December 2018 Report 1077

Women in the labor force: a databook

Women in the labor force: a databook image

In 2017, 57.0 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was slightly above the 56.8 percent who participated in 2016, but still 3 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.1 percent in 2017, essentially unchanged from the previous year and 17.5 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. After reaching a peak in 1999, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline. This decline accelerated following the Great Recession of 2007–09 until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 at 56.7 percent.

Women’s involvement in the labor market changed in several notable ways since the 1940s as other socioeconomic factors were also shifting. First, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree nearly quadrupled from 1970 to 2017, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women also have become more likely to work full time and year round. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 82 percent in 2017.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation edged up to 57.0 percent in 2017 from 56.8 percent in 2016. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.1 percent in 2017, essentially unchanged from the previous year. (See table 2.)

In 2017, the unemployment rate for women was 4.3 percent, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 4.4 percent in 2017, also down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s jobless rates varied by race and ethnicity. Asian women had the lowest rate (3.4 percent), followed by White (3.8 percent), Hispanic or Latino (5.7 percent), and Black or African American (6.9 percent) women; men’s jobless rates exhibit this same pattern. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never married women had the highest participation rate of all women at 64.3 percent in 2017. Divorced women (61.5 percent) and separated women (61.7 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than married women (58.2 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (72.9 percent) than never married men (67.4 percent), divorced men (65.2 percent), and separated men (70.7 percent). Among both women and men, those who were widowed were the least likely to participate in the labor force. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 71.3 percent in March 2017, up from 70.8 percent in 2016. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 76.0 percent in March 2017, was higher than for those with younger children. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 65.1 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 63.1 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2017, 76.1 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 69.3 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past 45 years. In 2017, 43 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2017, 6 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

In 2017, women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 19 percent of software developers, 28 percent of chief executives, and 40 percent of physicians and surgeons were women, whereas 90 percent of registered nurses, 79 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 60 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (50 percent and 45 percent, respectively) in 2017 than were Black (36 percent) and Hispanic women (28 percent). Meanwhile, Hispanic (32 percent) and Black women (27 percent) were more likely than Asian and White women (21 percent and 20 percent, respectively) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

In 2017, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors: financial activities (53 percent), education and health services (75 percent), leisure and hospitality (51 percent), and other services (52 percent). (Other services includes repair and maintenance industries; personal and laundry services; membership associations and organizations; and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (25 percent), mining (13 percent), construction (9 percent), manufacturing (30 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2017, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $770, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($941). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($903) and Whites ($795) than for Blacks ($657) and Hispanics ($603). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (93 percent) and Hispanics (87 percent) than for Whites (82 percent) and Asians (75 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2017, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had median usual weekly earnings of $447. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $610, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $727, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,131. (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2017 for female chief executives ($1,920), pharmacists ($1,834), and nurse practitioners ($1,832). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,415); physicians and surgeons ($2,277); pharmacists ($2,228); and architectural and engineering managers ($2,020). (See table 18.)

In 2017, 3 percent of women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 7 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2017, 24 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2017. This rate for men had trended up during the Great Recession before beginning a gradual decline in 2012. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2016, 62 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 75 percent in 2016. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 54 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2016, compared with 44 percent in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 18 percent of married-couple families in 2016, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2016, more women (4.1 million) than men (3.4 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.8 percent for women and 4.2 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were about two times more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 10.5 percent and 9.6 percent, respectively, compared with 4.9 percent for White women and 4.0 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2015 through December 2017, 3.0 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2018: the reemployment rate was 65 percent for women and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2018, at 14 percent and 15 percent, respectively. About 21 percent of displaced women and 18 percent of displaced men had left the labor force in January 2018. (See table 27; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2018, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for women was unchanged from January 2016, at 4.0 years. Tenure for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 2.9 million youth ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2017, about 67 percent (1.9 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For 2017 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 72 percent for young women and 61 percent for young men. (See table 29; data are from the October 2017 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among high school students, young women were more likely to be in the labor force (24.8 percent) in October 2017 than young men (20.9 percent). Labor force participation rates followed the same pattern among college students: college women had a labor force participation rate of 51.5 percent, and college men had a participation rate of 47.1 percent. (See table 30; data are from the October 2017 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among youth ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2017, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 15.1 percent for both young women and young men. In contrast, the jobless rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 5.3 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively.

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2017, 7.5 million workers had more than one job. About half (3.8 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.3 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.6 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2017, 5.0 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.5 percent of their male counterparts. Among the self-employed, 41 percent were women in 2017, compared with 27 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign-born women

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2017 (54.5 percent, compared with 57.5 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (78.1 percent) than were native-born men (67.3 percent). Among women, the unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 4.8 percent, was higher than that for native-born women, at 4.2 percent. At 3.6 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.6 percent). (See table 33.)

Women and union membership

In 2017, 10.0 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.4 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2017 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

Women veterans

There were 1.2 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2017. Women accounted for about 12 percent of the 10.1 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 4.1 percent in 2017, was similar to that of male veterans, at 3.6 percent. (See table 35.)

Women with disabilities

Of the 16.2 million women with disabilities in 2017, 2.8 million, or 17.4 percent, participated in the labor force. About half of all women with disabilities were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.4 percent, compared with 30.0 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among men, 24.2 percent of those with disabilities participated in the labor force in 2017. Just under half of all men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.7 percent were labor force participants, compared with 35.2 percent of men ages 16 to 64.

Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 9.5 percent and that for men was 9.0 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (4.1 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively). (See table 36.) 

