November 2017 Report 1071

Women in the labor force: a databook

Women in the labor force: a databook image

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. After reaching a peak of 60.0 percent in 1999, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline. In 2016, 56.8 percent of all women participated in the labor force.

There have been a number of notable changes over this period with regards to women’s involvement in the labor market. Women now are more likely to work full time and year round than in earlier decades and attain higher levels of education. The proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree more than tripled from 1970 to 2016, increasing from 11 percent to 42 percent; the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings also have grown over time. In 1979, women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned; in 2016, women’s earnings were 82 percent of men’s.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 56.8 percent in 2016, little changed from 56.7 percent in 2015. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, also was little changed at 69.2 percent in 2016. (See table 2.)

In 2016, the unemployment rate for women was 4.8 percent, down 0.4 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 4.9 percent in 2016, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s jobless rates varied by race and ethnicity. Asian women had the lowest rate (3.9 percent), followed by White (4.2 percent), Hispanic or Latino (6.3 percent), and Black or African American (7.8 percent) women; men’s jobless rates exhibit this same pattern. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Divorced women had a higher labor force participation rate than married women, 62.5 percent versus 57.9 percent in 2016. By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.1 percent) than divorced men (66.0 percent). (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 70.8 percent in March 2016, up from 69.9 percent in 2015. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate was higher for those with children 6 to 17 years old than for those with younger children. In March 2016, the rate for women with children 6 to 17 years old was 75.0 percent. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 65.3 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was lower, at 63.1 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2016, 75.9 percent of unmarried mothers with children under 18 years old were in the labor force, compared with 68.6 percent of married mothers with children in the same age range. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past 45 years. In 2016, 42 percent of these women held a Bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2016, 6 percent of women had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B)

Occupation and industry

In 2016, women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 20 percent of software developers, 27 percent of chief executives, and 38 percent of physicians and surgeons were women, whereas 90 percent of registered nurses, 79 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (51 percent and 44 percent, respectively) in 2016 than were Black (35 percent) and Hispanic (27 percent) women. Meanwhile, Hispanic (32 percent) and Black (29 percent) women were more likely than Asian and White women (20 percent each) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

In 2016, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors: financial activities (52 percent), education and health services (75 percent), leisure and hospitality (51 percent), and other services (52 percent). However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (25 percent), mining (13 percent), construction (9 percent), manufacturing (29 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2016, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $749, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($915). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($902) and Whites ($766) than for Blacks ($641) and Hispanics ($586). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks and Hispanics (89 percent and 88 percent, respectively) than for Whites (81 percent) and Asians (78 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

In 2016, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with only a high school diploma had median usual weekly earnings of $599, which represented 83 percent of the earnings of women with an associate’s degree ($720) and 54 percent of the earnings of women with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,101). (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2016 for female chief executives ($1,876), pharmacists ($1,839), and nurse practitioners ($1,753). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,419), physicians and surgeons ($2,343), and architectural and engineering managers ($2,265). (See table 18.)

In 2016, 3 percent of all women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 8 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2016, 25 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past 5 decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2016. This rate for men has gradually trended up over time, leveling off in recent years. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2015, 61 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 74 percent in 2015. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 54 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2015, compared with 44 percent in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 19 percent of married-couple families in 2015, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

In 2015, working wives contributed 37 percent of their families’ incomes, up by 10 percentage points from 1970, when wives’ earnings accounted for 27 percent of their families’ total income. The proportion of wives earning more than their husbands has grown also. In 1987, 18 percent of working wives earned more than their working spouses; in 2015, 29 percent of wives earned more than their husbands. (See tables 25 and 26; data were collected in the 1971, 1988, and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2015, more women (4.5 million) than men (4.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 6.3 percent for women and 5.0 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were considerably more likely than White or Asian women to be among the working poor. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 13.3 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively, compared with 5.2 percent for White women and 3.7 percent for Asian women. (See table 27; data are from the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2013 through December 2015, 3.2 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2016: the reemployment rate for women was 64 percent and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were equally likely to be unemployed in January 2016, at 16 percent. About 20 percent of displaced women and 18 percent of displaced men had left the labor force in January 2016. (See table 28.) (Data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee Tenure

In January 2016, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for women declined to 4.0 years from 4.5 years in January 2014. For men, median tenure also declined; it was 4.3 years in January 2016, compared with 4.7 years in January 2014. (See table 29.) (Data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School Enrollment

Of the 3.1 million youth ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2016, about 70 percent (2.2 million) were enrolled in college in October. For 2016 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 72 percent for young women and 67 percent for young men. (See table 30.) (Data are from the October 2016 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among high school students, female students were more likely to be in the labor force (23.5 percent) in October 2016 than their male counterparts (18.1 percent). Among college students, labor force participation rates were similar for women and men (48.3 percent and 47.0 percent, respectively). (See table 31.) (Data are from the October 2016 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among youth ages 16 to 24 not enrolled in school in October 2016, the unemployment rates for those who did not have a high school diploma were 20.7 percent for young women and 24.0 percent for young men. In contrast, the jobless rates of young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 5.1 percent and 8.3 percent, respectively.

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2016, 7.5 million people worked more than one job, slightly more than half of whom were women (3.9 million). The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.5 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.5 percent. (See table 32.)

In 2016, 4.8 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.8 percent of their male counterparts. Among the self-employed, 39 percent were women in 2016, compared with 27 percent in 1976. (See table 33.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2016 (53.4 percent, compared with 57.5 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (77.8 percent) than native-born men (67.5 percent). Among women, unemployment rates were similar for the foreign-born and native born in 2016 (5.1 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively). At 3.8 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (5.2 percent). (See table 34.)

Union membership

In 2016, 10.2 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.2 percent for their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2016 was lower than in 1983, but the rate has fallen much more for men over the 1983–2015 period. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 35.)

Veterans

There were 1.2 million female veterans in the labor force in 2016. This represented about 12 percent of the 10.6 million veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 5.0 percent in 2016, was similar to that of male veterans, at 4.2 percent. (See table 36.)

Women with disabilities

Of the 16.0 million women with disabilities in 2016, 2.7 million, or 16.9 percent, participated in the labor force. About half of women with disabilities were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.5 percent, compared with 28.3 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 11.0 percent and that for men was 10.1 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (4.6 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively). (See table 37.)

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2016 annual averages (Number in thousands)
Age Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

16 years and older

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

16 to 19 years

16,714 5,889 35.2 4,965 29.7 925 15.7 10,824

16 to 17 years

8,994 2,127 23.6 1,747 19.4 380 17.9 6,867

18 to 19 years

7,720 3,763 48.7 3,218 41.7 545 14.5 3,957

20 to 24 years

21,721 15,313 70.5 14,027 64.6 1,286 8.4 6,408

25 to 54 years

125,761 102,248 81.3 98,004 77.9 4,244 4.2 23,513

25 to 34 years

43,547 35,519 81.6 33,722 77.4 1,797 5.1 8,027

25 to 29 years

22,265 18,100 81.3 17,088 76.7 1,012 5.6 4,165

30 to 34 years

21,282 17,420 81.9 16,634 78.2 786 4.5 3,862

35 to 44 years

39,817 32,820 82.4 31,562 79.3 1,258 3.8 6,997

35 to 39 years

20,394 16,784 82.3 16,121 79.0 663 4.0 3,610

40 to 44 years

19,422 16,036 82.6 15,441 79.5 594 3.7 3,387

45 to 54 years

42,397 33,909 80.0 32,720 77.2 1,189 3.5 8,489

45 to 49 years

20,703 16,910 81.7 16,298 78.7 611 3.6 3,793

50 to 54 years

21,694 16,999 78.4 16,421 75.7 577 3.4 4,696

55 to 64 years

41,308 26,465 64.1 25,524 61.8 941 3.6 14,843

55 to 59 years

21,804 15,584 71.5 15,031 68.9 553 3.6 6,220

60 to 64 years

19,504 10,881 55.8 10,493 53.8 388 3.6 8,623

65 years and older

48,035 9,272 19.3 8,916 18.6 355 3.8 38,763

65 to 69 years

16,671 5,367 32.2 5,168 31.0 199 3.7 11,305

70 to 74 years

11,765 2,254 19.2 2,165 18.4 88 3.9 9,511

75 years and older

19,599 1,651 8.4 1,583 8.1 68 4.1 17,947

Women

 

16 years and older

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

16 to 19 years

8,239 2,894 35.1 2,481 30.1 413 14.3 5,345

16 to 17 years

4,485 1,099 24.5 922 20.6 177 16.1 3,386

18 to 19 years

3,754 1,795 47.8 1,559 41.5 236 13.2 1,959

20 to 24 years

10,823 7,359 68.0 6,815 63.0 545 7.4 3,464

25 to 54 years

63,950 47,522 74.3 45,490 71.1 2,032 4.3 16,428

25 to 34 years

21,976 16,369 74.5 15,537 70.7 832 5.1 5,608

25 to 29 years

11,198 8,439 75.4 7,985 71.3 455 5.4 2,758

30 to 34 years

10,779 7,929 73.6 7,553 70.1 377 4.8 2,850

35 to 44 years

20,303 15,134 74.5 14,520 71.5 614 4.1 5,169

35 to 39 years

10,378 7,692 74.1 7,362 70.9 330 4.3 2,686

40 to 44 years

9,925 7,442 75.0 7,158 72.1 284 3.8 2,482

45 to 54 years

21,670 16,019 73.9 15,433 71.2 586 3.7 5,651

45 to 49 years

10,561 7,963 75.4 7,662 72.5 301 3.8 2,598

50 to 54 years

11,109 8,056 72.5 7,771 70.0 285 3.5 3,053

55 to 64 years

21,441 12,527 58.4 12,114 56.5 413 3.3 8,914

55 to 59 years

11,247 7,416 65.9 7,171 63.8 245 3.3 3,831

60 to 64 years

10,194 5,111 50.1 4,943 48.5 168 3.3 5,083

65 years and older

26,587 4,130 15.5 3,968 14.9 162 3.9 22,457

65 to 69 years

8,831 2,472 28.0 2,386 27.0 86 3.5 6,359

70 to 74 years

6,352 967 15.2 924 14.6 43 4.4 5,385

75 years and older

11,404 691 6.1 658 5.8 33 4.8 10,713

Men

 

16 years and older

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

16 to 19 years

8,475 2,995 35.3 2,484 29.3 512 17.1 5,479

16 to 17 years

4,509 1,028 22.8 825 18.3 203 19.7 3,481

18 to 19 years

3,966 1,967 49.6 1,659 41.8 309 15.7 1,998

20 to 24 years

10,897 7,954 73.0 7,212 66.2 742 9.3 2,943

25 to 54 years

61,811 54,726 88.5 52,514 85.0 2,212 4.0 7,085

25 to 34 years

21,570 19,151 88.8 18,185 84.3 966 5.0 2,420

25 to 29 years

11,068 9,660 87.3 9,104 82.3 557 5.8 1,407

30 to 34 years

10,503 9,490 90.4 9,081 86.5 409 4.3 1,012

35 to 44 years

19,514 17,686 90.6 17,042 87.3 644 3.6 1,828

35 to 39 years

10,016 9,092 90.8 8,759 87.4 334 3.7 924

40 to 44 years

9,497 8,593 90.5 8,283 87.2 310 3.6 904

45 to 54 years

20,727 17,890 86.3 17,287 83.4 602 3.4 2,837

45 to 49 years

10,142 8,947 88.2 8,637 85.2 310 3.5 1,195

50 to 54 years

10,585 8,942 84.5 8,651 81.7 292 3.3 1,643

55 to 64 years

19,867 13,938 70.2 13,410 67.5 528 3.8 5,929

55 to 59 years

10,557 8,168 77.4 7,860 74.5 308 3.8 2,388

60 to 64 years

9,310 5,770 62.0 5,550 59.6 220 3.8 3,540

65 years and older

21,448 5,141 24.0 4,948 23.1 193 3.8 16,306

65 to 69 years

7,841 2,894 36.9 2,781 35.5 113 3.9 4,946

70 to 74 years

5,412 1,286 23.8 1,241 22.9 46 3.5 4,126

75 years and older

8,195 960 11.7 926 11.3 35 3.6 7,234

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

1948

103,068 60,621 58.8 58,343 56.6 2,276 3.8 42,447

1949

103,994 61,286 58.9 57,651 55.4 3,637 5.9 42,708

1950

104,995 62,208 59.2 58,918 56.1 3,288 5.3 42,787

1951

104,621 62,017 59.2 59,961 57.3 2,055 3.3 42,604

1952

105,231 62,138 59.0 60,250 57.3 1,883 3.0 43,093

1953

107,056 63,015 58.9 61,179 57.1 1,834 2.9 44,041

1954

108,321 63,643 58.8 60,109 55.5 3,532 5.5 44,678

1955

109,683 65,023 59.3 62,170 56.7 2,852 4.4 44,660

1956

110,954 66,552 60.0 63,799 57.5 2,750 4.1 44,402

1957

112,265 66,929 59.6 64,071 57.1 2,859 4.3 45,336

1958

113,727 67,639 59.5 63,036 55.4 4,602 6.8 46,088

1959

115,329 68,369 59.3 64,630 56.0 3,740 5.5 46,960

1960

117,245 69,628 59.4 65,778 56.1 3,852 5.5 47,617

1961

118,771 70,459 59.3 65,746 55.4 4,714 6.7 48,312

1962

120,153 70,614 58.8 66,702 55.5 3,911 5.5 49,539

1963

122,416 71,833 58.7 67,762 55.4 4,070 5.7 50,583

1964

124,485 73,091 58.7 69,305 55.7 3,786 5.2 51,394

1965

126,513 74,455 58.9 71,088 56.2 3,366 4.5 52,058

1966

128,058 75,770 59.2 72,895 56.9 2,875 3.8 52,288

1967

129,874 77,347 59.6 74,372 57.3 2,975 3.8 52,527

1968

132,028 78,737 59.6 75,920 57.5 2,817 3.6 53,291

1969

134,335 80,734 60.1 77,902 58.0 2,832 3.5 53,602

1970

137,085 82,771 60.4 78,678 57.4 4,093 4.9 54,315

1971

140,216 84,382 60.2 79,367 56.6 5,016 5.9 55,834

1972

144,126 87,034 60.4 82,153 57.0 4,882 5.6 57,091

1973

147,096 89,429 60.8 85,064 57.8 4,365 4.9 57,667

1974

150,120 91,949 61.3 86,794 57.8 5,156 5.6 58,171

1975

153,153 93,775 61.2 85,846 56.1 7,929 8.5 59,377

1976

156,150 96,158 61.6 88,752 56.8 7,406 7.7 59,991

1977

159,033 99,009 62.3 92,017 57.9 6,991 7.1 60,025

1978

161,910 102,251 63.2 96,048 59.3 6,202 6.1 59,659

1979

164,863 104,962 63.7 98,824 59.9 6,137 5.8 59,900

1980

167,745 106,940 63.8 99,303 59.2 7,637 7.1 60,806

1981

170,130 108,670 63.9 100,397 59.0 8,273 7.6 61,460

1982

172,271 110,204 64.0 99,526 57.8 10,678 9.7 62,067

1983

174,215 111,550 64.0 100,834 57.9 10,717 9.6 62,665

1984

176,383 113,544 64.4 105,005 59.5 8,539 7.5 62,839

1985

178,206 115,461 64.8 107,150 60.1 8,312 7.2 62,744

1986

180,587 117,834 65.3 109,597 60.7 8,237 7.0 62,752

1987

182,753 119,865 65.6 112,440 61.5 7,425 6.2 62,888

1988

184,613 121,669 65.9 114,968 62.3 6,701 5.5 62,944

1989

186,393 123,869 66.5 117,342 63.0 6,528 5.3 62,523

1990

189,164 125,840 66.5 118,793 62.8 7,047 5.6 63,324

1991

190,925 126,346 66.2 117,718 61.7 8,628 6.8 64,578

1992

192,805 128,105 66.4 118,492 61.5 9,613 7.5 64,700

1993

194,838 129,200 66.3 120,259 61.7 8,940 6.9 65,638

1994

196,814 131,056 66.6 123,060 62.5 7,996 6.1 65,758

1995

198,584 132,304 66.6 124,900 62.9 7,404 5.6 66,280

1996

200,591 133,943 66.8 126,708 63.2 7,236 5.4 66,647

1997

203,133 136,297 67.1 129,558 63.8 6,739 4.9 66,837

1998

205,220 137,673 67.1 131,463 64.1 6,210 4.5 67,547

1999

207,753 139,368 67.1 133,488 64.3 5,880 4.2 68,385

2000

212,577 142,583 67.1 136,891 64.4 5,692 4.0 69,994

2001

215,092 143,734 66.8 136,933 63.7 6,801 4.7 71,359

2002

217,570 144,863 66.6 136,485 62.7 8,378 5.8 72,707

2003

221,168 146,510 66.2 137,736 62.3 8,774 6.0 74,658

2004

223,357 147,401 66.0 139,252 62.3 8,149 5.5 75,956

2005

226,082 149,320 66.0 141,730 62.7 7,591 5.1 76,762

2006

228,815 151,428 66.2 144,427 63.1 7,001 4.6 77,387

2007

231,867 153,124 66.0 146,047 63.0 7,078 4.6 78,743

2008

233,788 154,287 66.0 145,362 62.2 8,924 5.8 79,501

2009

235,801 154,142 65.4 139,877 59.3 14,265 9.3 81,659

2010

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

2011

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

2012

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

2013

245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 58.6 11,460 7.4 90,290

2014

247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 59.0 9,617 6.2 92,025

2015

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

2016

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

Women

 

