676 149 673 23

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

92 831 63 728 29

Clergy

376 1,002 60 924 316 1,021 90.5

Directors, religious activities and education

62 929 31 31

Religious workers, all other

44 21 23

Legal occupations

1,346 1,391 722 1,135 624 1,877 60.5

Lawyers

803 1,886 300 1,717 503 1,914 89.7

Judicial law clerks

11 10 1

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

54 1,952 20 33

Paralegals and legal assistants

341 927 294 910 47

Miscellaneous legal support workers

136 770 97 746 40

Education, training, and library occupations

6,884 956 5,034 907 1,849 1,144 79.3

Postsecondary teachers

917 1,258 401 1,144 516 1,405 81.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

517 616 506 618 11

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,806 974 2,262 957 543 1,077 88.9

Secondary school teachers

1,048 1,066 610 1,006 438 1,149 87.6

Special education teachers

297 987 258 990 38

Other teachers and instructors

378 896 199 817 179 1,024 79.8

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

38 20 18

Librarians

130 991 102 966 27

Library technicians

18 15 4

Teacher assistants

614 541 565 530 48

Other education, training, and library workers

123 1,001 95 1,031 28

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,643 1,001 713 942 930 1,088 86.6

Artists and related workers

58 1,166 20 39

Designers

593 993 291 918 301 1,099 83.5

Actors

12 4 8

Producers and directors

120 1,270 53 1,234 67 1,340 92.1

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

147 780 39 108 818

Dancers and choreographers

11 9 2

Musicians, singers, and related workers

42 9 33

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

14 3 11

Announcers

25 5 21

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

56 1,218 27 29

Public relations specialists

120 1,211 71 971 49

Editors

108 1,148 50 1,125 58 1,205 93.4

Technical writers

52 1,158 30 22

Writers and authors

79 1,232 42 36

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

46 30 16

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

83 954 7 77 937

Photographers

45 21 24

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

30 1 28

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

2 0 2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,566 1,041 4,928 991 1,639 1,272 77.9

Chiropractors

22 7 15

Dentists

59 1,656 20 39

Dietitians and nutritionists

79 886 69 879 9

Optometrists

19 13 6

Pharmacists

206 1,920 108 1,811 98 2,117 85.5

Physicians and surgeons

740 1,824 283 1,533 457 1,915 80.1

Physician assistants

57 1,368 40 17

Podiatrists

9 4 5

Audiologists

8 6 1

Occupational therapists

74 1,210 64 1,199 10

Physical therapists

178 1,265 123 1,215 56 1,347 90.2

Radiation therapists

12 7 5

Recreational therapists

6 4 2

Respiratory therapists

99 1,000 67 937 32

Speech-language pathologists

108 1,147 106 1,148 1

Exercise physiologists

3 0 3

Therapists, all other

132 944 101 951 31

Veterinarians

55 1,455 39 16

Registered nurses

2,382 1,116 2,104 1,098 278 1,222 89.9

Nurse anesthetists

23 12 11

Nurse midwives

6 6 0

Nurse practitioners

115 1,532 103 1,522 11

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

2 2 0

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

270 901 201 796 69 1,089 73.1

Dental hygienists

86 914 80 953 6

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

253 964 177 908 76 1,106 82.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

175 811 49 126 899

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

487 636 389 633 99 652 97.1

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

508 743 459 737 48

Medical records and health information technicians

174 740 157 723 17

Opticians, dispensing

44 23 21

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

99 671 66 642 32

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

78 1,128 38 40

Service occupations

15,279 509 7,650 463 7,629 585 79.1

Healthcare support occupations

2,395 498 2,074 490 320 577 84.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,400 467 1,237 457 163 526 86.9

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

17 12 4

Physical therapist assistants and aides

53 742 35 18

Massage therapists

37 22 16

Dental assistants

188 531 175 522 14

Medical assistants

422 539 387 530 35

Medical transcriptionists

28 26 3

Pharmacy aides

22 18 4

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

21 17 4

Phlebotomists

91 551 76 534 15

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

115 524 71 511 44

Protective service occupations

2,729 796 547 655 2,181 851 77.0

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

57 856 16 41

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

114 1,427 17 97 1,425

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

42 3 39

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

72 808 16 56 825

Firefighters

260 1,033 16 245 1,052

Fire inspectors

18 3 15

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

453 754 112 686 341 779 88.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

141 1,159 41 100 1,265

Fish and game wardens

6 1 5

Parking enforcement workers

9 3 6

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

655 1,002 86 1,009 569 1,001 100.8

Transit and railroad police

3 0 3

Animal control workers

4 2 2

Private detectives and investigators

85 843 36 49

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

708 567 153 515 555 592 87.0

Crossing guards

26 13 13

Transportation security screeners

33 11 22

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

42 18 24

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,124 441 1,991 414 2,133 481 86.1