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

16 years and older

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

16 to 19 years

16,754 5,901 35.2 5,074 30.3 827 14.0 10,853

16 to 17 years

9,073 2,237 24.7 1,890 20.8 347 15.5 6,836

18 to 19 years

7,681 3,664 47.7 3,184 41.4 480 13.1 4,017

20 to 24 years

21,396 15,259 71.3 14,132 66.0 1,127 7.4 6,137

25 to 54 years

125,697 102,683 81.7 98,833 78.6 3,850 3.7 23,014

25 to 34 years

43,958 36,086 82.1 34,439 78.3 1,647 4.6 7,873

25 to 29 years

22,627 18,536 81.9 17,621 77.9 914 4.9 4,092

30 to 34 years

21,331 17,550 82.3 16,817 78.8 733 4.2 3,781

35 to 44 years

39,952 33,034 82.7 31,892 79.8 1,143 3.5 6,917

35 to 39 years

20,713 17,080 82.5 16,477 79.5 604 3.5 3,633

40 to 44 years

19,239 15,954 82.9 15,415 80.1 539 3.4 3,285

45 to 54 years

41,787 33,563 80.3 32,503 77.8 1,060 3.2 8,224

45 to 49 years

20,620 16,891 81.9 16,365 79.4 526 3.1 3,729

50 to 54 years

21,167 16,672 78.8 16,138 76.2 534 3.2 4,495

55 to 64 years

41,691 26,899 64.5 26,064 62.5 835 3.1 14,792

55 to 59 years

21,722 15,625 71.9 15,134 69.7 490 3.1 6,098

60 to 64 years

19,969 11,274 56.5 10,930 54.7 344 3.1 8,694

65 years and older

49,542 9,577 19.3 9,234 18.6 343 3.6 39,964

65 to 69 years

16,734 5,408 32.3 5,219 31.2 189 3.5 11,326

70 to 74 years

12,655 2,487 19.7 2,388 18.9 99 4.0 10,168

75 years and older

20,153 1,682 8.3 1,627 8.1 55 3.3 18,470

Women

16 years and older

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

16 to 19 years

8,261 2,962 35.9 2,591 31.4 371 12.5 5,299

16 to 17 years

4,486 1,180 26.3 1,008 22.5 172 14.6 3,306

18 to 19 years

3,775 1,782 47.2 1,583 41.9 199 11.1 1,994

20 to 24 years

10,669 7,311 68.5 6,851 64.2 460 6.3 3,358

25 to 54 years

63,846 47,870 75.0 46,016 72.1 1,854 3.9 15,975

25 to 34 years

22,139 16,712 75.5 15,949 72.0 763 4.6 5,427

25 to 29 years

11,359 8,681 76.4 8,268 72.8 413 4.8 2,678

30 to 34 years

10,780 8,031 74.5 7,681 71.2 351 4.4 2,749

35 to 44 years

20,354 15,257 75.0 14,690 72.2 568 3.7 5,097

35 to 39 years

10,529 7,823 74.3 7,523 71.5 300 3.8 2,706

40 to 44 years

9,826 7,434 75.7 7,167 72.9 268 3.6 2,391

45 to 54 years

21,352 15,901 74.5 15,377 72.0 523 3.3 5,451

45 to 49 years

10,518 7,972 75.8 7,700 73.2 273 3.4 2,546

50 to 54 years

10,834 7,929 73.2 7,678 70.9 251 3.2 2,906

55 to 64 years

21,637 12,743 58.9 12,354 57.1 389 3.1 8,894

55 to 59 years

11,212 7,423 66.2 7,187 64.1 237 3.2 3,789

60 to 64 years

10,425 5,320 51.0 5,167 49.6 153 2.9 5,104

65 years and older

27,390 4,288 15.7 4,124 15.1 164 3.8 23,102

65 to 69 years

8,874 2,478 27.9 2,392 27.0 86 3.5 6,395

70 to 74 years

6,811 1,102 16.2 1,053 15.5 50 4.5 5,708

75 years and older

11,705 707 6.0 679 5.8 28 4.0 10,998

Men

16 years and older

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

16 to 19 years

8,493 2,939 34.6 2,483 29.2 457 15.5 5,553

16 to 17 years

4,587 1,057 23.0 882 19.2 175 16.5 3,530

18 to 19 years

3,906 1,882 48.2 1,601 41.0 282 15.0 2,023

20 to 24 years

10,726 7,948 74.1 7,281 67.9 667 8.4 2,778

25 to 54 years

61,851 54,813 88.6 52,817 85.4 1,996 3.6 7,038

25 to 34 years

21,819 19,374 88.8 18,490 84.7 884 4.6 2,446

25 to 29 years

11,268 9,855 87.5 9,353 83.0 502 5.1 1,413

30 to 34 years

10,551 9,519 90.2 9,136 86.6 382 4.0 1,032

35 to 44 years

19,597 17,777 90.7 17,202 87.8 575 3.2 1,820

35 to 39 years

10,184 9,257 90.9 8,953 87.9 304 3.3 927

40 to 44 years

9,413 8,520 90.5 8,248 87.6 271 3.2 893

45 to 54 years

20,435 17,662 86.4 17,125 83.8 537 3.0 2,772

45 to 49 years

10,102 8,919 88.3 8,665 85.8 254 2.8 1,183

50 to 54 years

10,333 8,744 84.6 8,461 81.9 283 3.2 1,589

55 to 64 years

20,054 14,156 70.6 13,710 68.4 445 3.1 5,898

55 to 59 years

10,510 8,201 78.0 7,948 75.6 254 3.1 2,308

60 to 64 years

9,544 5,954 62.4 5,763 60.4 191 3.2 3,590

65 years and older

22,151 5,289 23.9 5,111 23.1 179 3.4 16,862

65 to 69 years

7,860 2,930 37.3 2,827 36.0 102 3.5 4,930

70 to 74 years

5,844 1,384 23.7 1,335 22.8 49 3.6 4,460

75 years and older

8,447 975 11.5 948 11.2 27 2.8 7,472

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

1948

103,068 60,621 58.8 58,343 56.6 2,276 3.8 42,447

1949

103,994 61,286 58.9 57,651 55.4 3,637 5.9 42,708

1950

104,995 62,208 59.2 58,918 56.1 3,288 5.3 42,787

1951

104,621 62,017 59.2 59,961 57.3 2,055 3.3 42,604

1952

105,231 62,138 59.0 60,250 57.3 1,883 3.0 43,093

1953

107,056 63,015 58.9 61,179 57.1 1,834 2.9 44,041

1954

108,321 63,643 58.8 60,109 55.5 3,532 5.5 44,678

1955

109,683 65,023 59.3 62,170 56.7 2,852 4.4 44,660

1956

110,954 66,552 60.0 63,799 57.5 2,750 4.1 44,402

1957

112,265 66,929 59.6 64,071 57.1 2,859 4.3 45,336

1958

113,727 67,639 59.5 63,036 55.4 4,602 6.8 46,088

1959

115,329 68,369 59.3 64,630 56.0 3,740 5.5 46,960

1960

117,245 69,628 59.4 65,778 56.1 3,852 5.5 47,617

1961

118,771 70,459 59.3 65,746 55.4 4,714 6.7 48,312

1962

120,153 70,614 58.8 66,702 55.5 3,911 5.5 49,539

1963

122,416 71,833 58.7 67,762 55.4 4,070 5.7 50,583

1964

124,485 73,091 58.7 69,305 55.7 3,786 5.2 51,394

1965

126,513 74,455 58.9 71,088 56.2 3,366 4.5 52,058

1966