1948

53,071 17,335 32.7 16,617 31.3 717 4.1 35,737

1949

53,670 17,788 33.1 16,723 31.2 1,065 6.0 35,883

1950

54,270 18,389 33.9 17,340 32.0 1,049 5.7 35,881

1951

54,895 19,016 34.6 18,181 33.1 834 4.4 35,879

1952

55,529 19,269 34.7 18,568 33.4 698 3.6 36,261

1953

56,305 19,382 34.4 18,749 33.3 632 3.3 36,924

1954

56,925 19,678 34.6 18,490 32.5 1,188 6.0 37,247

1955

57,574 20,548 35.7 19,551 34.0 998 4.9 37,026

1956

58,228 21,461 36.9 20,419 35.1 1,039 4.8 36,769

1957

58,951 21,732 36.9 20,714 35.1 1,018 4.7 37,218

1958

59,690 22,118 37.1 20,613 34.5 1,504 6.8 37,574

1959

60,534 22,483 37.1 21,164 35.0 1,320 5.9 38,053

1960

61,582 23,240 37.7 21,874 35.5 1,366 5.9 38,343

1961

62,484 23,806 38.1 22,090 35.4 1,717 7.2 38,679

1962

63,321 24,014 37.9 22,525 35.6 1,488 6.2 39,308

1963

64,494 24,704 38.3 23,105 35.8 1,598 6.5 39,791

1964

65,637 25,412 38.7 23,831 36.3 1,581 6.2 40,225

1965

66,731 26,200 39.3 24,748 37.1 1,452 5.5 40,531

1966

67,795 27,299 40.3 25,976 38.3 1,324 4.8 40,496

1967

68,968 28,360 41.1 26,893 39.0 1,468 5.2 40,608

1968

70,179 29,204 41.6 27,807 39.6 1,397 4.8 40,976

1969

71,436 30,513 42.7 29,084 40.7 1,429 4.7 40,924

1970

72,782 31,543 43.3 29,688 40.8 1,855 5.9 41,239

1971

74,274 32,202 43.4 29,976 40.4 2,227 6.9 42,072

1972

76,290 33,479 43.9 31,257 41.0 2,222 6.6 42,811

1973

77,804 34,804 44.7 32,715 42.0 2,089 6.0 43,000

1974

79,312 36,211 45.7 33,769 42.6 2,441 6.7 43,101

1975

80,860 37,475 46.3 33,989 42.0 3,486 9.3 43,386

1976

82,390 38,983 47.3 35,615 43.2 3,369 8.6 43,406

1977

83,840 40,613 48.4 37,289 44.5 3,324 8.2 43,227

1978

85,334 42,631 50.0 39,569 46.4 3,061 7.2 42,703

1979

86,843 44,235 50.9 41,217 47.5 3,018 6.8 42,608

1980

88,348 45,487 51.5 42,117 47.7 3,370 7.4 42,861

1981

89,618 46,696 52.1 43,000 48.0 3,696 7.9 42,922

1982

90,748 47,755 52.6 43,256 47.7 4,499 9.4 42,993

1983

91,684 48,503 52.9 44,047 48.0 4,457 9.2 43,181

1984

92,778 49,709 53.6 45,915 49.5 3,794 7.6 43,068

1985

93,736 51,050 54.5 47,259 50.4 3,791 7.4 42,686

1986

94,789 52,413 55.3 48,706 51.4 3,707 7.1 42,376

1987

95,853 53,658 56.0 50,334 52.5 3,324 6.2 42,195

1988

96,756 54,742 56.6 51,696 53.4 3,046 5.6 42,014

1989

97,630 56,030 57.4 53,027 54.3 3,003 5.4 41,601

1990

98,787 56,829 57.5 53,689 54.3 3,140 5.5 41,957

1991

99,646 57,178 57.4 53,496 53.7 3,683 6.4 42,468

1992

100,535 58,141 57.8 54,052 53.8 4,090 7.0 42,394

1993

101,506 58,795 57.9 54,910 54.1 3,885 6.6 42,711

1994

102,460 60,239 58.8 56,610 55.3 3,629 6.0 42,221

1995

103,406 60,944 58.9 57,523 55.6 3,421 5.6 42,462

1996

104,385 61,857 59.3 58,501 56.0 3,356 5.4 42,528

1997

105,418 63,036 59.8 59,873 56.8 3,162 5.0 42,382

1998

106,462 63,714 59.8 60,771 57.1 2,944 4.6 42,748

1999

108,031 64,855 60.0 62,042 57.4 2,814 4.3 43,175

2000

110,613 66,303 59.9 63,586 57.5 2,717 4.1 44,310

2001

111,811 66,848 59.8 63,737 57.0 3,111 4.7 44,962

2002

112,985 67,363 59.6 63,582 56.3 3,781 5.6 45,621

2003

114,733 68,272 59.5 64,404 56.1 3,868 5.7 46,461

2004

115,647 68,421 59.2 64,728 56.0 3,694 5.4 47,225

2005

116,931 69,288 59.3 65,757 56.2 3,531 5.1 47,643

2006

118,210 70,173 59.4 66,925 56.6 3,247 4.6 48,037

2007

119,694 70,988 59.3 67,792 56.6 3,196 4.5 48,707

2008

120,675 71,767 59.5 67,876 56.2 3,891 5.4 48,908

2009

121,665 72,019 59.2 66,208 54.4 5,811 8.1 49,646

2010

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

2011

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

2012

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

2013

127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 53.2 5,146 7.1 54,401

2014

128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 53.5 4,426 6.1 55,159

2015

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

2016

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

Men

 

1948

49,996 43,286 86.6 41,725 83.5 1,559 3.6 6,710

1949

50,321 43,498 86.4 40,925 81.3 2,572 5.9 6,825

1950

50,725 43,819 86.4 41,578 82.0 2,239 5.1 6,906

1951

49,727 43,001 86.3 41,780 84.0 1,221 2.8 6,725

1952

49,700 42,869 86.3 41,682 83.9 1,185 2.8 6,832

1953

50,750 43,633 86.0 42,430 83.6 1,202 2.8 7,117

1954

51,395 43,965 85.5 41,619 81.0 2,344 5.3 7,431

1955

52,109 44,475 85.4 42,621 81.8 1,854 4.2 7,634

1956

52,723 45,091 85.5 43,379 82.3 1,711 3.8 7,633

1957

53,315 45,197 84.8 43,357 81.3 1,841 4.1 8,118

1958

54,033 45,521 84.2 42,423 78.5 3,098 6.8 8,514

1959

54,793 45,886 83.7 43,466 79.3 2,420 5.2 8,907

1960

55,662 46,388 83.3 43,904 78.9 2,486 5.4 9,274

1961

56,286 46,653 82.9 43,656 77.6 2,997 6.4 9,633

1962

56,831 46,600 82.0 44,177 77.7 2,423 5.2 10,231

1963

57,921 47,129 81.4 44,657 77.1 2,472 5.2 10,792

1964

58,847 47,679 81.0 45,474 77.3 2,205 4.6 11,169

1965

59,782 48,255 80.7 46,340 77.5 1,914 4.0 11,527

1966

60,262 48,471 80.4 46,919 77.9 1,551 3.2 11,792

1967

60,905 48,987 80.4 47,479 78.0 1,508 3.1 11,919

1968

61,847 49,533 80.1 48,114 77.8 1,419 2.9 12,315

1969

62,898 50,221 79.8 48,818 77.6 1,403 2.8 12,677

1970

64,304 51,228 79.7 48,990 76.2 2,238 4.4 13,076

1971

65,942 52,180 79.1 49,390 74.9 2,789 5.3 13,762

1972

67,835 53,555 78.9 50,896 75.0 2,659 5.0 14,280

1973

69,292 54,624 78.8 52,349 75.5 2,275 4.2 14,667

1974

70,808 55,739 78.7 53,024 74.9 2,714 4.9 15,069

1975

72,291 56,299 77.9 51,857 71.7 4,442 7.9 15,993

1976

73,759 57,174 77.5 53,138 72.0 4,036 7.1 16,585

1977

75,193 58,396 77.7 54,728 72.8 3,667 6.3 16,797

1978

76,576 59,620 77.9 56,479 73.8 3,142 5.3 16,956

1979

78,020 60,726 77.8 57,607 73.8 3,120 5.1 17,293

1980

79,398 61,453 77.4 57,186 72.0 4,267 6.9 17,945

1981

80,511 61,974 77.0 57,397 71.3 4,577 7.4 18,537

1982

81,523 62,450 76.6 56,271 69.0 6,179 9.9 19,073

1983

82,531 63,047 76.4 56,787 68.8 6,260 9.9 19,484

1984

83,605 63,835 76.4 59,091 70.7 4,744 7.4 19,771

1985

84,469 64,411 76.3 59,891 70.9 4,521 7.0 20,058

1986

85,798 65,422 76.3 60,892 71.0 4,530 6.9 20,376

1987

86,899 66,207 76.2 62,107 71.5 4,101 6.2 20,692

1988

87,857 66,927 76.2 63,273 72.0 3,655 5.5 20,930

1989

88,762 67,840 76.4 64,315 72.5 3,525 5.2 20,923

1990

90,377 69,011 76.4 65,104 72.0 3,906 5.7 21,367

1991

91,278 69,168 75.8 64,223 70.4 4,946 7.2 22,110

1992

92,270 69,964 75.8 64,440 69.8 5,523 7.9 22,306

1993

93,332 70,404 75.4 65,349 70.0 5,055 7.2 22,927

1994

94,355 70,817 75.1 66,450 70.4 4,367 6.2 23,538

1995

95,178 71,360 75.0 67,377 70.8 3,983 5.6 23,818

1996

96,206 72,087 74.9 68,207 70.9 3,880 5.4 24,119

1997

97,715 73,261 75.0 69,685 71.3 3,577 4.9 24,454

1998

98,758 73,959 74.9 70,693 71.6 3,266 4.4 24,799

1999

99,722 74,512 74.7 71,446 71.6 3,066 4.1 25,210

2000

101,964 76,280 74.8 73,305 71.9 2,975 3.9 25,684

2001

103,282 76,886 74.4 73,196 70.9 3,690 4.8 26,396

2002

104,585 77,500 74.1 72,903 69.7 4,597 5.9 27,085

2003

106,435 78,238 73.5 73,332 68.9 4,906 6.3 28,197

2004

107,710 78,980 73.3 74,524 69.2 4,456 5.6 28,730

2005

109,151 80,033 73.3 75,973 69.6 4,059 5.1 29,119

2006

110,605 81,255 73.5 77,502 70.1 3,753 4.6 29,350

2007

112,173 82,136 73.2 78,254 69.8 3,882 4.7 30,036

2008

113,113 82,520 73.0 77,486 68.5 5,033 6.1 30,593

2009

114,136 82,123 72.0 73,670 64.5 8,453 10.3 32,013

2010

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

2011

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

2012

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

2013

118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 64.4 6,314 7.6 35,889

2014

119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 64.9 5,190 6.3 36,865

2015

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

2016

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data.

Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status, by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

White

 

Total, 16 years and older

198,215 124,658 62.9 119,313 60.2 5,345 4.3 73,557

16 to 19 years

12,342 4,618 37.4 3,967 32.1 651 14.1 7,724

20 to 24 years

15,947 11,553 72.4 10,722 67.2 831 7.2 4,395

25 to 54 years

95,786 78,650 82.1 75,797 79.1 2,853 3.6 17,136

55 to 64 years

33,478 21,889 65.4 21,169 63.2 720 3.3 11,589

65 years and older

40,662 7,948 19.5 7,658 18.8 290 3.7 32,714

Women, 16 years and older

101,354 57,095 56.3 54,701 54.0 2,393 4.2 44,260

16 to 19 years

6,053 2,224 36.7 1,931 31.9 293 13.2 3,829

20 to 24 years

7,890 5,471 69.3 5,124 64.9 347 6.3 2,419

25 to 54 years

47,944 35,721 74.5 34,412 71.8 1,309 3.7 12,223

55 to 64 years

17,178 10,195 59.3 9,885 57.5 310 3.0 6,983

65 years and older

22,289 3,484 15.6 3,350 15.0 134 3.9 18,805

Men, 16 years and older

96,861 67,564 69.8 64,612 66.7 2,952 4.4 29,297

16 to 19 years

6,289 2,395 38.1 2,037 32.4 358 14.9 3,895

20 to 24 years

8,057 6,082 75.5 5,598 69.5 484 8.0 1,975

25 to 54 years

47,842 42,929 89.7 41,385 86.5 1,544 3.6 4,912

55 to 64 years

16,300 11,694 71.7 11,284 69.2 410 3.5 4,606

65 years and older

18,373 4,464 24.3 4,308 23.4 156 3.5 13,909

Black or African American

 

Total, 16 years and older

31,889 19,637 61.6 17,982 56.4 1,655 8.4 12,252

16 to 19 years

2,510 729 29.0 535 21.3 194 26.7 1,781

20 to 24 years

3,338 2,259 67.7 1,930 57.8 329 14.5 1,079

25 to 54 years

16,792 13,248 78.9 12,302 73.3 946 7.1 3,543

55 to 64 years

4,840 2,669 55.1 2,526 52.2 143 5.4 2,171

65 years and older

4,409 732 16.6 689 15.6 43 5.8 3,678

Women, 16 years and older

17,365 10,321 59.4 9,511 54.8 810 7.8 7,043

16 to 19 years

1,263 379 30.0 292 23.1 86 22.8 884

20 to 24 years

1,717 1,168 68.0 1,025 59.7 143 12.3 549

25 to 54 years

9,106 6,994 76.8 6,502 71.4 492 7.0 2,112

55 to 64 years

2,652 1,399 52.7 1,330 50.2 68 4.9 1,253

65 years and older

2,627 383 14.6 362 13.8 21 5.4 2,244

Men, 16 years and older

14,525 9,315 64.1 8,471 58.3 845 9.1 5,209

16 to 19 years

1,247 350 28.1 242 19.4 108 30.9 896

20 to 24 years

1,621 1,091 67.3 906 55.9 186 17.0 530

25 to 54 years

7,686 6,255 81.4 5,800 75.5 455 7.3 1,431

55 to 64 years

2,189 1,270 58.0 1,195 54.6 75 5.9 918

65 years and older

1,782 349 19.6 327 18.3 22 6.2 1,434

Asian

 

Total, 16 years and older

15,121 9,562 63.2 9,213 60.9 349 3.6 5,559

16 to 19 years

846 179 21.2 159 18.8 20 10.9 667

20 to 24 years

1,352 717 53.0 668 49.4 49 6.9 635

25 to 54 years

8,710 6,851 78.7 6,633 76.2 219 3.2 1,858

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,382 67.4 1,335 65.1 47 3.4 668