Chefs and head cooks

340 619 55 492 285 656 75.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

378 498 222 458 156 621 73.8

Cooks

1,302 416 494 400 808 427 93.7

Food preparation workers

366 402 192 388 174 414 93.7

Bartenders

252 521 142 493 110 569 86.6

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

173 391 107 380 67 401 94.8

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

56 354 28 28

Waiters and waitresses

868 451 563 411 305 501 82.0

Food servers, nonrestaurant

93 509 62 485 31

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

107 403 48 59 389

Dishwashers

117 398 19 98 401

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

66 400 58 397 8

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

6 3 4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,605 486 1,275 419 2,330 517 81.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

172 620 64 571 108 700 81.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

80 649 1 79 653

Janitors and building cleaners

1,536 507 425 429 1,111 547 78.4

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

876 416 742 407 134 475 85.7

Pest control workers

77 585 3 74 591

Grounds maintenance workers

862 469 39 824 473

Personal care and service occupations

2,427 498 1,763 475 664 597 79.6

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

117 769 52 680 65 900 75.6

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

60 608 35 25

Animal trainers

26 8 19

Nonfarm animal caretakers

100 505 68 501 32

Gaming services workers

69 676 39 30

Motion picture projectionists

3 0 3

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

9 4 5

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

69 485 28 42

Embalmers and funeral attendants

2 0 2

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

23 7 17

Barbers

46 12 33

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

253 461 229 463 23

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

191 501 159 497 32

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

75 608 12 63 606

Tour and travel guides

21 9 11

Childcare workers

407 437 393 430 14

Personal care aides

680 462 552 441 128 537 82.1

Recreation and fitness workers

185 555 107 526 78 684 76.9

Residential advisors

24 16 8

Personal care and service workers, all other

67 499 32 35

Sales and office occupations

23,620 673 14,236 627 9,384 777 80.7

Sales and related occupations

9,725 716 4,303 578 5,423 880 65.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,326 711 1,030 614 1,296 825 74.4

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

835 1,028 280 896 556 1,140 78.6

Cashiers

1,342 415 931 405 411 471 86

Counter and rental clerks

73 594 37 35

Parts salespersons

92 601 11 82 600

Retail salespersons

1,918 590 759 494 1,159 694 71.2

Advertising sales agents

161 925 83 729 78 1,155 63.1

Insurance sales agents

427 815 232 717 194 1,028 69.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

211 1,155 65 767 146 1,461 52.5

Travel agents

62 711 53 685 9

Sales representatives, services, all other

406 966 139 699 268 1,147 60.9

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,138 1,020 295 917 843 1,066 86.0

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15 11 4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

463 837 266 735 197 1,052 69.9

Sales engineers

33 2 31

Telemarketers

39 21 17

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

28 18 9

Sales and related workers, all other

158 916 70 727 89 1,088 66.8

Office and administrative support occupations

13,894 656 9,933 646 3,961 693 93.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,297 812 863 781 434 878 89.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

17 10 7

Telephone operators

22 18 4

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 3 2

Bill and account collectors

152 657 98 648 54 674 96.1

Billing and posting clerks

406 657 366 664 39

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

769 692 682 692 87 690 100.3

Gaming cage workers

11 10 2

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

128 757 111 751 17

Procurement clerks

35 21 15

Tellers

264 514 231 516 33

Financial clerks, all other

61 767 32 30

Brokerage clerks

3 1 1

Correspondence clerks

3 2 1

Court, municipal, and license clerks

60 755 51 743 9

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

42 29 12

Customer service representatives

1,760 621 1,149 604 611 690 87.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

67 781 50 805 17

File clerks

145 634 120 627 25

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

127 481 69 467 58 486 96.1

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

105 615 89 617 16

Library assistants, clerical

35 28 7

Loan interviewers and clerks

134 710 109 722 25

New accounts clerks

20 17 3

Order clerks

74 599 48 26

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

50 737 40 11

Receptionists and information clerks

852 575 781 569 72 619 91.9

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

95 713 61 680 34

Information and record clerks, all other

100 618 78 616 22

Cargo and freight agents

20 9 12

Couriers and messengers

153 752 19 134 750

Dispatchers

250 698 141 655 109 759 86.3

Meter readers, utilities

39 4 34

Postal service clerks

127 927 51 833 76 974 85.5

Postal service mail carriers

302 954 115 854 187 1,021 83.6

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

53 828 26 27

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

256 838 141 732 116 978 74.8

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

502 591 148 566 354 604 93.7

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,027 520 376 506 651 537 94.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