128,058 75,770 59.2 72,895 56.9 2,875 3.8 52,288

1967

129,874 77,347 59.6 74,372 57.3 2,975 3.8 52,527

1968

132,028 78,737 59.6 75,920 57.5 2,817 3.6 53,291

1969

134,335 80,734 60.1 77,902 58.0 2,832 3.5 53,602

1970

137,085 82,771 60.4 78,678 57.4 4,093 4.9 54,315

1971

140,216 84,382 60.2 79,367 56.6 5,016 5.9 55,834

1972

144,126 87,034 60.4 82,153 57.0 4,882 5.6 57,091

1973

147,096 89,429 60.8 85,064 57.8 4,365 4.9 57,667

1974

150,120 91,949 61.3 86,794 57.8 5,156 5.6 58,171

1975

153,153 93,775 61.2 85,846 56.1 7,929 8.5 59,378

1976

156,150 96,158 61.6 88,752 56.8 7,406 7.7 59,991

1977

159,033 99,009 62.3 92,017 57.9 6,991 7.1 60,025

1978

161,910 102,251 63.2 96,048 59.3 6,202 6.1 59,659

1979

164,863 104,962 63.7 98,824 59.9 6,137 5.8 59,900

1980

167,745 106,940 63.8 99,303 59.2 7,637 7.1 60,806

1981

170,130 108,670 63.9 100,397 59.0 8,273 7.6 61,460

1982

172,271 110,204 64.0 99,526 57.8 10,678 9.7 62,067

1983

174,215 111,550 64.0 100,834 57.9 10,717 9.6 62,665

1984

176,383 113,544 64.4 105,005 59.5 8,539 7.5 62,839

1985

178,206 115,461 64.8 107,150 60.1 8,312 7.2 62,744

1986

180,587 117,834 65.3 109,597 60.7 8,237 7.0 62,752

1987

182,753 119,865 65.6 112,440 61.5 7,425 6.2 62,888

1988

184,613 121,669 65.9 114,968 62.3 6,701 5.5 62,944

1989

186,393 123,869 66.5 117,342 63.0 6,528 5.3 62,523

1990

189,164 125,840 66.5 118,793 62.8 7,047 5.6 63,324

1991

190,925 126,346 66.2 117,718 61.7 8,628 6.8 64,578

1992

192,805 128,105 66.4 118,492 61.5 9,613 7.5 64,700

1993

194,838 129,200 66.3 120,259 61.7 8,940 6.9 65,638

1994

196,814 131,056 66.6 123,060 62.5 7,996 6.1 65,758

1995

198,584 132,304 66.6 124,900 62.9 7,404 5.6 66,280

1996

200,591 133,943 66.8 126,708 63.2 7,236 5.4 66,647

1997

203,133 136,297 67.1 129,558 63.8 6,739 4.9 66,837

1998

205,220 137,673 67.1 131,463 64.1 6,210 4.5 67,547

1999

207,753 139,368 67.1 133,488 64.3 5,880 4.2 68,385

2000

212,577 142,583 67.1 136,891 64.4 5,692 4.0 69,994

2001

215,092 143,734 66.8 136,933 63.7 6,801 4.7 71,359

2002

217,570 144,863 66.6 136,485 62.7 8,378 5.8 72,707

2003

221,168 146,510 66.2 137,736 62.3 8,774 6.0 74,658

2004

223,357 147,401 66.0 139,252 62.3 8,149 5.5 75,956

2005

226,082 149,320 66.0 141,730 62.7 7,591 5.1 76,762

2006

228,815 151,428 66.2 144,427 63.1 7,001 4.6 77,387

2007

231,867 153,124 66.0 146,047 63.0 7,078 4.6 78,743

2008

233,788 154,287 66.0 145,362 62.2 8,924 5.8 79,501

2009

235,801 154,142 65.4 139,877 59.3 14,265 9.3 81,659

2010

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

2011

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

2012

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

2013

245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 58.6 11,460 7.4 90,290

2014

247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 59.0 9,617 6.2 92,025

2015

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

2016

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

2017

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

Women

1948

53,071 17,335 32.7 16,617 31.3 717 4.1 35,737

1949

53,670 17,788 33.1 16,723 31.2 1,065 6.0 35,883

1950

54,270 18,389 33.9 17,340 32.0 1,049 5.7 35,881

1951

54,895 19,016 34.6 18,181 33.1 834 4.4 35,879

1952

55,529 19,269 34.7 18,568 33.4 698 3.6 36,261

1953

56,305 19,382 34.4 18,749 33.3 632 3.3 36,924

1954

56,925 19,678 34.6 18,490 32.5 1,188 6.0 37,247

1955

57,574 20,548 35.7 19,551 34.0 998 4.9 37,026

1956

58,228 21,461 36.9 20,419 35.1 1,039 4.8 36,769

1957

58,951 21,732 36.9 20,714 35.1 1,018 4.7 37,218

1958

59,690 22,118 37.1 20,613 34.5 1,504 6.8 37,574

1959

60,534 22,483 37.1 21,164 35.0 1,320 5.9 38,053

1960

61,582 23,240 37.7 21,874 35.5 1,366 5.9 38,343

1961

62,484 23,806 38.1 22,090 35.4 1,717 7.2 38,679

1962

63,321 24,014 37.9 22,525 35.6 1,488 6.2 39,308

1963

64,494 24,704 38.3 23,105 35.8 1,598 6.5 39,791

1964

65,637 25,412 38.7 23,831 36.3 1,581 6.2 40,225

1965

66,731 26,200 39.3 24,748 37.1 1,452 5.5 40,531

1966

67,795 27,299 40.3 25,976 38.3 1,324 4.8 40,496

1967

68,968 28,360 41.1 26,893 39.0 1,468 5.2 40,608

1968

70,179 29,204 41.6 27,807 39.6 1,397 4.8 40,976

1969

71,436 30,513 42.7 29,084 40.7 1,429 4.7 40,924

1970

72,782 31,543 43.3 29,688 40.8 1,855 5.9 41,239

1971

74,274 32,202 43.4 29,976 40.4 2,227 6.9 42,072

1972

76,290 33,479 43.9 31,257 41.0 2,222 6.6 42,811

1973

77,804 34,804 44.7 32,715 42.0 2,089 6.0 43,000

1974

79,312 36,211 45.7 33,769 42.6 2,441 6.7 43,101

1975

80,860 37,475 46.3 33,989 42.0 3,486 9.3 43,385

1976

82,390 38,983 47.3 35,615 43.2 3,369 8.6 43,406

1977

83,840 40,613 48.4 37,289 44.5 3,324 8.2 43,227

1978

85,334 42,631 50.0 39,569 46.4 3,061 7.2 42,703

1979

86,843 44,235 50.9 41,217 47.5 3,018 6.8 42,608

1980

88,348 45,487 51.5 42,117 47.7 3,370 7.4 42,861

1981

89,618 46,696 52.1 43,000 48.0 3,696 7.9 42,922

1982

90,748 47,755 52.6 43,256 47.7 4,499 9.4 42,993

1983

91,684 48,503 52.9 44,047 48.0 4,457 9.2 43,181

1984

92,778 49,709 53.6 45,915 49.5 3,794 7.6 43,068

1985

93,736 51,050 54.5 47,259 50.4 3,791 7.4 42,686

1986

94,789 52,413 55.3 48,706 51.4 3,707 7.1 42,376

1987