65 years and older

2,163 432 20.0 418 19.3 14 3.2 1,731

Women, 16 years and older

8,057 4,471 55.5 4,298 53.4 172 3.9 3,586

16 to 19 years

422 88 20.9 81 19.1 7 8.2 334

20 to 24 years

676 342 50.6 321 47.4 22 6.4 334

25 to 54 years

4,602 3,168 68.8 3,054 66.4 114 3.6 1,434

55 to 64 years

1,126 680 60.4 655 58.2 25 3.6 446

65 years and older

1,231 192 15.6 187 15.2 5 2.4 1,039

Men, 16 years and older

7,064 5,091 72.1 4,915 69.6 176 3.5 1,973

16 to 19 years

424 91 21.4 79 18.6 12 13.5 333

20 to 24 years

676 375 55.5 348 51.4 27 7.3 301

25 to 54 years

4,108 3,683 89.7 3,578 87.1 105 2.9 424

55 to 64 years

924 702 76.0 680 73.5 23 3.2 222

65 years and older

932 240 25.7 231 24.7 9 3.8 692

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Total, 16 years and older

40,697 26,797 65.8 25,249 62.0 1,548 5.8 13,900

16 to 19 years

3,777 1,178 31.2 977 25.9 201 17.1 2,599

20 to 24 years

4,711 3,384 71.8 3,086 65.5 298 8.8 1,327

25 to 54 years

23,780 18,754 78.9 17,878 75.2 877 4.7 5,026

55 to 64 years

4,483 2,765 61.7 2,627 58.6 137 5.0 1,718

65 years and older

3,946 715 18.1 681 17.3 34 4.8 3,230

Women, 16 years and older

20,430 11,401 55.8 10,686 52.3 715 6.3 9,029

16 to 19 years

1,857 557 30.0 470 25.3 88 15.8 1,300

20 to 24 years

2,315 1,536 66.4 1,409 60.9 127 8.3 779

25 to 54 years

11,703 7,803 66.7 7,374 63.0 429 5.5 3,900

55 to 64 years

2,317 1,196 51.6 1,137 49.1 59 4.9 1,121

65 years and older

2,238 308 13.8 297 13.3 12 3.7 1,930

Men, 16 years and older

20,266 15,396 76.0 14,563 71.9 833 5.4 4,870

16 to 19 years

1,920 621 32.3 508 26.4 113 18.3 1,299

20 to 24 years

2,396 1,848 77.1 1,677 70.0 171 9.3 548

25 to 54 years

12,077 10,951 90.7 10,504 87.0 447 4.1 1,126

55 to 64 years

2,166 1,569 72.4 1,490 68.8 78 5.0 597

65 years and older

1,708 407 23.8 384 22.5 23 5.6 1,300

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

Married, spouse present(1)

126,600 82,973 65.5 80,620 63.7 2,352 2.8 43,627

Other marital status(2)

126,938 76,214 60.0 70,815 55.8 5,399 7.1 50,723

Never married

77,728 50,865 65.4 46,823 60.2 4,042 7.9 26,862

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

49,210 25,349 51.5 23,993 48.8 1,356 5.4 23,861

Widowed

14,799 3,093 20.9 2,940 19.9 153 5.0 11,706

Divorced

25,543 16,328 63.9 15,498 60.7 830 5.1 9,214

Separated(3)

8,869 5,928 66.8 5,554 62.6 373 6.3 2,941

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

Married, spouse present(1)

62,852 36,387 57.9 35,294 56.2 1,093 3.0 26,465

Other marital status(2)

68,188 38,045 55.8 35,574 52.2 2,471 6.5 30,143

Never married

36,800 23,321 63.4 21,606 58.7 1,715 7.4 13,479

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

31,389 14,725 46.9 13,968 44.5 757 5.1 16,664

Widowed

11,521 2,272 19.7 2,160 18.7 112 4.9 9,249

Divorced

14,977 9,354 62.5 8,906 59.5 448 4.8 5,624

Separated(3)

4,891 3,099 63.4 2,903 59.4 197 6.3 1,791

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

Married, spouse present(1)

63,748 46,586 73.1 45,327 71.1 1,259 2.7 17,162

Other marital status(2)

58,749 38,169 65.0 35,241 60.0 2,928 7.7 20,580

Never married

40,928 27,545 67.3 25,217 61.6 2,328 8.5 13,383

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

17,821 10,624 59.6 10,025 56.3 600 5.6 7,197

Widowed

3,278 822 25.1 780 23.8 41 5.0 2,457

Divorced

10,565 6,975 66.0 6,593 62.4 382 5.5 3,590

Separated(3)

3,978 2,828 71.1 2,651 66.7 177 6.2 1,150

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Women, 16 years and older

130,656 74,733 57.2 71,057 54.4 3,676 4.9 55,923

With children under 18 years old

35,392 25,070 70.8 23,877 67.5 1,193 4.8 10,322

With children 6 to 17, none younger

20,168 15,135 75.0 14,519 72.0 616 4.1 5,032

With children under 6 years old

15,225 9,934 65.3 9,358 61.5 576 5.8 5,290

With children under 3 years old

8,700 5,486 63.1 5,165 59.4 322 5.9 3,214

With no children under 18 years old

95,264 49,663 52.1 47,180 49.5 2,484 5.0 45,600

Men, 16 years and older

122,110 84,143 68.9 79,505 65.1 4,637 5.5 37,968

With children under 18 years old

27,085 25,135 92.8 24,226 89.4 909 3.6 1,950

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,518 14,247 91.8 13,765 88.7 481 3.4 1,272

With children under 6 years old

11,567 10,888 94.1 10,461 90.4 428 3.9 678

With children under 3 years old

6,709 6,335 94.4 6,093 90.8 242 3.8 374

With no children under 18 years old

95,026 59,008 62.1 55,280 58.2 3,728 6.3 36,018

White

 

Women, 16 years and older

101,161 57,586 56.9 55,153 54.5 2,434 4.2 43,575

With children under 18 years old

26,542 18,642 70.2 17,918 67.5 724 3.9 7,900

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,229 11,347 74.5 10,950 71.9 397 3.5 3,882

With children under 6 years old

11,312 7,295 64.5 6,968 61.6 327 4.5 4,017

With children under 3 years old

6,490 4,058 62.5 3,873 59.7 186 4.6 2,432

With no children under 18 years old

74,619 38,944 52.2 37,235 49.9 1,710 4.4 35,675

Men, 16 years and older

96,722 67,247 69.5 64,054 66.2 3,194 4.7 29,474

With children under 18 years old

21,825 20,420 93.6 19,751 90.5 669 3.3 1,405

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,510 11,587 92.6 11,233 89.8 355 3.1 923

With children under 6 years old

9,315 8,833 94.8 8,518 91.4 314 3.6 483

With children under 3 years old

5,418 5,157 95.2 4,986 92.0 171 3.3 261

With no children under 18 years old

74,896 46,827 62.5 44,303 59.2 2,525 5.4 28,069

Black or African American

 

Women, 16 years and older

17,295 10,169 58.8 9,307 53.8 862 8.5 7,126

With children under 18 years old

4,980 3,842 77.1 3,501 70.3 340 8.9 1,139

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,852 2,274 79.7 2,116 74.2 157 6.9 579

With children under 6 years old

2,128 1,568 73.7 1,385 65.1 183 11.7 560

With children under 3 years old

1,165 824 70.7 733 62.9 91 11.0 341

With no children under 18 years old

12,315 6,328 51.4 5,806 47.1 522 8.3 5,987

Men, 16 years and older

14,455 9,198 63.6 8,177 56.6 1,022 11.1 5,256

With children under 18 years old

2,367 2,062 87.1 1,909 80.6 153 7.4 305

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,434 1,224 85.4 1,134 79.1 90 7.4 210

With children under 6 years old

934 838 89.8 775 83.0 63 7.5 96

With children under 3 years old

514 471 91.6 433 84.2 38 8.1 43

With no children under 18 years old

12,087 7,136 59.0 6,268 51.9 868 12.2 4,951

Asian

 

Women, 16 years and older

7,879 4,399 55.8 4,229 53.7 169 3.9 3,481

With children under 18 years old

2,472 1,610 65.1 1,563 63.2 46 2.9 863

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,338 974 72.8 944 70.6 29 3.0 364

With children under 6 years old

1,134 636 56.0 619 54.6 17 2.6 499

With children under 3 years old

662 352 53.1 346 52.3 6 1.6 310

With no children under 18 years old

5,407 2,789 51.6 2,666 49.3 123 4.4 2,618

Men, 16 years and older

6,961 5,046 72.5 4,865 69.9 180 3.6 1,915

With children under 18 years old

2,069 1,917 92.7 1,879 90.8 38 2.0 152

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,111 1,026 92.3 1,005 90.5 21 2.0 85

With children under 6 years old

958 892 93.1 875 91.3 17 1.9 67

With children under 3 years old

563 519 92.2 507 89.9 13 2.4 44

With no children under 18 years old

4,892 3,129 64.0 2,986 61.0 143 4.6 1,763

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Women, 16 years and older

20,270 11,322 55.9 10,634 52.5 688 6.1 8,948

With children under 18 years old

7,655 4,714 61.6 4,440 58.0 274 5.8 2,941

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,208 2,815 66.9 2,679 63.7 137 4.9 1,392

With children under 6 years old

3,447 1,899 55.1 1,762 51.1 137 7.2 1,549

With children under 3 years old

1,851 964 52.1 883 47.7 81 8.4 887

With no children under 18 years old

12,615 6,608 52.4 6,194 49.1 414 6.3 6,007

Men, 16 years and older

20,112 15,089 75.0 14,203 70.6 885 5.9 5,023

With children under 18 years old

5,641 5,267 93.4 5,034 89.2 233 4.4 374

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,085 2,849 92.3 2,747 89.0 102 3.6 236

With children under 6 years old

2,555 2,418 94.6 2,287 89.5 130 5.4 138

With children under 3 years old

1,404 1,324 94.3 1,256 89.4 68 5.1 80

With no children under 18 years old

14,471 9,822 67.9 9,169 63.4 652 6.6 4,649

Note: Children are "own" children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest child Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

130,656 74,733 57.2 71,057 54.4 3,676 4.9 55,923

With children under 18 years old

35,392 25,070 70.8 23,877 67.5 1,193 4.8 10,322

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

20,168 15,135 75.0 14,519 72.0 616 4.1 5,032

With children under 6 years old

15,225 9,934 65.3 9,358 61.5 576 5.8 5,290

With children under 3 years old

8,700 5,486 63.1 5,165 59.4 322 5.9 3,214

With no children under 18 years old

95,264 49,663 52.1 47,180 49.5 2,484 5.0 45,600

Total, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

62,577 36,858 58.9 35,731 57.1 1,127 3.1 25,718

With children under 18 years old

24,605 16,882 68.6 16,339 66.4 543 3.2 7,723

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

13,934 10,167 73.0 9,856 70.7 311 3.1 3,767

With children under 6 years old

10,671 6,715 62.9 6,483 60.8 232 3.4 3,956

With children under 3 years old

6,208 3,854 62.1 3,714 59.8 140 3.6 2,354

With no children under 18 years old

37,972 19,977 52.6 19,392 51.1 584 2.9 17,996

Total, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

68,079 37,875 55.6 35,326 51.9 2,549 6.7 30,204

With children under 18 years old

10,787 8,188 75.9 7,538 69.9 650 7.9 2,600

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

6,234 4,968 79.7 4,663 74.8 305 6.1 1,265

With children under 6 years old

4,554 3,220 70.7 2,875 63.1 345 10.7 1,334

With children under 3 years old

2,492 1,633 65.5 1,450 58.2 182 11.2 859

With no children under 18 years old

57,291 29,687 51.8 27,788 48.5 1,899 6.4 27,605

White, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

101,161 57,586 56.9 55,153 54.5 2,434 4.2 43,575

With children under 18 years old

26,542 18,642 70.2 17,918 67.5 724 3.9 7,900

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

15,229 11,347 74.5 10,950 71.9 397 3.5 3,882

With children under 6 years old

11,312 7,295 64.5 6,968 61.6 327 4.5 4,017

With children under 3 years old

6,490 4,058 62.5 3,873 59.7 186 4.6 2,432

With no children under 18 years old

74,619 38,944 52.2 37,235 49.9 1,710 4.4 35,675

White, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

51,826 30,395 58.6 29,515 56.9 880 2.9 21,431

With children under 18 years old

19,764 13,568 68.7 13,153 66.6 415 3.1 6,196

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

11,226 8,174 72.8 7,937 70.7 237 2.9 3,052

With children under 6 years old

8,538 5,394 63.2 5,216 61.1 178 3.3 3,144

With children under 3 years old

5,012 3,137 62.6 3,027 60.4 110 3.5 1,875

With no children under 18 years old

32,062 16,827 52.5 16,361 51.0 465 2.8 15,235

White, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

49,335 27,191 55.1 25,638 52.0 1,554 5.7 22,144

With children under 18 years old

6,778 5,074 74.9 4,765 70.3 309 6.1 1,704

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,004 3,173 79.2 3,013 75.3 160 5.0 831

With children under 6 years old

2,774 1,901 68.5 1,752 63.1 149 7.9 873

With children under 3 years old

1,478 921 62.3 845 57.2 76 8.2 557

With no children under 18 years old

42,557 22,117 52.0 20,873 49.0 1,244 5.6 20,440

Black or African American, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

17,295 10,169 58.8 9,307 53.8 862 8.5 7,126

With children under 18 years old

4,980 3,842 77.1 3,501 70.3 340 8.9 1,139

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,852 2,274 79.7 2,116 74.2 157 6.9 579

With children under 6 years old

2,128 1,568 73.7 1,385 65.1 183 11.7 560

With children under 3 years old

1,165 824 70.7 733 62.9 91 11.0 341

With no children under 18 years old

12,315 6,328 51.4 5,806 47.1 522 8.3 5,987

Black or African American, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,503 2,782 61.8 2,675 59.4 107 3.8 1,721

With children under 18 years old

1,825 1,358 74.4 1,298 71.1 60 4.4 468

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,110 866 78.0 830 74.8 35 4.1 245

With children under 6 years old

715 492 68.8 467 65.3 25 5.0 223

With children under 3 years old

381 256 67.2 241 63.2 15 5.9 125

With no children under 18 years old

2,678 1,424 53.2 1,377 51.4 47 3.3 1,254

Black or African American, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

12,792 7,388 57.8 6,632 51.8 755 10.2 5,404

With children under 18 years old

3,155 2,484 78.7 2,203 69.9 280 11.3 671

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,742 1,408 80.8 1,286 73.8 122 8.7 334

With children under 6 years old

1,412 1,076 76.2 918 65.0 158 14.7 337

With children under 3 years old

783 568 72.5 492 62.8 76 13.3 216

With no children under 18 years old

9,637 4,904 50.9 4,429 46.0 475 9.7 4,734

Asian, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

7,879 4,399 55.8 4,229 53.7 169 3.9 3,481

With children under 18 years old

2,472 1,610 65.1 1,563 63.2 46 2.9 863

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,338 974 72.8 944 70.6 29 3.0 364

With children under 6 years old

1,134 636 56.0 619 54.6 17 2.6 499

With children under 3 years old

662 352 53.1 346 52.3 6 1.6 310

With no children under 18 years old

5,407 2,789 51.6 2,666 49.3 123 4.4 2,618

Asian, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,713 2,750 58.4 2,654 56.3 97 3.5 1,962

With children under 18 years old

2,221 1,416 63.8 1,371 61.8 44 3.1 805

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,173 831 70.8 803 68.5 28 3.3 342

With children under 6 years old

1,048 585 55.8 568 54.2 17 2.9 463

With children under 3 years old

615 333 54.2 327 53.2 6 1.7 282

With no children under 18 years old

2,492 1,335 53.6 1,282 51.5 52 3.9 1,157

Asian, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

3,167 1,648 52.0 1,575 49.7 73 4.4 1,519

With children under 18 years old

252 194 77.0 192 76.3 2 0.9 58

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

165 143 86.7 141 85.7 2 1.2 22

With children under 6 years old

87 51 58.6 51 58.6 36

With children under 3 years old

47 18 39.5 18 39.5 28

With no children under 18 years old

2,915 1,454 49.9 1,383 47.5 71 4.9 1,461

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

20,270 11,322 55.9 10,634 52.5 688 6.1 8,948

With children under 18 years old

7,655 4,714 61.6 4,440 58.0 274 5.8 2,941

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,208 2,815 66.9 2,679 63.7 137 4.9 1,392

With children under 6 years old

3,447 1,899 55.1 1,762 51.1 137 7.2 1,549

With children under 3 years old

1,851 964 52.1 883 47.7 81 8.4 887

With no children under 18 years old

12,615 6,608 52.4 6,194 49.1 414 6.3 6,007

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

9,021 4,840 53.7 4,622 51.2 218 4.5 4,181

With children under 18 years old

4,999 2,782 55.6 2,656 53.1 126 4.5 2,218

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,744 1,669 60.8 1,597 58.2 72 4.3 1,075