59 629 31 29

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,223 687 2,099 683 124 786 86.9

Computer operators

58 751 33 25

Data entry keyers

223 619 169 638 55 589 108.3

Word processors and typists

68 650 62 639 6

Desktop publishers

1 0 1

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

259 689 203 675 56 762 88.6

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

63 563 39 24

Office clerks, general

929 620 773 622 156 609 102.1

Office machine operators, except computer

31 16 14

Proofreaders and copy markers

2 2 0

Statistical assistants

15 10 5

Office and administrative support workers, all other

391 745 298 718 93 852 84.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,834 761 453 580 10,381 770 75.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

810 464 174 437 637 477 91.6

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

42 10 32

Agricultural inspectors

12 6 7

Animal breeders

2 0 2

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

83 486 51 468 32

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

613 445 102 398 511 460 86.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

11 0 11

Hunters and trappers

0 0 0

Forest and conservation workers

15 5 10

Logging workers

31 0 31

Construction and extraction occupations

5,722 749 137 704 5,586 751 93.7

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

560 1,040 20 540 1,047

Boilermakers

21 0 21

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

122 652 0 122 652

Carpenters

802 687 10 792 687

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

89 637 1 89 634

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

44 0 44

Construction laborers

1,181 639 25 1,155 642

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

10 0 10

Pile-driver operators

2 0 2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

324 856 6 318 859

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

121 596 2 119 595

Electricians

651 888 19 632 891

Glaziers

33 0 32

Insulation workers

43 3 41

Painters, construction and maintenance

344 585 14 330 587

Paperhangers

0 0 0

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

456 863 2 455 862

Plasterers and stucco masons

20 1 19

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

9 0 9

Roofers

171 584 2 170 580

Sheet metal workers

106 766 6 100 776

Structural iron and steel workers

54 869 2 52 864

Solar photovoltaic installers

8 0 8

Helpers, construction trades

47 0 47

Construction and building inspectors

67 939 9 58 965

Elevator installers and repairers

23 0 23

Fence erectors

33 0 33

Hazardous materials removal workers

39 5 35

Highway maintenance workers

91 754 0 91 755

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

9 0 9

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

8 0 8

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

25 2 23

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

28 1 27

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

30 0 30

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

5 0 5

Mining machine operators

68 1,106 2 65 1,098

Roof bolters, mining

3 0 3

Roustabouts, oil and gas

7 0 7

Helpers—extraction workers

6 0 6

Other extraction workers

61 900 3 58 918

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,301 839 143 761 4,159 842 90.4

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

270 1,032 18 252 1,033

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

194 856 28 166 865

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

139 862 13 126 879

Avionics technicians

4 0 4

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

22 1 20

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2 0 2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

18 0 17

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

17 0 17

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

30 2 28

Security and fire alarm systems installers

67 911 2 65 913

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

133 1,025 7 125 1,032

Automotive body and related repairers

120 846 2 118 849

Automotive glass installers and repairers

21 1 20

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

710 722 16 694 724

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

327 831 0 327 830

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

206 928 0 206 928

Small engine mechanics

39 0 39

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

66 592 1 65 591

Control and valve installers and repairers

23 0 23

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

341 806 4 337 810

Home appliance repairers

36 0 36

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

394 895 11 383 894

Maintenance and repair workers, general

469 773 10 459 771

Maintenance workers, machinery

31 1 30

Millwrights

49 1 48

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

113 1,105 0 112 1,105

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

157 882 9 148 880

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

64 996 4 60 1,009

Wind turbine service technicians

3 0 3

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38 4 34

Commercial divers

1 0 1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

12 0 12

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4 1 4

Riggers

7 0 7

Signal and track switch repairers

9 0 9

Helpers—installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17 0 17

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

150 792 6 144 810

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,504 656 2,958 512 11,546 704 72.7

Production occupations

7,551 663 2,003 519 5,548 729 71.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

783 875 133 623 650 924 67.4

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

15 4 11

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

123 554 64 544 59 566 96.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

14 2 12

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

31 3 28

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

950 581 377 512 573 637 80.4

Bakers

150 505 80 475 69 570 83.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

247 542 60 463 187 582 79.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

9 1 7

Food batchmakers

79 500 54 489 25

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 2 5

Food processing workers, all other

132 594 50 508 82 679 74.8

Computer control programmers and operators

83 833 2 81 857

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 1 7

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6 0 6

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

15 3 12

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

78 633 15 62 674

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 1 5

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

41 3 39

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

12 1 11

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1 0 1

Machinists

338 834 17 320 840

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

29 1 28

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

6 3 3

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

47 9 39

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1 0 1

Tool and die makers

49 0 49

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

568 760 23 545 767

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 0 4

Layout workers, metal and plastic

4 1 4

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

24 0 24

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

7 0 7

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

351 639 72 581 278 678 85.7

Prepress technicians and workers

14 2 12

Printing press operators

160 707 26 134 729

Print binding and finishing workers

16 6 9

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

133 466 80 460 53 487 94.5

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

21 12 9

Sewing machine operators

147 493 105 476 42

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

5 1 4

Shoe machine operators and tenders

1 1 0

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

37 27 9

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2 0 2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9 2 7