95,853 53,658 56.0 50,334 52.5 3,324 6.2 42,195

1988

96,756 54,742 56.6 51,696 53.4 3,046 5.6 42,014

1989

97,630 56,030 57.4 53,027 54.3 3,003 5.4 41,601

1990

98,787 56,829 57.5 53,689 54.3 3,140 5.5 41,957

1991

99,646 57,178 57.4 53,496 53.7 3,683 6.4 42,468

1992

100,535 58,141 57.8 54,052 53.8 4,090 7.0 42,394

1993

101,506 58,795 57.9 54,910 54.1 3,885 6.6 42,711

1994

102,460 60,239 58.8 56,610 55.3 3,629 6.0 42,221

1995

103,406 60,944 58.9 57,523 55.6 3,421 5.6 42,462

1996

104,385 61,857 59.3 58,501 56.0 3,356 5.4 42,528

1997

105,418 63,036 59.8 59,873 56.8 3,162 5.0 42,382

1998

106,462 63,714 59.8 60,771 57.1 2,944 4.6 42,748

1999

108,031 64,855 60.0 62,042 57.4 2,814 4.3 43,175

2000

110,613 66,303 59.9 63,586 57.5 2,717 4.1 44,310

2001

111,811 66,848 59.8 63,737 57.0 3,111 4.7 44,962

2002

112,985 67,363 59.6 63,582 56.3 3,781 5.6 45,621

2003

114,733 68,272 59.5 64,404 56.1 3,868 5.7 46,461

2004

115,647 68,421 59.2 64,728 56.0 3,694 5.4 47,225

2005

116,931 69,288 59.3 65,757 56.2 3,531 5.1 47,643

2006

118,210 70,173 59.4 66,925 56.6 3,247 4.6 48,037

2007

119,694 70,988 59.3 67,792 56.6 3,196 4.5 48,707

2008

120,675 71,767 59.5 67,876 56.2 3,891 5.4 48,908

2009

121,665 72,019 59.2 66,208 54.4 5,811 8.1 49,646

2010

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

2011

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

2012

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

2013

127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 53.2 5,146 7.1 54,401

2014

128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 53.5 4,426 6.1 55,159

2015

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

2016

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

2017

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

Men

1948

49,996 43,286 86.6 41,725 83.5 1,559 3.6 6,710

1949

50,321 43,498 86.4 40,925 81.3 2,572 5.9 6,825

1950

50,725 43,819 86.4 41,578 82.0 2,239 5.1 6,906

1951

49,727 43,001 86.5 41,780 84.0 1,221 2.8 6,725

1952

49,700 42,869 86.3 41,682 83.9 1,185 2.8 6,832

1953

50,750 43,633 86.0 42,430 83.6 1,202 2.8 7,117

1954

51,395 43,965 85.5 41,619 81.0 2,344 5.3 7,431

1955

52,109 44,475 85.4 42,621 81.8 1,854 4.2 7,634

1956

52,723 45,091 85.5 43,379 82.3 1,711 3.8 7,633

1957

53,315 45,197 84.8 43,357 81.3 1,841 4.1 8,118

1958

54,033 45,521 84.2 42,423 78.5 3,098 6.8 8,514

1959

54,793 45,886 83.7 43,466 79.3 2,420 5.2 8,907

1960

55,662 46,388 83.3 43,904 78.9 2,486 5.4 9,274

1961

56,286 46,653 82.9 43,656 77.6 2,997 6.4 9,633

1962

56,831 46,600 82.0 44,177 77.7 2,423 5.2 10,231

1963

57,921 47,129 81.4 44,657 77.1 2,472 5.2 10,792

1964

58,847 47,679 81.0 45,474 77.3 2,205 4.6 11,169

1965

59,782 48,255 80.7 46,340 77.5 1,914 4.0 11,527

1966

60,262 48,471 80.4 46,919 77.9 1,551 3.2 11,792

1967

60,905 48,987 80.4 47,479 78.0 1,508 3.1 11,919

1968

61,847 49,533 80.1 48,114 77.8 1,419 2.9 12,315

1969

62,898 50,221 79.8 48,818 77.6 1,403 2.8 12,677

1970

64,304 51,228 79.7 48,990 76.2 2,238 4.4 13,076

1971

65,942 52,180 79.1 49,390 74.9 2,789 5.3 13,762

1972

67,835 53,555 78.9 50,896 75.0 2,659 5.0 14,280

1973

69,292 54,624 78.8 52,349 75.5 2,275 4.2 14,667

1974

70,808 55,739 78.7 53,024 74.9 2,714 4.9 15,069

1975

72,291 56,299 77.9 51,857 71.7 4,442 7.9 15,992

1976

73,759 57,174 77.5 53,138 72.0 4,036 7.1 16,585

1977

75,193 58,396 77.7 54,728 72.8 3,667 6.3 16,797

1978

76,576 59,620 77.9 56,479 73.8 3,142 5.3 16,956

1979

78,020 60,726 77.8 57,607 73.8 3,120 5.1 17,293

1980

79,398 61,453 77.4 57,186 72.0 4,267 6.9 17,945

1981

80,511 61,974 77.0 57,397 71.3 4,577 7.4 18,537

1982

81,523 62,450 76.6 56,271 69.0 6,179 9.9 19,073

1983

82,531 63,047 76.4 56,787 68.8 6,260 9.9 19,484

1984

83,605 63,835 76.4 59,091 70.7 4,744 7.4 19,771

1985

84,469 64,411 76.3 59,891 70.9 4,521 7.0 20,058

1986

85,798 65,422 76.3 60,892 71.0 4,530 6.9 20,376

1987

86,899 66,207 76.2 62,107 71.5 4,101 6.2 20,692

1988

87,857 66,927 76.2 63,273 72.0 3,655 5.5 20,930

1989

88,762 67,840 76.4 64,315 72.5 3,525 5.2 20,923

1990

90,377 69,011 76.4 65,104 72.0 3,906 5.7 21,367

1991

91,278 69,168 75.8 64,223 70.4 4,946 7.2 22,110

1992

92,270 69,964 75.8 64,440 69.8 5,523 7.9 22,306

1993

93,332 70,404 75.4 65,349 70.0 5,055 7.2 22,927

1994

94,355 70,817 75.1 66,450 70.4 4,367 6.2 23,538

1995

95,178 71,360 75.0 67,377 70.8 3,983 5.6 23,818

1996

96,206 72,087 74.9 68,207 70.9 3,880 5.4 24,119

1997

97,715 73,261 75.0 69,685 71.3 3,577 4.9 24,454

1998

98,758 73,959 74.9 70,693 71.6 3,266 4.4 24,799

1999

99,722 74,512 74.7 71,446 71.6 3,066 4.1 25,210

2000

101,964 76,280 74.8 73,305 71.9 2,975 3.9 25,684

2001

103,282 76,886 74.4 73,196 70.9 3,690 4.8 26,396

2002

104,585 77,500 74.1 72,903 69.7 4,597 5.9 27,085

2003

106,435 78,238 73.5 73,332 68.9 4,906 6.3 28,197

2004

107,710 78,980 73.3 74,524 69.2 4,456 5.6 28,730

2005

109,151 80,033 73.3 75,973 69.6 4,059 5.1 29,119

2006

110,605 81,255 73.5 77,502 70.1 3,753 4.6 29,350

2007

112,173 82,136 73.2 78,254 69.8 3,882 4.7 30,036

2008

113,113 82,520 73.0 77,486 68.5 5,033 6.1 30,593

2009

114,136 82,123 72.0 73,670 64.5 8,453 10.3 32,013