With children under 6 years old

2,255 1,113 49.3 1,059 47.0 54 4.8 1,142

With children under 3 years old

1,212 578 47.7 549 45.3 29 5.0 634

With no children under 18 years old

4,021 2,059 51.2 1,966 48.9 92 4.5 1,963

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

11,249 6,482 57.6 6,012 53.4 469 7.2 4,768

With children under 18 years old

2,656 1,932 72.8 1,785 67.2 148 7.6 723

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,464 1,146 78.3 1,082 73.9 65 5.6 317

With children under 6 years old

1,192 786 65.9 703 59.0 83 10.5 406

With children under 3 years old

639 386 60.4 334 52.3 52 13.4 253

With no children under 18 years old

8,594 4,549 52.9 4,228 49.2 322 7.1 4,044

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are own children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, and other related and unrelated children. Details for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian labor force Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

With children under age 18

 

1975

14,616 47.4 13,069 1,548 11.0

1976

15,073 48.8 13,725 1,346 8.9

1977

15,669 50.8 14,276 1,393 8.9

1978

16,385 53.0 15,142 1,242 7.6

1979

16,883 54.5 15,624 1,259 7.7

1980

17,790 56.6 16,526 1,264 7.1

1981

18,422 58.1 16,952 1,471 8.0

1982

18,744 58.5 16,854 1,890 10.1

1983

18,924 58.9 16,792 2,131 11.3

1984

19,555 60.5 17,782 1,773 9.1

1985

20,041 62.1 18,306 1,735 8.7

1986

20,620 62.8 18,922 1,698 8.2

1987

21,422 64.7 19,798 1,624 7.6

1988

21,545 65.1 20,141 1,404 6.5

1989

21,936 65.7 20,647 1,289 5.9

1990

22,196 66.7 20,865 1,331 6.0

1991

22,327 66.6 20,774 1,552 7.0

1992

22,756 67.2 21,052 1,704 7.5

1993

23,063 66.9 21,521 1,541 6.7

1994

24,191 68.4 22,467 1,724 7.1

1995

24,695 69.7 23,195 1,500 6.1

1996

24,720 70.2 23,386 1,334 5.4

1997

25,604 72.1 24,082 1,522 5.9

1998

25,647 72.3 24,209 1,438 5.6

1999

25,472 72.1 24,307 1,165 4.6

2000

25,795 72.9 24,693 1,102 4.3

2001

26,269 72.7 25,030 1,239 4.7

2002

26,140 72.2 24,612 1,529 5.8

2003

26,202 71.7 24,598 1,603 6.1

2004

25,913 70.7 24,413 1,501 5.8

2005

25,941 70.5 24,564 1,377 5.3

2006

26,009 70.6 24,728 1,281 4.9

2007

26,834 71.3 25,646 1,188 4.4

2008

25,930 71.2 24,637 1,294 5.0

2009

26,122 71.6 24,079 2,043 7.8

2010

25,783 71.3 23,510 2,273 8.8

2011

25,376 70.9 23,109 2,266 8.9

2012

25,384 70.9 23,366 2,018 7.9

2013

25,112 70.3 23,121 1,991 7.9

2014

25,209 70.8 23,542 1,667 6.6

2015

25,107 69.9 23,841 1,265 5.0

2016

25,070 70.8 23,877 1,193 4.8

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

 

1975

8,917 54.9 8,218 700 7.9

1976

9,388 56.2 8,769 621 6.6

1977

10,040 58.3 9,389 650 6.5

1978

10,401 60.0 9,845 556 5.3

1979

10,646 61.6 10,030 615 5.8

1980

11,252 64.3 10,640 612 5.4

1981

11,490 65.5 10,725 765 6.7

1982

11,377 65.8 10,440 936 8.2

1983

11,340 66.3 10,303 1,037 9.1

1984

11,538 68.1 10,739 799 6.9

1985

11,826 69.9 10,984 842 7.1

1986

12,075 70.4 11,320 756 6.3

1987

12,438 72.0 11,661 778 6.3

1988

12,683 73.3 12,042 641 5.1

1989

12,800 74.2 12,168 632 4.9

1990

12,799 74.7 12,133 666 5.2

1991

12,691 74.4 12,017 674 5.3

1992

13,183 75.9 12,391 793 6.0

1993

13,441 75.4 12,757 684 5.1

1994

13,863 76.0 13,074 789 5.7

1995

14,300 76.4 13,608 691 4.8

1996

14,427 77.2 13,794 633 4.4

1997

14,993 78.1 14,282 711 4.7

1998

15,028 78.4 14,370 658 4.4

1999

15,150 78.5 14,633 516 3.4

2000

15,479 79.0 14,931 549 3.5

2001

15,839 79.4 15,220 619 3.9

2002

15,948 78.6 15,171 777 4.9

2003

15,993 78.7 15,166 828 5.2

2004

15,782 77.5 15,006 776 4.9

2005

15,594 76.9 14,930 663 4.3

2006

15,579 76.9 14,949 630 4.0

2007

15,940 77.7 15,341 599 3.8

2008

15,479 77.5 14,842 636 4.1

2009

15,625 78.2 14,562 1,063 6.8

2010

15,247 77.2 14,058 1,189 7.8

2011

14,973 76.5 13,842 1,131 7.6

2012

14,922 76.0 13,908 1,014 6.8

2013

14,941 74.8 13,909 1,032 6.9

2014

15,227 75.8 14,389 838 5.5

2015

15,059 74.6 14,437 622 4.1

2016

15,135 75.0 14,519 616 4.1

With children under age 6

 

1975

5,699 39.0 4,851 848 14.9

1976

5,684 40.1 4,957 727 12.8

1977

5,629 41.2 4,887 742 13.2

1978

5,983 44.0 5,297 687 11.5

1979

6,238 45.7 5,594 644 10.3

1980

6,538 46.8 5,886 652 10.0

1981

6,933 48.9 6,227 706 10.2

1982

7,367 49.9 6,414 953 12.9

1983

7,583 50.5 6,489 1,094 14.4

1984

8,017 52.1 7,043 974 12.1

1985

8,215 53.5 7,322 893 10.9

1986

8,545 54.4 7,602 943 11.0

1987

8,983 56.7 8,137 846 9.4

1988

8,862 56.1 8,099 763 8.6

1989

9,136 56.7 8,478 657 7.2

1990

9,397 58.2 8,732 664 7.1

1991

9,636 58.4 8,758 878 9.1

1992

9,573 58.0 8,662 911 9.5

1993

9,621 57.9 8,764 857 8.9

1994

10,328 60.3 9,394 935 9.0

1995

10,395 62.3 9,587 809 7.8

1996

10,293 62.3 9,592 701 6.8

1997

10,610 65.0 9,800 810 7.6

1998

10,619 65.2 9,839 780 7.3

1999

10,322 64.4 9,674 648 6.3

2000

10,316 65.3 9,763 553 5.4

2001

10,430 64.4 9,810 620 5.9

2002

10,193 64.1 9,441 752 7.4

2003

10,209 62.9 9,433 776 7.6

2004

10,131 62.2 9,407 724 7.1

2005

10,347 62.6 9,634 714 6.9

2006

10,430 63.0 9,779 651 6.2

2007

10,894 63.5 10,305 589 5.4

2008

10,452 63.6 9,794 657 6.3

2009

10,497 63.6 9,517 980 9.3

2010

10,536 64.2 9,452 1,085 10.3

2011

10,403 64.2 9,268 1,135 10.9

2012

10,462 64.7 9,458 1,004 9.6

2013

10,171 64.7 9,212 958 9.4

2014

9,982 64.3 9,153 829 8.3

2015

10,048 63.9 9,405 643 6.4

2016

9,934 65.3 9,358 576 5.8

With children under age 3

 

1975

2,824 34.3 2,326 500 17.7

1976

2,702 34.1 2,285 418 15.5

1977

2,795 35.4 2,371 424 15.2

1978

3,179 39.4 2,768 411 12.9

1979

3,380 41.1 2,979 401 11.9

1980

3,565 41.9 3,167 398 11.2

1981

3,826 44.3 3,380 446 11.7

1982

4,133 45.6 3,542 591 14.3

1983

4,233 46.0 3,551 682 16.1

1984

4,401 47.6 3,839 562 12.8

1985

4,601 49.5 4,089 513 11.1

1986

4,786 50.8 4,227 559 11.7

1987

5,064 52.9 4,570 494 9.8

1988

4,947 52.4 4,477 470 9.5

1989

5,053 52.4 4,671 381 7.5

1990

5,216 53.6 4,823 393 7.5

1991

5,417 54.5 4,868 550 10.1

1992

5,329 54.5 4,776 553 10.4

1993

5,349 53.9 4,857 492 9.2

1994

5,724 57.1 5,165 559 9.8

1995

5,650 58.7 5,172 478 8.5

1996

5,619 59.0 5,222 397 7.1

1997

5,839 61.8 5,366 473 8.1

1998

5,882 62.2 5,454 428 7.3

1999

5,645 60.7 5,285 359 6.4

2000

5,670 61.0 5,350 320 5.6

2001

5,743 60.7 5,350 393 6.8

2002

5,600 60.5 5,160 440 7.9

2003

5,568 58.7 5,112 456 8.2

2004

5,401 57.3 4,983 417 7.7

2005

5,704 58.9 5,299 405 7.1

2006

5,842 59.9 5,458 384 6.6

2007

6,006 60.1 5,679 327 5.5

2008

5,754 59.6 5,380 374 6.5

2009

5,960 61.1 5,401 559 9.4

2010

5,878 61.1 5,240 638 10.9

2011

5,639 60.9 5,006 633 11.2

2012

5,529 60.7 4,960 569 10.3

2013

5,448 62.1 4,937 511 9.4

2014

5,358 61.8 4,870 487 9.1

2015

5,494 61.4 5,119 375 6.8

2016

5,486 63.1 5,165 322 5.9

With no children under age 18

 

1975

22,365 45.1 20,381 1,984 8.9

1976

23,327 45.7 21,389 1,938 8.3

1977

24,385 46.4 22,348 2,037 8.4

1978

25,362 47.0 23,631 1,731 6.8

1979

26,962 48.6 25,285 1,677 6.2

1980

27,144 48.1 25,375 1,769 6.5

1981

27,992 48.7 25,934 2,059 7.4

1982

28,351 48.6 26,041 2,311 8.2

1983

28,856 48.7 26,373 2,483 8.6

1984

29,684 49.3 27,652 2,032 6.8

1985

30,850 50.4 28,814 2,036 6.6

1986

31,112 50.5 29,107 2,005 6.4

1987

31,538 50.5 29,688 1,850 5.9

1988

32,490 51.2 30,911 1,580 4.9

1989

33,255 51.9 31,761 1,495 4.5

1990

33,942 52.3 32,391 1,551 4.6

1991

34,047 52.0 32,167 1,880 5.5

1992

34,487 52.3 32,481 2,006 5.8

1993

34,495 52.1 32,476 2,020 5.9

1994

35,455 53.1 33,345 2,110 6.0

1995

35,843 52.9 34,054 1,789 5.0

1996

36,509 53.0 34,698 1,811 5.0

1997

37,295 53.6 35,572 1,723 4.6

1998

38,253 54.1 36,680 1,573 4.1

1999

39,314 54.3 37,587 1,727 4.4

2000

40,142 54.8 38,408 1,733 4.3

2001

40,996 54.4 39,363 1,633 4.0

2002

41,278 54.0 39,038 2,241 5.4

2003

42,039 54.1 39,667 2,372 5.6

2004

42,289 53.8 40,000 2,289 5.4

2005

42,677 53.5 40,570 2,107 4.9

2006

43,392 53.6 41,440 1,952 4.5

2007

44,039 53.9 42,279 1,760 4.0

2008

45,585 54.3 43,417 2,168 4.8

2009

45,649 53.8 42,343 3,306 7.2

2010

46,098 53.5 42,256 3,842 8.3

2011

46,198 53.0 42,569 3,629 7.9

2012

47,222 52.6 43,494 3,728 7.9

2013

47,607 52.3 44,294 3,313 7.0

2014

48,076 52.1 44,980 3,096 6.4

2015

48,273 51.7 45,794 2,479 5.1

2016

49,663 52.1 47,180 2,484 5.0

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

167,068 128,713 77.0 123,528 73.9 5,185 4.0 38,355

Less than a high school diploma

16,452 9,997 60.8 9,234 56.1 763 7.6 6,454

High school graduates, no college

46,248 33,333 72.1 31,572 68.3 1,761 5.3 12,915

Some college or associate's degree

45,723 35,560 77.8 34,112 74.6 1,448 4.1 10,163

College graduates, total

58,645 49,823 85.0 48,609 82.9 1,214 2.4 8,822

Bachelor's degree

37,427 31,355 83.8 30,520 81.5 835 2.7 6,071

Advanced degree

21,219 18,468 87.0 18,089 85.2 379 2.1 2,751

Master's degree

15,886 13,658 86.0 13,352 84.1 305 2.2 2,228

Professional degree

2,482 2,217 89.3 2,182 87.9 34 1.6 266

Doctoral degree

2,850 2,593 91.0 2,554 89.6 39 1.5 257

Women

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,391 60,049 70.3 57,604 67.5 2,445 4.1 25,342

Less than a high school diploma

7,735 3,600 46.5 3,269 42.3 331 9.2 4,135

High school graduates, no college

21,745 13,729 63.1 12,990 59.7 739 5.4 8,016

Some college or associate's degree

24,600 17,751 72.2 17,016 69.2 735 4.1 6,849

College graduates, total

31,310 24,969 79.7 24,329 77.7 640 2.6 6,341

Bachelor's degree

19,828 15,449 77.9 15,023 75.8 427 2.8 4,379

Advanced degree

11,482 9,519 82.9 9,306 81.1 213 2.2 1,963

Master's degree

9,044 7,402 81.8 7,227 79.9 175 2.4 1,642

Professional degree

1,148 967 84.2 949 82.6 18 1.9 181

Doctoral degree

1,290 1,150 89.2 1,130 87.6 20 1.8 140

Men

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

81,678 68,664 84.1 65,924 80.7 2,740 4.0 13,013

Less than a high school diploma

8,716 6,397 73.4 5,965 68.4 432 6.7 2,320

High school graduates, no college

24,503 19,604 80.0 18,583 75.8 1,021 5.2 4,899

Some college or associate's degree

21,123 17,809 84.3 17,096 80.9 712 4.0 3,314

College graduates, total

27,336 24,854 90.9 24,280 88.8 574 2.3 2,481

Bachelor's degree

17,599 15,906 90.4 15,497 88.1 409 2.6 1,693

Advanced degree

9,737 8,948 91.9 8,782 90.2 166 1.9 788

Master's degree

6,842 6,256 91.4 6,125 89.5 131 2.1 586

Professional degree

1,334 1,250 93.7 1,233 92.4 16 1.3 84

Doctoral degree

1,561 1,443 92.5 1,424 91.3 19 1.3 118

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total High school College
Less than 4 years 4 years, no college 1 to 3 years 4 years or more

Total

 

1970

61,765 100.0 36.1 38.1 11.8 14.1

1971

62,344 100.0 34.5 38.4 12.3 14.8

1972

63,704 100.0 33.3 38.8 12.4 15.5

1973

64,775 100.0 30.9 39.7 13.0 16.4

1974

66,527 100.0 29.3 39.5 13.7 17.5

1975

67,774 100.0 27.5 39.7 14.4 18.3

1976

69,243 100.0 25.8 39.6 15.2 19.4

1977

71,324 100.0 24.9 39.2 15.7 20.2

1978

73,504 100.0 23.7 39.2 16.5 20.6

1979

75,781 100.0 21.8 39.5 17.3 21.3

1980

78,010 100.0 20.6 39.8 17.6 22.0

1981

80,273 100.0 19.7 40.6 17.7 22.0

1982

81,516 100.0 18.8 40.8 17.3 23.1

1983

83,615 100.0 17.8 39.9 18.1 24.2

1984

86,001 100.0 16.7 40.2 18.4 24.7

1985

88,424 100.0 15.9 40.2 19.0 24.9

1986

90,500 100.0 15.5 40.2 19.5 24.8

1987

92,966 100.0 14.9 40.2 19.7 25.3

1988

94,870 100.0 14.7 39.9 19.7 25.7

1989

97,318 100.0 14.0 39.6 20.0 26.4

1990

99,175 100.0 13.4 39.5 20.7 26.4

1991

100,480 100.0 13.0 39.4 21.1 26.5

Women

 