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

8 4 3

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

7 2 5

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 0 0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

4 1 3

Upholsterers

29 7 21

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

16 4 12

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

40 2 38

Furniture finishers

6 0 6

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 0 0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

26 4 22

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23 1 21

Woodworkers, all other

17 3 14

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

35 1 34

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

84 996 3 81 1,012

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

82 880 3 79 868

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

35 3 33

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

62 1,052 5 57 1,082

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

82 652 7 75 668

Cutting workers

51 685 9 41

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

31 6 25

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

6 0 5

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

701 710 260 583 440 844 69.1

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

19 7 11

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

86 648 42 44

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

239 518 120 482 118 605 79.7

Painting workers

129 708 18 110 733

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

26 14 12

Semiconductor processors

1 0 1

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

9 4 5

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

4 1 2

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4 0 3

Etchers and engravers

12 4 8

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

14 2 12

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

27 5 22

Tire builders

8 0 8

Helpers—production workers

24 7 18

Production workers, all other

846 625 203 501 643 666 75.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,953 646 955 494 5,998 679 72.8

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

186 894 33 153 898

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

114 1,735 9 104 1,830

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

32 8 24

Flight attendants

63 846 43 20

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

18 4 14

Bus drivers

323 615 138 572 184 681 84.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,687 747 105 632 2,582 751 84.2

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

253 585 38 216 600

Motor vehicle operators, all other

21 3 18

Locomotive engineers and operators

44 2 42

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

5 0 5

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

55 1,117 4 52 1,137

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15 3 12

Sailors and marine oilers

10 0 9

Ship and boat captains and operators

29 1 28

Ship engineers

5 1 4

Bridge and lock tenders

4 0 4

Parking lot attendants

57 492 8 49

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

63 452 5 58 470

Transportation inspectors

21 7 14

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

17 8 9

Other transportation workers

39 4 35

Conveyor operators and tenders

7 0 7

Crane and tower operators

75 988 4 71 1,016

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

25 0 25

Hoist and winch operators

5 0 5

Industrial truck and tractor operators

579 609 37 541 612

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

222 485 22 200 498

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,433 526 219 455 1,214 547 83.2

Machine feeders and offbearers

30 9 21

Packers and packagers, hand

385 438 227 424 158 462 91.8

Pumping station operators

18 1 17

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

72 501 6 66 496

Mine shuttle car operators

0 0 0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6 0 6

Material moving workers, all other

37 5 32

Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2015 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

Total, 16 years and older

109,080 $809 48,334 $726 60,746 $895 81.1

Agriculture and related industries

1,124 533 201 469 923 556 84.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

846 1,162 102 1,021 744 1,168 87.4

Construction

6,882 788 574 757 6,308 791 95.7

Manufacturing

13,968 839 3,872 688 10,096 902 76.3

Durable goods manufacturing

8,996 873 2,132 726 6,864 919 79.0

Nondurable goods manufacturing

4,972 776 1,739 643 3,233 863 74.5

Wholesale and retail trade

13,819 653 5,508 571 8,311 741 77.1

Wholesale trade

3,095 841 888 736 2,208 897 82.1

Retail trade

10,723 610 4,620 538 6,103 689 78.1

Transportation and utilities

6,313 871 1,359 733 4,954 915 80.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,072 819 1,094 676 3,978 863 78.3

Utilities

1,240 1,098 265 924 975 1,150 80.3

Information

2,351 1,091 874 938 1,477 1,205 77.8

Financial activities

8,170 961 4,414 821 3,755 1,219 67.4

Finance and insurance

6,255 1,020 3,539 843 2,716 1,374 61.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,915 787 875 749 1,040 842 89.0

Professional and business services

12,418 953 4,871 811 7,547 1,091 74.3

Professional and technical services

7,704 1,253 3,119 966 4,585 1,458 66.3

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,713 609 1,752 585 2,961 623 93.9

Education and health services

25,210 846 18,520 787 6,690 1,011 77.8

Educational services

10,426 935 7,092 896 3,334 1,048 85.5

Health care and social assistance

14,784 760 11,428 718 3,355 974 73.7

Leisure and hospitality

7,416 518 3,398 480 4,018 569 84.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,654 662 666 594 988 723 82.2