2010

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

2011

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

2012

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

2013

118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 64.4 6,314 7.6 35,889

2014

119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 64.9 5,190 6.3 36,865

2015

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

2016

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

2017

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

White

Total, 16 years and older

198,942 124,941 62.8 120,176 60.4 4,765 3.8 74,001

16 to 19 years

12,339 4,542 36.8 3,989 32.3 554 12.2 7,797

20 to 24 years

15,701 11,481 73.1 10,738 68.4 743 6.5 4,220

25 to 54 years

95,391 78,569 82.4 76,006 79.7 2,564 3.3 16,821

55 to 64 years

33,709 22,209 65.9 21,581 64.0 628 2.8 11,500

65 years and older

41,803 8,139 19.5 7,863 18.8 277 3.4 33,663

Women, 16 years and older

101,717 57,349 56.4 55,176 54.2 2,173 3.8 44,368

16 to 19 years

6,055 2,247 37.1 1,997 33.0 249 11.1 3,809

20 to 24 years

7,776 5,419 69.7 5,126 65.9 293 5.4 2,356

25 to 54 years

47,709 35,777 75.0 34,576 72.5 1,201 3.4 11,933

55 to 64 years

17,296 10,346 59.8 10,050 58.1 297 2.9 6,949

65 years and older

22,881 3,560 15.6 3,428 15.0 132 3.7 19,321

Men, 16 years and older

97,225 67,592 69.5 65,000 66.9 2,592 3.8 29,633

16 to 19 years

6,284 2,296 36.5 1,991 31.7 304 13.3 3,988

20 to 24 years

7,925 6,062 76.5 5,613 70.8 449 7.4 1,863

25 to 54 years

47,681 42,793 89.7 41,430 86.9 1,363 3.2 4,889

55 to 64 years

16,413 11,863 72.3 11,531 70.3 331 2.8 4,550

65 years and older

18,922 4,579 24.2 4,434 23.4 144 3.2 14,343

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

32,247 20,088 62.3 18,587 57.6 1,501 7.5 12,159

16 to 19 years

2,511 754 30.0 573 22.8 181 24.0 1,758

20 to 24 years

3,239 2,241 69.2 1,984 61.3 258 11.5 997

25 to 54 years

16,953 13,530 79.8 12,639 74.6 891 6.6 3,423

55 to 64 years

4,934 2,741 55.6 2,606 52.8 135 4.9 2,193

65 years and older

4,610 822 17.8 786 17.0 36 4.4 3,789

Women, 16 years and older

17,535 10,580 60.3 9,845 56.1 735 6.9 6,955

16 to 19 years

1,263 409 32.4 331 26.2 77 18.9 854

20 to 24 years

1,667 1,151 69.0 1,038 62.2 113 9.8 516

25 to 54 years

9,159 7,143 78.0 6,682 73.0 461 6.5 2,016

55 to 64 years

2,700 1,437 53.2 1,375 50.9 62 4.3 1,263

65 years and older

2,747 441 16.1 421 15.3 21 4.7 2,305

Men, 16 years and older

14,712 9,508 64.6 8,742 59.4 766 8.1 5,204

16 to 19 years

1,249 345 27.6 241 19.3 104 30.0 903

20 to 24 years

1,571 1,091 69.4 946 60.2 144 13.2 481

25 to 54 years

7,795 6,388 81.9 5,958 76.4 430 6.7 1,407

55 to 64 years

2,234 1,304 58.4 1,231 55.1 73 5.6 930

65 years and older

1,864 380 20.4 365 19.6 15 4.0 1,483

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

15,368 9,781 63.6 9,448 61.5 333 3.4 5,587

16 to 19 years

878 207 23.5 183 20.8 24 11.5 672

20 to 24 years

1,359 727 53.5 675 49.6 52 7.2 632

25 to 54 years

8,816 7,005 79.5 6,819 77.3 187 2.7 1,811

55 to 64 years

2,050 1,401 68.3 1,350 65.9 51 3.6 649

65 years and older

2,265 441 19.5 422 18.6 20 4.4 1,824

Women, 16 years and older

8,187 4,615 56.4 4,458 54.5 156 3.4 3,572

16 to 19 years

444 101 22.9 90 20.3 11 11.0 342

20 to 24 years

681 363 53.3 341 50.2 21 5.8 318

25 to 54 years

4,650 3,258 70.1 3,164 68.1 93 2.9 1,392

55 to 64 years

1,119 690 61.7 667 59.6 24 3.4 428

65 years and older

1,293 202 15.6 195 15.1 7 3.4 1,091

Men, 16 years and older

7,181 5,166 71.9 4,989 69.5 177 3.4 2,015

16 to 19 years

434 105 24.2 93 21.3 13 12.1 329

20 to 24 years

678 364 53.7 333 49.1 31 8.6 314

25 to 54 years

4,166 3,748 90.0 3,654 87.7 93 2.5 419

55 to 64 years

931 710 76.3 683 73.4 27 3.8 221

65 years and older

971 239 24.6 226 23.3 13 5.3 733

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

41,371 27,339 66.1 25,938 62.7 1,401 5.1 14,032

16 to 19 years

3,844 1,225 31.9 1,041 27.1 184 15.0 2,619

20 to 24 years

4,686 3,326 71.0 3,073 65.6 253 7.6 1,361

25 to 54 years

24,051 19,072 79.3 18,259 75.9 813 4.3 4,978

55 to 64 years

4,662 2,939 63.0 2,825 60.6 113 3.9 1,723

65 years and older

4,129 778 18.8 740 17.9 38 4.9 3,351

Women, 16 years and older

20,794 11,735 56.4 11,064 53.2 671 5.7 9,058

16 to 19 years

1,893 608 32.1 522 27.6 86 14.1 1,285

20 to 24 years

2,312 1,497 64.7 1,381 59.7 116 7.7 815

25 to 54 years

11,847 8,018 67.7 7,620 64.3 398 5.0 3,829

55 to 64 years

2,406 1,281 53.2 1,224 50.9 56 4.4 1,125

65 years and older

2,335 332 14.2 317 13.6 15 4.6 2,003

Men, 16 years and older

20,578 15,604 75.8 14,874 72.3 730 4.7 4,974

16 to 19 years

1,951 617 31.6 519 26.6 98 15.9 1,333

20 to 24 years

2,374 1,829 77.0 1,692 71.3 137 7.5 545

25 to 54 years

12,204 11,054 90.6 10,639 87.2 415 3.8 1,150

55 to 64 years

2,256 1,658 73.5 1,601 71.0 57 3.4 598

65 years and older

1,794 446 24.9 423 23.6 23 5.1 1,348

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

16 years and older

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

Married, spouse present(¹)

127,362 83,594 65.6 81,487 64.0 2,107 2.5 43,768

Other marital status(²)