1970

22,462 100.0 33.5 44.3 10.9 11.2

1971

22,804 100.0 32.2 44.2 11.9 11.8

1972

23,606 100.0 30.7 45.1 11.8 12.4

1973

24,158 100.0 28.4 45.9 12.4 13.3

1974

25,203 100.0 26.7 45.3 13.4 14.6

1975

26,146 100.0 26.5 45.5 13.9 14.1

1976

27,166 100.0 24.0 45.1 14.7 16.2

1977

28,369 100.0 22.8 45.1 15.2 16.9

1978

29,738 100.0 22.0 44.9 16.1 17.0

1979

31,151 100.0 20.1 45.0 17.1 17.8

1980

32,593 100.0 18.4 45.4 17.4 18.7

1981

33,910 100.0 17.4 46.1 17.9 18.6

1982

34,870 100.0 16.6 45.6 18.3 19.5

1983

35,712 100.0 15.6 44.8 18.8 20.9

1984

37,234 100.0 14.5 44.9 18.9 21.7

1985

38,779 100.0 13.7 44.4 19.9 22.0

1986

39,767 100.0 13.2 44.3 20.3 22.2

1987

41,105 100.0 12.5 44.0 20.7 22.8

1988

42,254 100.0 12.4 43.3 21.2 23.1

1989

43,650 100.0 11.9 42.9 20.9 24.3

1990

44,699 100.0 11.3 42.4 21.9 24.5

1991

45,315 100.0 10.9 41.6 22.2 25.2

Men

 

1970

39,303 100.0 37.5 34.5 12.2 15.7

1971

39,539 100.0 35.9 35.1 12.5 16.5

1972

40,098 100.0 34.8 35.1 12.8 17.3

1973

40,617 100.0 32.4 36.0 13.4 18.2

1974

41,344 100.0 30.8 36.0 13.9 19.3

1975

41,628 100.0 28.9 36.1 14.8 20.2

1976

42,077 100.0 27.0 36.0 15.5 21.5

1977

42,954 100.0 26.3 35.3 16.1 22.3

1978

43,766 100.0 24.8 35.3 16.9 23.0

1979

44,630 100.0 23.0 35.7 17.5 23.8

1980

45,417 100.0 22.2 35.7 17.7 24.3

1981

46,363 100.0 21.5 36.5 17.4 24.6

1982

47,144 100.0 20.3 36.8 17.5 25.5

1983

47,903 100.0 19.4 36.3 17.7 26.6

1984

48,767 100.0 18.4 36.7 18.0 26.9

1985

49,647 100.0 17.7 36.9 18.3 27.1

1986

50,733 100.0 17.2 37.0 18.9 26.9

1987

51,860 100.0 16.8 37.1 18.9 27.2

1988

52,616 100.0 16.5 37.3 18.5 27.8

1989

53,668 100.0 15.7 36.9 19.2 28.2

1990

54,476 100.0 15.1 37.2 19.7 28.0

1991

55,165 100.0 14.7 37.5 20.2 27.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2016
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college(1) Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Total

 

1992

103,018 100.0 12.1 35.7 25.6 26.6

1993

104,237 100.0 11.3 35.1 26.6 27.0

1994

105,610 100.0 10.8 33.9 27.7 27.6

1995

107,032 100.0 10.4 33.2 28.1 28.3

1996

108,932 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.8 28.7

1997

110,945 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.5 29.0

1998

111,932 100.0 10.5 32.4 27.4 29.8

1999

113,095 100.0 10.0 31.8 27.6 30.5

2000

115,750 100.0 10.1 31.4 27.8 30.7

2001

116,893 100.0 10.1 30.9 28.0 31.0

2002

118,028 100.0 10.0 30.7 27.7 31.6

2003

119,621 100.0 9.9 30.3 27.6 32.1

2004

120,135 100.0 9.7 30.1 27.7 32.4

2005

121,752 100.0 9.8 29.9 27.8 32.5

2006

123,550 100.0 9.7 29.6 27.7 33.0

2007

125,104 100.0 9.3 29.2 27.7 33.8

2008

126,011 100.0 9.0 28.8 28.0 34.2

2009

126,247 100.0 9.0 28.6 28.0 34.4

2010

126,237 100.0 8.9 28.6 27.9 34.6

2011

125,508 100.0 8.7 28.0 28.0 35.3

2012

125,963 100.0 8.4 27.4 28.2 36.0

2013

125,892 100.0 8.2 27.1 28.0 36.7

2014

126,269 100.0 8.0 26.7 27.9 37.3

2015

127,106 100.0 8.1 25.9 27.7 38.2

2016

128,713 100.0 7.8 25.9 27.6 38.7

Women

 

1992

46,589 100.0 10.3 37.4 27.3 25.0

1993

47,245 100.0 9.3 36.6 28.4 25.7

1994

48,405 100.0 9.0 35.0 29.8 26.2

1995

49,247 100.0 8.8 34.1 30.2 26.9

1996

50,240 100.0 8.8 33.6 29.9 27.8

1997

51,261 100.0 8.7 33.5 29.4 28.4

1998

51,678 100.0 8.8 32.7 29.4 29.2

1999

52,525 100.0 8.5 32.1 29.5 29.9

2000

53,749 100.0 8.5 31.6 29.8 30.1

2001

54,229 100.0 8.4 31.0 30.2 30.4

2002

54,710 100.0 8.1 30.6 29.9 31.3

2003

55,596 100.0 7.9 30.0 29.9 32.2

2004

55,616 100.0 7.7 29.4 30.2 32.6

2005

56,322 100.0 7.7 28.7 30.2 33.3

2006

57,201 100.0 7.6 28.3 30.2 33.9

2007

57,791 100.0 7.1 27.9 30.1 34.9

2008

58,465 100.0 6.9 27.2 30.4 35.6

2009

58,787 100.0 7.0 26.7 30.3 36.0

2010

58,808 100.0 6.8 26.4 30.3 36.4

2011

58,520 100.0 6.7 25.8 30.4 37.1

2012

59,031 100.0 6.5 25.0 30.4 38.1

2013

58,812 100.0 6.3 24.6 30.1 39.0

2014

58,983 100.0 6.1 24.1 29.8 40.0

2015

59,252 100.0 6.1 23.2 29.6 41.1

2016

60,049 100.0 6.0 22.9 29.6 41.6

Men

 

1992

56,428 100.0 13.7 34.2 24.3 27.8

1993

56,992 100.0 12.9 33.9 25.1 28.1

1994

57,205 100.0 12.4 33.0 25.9 28.8

1995

57,784 100.0 11.8 32.4 26.3 29.4

1996

58,692 100.0 12.2 32.3 26.1 29.4

1997

59,684 100.0 12.2 32.4 25.9 29.6

1998

60,255 100.0 12.0 32.1 25.6 30.3

1999

60,570 100.0 11.4 31.6 26.0 31.0

2000

62,001 100.0 11.5 31.2 26.1 31.2

2001

62,664 100.0 11.5 30.9 26.2 31.4

2002

63,318 100.0 11.6 30.8 25.8 31.8

2003

64,025 100.0 11.7 30.6 25.6 32.1

2004

64,519 100.0 11.5 30.7 25.6 32.3

2005

65,430 100.0 11.5 30.9 25.7 31.9

2006

66,350 100.0 11.5 30.6 25.5 32.3

2007

67,313 100.0 11.2 30.4 25.6 32.9

2008

67,546 100.0 10.9 30.2 25.9 33.0

2009

67,460 100.0 10.8 30.3 25.9 33.0

2010

67,429 100.0 10.6 30.6 25.8 33.0

2011

66,989 100.0 10.4 30.0 26.0 33.7

2012

66,932 100.0 10.0 29.6 26.2 34.1

2013

67,081 100.0 9.8 29.2 26.2 34.7

2014

67,287 100.0 9.8 29.1 26.2 35.0

2015

67,853 100.0 9.9 28.4 26.0 35.7

2016

68,664 100.0 9.3 28.6 25.9 36.2

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and gender Year
2015 2016
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

148,834 100.0 151,436 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,960 38.9 59,438 39.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,108 16.2 24,941 16.5

Professional and related occupations

33,852 22.7 34,498 22.8

Service occupations

25,896 17.4 26,811 17.7

Sales and office occupations

33,598 22.6 33,539 22.1

Sales and related occupations

15,700 10.5 15,848 10.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,897 12.0 17,691 11.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,733 9.2 13,904 9.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,073 0.7 1,096 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,652 5.1 7,929 5.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,008 3.4 4,879 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,647 11.9 17,743 11.7

Production occupations

8,522 5.7 8,459 5.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,125 6.1 9,284 6.1

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

69,703 100.0 70,868 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

29,871 42.9 30,593 43.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

10,519 15.1 10,922 15.4

Professional and related occupations

19,351 27.8 19,671 27.8

Service occupations

14,686 21.1 15,186 21.4

Sales and office occupations

20,659 29.6 20,516 28.9

Sales and related occupations

7,741 11.1 7,761 11.0

Office and administrative support occupations

12,918 18.5 12,755 18.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

642 0.9 657 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

260 0.4 244 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

207 0.3 236 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

175 0.3 177 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

3,846 5.5 3,916 5.5

Production occupations

2,452 3.5 2,385 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,394 2.0 1,531 2.2

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,131 100.0 80,568 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28,090 35.5 28,846 35.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

13,589 17.2 14,019 17.4

Professional and related occupations

14,501 18.3 14,827 18.4

Service occupations

11,209 14.2 11,625 14.4

Sales and office occupations

12,939 16.4 13,023 16.2

Sales and related occupations

7,960 10.1 8,088 10.0

Office and administrative support occupations

4,980 6.3 4,936 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,091 16.5 13,247 16.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

813 1.0 852 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,445 9.4 7,693 9.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,833 6.1 4,703 5.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,801 17.4 13,826 17.2

Production occupations

6,070 7.7 6,073 7.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,731 9.8 7,753 9.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

151,436 46.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,438 51.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,941 43.8

Management occupations

17,418 39.1

Chief executives

1,649 27.3

General and operations managers

949 29.8

Legislators

20

Advertising and promotions managers

67 56.5

Marketing and sales managers

1,066 45.3

Public relations and fundraising managers

62 70.9

Administrative services managers

181 42.6

Computer and information systems managers

597 25.5

Financial managers

1,197 52.5

Compensation and benefits managers

20

Human resources managers

287 74.2

Training and development managers

58 58.5

Industrial production managers

275 23.2

Purchasing managers

203 47.4

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

299 17.1

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,042 24.8

Construction managers

812 7.4

Education administrators

954 65.1

Architectural and engineering managers

136 5.3

Food service managers

1,157 45.9

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

16

Lodging managers

166 52.2

Medical and health services managers

593 72.3

Natural sciences managers

14

Postmasters and mail superintendents

25

Property, real estate, and community association managers

709 46.5

Social and community service managers

421 70.5

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,420 34.4

Business and financial operations occupations

7,523 54.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

38

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

207 53.1

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

272 48.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

349 62.2

Compliance officers

270 57.1

Cost estimators

113 12.0

Human resources workers

693 74.6

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

77 72.1

Training and development specialists

156 60.7

Logisticians

115 32.3

Management analysts

902 41.7

Meeting, convention, and event planners

162 77.6

Fundraisers

86 66.5

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

302 55.0

Business operations specialists, all other

290 60.9

Accountants and auditors

1,777 61.3

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

73 35.6

Budget analysts

53 51.3

Credit analysts

27

Financial analysts

307 36.9

Personal financial advisors

513 31.6

Insurance underwriters

104 62.5

Financial examiners

14

Credit counselors and loan officers

367 57.7

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

68 63.8

Tax preparers

108 63.2

Financial specialists, all other

68 55.7

Professional and related occupations

34,498 57.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,601 25.5

Computer and information research scientists

20

Computer systems analysts

526 35.7

Information security analysts

89 21.8

Computer programmers

466 22.6

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,483 20.0

Web developers

205 33.6

Computer support specialists

570 25.5

Database administrators

90 46.2

Network and computer systems administrators

218 17.1

Computer network architects

115 9.7

Computer occupations, all other

596 23.4

Actuaries

14

Mathematicians

4

Operations research analysts

129 55.4

Statisticians

74 52.5

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,106 14.2

Architects, except naval

246 26.0

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

34

Aerospace engineers

130 7.8

Agricultural engineers

2

Biomedical engineers

13

Chemical engineers

79 20.1

Civil engineers

425 10.8

Computer hardware engineers

69 24.7

Electrical and electronics engineers

293 10.8

Environmental engineers

33

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

220 20.3

Marine engineers and naval architects

13

Materials engineers

31

Mechanical engineers

350 6.4

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

9

Nuclear engineers

7

Petroleum engineers

36

Engineers, all other

539 12.2

Drafters

109 15.0

Engineering technicians, except drafters

385 19.8

Surveying and mapping technicians

83 7.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,367 44.0

Agricultural and food scientists

35

Biological scientists

96 43.4

Conservation scientists and foresters

31

Medical scientists

154 46.9

Life scientists, all other

3

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

6

Chemists and materials scientists

95 34.6

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

89 30.0

Physical scientists, all other

261 45.0

Economists

26

Survey researchers

3

Psychologists

161 67.5

Sociologists

3

Urban and regional planners

38

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39

Agricultural and food science technicians

35

Biological technicians

17

Chemical technicians

76 34.6

Geological and petroleum technicians

18

Nuclear technicians

5

Social science research assistants

2

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

155 51.0

Community and social service occupations

2,612 65.5

Counselors

869 73.0

Social workers

781 81.5

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

102 57.4

Social and human service assistants

184 80.5

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

89 74.9

Clergy

436 17.6

Directors, religious activities and education

78 55.0

Religious workers, all other

73 64.4

Legal occupations

1,808 51.8

Lawyers

1,133 35.7

Judicial law clerks

15

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

59 34.2

Paralegals and legal assistants

433 86.7

Miscellaneous legal support workers

168 77.0

Education, training, and library occupations

8,948 73.1

Postsecondary teachers

1,420 48.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

692 97.5

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,186 78.5

Secondary school teachers

1,078 60.5

Special education teachers

353 85.2

Other teachers and instructors

868 65.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

43

Librarians

190 83.8

Library technicians

37

Teacher assistants

950 89.3

Other education, training, and library workers

132 71.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,097 48.5

Artists and related workers

232 56.6

Designers

878 54.8

Actors

47

Producers and directors

173 38.5

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

312 34.2

Dancers and choreographers

17

Musicians, singers, and related workers

192 40.4

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

49

Announcers

59 20.9

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

73 48.8

Public relations specialists

121 58.9

Editors

167 52.4

Technical writers

61 55.7

Writers and authors

229 62.8

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

116 68.7

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

111 15.2

Photographers

205 47.7

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

54 21.4

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,960 75.6

Chiropractors

51 27.4

Dentists

163 34.4

Dietitians and nutritionists

120 89.4

Optometrists

36

Pharmacists

306 59.9

Physicians and surgeons

1,061 38.2

Physician assistants

92 70.0

Podiatrists

12

Audiologists

15

Occupational therapists

118 89.2

Physical therapists

290 69.3

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

84 73.5

Speech-language pathologists

162 97.5

Exercise physiologists

2

Therapists, all other

205 82.6

Veterinarians

101 63.2

Registered nurses

3,102 90.0

Nurse anesthetists

23

Nurse midwives

6

Nurse practitioners

176 94.0

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

32

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

361 68.5

Dental hygienists

169 97.1

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

311 73.0

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

194 35.7

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

610 79.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

653 90.0

Medical records and health information technicians

184 92.1

Opticians, dispensing

55 69.7

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

130 65.6

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

114 51.7

Service occupations

26,811 56.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,554 87.7

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,058 88.1

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

20

Physical therapist assistants and aides

70 69.4

Massage therapists

170 80.7

Dental assistants

294 93.3

Medical assistants

570 92.9

Medical transcriptionists

39

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39

Phlebotomists

101 86.5

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

156 73.9

Protective service occupations

3,117 22.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

61 34.0

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

114 18.3

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

88 23.5

Firefighters

252 3.5

Fire inspectors

27

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

383 28.2

Detectives and criminal investigators

130 23.6

Fish and game wardens

9

Parking enforcement workers

8

Police and sheriff’s patrol officers

708 14.1

Transit and railroad police

2

Animal control workers

9

Private detectives and investigators

94 44.0

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

923 22.0

Crossing guards

72 60.4

Transportation security screeners

44

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

149 44.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,542 53.5

Chefs and head cooks

460 21.4

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

543 57.7

Cooks

2,179 38.7

Food preparation workers

1,000 58.2

Bartenders

454 56.1

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

420 63.5

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

214 67.2

Waiters and waitresses

2,085 70.0

Food servers, nonrestaurant

213 71.3

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

331 42.9

Dishwashers

319 18.0

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

319 80.8

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,804 40.1

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

323 39.9

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

231 4.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,276 34.2

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,485 89.6

Pest control workers

79 2.6

Grounds maintenance workers

1,411 5.4

Personal care and service occupations

5,795 77.3

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

206 46.4

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

191 70.5

Animal trainers

61 47.3

Nonfarm animal caretakers

233 76.9

Gaming services workers

92 47.9

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

40

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

199 41.0

Embalmers and funeral attendants

12

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

40

Barbers

126 11.7

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

806 92.4

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

364 86.1

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

66 17.5

Tour and travel guides

53 40.2

Childcare workers

1,280 94.4

Personal care aides

1,396 84.9

Recreation and fitness workers

440 62.2

Residential advisors

42

Personal care and service workers, all other

142 56.5

Sales and office occupations

33,539 61.2

Sales and related occupations

15,848 49.0

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,282 44.1

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,180 26.8

Cashiers

3,260 73.2

Counter and rental clerks

105 46.6

Parts salespersons

117 13.8

Retail salespersons

3,312 48.4

Advertising sales agents

222 45.5

Insurance sales agents

630 46.5

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

263 30.4

Travel agents

83 84.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

512 31.8

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,308 29.1

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

59 67.4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

977 55.5

Sales engineers

43

Telemarketers

61 64.0

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

160 62.5

Sales and related workers, all others

274 47.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,691 72.1

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,352 68.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

25

Telephone operators

41

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

152 67.4

Billing and posting clerks

452 89.0

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,137 88.5

Gaming cage workers

12

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129 90.7

Procurement clerks

27

Tellers

342 81.7

Financial clerks, all other

69 63.9

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

7

Court, municipal, and license clerks

80 71.1

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

44

Customer service representatives

2,388 65.0

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

77 75.2

File clerks

183 82.7

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

138 66.1

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

152 88.1

Library assistants, clerical

87 86.2

Loan interviewers and clerks

132 79.0

New accounts clerks

24

Order clerks

105 57.3

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

42

Receptionists and information clerks

1,331 90.1

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

144 55.1

Information and record clerks, all other

118 71.9

Cargo and freight agents

27

Couriers and messengers

227 18.4

Dispatchers

292 55.7

Meter readers, utilities

31

Postal service clerks

121 53.7

Postal service mail carriers

320 38.9

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

60 42.4

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

245 51.5

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

546 33.9

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,530 37.0

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

51 52.0

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,744 94.6

Computer operators

91 50.8

Data entry keyers

272 77.6

Word processors and typists

82 88.9

Desktop publishers

0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

273 85.2

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

77 43.5

Office clerks, general

1,295 82.8

Office machine operators, except computer

35

Proofreaders and copy markers

12

Statistical assistants

9

Office and administrative support workers, all other

551 75.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,904 4.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,096 22.3

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

48

Agricultural inspectors

19

Animal breeders

7

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

85 65.5

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

818 21.0

Fishers and related fishing workers

29

Hunters and trappers

1

Forest and conservation workers

21

Logging workers

68 0.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,929 3.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

680 2.6

Boilermakers

23

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

160 0.5

Carpenters

1,359 2.1

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

168 1.9

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

56 2.2

Construction laborers

1,801 3.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

13

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

351 2.3

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

180 1.1

Electricians

774 3.0

Glaziers

54 1.4

Insulation workers

50 5.2

Painters, construction and maintenance

612 6.2

Paperhangers

4

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

583 1.4

Plasterers and stucco masons

34

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12

Roofers

230 1.7

Sheet metal workers

126 2.9

Structural iron and steel workers

60 2.0

Solar photovoltaic installers

10

Helpers, construction trades

57 6.2

Construction and building inspectors

93 6.4

Elevator installers and repairers

44

Fence erectors

43

Hazardous materials removal workers

34

Highway maintenance workers

92 3.2

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

34

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

25

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

33

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

11

Mining machine operators

55 1.5

Roof bolters, mining

4

Roustabouts, oil and gas

6

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

32

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,879 3.6

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

264 10.1

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

212 9.6

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

143 16.1

Avionics technicians

7

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

25

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

13

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

10

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

44

Security and fire alarm systems installers

79 1.8

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

140 1.7

Automotive body and related repairers

147 3.6

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

879 1.7

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

342 0.8

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

203 0.5

Small engine mechanics

51 3.5

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

87 1.7

Control and valve installers and repairers

33

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

427 1.4

Home appliance repairers

49

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

393 3.3

Maintenance and repair workers, general

552 3.0

Maintenance workers, machinery

21

Millwrights

40

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

136 0.6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

171 2.5

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

66 14.9

Wind turbine service technicians

5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

30

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

10

Riggers

13

Signal and track switch repairers

7

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

198 6.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,743 22.1

Production occupations

8,459 28.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

763 18.7

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

5

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

117 49.3

Engine and other machine assemblers

9

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,082 34.4

Bakers

224 64.8

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

277 26.9

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

24

Food batchmakers

107 58.7

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

10

Food processing workers, all other

138 37.4

Computer control programmers and operators

87 5.2

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

83 18.3

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

48

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6

Machinists

356 3.4

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

33

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Tool and die makers

50 3.0

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

603 4.1

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Layout workers, metal and plastic

7

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

5

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

379 20.0

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

205 20.3

Print binding and finishing workers

14

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

188 58.1

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

36

Sewing machine operators

208 71.5

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

8

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

79 79.7

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

11

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1

Upholsterers

36

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

20

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

56 11.9

Furniture finishers

19

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

35

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23

Woodworkers, all other

34

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

44

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

78 4.7

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

77 5.2

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

54 10.2

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

94 11.9

Cutting workers

67 22.3

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

16

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

734 37.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

85 51.4

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

236 50.5

Painting workers

173 8.9

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

29

Semiconductor processors

2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

3

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0

Etchers and engravers

6

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

24

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

33

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

968 29.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,284 16.5

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

190 21.4

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

141 5.2

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

26

Flight attendants

93 75.8

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

553 48.7

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,542 6.0

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

500 14.3

Motor vehicle operators, all other

63 8.8

Locomotive engineers and operators

52 3.2

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

2

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

55 4.7

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

16

Ship and boat captains and operators

31

Ship engineers

4

Bridge and lock tenders

2

Parking lot attendants

89 10.7

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

97 8.6

Transportation inspectors

26

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

41

Other transportation workers

34

Conveyor operators and tenders

3

Crane and tower operators

63 0.8

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

37

Hoist and winch operators

9

Industrial truck and tractor operators

605 9.6

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

328 13.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,900 18.1

Machine feeders and offbearers

30

Packers and packagers, hand

550 54.5

Pumping station operators

16

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

101 8.6

Mine shuttle car operators

0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

4

Material moving workers, all other

45

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Occupation White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,701 9,511 4,298 10,686

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.4 34.8 51.0 27.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.0 11.6 17.8 10.0

Professional and related occupations

28.4 23.2 33.2 17.0

Service occupations

20.0 28.8 20.3 32.2

Sales and office occupations

29.5 28.3 22.1 29.6

Sales and related occupations

11.0 10.8 9.6 12.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18.5 17.5 12.5 17.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.0 0.7 0.7 2.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.2 0.2 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.1 7.4 5.9 9.1

Production occupations

3.1 4.0 4.6 5.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.0 3.4 1.2 3.4

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and gender Year
2015 2016
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

148,834 100.0 151,436 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,422 1.6 2,460 1.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

917 0.6 792 0.5

Construction

9,935 6.7 10,328 6.8

Manufacturing

15,338 10.3 15,408 10.2

Durable goods

9,709 6.5 9,704 6.4

Nondurable goods

5,629 3.8 5,704 3.8

Wholesale and retail trade

20,320 13.7 20,218 13.4

Wholesale trade

3,635 2.4 3,641 2.4

Retail trade

16,686 11.2 16,577 10.9

Transportation and utilities

7,726 5.2 8,012 5.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,459 4.3 6,693 4.4

Utilities

1,267 0.9 1,319 0.9

Information

2,988 2.0 2,855 1.9

Financial activities

10,087 6.8 10,404 6.9

Finance and insurance

7,081 4.8 7,241 4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,005 2.0 3,163 2.1

Professional and business services

17,409 11.7 18,325 12.1

Professional and technical services

10,625 7.1 11,228 7.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,784 4.6 7,097 4.7

Education and health services

33,678 22.6 34,263 22.6

Educational services

13,601 9.1 13,674 9.0

Health care and social assistance

20,077 13.5 20,589 13.6

Hospitals

6,698 4.5 6,990 4.6

Health services, except hospitals

10,165 6.8 10,220 6.7

Social assistance

3,213 2.2 3,379 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

13,821 9.3 14,193 9.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,184 2.1 3,241 2.1

Accommodation and food services

10,637 7.1 10,952 7.2

Other services

7,264 4.9 7,320 4.8

Other services, except private households

6,466 4.3 6,596 4.4

Private households

798 0.5 724 0.5

Public administration

6,928 4.7 6,857 4.5

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

69,703 100.0 70,868 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

597 0.9 621 0.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

120 0.2 106 0.1

Construction

929 1.3 939 1.3

Manufacturing

4,456 6.4 4,460 6.3

Durable goods

2,384 3.4 2,418 3.4

Nondurable goods

2,073 3.0 2,042 2.9

Wholesale and retail trade

9,098 13.1 9,005 12.7

Wholesale trade

1,071 1.5 1,074 1.5

Retail trade

8,027 11.5 7,932 11.2

Transportation and utilities

1,749 2.5 1,883 2.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,466 2.1 1,593 2.2

Utilities

283 0.4 290 0.4

Information

1,169 1.7 1,160 1.6

Financial activities

5,345 7.7 5,437 7.7

Finance and insurance

3,942 5.7 3,993 5.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,403 2.0 1,444 2.0

Professional and business services

7,149 10.3 7,581 10.7

Professional and technical services

4,469 6.4 4,743 6.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,680 3.8 2,839 4.0

Education and health services

25,125 36.0 25,572 36.1

Educational services

9,373 13.4 9,360 13.2

Health care and social assistance

15,752 22.6 16,212 22.9

Hospitals

5,055 7.3 5,359 7.6

Health services, except hospitals

7,974 11.4 8,011 11.3

Social assistance

2,723 3.9 2,842 4.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,066 10.1 7,189 10.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,466 2.1 1,465 2.1

Accommodation and food services

5,599 8.0 5,724 8.1

Other services

3,764 5.4 3,820 5.4

Other services, except private households

3,023 4.3 3,157 4.5

Private households

741 1.1 664 0.9

Public administration

3,136 4.5 3,095 4.4

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,131 100.0 80,568 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,826 2.3 1,839 2.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

798 1.0 686 0.9

Construction

9,006 11.4 9,389 11.7

Manufacturing

10,882 13.8 10,948 13.6

Durable goods

7,325 9.3 7,286 9.0

Nondurable goods

3,556 4.5 3,662 4.5

Wholesale and retail trade

11,222 14.2 11,213 13.9

Wholesale trade

2,564 3.2 2,567 3.2

Retail trade

8,659 10.9 8,645 10.7

Transportation and utilities

5,977 7.6 6,129 7.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,993 6.3 5,100 6.3

Utilities

983 1.2 1,029 1.3

Information

1,819 2.3 1,695 2.1

Financial activities

4,742 6.0 4,967 6.2

Finance and insurance

3,139 4.0 3,248 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,602 2.0 1,719 2.1

Professional and business services

10,259 13.0 10,743 13.3

Professional and technical services

6,156 7.8 6,485 8.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,103 5.2 4,258 5.3

Education and health services

8,553 10.8 8,691 10.8

Educational services

4,229 5.3 4,315 5.4

Health care and social assistance

4,325 5.5 4,377 5.4

Hospitals

1,643 2.1 1,630 2.0

Health services, except hospitals

2,191 2.8 2,209 2.7

Social assistance

490 0.6 537 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

6,755 8.5 7,005 8.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,717 2.2 1,776 2.2

Accommodation and food services

5,038 6.4 5,229 6.5

Other services

3,500 4.4 3,500 4.3

Other services, except private households

3,443 4.4 3,440 4.3

Private households

58 0.1 60 0.1

Public administration

3,792 4.8 3,762 4.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

151,436 46.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,460 25.3

Crop production

1,206 24.4

Animal production and aquaculture

876 27.5

Forestry, except logging

58 21.0

Logging

101 3.2

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

38

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

180 36.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

792 13.4

Oil and gas extraction

102 20.2

Coal mining

53 4.0

Metal ore mining

37

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

106 13.3

Not specified type of mining

6

Support activities for mining

488 13.4

Construction

10,328 9.1

Manufacturing

15,408 28.9

Durable goods manufacturing

9,704 24.9

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

450 17.1

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

28

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

20

Glass and glass product manufacturing

162 18.8

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

149 8.8

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

92 20.2

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,632 16.8

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

269 12.1

Aluminum production and processing

72 19.5

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

44

Foundries

72 7.5

Metal forgings and stampings

48

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

43

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

336 14.8

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

306 14.6

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

76 21.5

Ordnance

50 31.0

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

292 21.0

Not specified metal industries

26

Machinery manufacturing

1,186 20.8

Agricultural implement manufacturing

110 22.9

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

156 16.8

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

72 25.6

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

145 17.9

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

58 20.3

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

634 21.8

Not specified machinery manufacturing

12

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,215 30.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

196 30.5

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

152 25.5

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

218 28.5

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

650 32.2

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

387 31.6

Household appliance manufacturing

75 39.9

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

312 29.6

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,438 24.8

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,401 27.8

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

729 22.4

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

73 15.0

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

23

Ship and boat building

174 14.5

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

38

Wood products manufacturing

419 14.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

111 8.7

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

38

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

42

Miscellaneous wood products

228 14.5

Furniture and related product manufacturing

441 26.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,536 35.6

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

585 38.6

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

97 37.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

556 33.5

Not specified manufacturing industries

297 33.1

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,704 35.8

Food manufacturing

1,770 40.3

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

142 30.5

Sugar and confectionery products

80 50.3

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

157 35.7

Dairy product manufacturing

132 22.2

Animal slaughtering and processing

481 38.8

Retail bakeries

298 64.2

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

217 35.6

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

216 32.8

Not specified food industries

48

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

323 22.7

Beverage manufacturing

304 22.1

Tobacco manufacturing

19

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

643 54.3

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

9

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

105 44.2

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

22

Carpet and rug mills

76 38.7

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

89 61.1

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

21

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

253 64.5

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

5

Footwear manufacturing

42

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

21

Paper manufacturing and printing

909 27.6

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

203 18.1

Paperboard container manufacturing

109 27.1

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

85 28.1

Printing and related support activities

511 31.4

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

179 20.3

Petroleum refining

167 20.4

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

12

Chemicals manufacturing

1,323 34.9

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

127 27.3

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

35

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

556 44.6

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

70 17.4

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

134 50.0

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

401 22.8

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

556 28.1

Plastics product manufacturing

407 29.8

Tire manufacturing

65 18.6

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

83 27.5

Wholesale and retail trade

20,218 44.5

Wholesale trade

3,641 29.5

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

193 19.2

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

67 34.5

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

171 24.8

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

320 40.5

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

52 17.1

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

180 25.9

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

164 23.7

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

371 23.1

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

86 16.9

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

113 36.1

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

54 33.1

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

219 48.3

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

117 48.4

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

798 24.9

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

73 25.0

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

116 22.5

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

139 22.7

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

55 28.5

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

216 37.2

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

78 40.3

Not specified wholesale trade

60 39.7

Retail trade

16,577 47.8

Automobile dealers

1,411 20.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

162 18.9

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

526 15.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

558 43.4

Household appliance stores

62 24.6

Electronics stores

538 30.7

Building material and supplies dealers

1,029 30.4

Hardware stores

195 36.8

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

258 32.7

Grocery stores

2,706 48.2

Specialty food stores

246 43.5

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

137 41.7

Pharmacies and drug stores

940 63.4

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

358 65.5

Gasoline stations

519 52.8

Clothing stores

1,041 74.8

Shoe stores

163 52.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

202 61.5

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

473 40.2

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

55 69.6

Musical instrument and supplies stores

45

Book stores and news dealers

103 65.5

Department stores and discount stores

2,077 59.8

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

542 59.8

Retail florists

85 70.5

Office supplies and stationery stores

137 42.8

Used merchandise stores

232 64.8

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

136 75.1

Miscellaneous retail stores

520 50.2

Electronic shopping

328 46.0

Electronic auctions

17

Mail-order houses

82 50.6

Vending machine operators

37

Fuel dealers

80 31.2

Other direct selling establishments

178 68.5

Not specified retail trade

401 53.6

Transportation and utilities

8,012 23.5

Transportation and warehousing

6,693 23.8

Air transportation

575 37.8

Rail transportation

239 10.1

Water transportation

62 26.4

Truck transportation

2,038 11.5

Bus service and urban transit

515 39.1

Taxi and limousine service

420 16.5

Pipeline transportation

53 15.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

36

Services incidental to transportation

747 27.4

Postal Service

653 40.9

Couriers and messengers

787 20.4

Warehousing and storage

569 31.6

Utilities

1,319 22.0

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

698 20.6

Natural gas distribution

142 27.4

Electric and gas, and other combinations

105 26.1

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

249 21.4

Sewage treatment facilities

96 15.5

Not specified utilities

28

Information

2,855 40.6

Newspaper publishers

199 48.3

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

210 58.7

Software publishers

100 30.5

Motion pictures and video industries

436 38.3

Sound recording industries

33

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

558 33.0

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

130 35.0

Wired telecommunications carriers

466 35.5

Other telecommunications services

400 34.7

Data processing, hosting, and related services

112 38.9

Libraries and archives

179 79.6

Other information services

31

Financial activities

10,404 52.3

Finance and insurance

7,241 55.1

Banking and related activities

2,102 59.3

Savings institutions, including credit unions

238 75.6

Nondepository credit and related activities

954 49.8

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,153 33.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,794 60.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,163 45.6