127,717 76,726 60.1 71,850 56.3 4,875 6.4 50,991

Never married

78,378 51,685 65.9 47,995 61.2 3,690 7.1 26,693

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

49,339 25,041 50.8 23,856 48.4 1,185 4.7 24,298

Widowed

14,918 3,096 20.8 2,961 19.8 136 4.4 11,821

Divorced

25,555 16,113 63.1 15,394 60.2 718 4.5 9,443

Separated(³)

8,866 5,832 65.8 5,501 62.0 331 5.7 3,035

Women

16 years and older

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

Married, spouse present(¹)

63,178 36,776 58.2 35,782 56.6 994 2.7 26,402

Other marital status(²)

68,626 38,398 56.0 36,154 52.7 2,245 5.8 30,228

Never married

37,318 23,993 64.3 22,442 60.1 1,552 6.5 13,325

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

31,308 14,405 46.0 13,712 43.8 693 4.8 16,902

Widowed

11,597 2,278 19.6 2,178 18.8 99 4.4 9,319

Divorced

14,863 9,138 61.5 8,738 58.8 400 4.4 5,725

Separated(³)

4,848 2,989 61.7 2,796 57.7 193 6.5 1,858

Men

16 years and older

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

Married, spouse present(¹)

64,184 46,818 72.9 45,705 71.2 1,113 2.4 17,366

Other marital status(²)

59,091 38,327 64.9 35,696 60.4 2,631 6.9 20,764

Never married

41,059 27,691 67.4 25,553 62.2 2,138 7.7 13,368

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

18,032 10,636 59.0 10,144 56.3 492 4.6 7,396

Widowed

3,321 819 24.7 782 23.6 37 4.5 2,502

Divorced

10,692 6,974 65.2 6,656 62.3 318 4.6 3,718

Separated(³)

4,019 2,843 70.7 2,705 67.3 138 4.8 1,176
Footnotes:

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

Women, 16 years and older

131,469 75,537 57.5 72,289 55.0 3,248 4.3 55,932

With children under 18 years old

34,871 24,863 71.3 23,748 68.1 1,114 4.5 10,008

With children 6 to 17, none younger

19,833 15,080 76.0 14,481 73.0 599 4.0 4,753

With children under 6 years old

15,038 9,783 65.1 9,268 61.6 515 5.3 5,255

With children under 3 years old

8,638 5,449 63.1 5,153 59.7 296 5.4 3,189

With no children under 18 years old

96,598 50,675 52.5 48,541 50.3 2,134 4.2 45,924

Men, 16 years and older

122,944 84,355 68.6 80,267 65.3 4,088 4.8 38,590

With children under 18 years old

27,026 25,077 92.8 24,254 89.7 822 3.3 1,949

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,313 14,015 91.5 13,617 88.9 398 2.8 1,298

With children under 6 years old

11,713 11,062 94.4 10,638 90.8 424 3.8 651

With children under 3 years old

6,809 6,475 95.1 6,231 91.5 244 3.8 334

With no children under 18 years old

95,919 59,278 61.8 56,012 58.4 3,266 5.5 36,641

White

Women, 16 years and older

101,554 57,764 56.9 55,605 54.8 2,159 3.7 43,789

With children under 18 years old

26,123 18,545 71.0 17,850 68.3 695 3.7 7,578

With children 6 to 17, none younger

14,898 11,315 75.9 10,938 73.4 377 3.3 3,583

With children under 6 years old

11,225 7,230 64.4 6,912 61.6 318 4.4 3,995

With children under 3 years old

6,507 4,084 62.8 3,888 59.7 196 4.8 2,423

With no children under 18 years old

75,431 39,220 52.0 37,755 50.1 1,465 3.7 36,211

Men, 16 years and older

97,043 67,119 69.2 64,251 66.2 2,868 4.3 29,924

With children under 18 years old

21,511 20,163 93.7 19,544 90.9 618 3.1 1,349

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,172 11,284 92.7 10,977 90.2 306 2.7 888

With children under 6 years old

9,339 8,879 95.1 8,567 91.7 312 3.5 461

With children under 3 years old

5,493 5,240 95.4 5,057 92.1 183 3.5 253

With no children under 18 years old

75,532 46,957 62.2 44,707 59.2 2,250 4.8 28,575

Black or African American

Women, 16 years and older

17,475 10,600 60.7 9,834 56.3 766 7.2 6,875

With children under 18 years old

4,931 3,816 77.4 3,500 71.0 316 8.3 1,114

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,813 2,259 80.3 2,092 74.4 167 7.4 554

With children under 6 years old

2,117 1,557 73.5 1,408 66.5 149 9.6 561

With children under 3 years old

1,189 834 70.1 752 63.3 82 9.8 355

With no children under 18 years old

12,544 6,784 54.1 6,334 50.5 449 6.6 5,761

Men, 16 years and older

14,652 9,314 63.6 8,514 58.1 799 8.6 5,338

With children under 18 years old

2,494 2,148 86.1 2,035 81.6 113 5.3 346

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,402 1,159 82.6 1,110 79.2 49 4.2 243

With children under 6 years old

1,092 989 90.6 925 84.7 65 6.6 103

With children under 3 years old

639 600 93.8 569 89.0 31 5.1 40

With no children under 18 years old

12,157 7,165 58.9 6,480 53.3 686 9.6 4,992

Asian

Women, 16 years and older

8,146 4,605 56.5 4,440 54.5 165 3.6 3,542

With children under 18 years old

2,547 1,658 65.1 1,616 63.4 42 2.5 889

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,514 1,080 71.4 1,051 69.4 30 2.7 433

With children under 6 years old

1,033 577 55.9 565 54.7 12 2.2 456

With children under 3 years old

545 296 54.3 296 54.3 0 0.1 249

With no children under 18 years old

5,600 2,947 52.6 2,824 50.4 123 4.2 2,653

Men, 16 years and older

7,253 5,208 71.8 5,015 69.1 193 3.7 2,045

With children under 18 years old

2,159 2,013 93.2 1,974 91.4 39 1.9 146

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,280 1,185 92.6 1,156 90.3 29 2.4 95

With children under 6 years old

879 828 94.2 818 93.0 10 1.2 51

With children under 3 years old

453 426 94.2 420 92.8 6 1.4 26

With no children under 18 years old

5,094 3,194 62.7 3,040 59.7 154 4.8 1,899

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Women, 16 years and older

20,645 11,783 57.1 11,160 54.1 623 5.3 8,862

With children under 18 years old

7,643 4,742 62.0 4,478 58.6 263 5.6 2,902

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,191 2,857 68.2 2,705 64.5 152 5.3 1,335

With children under 6 years old

3,452 1,885 54.6 1,773 51.4 112 5.9 1,567

With children under 3 years old

1,871 946 50.6 886 47.3 61 6.4 925

With no children under 18 years old

13,002 7,042 54.2 6,682 51.4 360 5.1 5,960

Men, 16 years and older

20,435 15,279 74.8 14,457 70.7 823 5.4 5,156

With children under 18 years old

5,671 5,290 93.3 5,068 89.4 222 4.2 381

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,100 2,871 92.6 2,759 89.0 112 3.9 229

With children under 6 years old

2,571 2,419 94.1 2,309 89.8 110 4.6 152

With children under 3 years old

1,403 1,334 95.1 1,276 90.9 58 4.4 69

With no children under 18 years old

14,764 9,989 67.7 9,389 63.6 601 6.0 4,775

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest child Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

131,469 75,537 57.5 72,289 55.0 3,248 4.3 55,932

With children under 18 years old

34,871 24,863 71.3 23,748 68.1 1,114 4.5 10,008

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

19,833 15,080 76.0 14,481 73.0 599 4.0 4,753

With children under 6 years old

15,038 9,783 65.1 9,268 61.6 515 5.3 5,255

With children under 3 years old

8,638 5,449 63.1 5,153 59.7 296 5.4 3,189

With no children under 18 years old

96,598 50,675 52.5 48,541 50.3 2,134 4.2 45,924

Total, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

63,295 37,414 59.1 36,383 57.5 1,031 2.8 25,880

With children under 18 years old

24,443 16,931 69.3 16,406 67.1 525 3.1 7,512

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

13,733 10,199 74.3 9,883 72.0 316 3.1 3,534

With children under 6 years old

10,710 6,732 62.9 6,523 60.9 209 3.1 3,977

With children under 3 years old

6,275 3,882 61.9 3,762 60.0 120 3.1 2,393

With no children under 18 years old

38,852 20,483 52.7 19,978 51.4 505 2.5 18,369

Total, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

68,174 38,123 55.9 35,906 52.7 2,217 5.8 30,051

With children under 18 years old

10,428 7,932 76.1 7,343 70.4 589 7.4 2,496

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

6,100 4,881 80.0 4,598 75.4 283 5.8 1,219

With children under 6 years old

4,328 3,051 70.5 2,744 63.4 306 10.0 1,277

With children under 3 years old

2,362 1,567 66.3 1,391 58.9 176 11.2 796

With no children under 18 years old

57,746 30,191 52.3 28,563 49.5 1,628 5.4 27,555

White, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

101,554 57,764 56.9 55,605 54.8 2,159 3.7 43,789

With children under 18 years old

26,123 18,545 71.0 17,850 68.3 695 3.7 7,578

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

14,898 11,315 75.9 10,938 73.4 377 3.3 3,583

With children under 6 years old

11,225 7,230 64.4 6,912 61.6 318 4.4 3,995

With children under 3 years old

6,507 4,084 62.8 3,888 59.7 196 4.8 2,423

With no children under 18 years old

75,431 39,220 52.0 37,755 50.1 1,465 3.7 36,211

White, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

52,260 30,611 58.6 29,837 57.1 774 2.5 21,649

With children under 18 years old

19,499 13,546 69.5 13,149 67.4 396 2.9 5,953

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

10,944 8,160 74.6 7,924 72.4 235 2.9 2,784

With children under 6 years old

8,555 5,386 63.0 5,225 61.1 161 3.0 3,169

With children under 3 years old

5,080 3,165 62.3 3,064 60.3 101 3.2 1,915

With no children under 18 years old

32,761 17,065 52.1 16,688 50.9 377 2.2 15,696

White, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

49,294 27,154 55.1 25,768 52.3 1,386 5.1 22,140

With children under 18 years old

6,624 4,999 75.5 4,701 71.0 298 6.0 1,625

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

3,955 3,155 79.8 3,014 76.2 142 4.5 799

With children under 6 years old

2,669 1,843 69.1 1,687 63.2 157 8.5 826

With children under 3 years old

1,427 919 64.4 823 57.7 95 10.4 508

With no children under 18 years old

42,670 22,155 51.9 21,068 49.4 1,087 4.9 20,515

Black or African American, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

17,475 10,600 60.7 9,834 56.3 766 7.2 6,875

With children under 18 years old

4,931 3,816 77.4 3,500 71.0 316 8.3 1,114

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,813 2,259 80.3 2,092 74.4 167 7.4 554

With children under 6 years old

2,117 1,557 73.5 1,408 66.5 149 9.6 561

With children under 3 years old

1,189 834 70.1 752 63.3 82 9.8 355

With no children under 18 years old

12,544 6,784 54.1 6,334 50.5 449 6.6 5,761

Black or African American, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,710 3,037 64.5 2,898 61.5 139 4.6 1,672

With children under 18 years old

1,891 1,440 76.2 1,372 72.6 68 4.7 451

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,080 858 79.4 816 75.6 41 4.8 223

With children under 6 years old

811 583 71.9 556 68.6 27 4.6 228

With children under 3 years old

480 331 69.0 318 66.3 13 4.0 149

With no children under 18 years old

2,819 1,597 56.7 1,526 54.1 71 4.5 1,222

Black or African American, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

12,765 7,562 59.2 6,936 54.3 626 8.3 5,202

With children under 18 years old

3,040 2,376 78.2 2,127 70.0 248 10.5 664

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,733 1,402 80.9 1,276 73.6 126 9.0 331

With children under 6 years old

1,307 974 74.5 852 65.2 123 12.6 333

With children under 3 years old

709 502 70.9 434 61.2 68 13.6 206

With no children under 18 years old

9,725 5,186 53.3 4,808 49.4 378 7.3 4,539

Asian, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

8,146 4,605 56.5 4,440 54.5 165 3.6 3,542

With children under 18 years old

2,547 1,658 65.1 1,616 63.4 42 2.5 889

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,514 1,080 71.4 1,051 69.4 30 2.7 433

With children under 6 years old

1,033 577 55.9 565 54.7 12 2.2 456

With children under 3 years old

545 296 54.3 296 54.3 0 0.1 249

With no children under 18 years old

5,600 2,947 52.6 2,824 50.4 123 4.2 2,653

Asian, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,755 2,810 59.1 2,731 57.4 78 2.8 1,946

With children under 18 years old

2,297 1,462 63.6 1,425 62.0 37 2.5 835

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,342 943 70.3 918 68.4 25 2.6 399

With children under 6 years old

956 519 54.3 507 53.1 12 2.3 436

With children under 3 years old

496 261 52.6 261 52.6 - - 235

With no children under 18 years old

2,458 1,347 54.8 1,306 53.1 41 3.1 1,110

Asian, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

3,391 1,795 52.9 1,708 50.4 87 4.8 1,596

With children under 18 years old

249 196 78.4 190 76.4 5 2.6 54

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

172 138 79.9 133 77.0 5 3.6 35

With children under 6 years old

77 58 75.2 58 74.9 0 19

With children under 3 years old

50 36 71.8 35 71.3 0 14

With no children under 18 years old

3,142 1,600 50.9 1,518 48.3 81 5.1 1,542

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

20,645 11,783 57.1 11,160 54.1 623 5.3 8,862

With children under 18 years old

7,643 4,742 62.0 4,478 58.6 263 5.6 2,902

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

4,191 2,857 68.2 2,705 64.5 152 5.3 1,335

With children under 6 years old

3,452 1,885 54.6 1,773 51.4 112 5.9 1,567

With children under 3 years old

1,871 946 50.6 886 47.3 61 6.4 925

With no children under 18 years old

13,002 7,042 54.2 6,682 51.4 360 5.1 5,960

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present)