Real estate

2,764 48.0

Rental and leasing services

399 29.5

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

179 32.3

Video tape and disk rental

7

Other consumer goods rental

107 27.5

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

106 24.7

Professional and business services

18,325 41.4

Professional and technical services

11,228 42.2

Legal services

1,610 55.3

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,110 60.2

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,652 23.6

Specialized design services

402 57.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,845 26.1

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,652 43.7

Scientific research and development services

597 48.7

Advertising, public relations, and related services

548 51.4

Veterinary services

347 81.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

464 53.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,097 40.0

Management of companies and enterprises

188 44.2

Employment services

1,046 54.0

Business support services

808 64.2

Travel arrangements and reservation services

304 62.1

Investigation and security services

828 24.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,599 56.3

Landscaping services

1,412 8.3

Other administrative and other support services

334 49.5

Waste management and remediation services

577 17.2

Education and health services

34,263 74.6

Educational services

13,674 68.4

Elementary and secondary schools

8,975 75.0

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,851 53.5

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

101 55.3

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

746 68.0

Health care and social assistance

20,589 78.7

Hospitals

6,990 76.7

Health services, except hospitals

10,220 78.4

Offices of physicians

1,611 76.4

Offices of dentists

897 82.5

Offices of chiropractors

135 66.7

Offices of optometrists

133 82.4

Offices of other health practitioners

297 72.5

Outpatient care centers

1,603 76.2

Home health care services

1,495 88.4

Other health care services

1,417 68.4

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,786 82.9

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

846 74.8

Social assistance

3,379 84.1

Individual and family services

1,553 77.8

Community food and housing, and emergency services

127 62.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

138 58.2

Child day care services

1,561 94.4

Leisure and hospitality

14,193 50.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,241 45.2

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

857 43.2

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

364 41.3

Bowling centers

33

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,988 46.8

Accommodation and food services

10,952 52.3

Accommodation

1,592 55.5

Traveler accommodation

1,488 56.1

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

104 47.2

Food services and drinking places

9,360 51.7

Restaurants and other food services

9,134 51.7

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

226 51.1

Other services

7,320 52.2

Other services, except private households

6,596 47.9

Repair and maintenance

2,051 10.9

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,205 8.3

Car washes

168 12.0

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

134 17.2

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

322 7.0

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

218 26.5

Footwear and leather goods repair

5

Personal and laundry services

2,481 71.7

Barber shops

134 20.5

Beauty salons

982 91.2

Nail salons and other personal care services

541 75.4

Drycleaning and laundry services

286 56.6

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

149 40.9

Other personal services

389 57.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,064 55.9

Religious organizations

1,088 47.2

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

754 68.9

Labor unions

58 46.3

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

164 56.9

Private households

724 91.7

Public administration

6,857 45.1

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,082 50.9

Public finance activities

302 62.4

Other general government and support

106 42.9

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,739 34.7

Administration of human resource programs

995 71.5

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

248 43.5

Administration of economic programs and space research

529 46.5

National security and international affairs

857 34.4

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Industry White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,701 9,511 4,298 10,686

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.1 0.1 0.3 1.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Construction

1.5 0.6 0.7 1.3

Manufacturing

6.3 5.3 8.9 7.4

Durable goods manufacturing

3.4 2.7 5.0 3.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.9 2.6 3.9 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.9 11.5 12.1 14.0

Wholesale trade

1.6 0.8 2.0 1.7

Retail trade

11.3 10.6 10.0 12.3

Transportation and utilities

2.4 4.2 2.3 3.0

Transportation and warehousing

2.0 3.8 2.1 2.7

Utilities

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

Information

1.6 1.5 1.9 1.1

Financial activities

7.9 6.6 8.2 6.1

Finance and insurance

5.7 5.2 6.6 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Professional and business services

11.0 8.4 12.5 11.9

Professional and technical services

7.1 3.6 10.0 4.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

4.0 4.8 2.5 7.4

Education and health services

35.7 41.6 31.7 29.5

Educational services

14.1 10.9 8.5 10.0

Health care and social assistance

21.6 30.6 23.2 19.5

Hospitals

7.3 8.6 9.6 4.8

Health services, except hospitals

10.5 16.2 10.9 10.1

Social assistance

3.8 5.8 2.7 4.5

Leisure and hospitality

10.1 9.4 9.8 14.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.2 1.3 1.6 1.5

Accommodation and food services

7.9 8.1 8.2 13.0

Other services

5.4 4.0 7.8 6.2

Other services, except private households

4.4 3.5 7.2 3.7

Private households

1.0 0.5 0.6 2.5

Public administration

4.0 6.7 3.7 3.5

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2016 annual averages
Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$241 $248 $199 - $194

1980

262 269 212 - 209

1981

284 291 235 - 223

1982

302 310 245 - 240

1983

313 320 261 - 250

1984

326 336 269 - 259

1985

344 356 277 - 270

1986

359 371 291 - 277

1987

374 384 301 - 285

1988

385 395 314 - 290

1989

399 409 319 - 298

1990

412 424 329 - 304

1991

426 442 348 - 312

1992

440 458 357 - 321

1993

459 475 369 - 331

1994

467 484 371 - 324

1995

479 494 383 - 329

1996

490 506 387 - 339

1997

503 519 400 - 351

1998

523 545 426 - 370

1999

549 573 445 - 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

Women

 

1979

$182 $184 $169 - $157

1980

201 203 185 - 172

1981

219 221 206 - 190

1982

239 242 217 - 203

1983

252 254 232 - 215

1984

265 268 241 - 223

1985

277 281 252 - 230

1986

291 294 264 - 241

1987

303 307 276 - 251

1988

315 318 288 - 260

1989

328 334 301 - 269

1990

346 353 308 - 278

1991

366 373 323 - 292

1992

380 387 335 - 302

1993

393 401 348 - 313

1994

399 408 346 - 305

1995

406 415 355 - 305

1996

418 428 362 - 316

1997

431 444 375 - 318

1998

456 468 400 - 337

1999

473 483 409 - 348

2000

493 502 429 $547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

Men

 

1979

$292 $298 $227 - $219

1980

313 320 244 - 234

1981

340 350 268 - 251

1982

364 375 278 - 269

1983

379 387 294 - 274

1984

392 401 303 - 287

1985

407 418 305 - 296

1986

419 433 319 - 299

1987

434 450 327 - 306

1988

449 465 348 - 308

1989

468 482 348 - 315

1990

481 494 361 - 318

1991

493 506 375 - 323

1992

501 514 380 - 339

1993

510 524 392 - 346

1994

522 547 400 - 343

1995

538 566 411 - 350

1996

557 580 412 - 356

1997

579 595 432 - 371

1998

598 615 468 - 390

1999

618 638 488 - 406

2000

641 662 510 $685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

 

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2016 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total employed (in thousands) Median weekly earnings

Total

 

Total

101,015 $885

Less than high school diploma

7,108 504

High school graduate or more

93,907 923

High school graduate, no college

25,475 692

Some college or associate's degree

27,307 779

Some college, no degree

16,056 756

Associate's degree

11,251 819

Occupational program

4,633 809

Academic program

6,618 827

Bachelor's degree and higher

41,125 1,259

Bachelor's degree

25,503 1,156

Master's degree

11,675 1,380

Professional degree

1,729 1,745

Doctoral degree

2,218 1,664

Women

 

Total

44,731 $784

Less than high school diploma

2,204 423

High school graduate or more

42,528 812

High school graduate, no college

9,856 599

Some college or associate's degree

12,924 688

Some college, no degree

7,319 665

Associate's degree

5,606 720

Occupational program

2,081 686

Academic program

3,524 739

Bachelor's degree and higher

19,747 1,101

Bachelor's degree

11,987 994

Master's degree

6,084 1,210

Professional degree

734 1,447

Doctoral degree

942 1,477

Men

 

Total

56,284 $969

Less than high school diploma

4,904 551

High school graduate or more

51,380 1019

High school graduate, no college

15,619 769

Some college or associate's degree

14,383 896

Some college, no degree

8,738 861

Associate's degree

5,646 951

Occupational program

2,552 938

Academic program

3,094 961

Bachelor's degree and higher

21,378 1,464

Bachelor's degree

13,516 1,348

Master's degree

5,591 1,616

Professional degree

995 1,913

Doctoral degree

1,276 1,877

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

111,091 $832 49,161 $749 61,930 $915 81.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

45,930 1,188 23,674 1,027 22,256 1,420 72.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,023 1,284 8,761 1,099 10,261 1,491 73.7

Management occupations

12,828 1,370 5,314 1,148 7,514 1,539 74.6

Chief executives

1,150 2,303 318 1,876 832 2,419 77.6

General and operations managers

876 1,266 250 1,037 626 1,358 76.4

Legislators

11 6 6

Advertising and promotions managers

56 1,332 32 24

Marketing and sales managers

921 1,468 403 1,142 518 1,745 65.4

Public relations and fundraising managers

60 1,532 38 21

Administrative services managers

172 1,261 71 952 101 1,398 68.1

Computer and information systems managers

592 1,738 150 1,680 443 1,756 95.7

Financial managers

1,105 1,423 578 1,157 527 1,670 69.3

Compensation and benefits managers

16 12 3

Human resources managers

263 1,340 190 1,283 73 1,737 73.9

Training and development managers

58 1,507 31 27

Industrial production managers

267 1,361 66 1,219 201 1,409 86.5

Purchasing managers

187 1,274 92 1,169 95 1,400 83.5

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

288 990 51 988 237 990 99.8

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

119 892 17 102 906

Construction managers

487 1,395 35 452 1,401

Education administrators

838 1,381 541 1,280 297 1,528 83.8

Architectural and engineering managers

143 2,258 9 134 2,265

Food service managers

760 739 350 632 410 853 74.1

Funeral service managers

13 1 11

Gaming managers

18 4 14

Lodging managers

124 929 64 764 59 1,068 71.5

Medical and health services managers

533 1,402 399 1,254 133 1,610 77.9

Natural sciences managers

14 8 6

Postmasters and mail superintendents

23 11 12

Property, real estate, and community association managers

402 959 221 815 181 1,157 70.4

Social and community service managers

363 1,079 248 992 115 1,206 82.3

Emergency management directors

8 3 5

Managers, all other

2,960 1,422 1,115 1,188 1,845 1,542 77.0

Business and financial operations occupations

6,195 1,161 3,448 1,018 2,747 1,373 74.1

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

23 12 11

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

8 0 8

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

152 838 83 765 68 942 81.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

253 1,024 125 974 128 1,037 93.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

321 969 206 912 114 1,139 80.1

Compliance officers

252 1,243 146 1,163 106 1,274 91.3

Cost estimators

104 1,159 9 96 1,172

Human resources workers

631 1,139 465 1,089 166 1,364 79.8

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

72 1,069 51 1,001 21

Training and development specialists

129 1,103 82 959 47

Logisticians

111 1,011 37 75 1,116

Management analysts

585 1,476 253 1,342 332 1,586 84.6

Meeting, convention, and event planners

119 867 88 852 30

Fundraisers

64 1,111 42 22

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

246 1,171 130 1,097 116 1,345 81.6

Business operations specialists, all other

257 1,125 146 1,001 110 1,263 79.3

Accountants and auditors

1,451 1,153 892 1,018 559 1,441 70.6

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

31 13 19

Budget analysts

48 26 22

Credit analysts

28 13 15

Financial analysts

277 1,525 104 1,252 173 1,747 71.7

Personal financial advisors

399 1,404 142 953 258 1,714 55.6

Insurance underwriters

102 1,113 68 910 34

Financial examiners

13 6 7

Credit counselors and loan officers

351 1,054 200 926 151 1,331 69.6

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

58 1,138 38 20

Tax preparers

53 1,049 33 20

Financial specialists, all other

56 1,155 37 20

Professional and related occupations

26,907 1,141 14,912 998 11,995 1,364 73.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,104 1,443 1,035 1,325 3,068 1,518 87.3

Computer and information research scientists

20 7 13

Computer systems analysts

496 1,393 182 1,328 314 1,475 90.0

Information security analysts

85 1,617 20 65 1,826

Computer programmers

403 1,398 104 1,312 300 1,466 89.5

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,351 1,776 266 1,553 1,084 1,863 83.4

Web developers

142 1,236 45 97 1,284

Computer support specialists

491 1,060 124 1,014 367 1,078 94.1

Database administrators

83 1,731 37 46

Network and computer systems administrators

197 1,232 29 168 1,250

Computer network architects

105 1,502 12 93 1,535

Computer occupations, all other

524 1,195 106 1,055 418 1,244 84.8

Actuaries

12 1 11

Mathematicians

4 0 3

Operations research analysts

125 1,315 66 1,300 59 1,382 94.1

Statisticians

65 1,405 35 30

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2 1 1

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,835 1,482 398 1,207 2,437 1,529 78.9

Architects, except naval

178 1,339 43 135 1,462

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

28 9 19

Aerospace engineers

124 1,854 10 114 1,846

Agricultural engineers

2 0 2

Biomedical engineers

14 2 12

Chemical engineers

91 1,877 18 73 1,901

Civil engineers

389 1,504 39 350 1,526

Computer hardware engineers

58 1,843 12 46

Electrical and electronics engineers

271 1,729 26 245 1,736

Environmental engineers

31 5 27

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

215 1,526 46 169 1,580

Marine engineers and naval architects

19 1 18

Materials engineers

26 5 21

Mechanical engineers

335 1,560 24 311 1,567

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 0 7

Nuclear engineers

8 1 7

Petroleum engineers

35 3 32

Engineers, all other

493 1,573 63 1,401 430 1,659 84.4

Drafters

93 990 10 83 1,030

Engineering technicians, except drafters

350 997 75 793 275 1,075 73.8

Surveying and mapping technicians

67 811 5 61 790

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,151 1,209 486 1,119 665 1,319 84.8

Agricultural and food scientists

32 12 20

Biological scientists

81 1,346 35 46

Conservation scientists and foresters

26 4 23

Medical scientists

127 1,211 57 1,169 69 1,250 93.5

Life scientists, all other

3 3 0

Astronomers and physicists

20 4 16

Atmospheric and space scientists

6 1 5

Chemists and materials scientists

93 1,306 36 56 1,504

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

79 1,555 21 58 1,591

Physical scientists, all other

241 1,416 111 1,323 131 1,727 76.6

Economists

22 9 14

Survey researchers

1 0 1

Psychologists

91 1,260 66 1,187 25

Sociologists

4 3 1

Urban and regional planners

34 13 21

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

30 11 19

Agricultural and food science technicians

24 6 17

Biological technicians

19 8 11

Chemical technicians

75 919 25 50 919

Geological and petroleum technicians

17 2 15

Nuclear technicians

4 1 3

Social science research assistants

1 0 1

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

119 894 57 826 62 949 87.0

Community and social service occupations

2,136 919 1,377 880 759 1,004 87.6

Counselors

657 904 473 907 184 892 101.7

Social workers

684 906 557 884 127 1,039 85.1

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

100 992 61 1,004 39

Social and human service assistants

151 736 122 727 29

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

83 831 63 767 20

Clergy

368 1,039 53 893 315 1,070 83.5

Directors, religious activities and education

49 26 23

Religious workers, all other

42 21 21

Legal occupations

1,294 1,431 732 1,152 562 1,904 60.5

Lawyers

745 1,897 299 1,619 446 2,086 77.6

Judicial law clerks

14 7 7

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

56 1,560 21 35

Paralegals and legal assistants

351 874 308 863 43

Miscellaneous legal support workers

128 1,009 98 867 30

Education, training, and library occupations

6,859 984 4,982 933 1,877 1,154 80.8

Postsecondary teachers

980 1,247 445 1,152 535 1,356 85.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

530 626 518 621 13

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,836 1,009 2,231 981 605 1,126 87.1

Secondary school teachers

965 1,111 562 1,074 403 1,146 93.7

Special education teachers

313 1,021 264 1,018 49

Other teachers and instructors

370 938 214 786 156 1,135 69.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

36 25 11

Librarians

140 987 117 980 23

Library technicians

10 8 2

Teacher assistants

588 523 532 525 56 501 104.8

Other education, training, and library workers

91 1,107 67 1,068 24

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,671 1,040 752 951 919 1,139 83.5

Artists and related workers

61 1,236 23 38

Designers

586 1,086 297 922 290 1,267 72.8

Actors

13 5 8

Producers and directors

128 1,163 50 1,030 78 1,228 83.9

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

141 826 35 106 862

Dancers and choreographers

5 4 2

Musicians, singers, and related workers

37 13 24

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

13 4 9

Announcers

32 8 24

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

58 1,166 27 30

Public relations specialists

107 1,228 67 1,134 40

Editors

120 1,053 56 1,035 64 1,112 93.1

Technical writers

56 1,253 27 29

Writers and authors

99 1,070 60 983 39

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

59 745 36 24

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

80 1,020 13 67 1,099

Photographers

43 19 24

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

31 7 24

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1 0 1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,857 1,104 5,150 1,036 1,706 1,332 77.8

Chiropractors

18 7 10

Dentists

61 1,850 27 34

Dietitians and nutritionists

82 986 71 997 11

Optometrists

18 15 3

Pharmacists

222 1,924 133 1,839 89 2,096 87.7

Physicians and surgeons

806 1,916 308 1,476 497 2,343 63.0

Physician assistants

75 1,544 50 1,547 25

Podiatrists

4 0 3

Audiologists

11 8 2

Occupational therapists

71 1,365 61 1,315 10

Physical therapists

197 1,325 128 1,306 69 1,348 96.9

Radiation therapists

11 10 1

Recreational therapists

9 3 6

Respiratory therapists

76 998 54 993 22

Speech-language pathologists

112 1,200 109 1,172 3

Exercise physiologists

1 1 0

Therapists, all other

137 920 106 913 32

Veterinarians

65 1,338 46 19

Registered nurses

2,498 1,154 2,213 1,143 285 1,261 90.6

Nurse anesthetists

14 6 8

Nurse midwives

5 5 0

Nurse practitioners

144 1,750 133 1,753 11

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

8 8 1

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

295 887 198 834 97 1,071 77.9

Dental hygienists

75 1,034 73 1,045 2

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

254 1,041 175 936 79 1,156 81.0

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

174 779 60 650 114 821 79.2

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

474 662 361 643 113 712 90.3

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

525 749 481 743 44

Medical records and health information technicians

170 798 159 793 11

Opticians, dispensing

42 28 14

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

107 745 64 714 43

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

96 1,083 47 49

Service occupations

15,908 523 7,914 487 7,994 595 81.8

Healthcare support occupations

2,423 525 2,094 519 329 602 86.2

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,386 503 1,192 498 194 534 93.3

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

13 12 1

Physical therapist assistants and aides

48 32 15

Massage therapists

45 30 15

Dental assistants

199 592 180 583 19

Medical assistants

488 572 452 562 36

Medical transcriptionists

23 23 0

Pharmacy aides

21 19 2

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

24 17 7

Phlebotomists

84 586 71 570 12

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

94 537 65 504 29

Protective service occupations

2,697 809 524 688 2,173 854 80.6

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

55 873 20 35

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

120 1,324 23 97 1,361

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

45 3 41

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

89 880 23 66 895

Firefighters

252 1,065 8 244 1,056

Fire inspectors

16 1 15

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

365 749 91 672 275 793 84.7

Detectives and criminal investigators

132 1,182 28 104 1,251

Fish and game wardens

8 1 7

Parking enforcement workers

6 2 4

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

709 1,004 100 938 609 1,008 93.1

Transit and railroad police

2 0 2

Animal control workers

6 2 4

Private detectives and investigators

60 904 29 31

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

727 585 152 516 576 597 86.4

Crossing guards

23 12 11

Transportation security screeners

40 16 23

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

42 14 28

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,619 465 2,202 434 2,417 491 88.4

Chefs and head cooks

356 614 68 519 288 632 82.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

425 528 251 485 174 666 72.8

Cooks

1,408 444 515 421 892 459 91.7

Food preparation workers

477 419 262 413 215 432 95.6

Bartenders

253 602 122 498 131 701 71.0

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

196 396 125 402 72 381 105.5

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

68 374 49 20

Waiters and waitresses

949 470 607 441 342 504 87.5

Food servers, nonrestaurant

104 479 71 445 33

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

133 420 51 407 82 465 87.5

Dishwashers

172 389 30 142 388

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

74 442 50 432 24

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3 1 2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,602 510 1,210 454 2,392 548 82.8

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

189 655 71 524 119 702 74.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

113 707 1 112 710

Janitors and building cleaners

1,580 526 441 476 1,139 564 84.4

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

781 441 661 427 120 497 85.9

Pest control workers

61 655 2 59 649

Grounds maintenance workers

878 502 34 844 503

Personal care and service occupations

2,568 505 1,884 482 684 613 78.6

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

127 792 59 717 68 840 85.4

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

62 651 37 25

Animal trainers

24 11 13

Nonfarm animal caretakers

88 485 71 489 17

Gaming services workers

64 624 31 33

Motion picture projectionists

2 0 2

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

14 8 6

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

79 481 31 48

Embalmers and funeral attendants

3 2 1

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

23 5 18

Barbers

56 584 8 48

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

307 510 281 500 27

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

205 490 167 466 37

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

56 625 10 46

Tour and travel guides

18 8 10

Childcare workers

405 452 381 451 24

Personal care aides

762 477 636 469 125 514 91.2

Recreation and fitness workers

192 596 100 517 92 668 77.4

Residential advisors

19 11 8

Personal care and service workers, all other

61 573 26 35

Sales and office occupations

23,625 698 14,163 649 9,461 805 80.6

Sales and related occupations

9,759 744 4,250 590 5,509 904 65.3

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,368 743 1,047 630 1,321 857 73.5

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

781 1,137 230 1,004 552 1,161 86.5

Cashiers

1,367 414 965 403 402 475 84.8

Counter and rental clerks

84 517 36 47

Parts salespersons

96 639 11 85 643

Retail salespersons

1,831 623 728 514 1,103 730 70.4

Advertising sales agents

203 1,023 81 999 122 1,034 96.6

Insurance sales agents

423 839 205 676 218 1,166 58.0

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

219 1,351 63 951 155 1,458 65.2

Travel agents

46 38 8

Sales representatives, services, all other

427 1,040 145 826 282 1,202 68.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,121 1,047 302 872 819 1,140 76.5

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

14 6 8

Real estate brokers and sales agents

493 983 284 780 209 1,222 63.8

Sales engineers

40 5 35

Telemarketers

42 25 17

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

34 11 23

Sales and related workers, all other

171 805 68 709 103 946 74.9

Office and administrative support occupations

13,866 679 9,913 669 3,952 708 94.5

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,203 848 819 809 383 942 85.9

Switchboard operators, including answering service

17 14 3

Telephone operators

36 31 5

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 4 1

Bill and account collectors

144 625 105 650 39

Billing and posting clerks

404 666 360 660 44

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

756 722 641 716 115 790 90.6

Gaming cage workers

9 8 1

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

125 786 110 785 15

Procurement clerks

25 16 9

Tellers

235 542 195 539 39

Financial clerks, all other

62 708 44 18

Brokerage clerks

3 1 2

Correspondence clerks

5 5 0

Court, municipal, and license clerks

79 691 60 681 19

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41 33 8

Customer service representatives

1,850 640 1,185 623 664 676 92.2

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

72 828 55 735 17

File clerks

134 676 113 680 21

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

102 513 66 500 36

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

105 639 98 634 7

Library assistants, clerical

45 38 8

Loan interviewers and clerks

124 774 100 756 25

New accounts clerks

21 21 0

Order clerks

85 646 45 40

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

36 32 4

Receptionists and information clerks

951 583 848 581 103 600 96.8

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

102 705 56 646 46

Information and record clerks, all other

104 654 73 631 31

Cargo and freight agents

23 9 14

Couriers and messengers

160 726 25 135 739

Dispatchers

279 704 153 671 126 734 91.4

Meter readers, utilities

30 1 28

Postal service clerks

111 901 53 805 58 999 80.6

Postal service mail carriers

304 981 119 931 185 1,020 91.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

56 783 23 33

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

224 853 111 765 113 935 81.8

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

473 596 151 583 322 602 96.8

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,014 530 371 526 643 533 98.7

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

45 24 21

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,210 713 2,078 708 133 831 85.2

Computer operators

78 811 37 41

Data entry keyers

221 638 170 630 51 655 96.2

Word processors and typists

56 730 48 7

Desktop publishers

0 0 0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

251 665 210 658 40

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

56 619 23 33

Office clerks, general

900 654 760 648 140 707 91.7

Office machine operators, except computer

30 16 14

Proofreaders and copy markers

5 5 0

Statistical assistants

7 2 5

Office and administrative support workers, all other

457 768 351 751 107 855 87.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,022 786 464 580 10,558 794 73.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

842 520 169 465 673 544 85.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

28 3 25

Agricultural inspectors

18 5 13

Animal breeders

2 1 1

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

74 511 48 25

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

659 508 111 423 547 524 80.7

Fishers and related fishing workers

4 0 4

Hunters and trappers

1 0 1

Forest and conservation workers

17 1 17

Logging workers

39 0 39

Construction and extraction occupations

5,979 784 151 639 5,828 786 81.3

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

558 1,091 18 540 1,101

Boilermakers

26 0 26

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

119 741 0 119 741

Carpenters

839 730 11 828 733

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

93 593 2 91 597

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

47 0 47

Construction laborers

1,322 692 41 1,281 697

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

11 0 11

Pile-driver operators

4 0 4

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

334 920 6 328 922

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

138 600 1 137 601

Electricians

667 952 18 649 951

Glaziers

48 1 47

Insulation workers

42 2 40

Painters, construction and maintenance

392 612 17 375 615

Paperhangers

0 0 0

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

475 927 11 464 925

Plasterers and stucco masons

25 0 25

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12 0 12

Roofers

161 623 3 158 624

Sheet metal workers

117 819 3 115 820

Structural iron and steel workers

61 976 1 60 983

Solar photovoltaic installers

10 0 10

Helpers, construction trades

42 2 40

Construction and building inspectors

68 996 6 62 1,040

Elevator installers and repairers

41 0 41

Fence erectors

30 0 29

Hazardous materials removal workers

28 4 24

Highway maintenance workers

85 745 2 83 723

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

8 0 8

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

9 0 9

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

17 0 17

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

29 0 29

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23 0 23

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

10 0 9

Mining machine operators

48 0 48

Roof bolters, mining

3 0 3

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 0 4

Helpers--extraction workers

3 0 3

Other extraction workers

29 0 29

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,201 861 144 783 4,057 863 90.7

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

246 1,020 25 221 1,016

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

165 851 15 150 861

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

132 950 22 110 975

Avionics technicians

8 0 8

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

26 2 23

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

3 0 3

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

15 1 14

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

8 0 8

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

33 1 32

Security and fire alarm systems installers

69 927 1 68 909

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

136 1,047 2 134 1,053

Automotive body and related repairers

117 761 5 112 770

Automotive glass installers and repairers

14 0 14

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

688 730 11 677 729

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

298 874 1 297 875

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

198 964 0 198 964

Small engine mechanics

32 1 30

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

74 641 0 73 646

Control and valve installers and repairers

33 1 32

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

361 864 4 357 868

Home appliance repairers

25 0 25

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

385 968 11 374 973

Maintenance and repair workers, general

514 796 13 502 797

Maintenance workers, machinery

20 1 19

Millwrights

35 0 35

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

126 1,161 1 125 1,165

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

172 850 4 168 824

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

56 910 10 46

Wind turbine service technicians

5 0 5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

27 3 24

Commercial divers

1 0 1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

12 0 12

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

7 0 7

Riggers

11 0 11

Signal and track switch repairers

4 0 4

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

10 1 9

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

137 773 8 130 782

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,606 665 2,945 531 11,661 704 75.4

Production occupations

7,513 668 1,949 527 5,564 723 72.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

729 923 131 723 599 972 74.4

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

6 2 4

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

105 590 50 554 55 618 89.6

Engine and other machine assemblers

6 0 6

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22 0 22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

990 601 345 559 645 625 89.4

Bakers

138 494 83 480 55 562 85.4

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

244 526 61 449 183 571 78.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

16 2 14

Food batchmakers

81 537 42 40

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 1 6

Food processing workers, all other

129 547 41 88 579

Computer control programmers and operators

85 802 6 80 843

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 2 11

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 0 5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 3 9

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

86 639 18 68 672

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 0 8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45 3 42

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 0 12

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 0 2

Machinists

326 824 13 313 844

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31 1 30

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

3 0 3

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

28 7 21

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 1 1

Tool and die makers

43 0 43

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

558 743 23 535 753

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 0 2

Layout workers, metal and plastic

6 0 6

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

21 2 20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

4 0 4

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

380 626 74 565 306 658 85.9

Prepress technicians and workers

15 7 8

Printing press operators

170 701 33 137 748

Print binding and finishing workers

11 2 9

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

135 454 80 436 55 486 89.7

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

30 20 10

Sewing machine operators

165 437 114 452 52 407 111.1

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

4 1 3

Shoe machine operators and tenders

1 0 1

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

32 25 7

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 0 0

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

7 3 4

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13 11 2

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 4 2

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 0 0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1 0 1

Upholsterers

20 1 19

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

13 2 11

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

35 5 30

Furniture finishers

9 1 8

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 0 0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

31 4 27

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23 4 19

Woodworkers, all other

17 1 15

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

39 2 37

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

77 924 4 72 954

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

76 883 3 72 885

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42 3 38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

50 924 4 46

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

88 643 6 82 642

Cutting workers

62 576 13 50 546

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

24 4 19

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

11 1 10

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

686 714 241 584 445 834 70.0

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

18 7 11

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

64 615 31 33

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

224 488 113 425 112 574 74.0

Painting workers

158 701 11 147 713

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

23 12 11

Semiconductor processors

2 0 2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

12 5 7

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

2 0 2

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0 0 0

Etchers and engravers

3 0 3

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

16 2 14

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

27 7 21

Tire builders

11 1 10

Helpers--production workers

25 3 23

Production workers, all other

887 622 246 515 641 690 74.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,093 662 997 540 6,097 685 78.8

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

165 807 39 126 843

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

119 1,582 7 112 1,600

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

28 10 19

Flight attendants

68 873 49 19

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

15 2 13

Bus drivers

343 641 146 589 197 691 85.2

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,809 780 120 630 2,689 787 80.1

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

261 580 38 222 595

Motor vehicle operators, all other

25 2 23

Locomotive engineers and operators

45 0 45