Total women, 16 years and older

9,397 5,144 54.7 4,933 52.5 211 4.1 4,253

With children under 18 years old

5,142 2,892 56.3 2,760 53.7 133 4.6 2,249

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,807 1,755 62.5 1,677 59.7 78 4.5 1,052

With children under 6 years old

2,335 1,137 48.7 1,083 46.4 54 4.8 1,197

With children under 3 years old

1,279 586 45.8 556 43.4 30 5.2 694

With no children under 18 years old

4,255 2,252 52.9 2,174 51.1 78 3.5 2,003

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

11,248 6,639 59.0 6,227 55.4 412 6.2 4,609

With children under 18 years old

2,502 1,849 73.9 1,719 68.7 130 7.1 652

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,385 1,102 79.6 1,028 74.3 73 6.6 283

With children under 6 years old

1,117 748 66.9 690 61.8 57 7.7 370

With children under 3 years old

591 360 60.9 330 55.8 30 8.4 231

With no children under 18 years old

8,747 4,790 54.8 4,508 51.5 281 5.9 3,957
Footnotes:

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian labor force Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

With children under age 18

1975

14,616 47.4 13,069 1,548 11.0

1976

15,073 48.8 13,725 1,346 8.9

1977

15,669 50.8 14,276 1,393 8.9

1978

16,385 53.0 15,142 1,242 7.6

1979

16,883 54.5 15,624 1,259 7.7

1980

17,790 56.6 16,526 1,264 7.1

1981

18,422 58.1 16,952 1,471 8.0

1982

18,744 58.5 16,854 1,890 10.1

1983

18,924 58.9 16,792 2,131 11.3

1984

19,555 60.5 17,782 1,773 9.1

1985

20,041 62.1 18,306 1,735 8.7

1986

20,620 62.8 18,922 1,698 8.2

1987

21,422 64.7 19,798 1,624 7.6

1988

21,545 65.1 20,141 1,404 6.5

1989

21,936 65.7 20,647 1,289 5.9

1990

22,196 66.7 20,865 1,331 6.0

1991

22,327 66.6 20,774 1,552 7.0

1992

22,756 67.2 21,052 1,704 7.5

1993

23,063 66.9 21,521 1,541 6.7

1994

24,191 68.4 22,467 1,724 7.1

1995

24,695 69.7 23,195 1,500 6.1

1996

24,720 70.2 23,386 1,334 5.4

1997

25,604 72.1 24,082 1,522 5.9

1998

25,647 72.3 24,209 1,438 5.6

1999

25,472 72.1 24,307 1,165 4.6

2000

25,795 72.9 24,693 1,102 4.3

2001

26,269 72.7 25,030 1,239 4.7

2002

26,140 72.2 24,612 1,529 5.8

2003

26,202 71.7 24,598 1,603 6.1

2004

25,913 70.7 24,413 1,501 5.8

2005

25,941 70.5 24,564 1,377 5.3

2006

26,009 70.6 24,728 1,281 4.9

2007

26,834 71.3 25,646 1,188 4.4

2008

25,930 71.2 24,637 1,294 5.0

2009

26,122 71.6 24,079 2,043 7.8

2010

25,783 71.3 23,510 2,273 8.8

2011

25,376 70.9 23,109 2,266 8.9

2012

25,384 70.9 23,366 2,018 7.9

2013

25,112 70.3 23,121 1,991 7.9

2014

25,209 70.8 23,542 1,667 6.6

2015

25,107 69.9 23,841 1,265 5.0

2016

25,070 70.8 23,877 1,193 4.8

2017

24,863 71.3 23,748 1,114 4.5

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1975

8,917 54.9 8,218 700 7.9

1976

9,388 56.2 8,769 621 6.6

1977

10,040 58.3 9,389 650 6.5

1978

10,401 60.0 9,845 556 5.3

1979

10,646 61.6 10,030 615 5.8

1980

11,252 64.3 10,640 612 5.4

1981

11,490 65.5 10,725 765 6.7

1982

11,377 65.8 10,440 936 8.2

1983

11,340 66.3 10,303 1,037 9.1

1984

11,538 68.1 10,739 799 6.9

1985

11,826 69.9 10,984 842 7.1

1986

12,075 70.4 11,320 756 6.3

1987

12,438 72.0 11,661 778 6.3

1988

12,683 73.3 12,042 641 5.1

1989

12,800 74.2 12,168 632 4.9

1990

12,799 74.7 12,133 666 5.2

1991

12,691 74.4 12,017 674 5.3

1992

13,183 75.9 12,391 793 6.0

1993

13,441 75.4 12,757 684 5.1

1994

13,863 76.0 13,074 789 5.7

1995

14,300 76.4 13,608 691 4.8

1996

14,427 77.2 13,794 633 4.4

1997

14,993 78.1 14,282 711 4.7

1998

15,028 78.4 14,370 658 4.4

1999

15,150 78.5 14,633 516 3.4

2000

15,479 79.0 14,931 549 3.5

2001

15,839 79.4 15,220 619 3.9

2002

15,948 78.6 15,171 777 4.9

2003

15,993 78.7 15,166 828 5.2

2004

15,782 77.5 15,006 776 4.9

2005

15,594 76.9 14,930 663 4.3

2006

15,579 76.9 14,949 630 4.0

2007

15,940 77.7 15,341 599 3.8

2008

15,479 77.5 14,842 636 4.1

2009

15,625 78.2 14,562 1,063 6.8

2010

15,247 77.2 14,058 1,189 7.8

2011

14,973 76.5 13,842 1,131 7.6

2012

14,922 76.0 13,908 1,014 6.8

2013

14,941 74.8 13,909 1,032 6.9

2014

15,227 75.8 14,389 838 5.5

2015

15,059 74.6 14,437 622 4.1

2016

15,135 75.0 14,519 616 4.1

2017

15,080 76.0 14,481 599 4.0

With children under age 6

1975

5,699 39.0 4,851 848 14.9

1976

5,684 40.1 4,957 727 12.8

1977

5,629 41.2 4,887 742 13.2

1978

5,983 44.0 5,297 687 11.5

1979

6,238 45.7 5,594 644 10.3

1980

6,538 46.8 5,886 652 10.0

1981

6,933 48.9 6,227 706 10.2

1982

7,367 49.9 6,414 953 12.9

1983

7,583 50.5 6,489 1,094 14.4

1984

8,017 52.1 7,043 974 12.1

1985

8,215 53.5 7,322 893 10.9

1986

8,545 54.4 7,602 943 11.0

1987

8,983 56.7 8,137 846 9.4

1988

8,862 56.1 8,099 763 8.6

1989

9,136 56.7 8,478 657 7.2

1990

9,397 58.2 8,732 664 7.1

1991

9,636 58.4 8,758 878 9.1

1992

9,573 58.0 8,662 911 9.5

1993

9,621 57.9 8,764 857 8.9

1994

10,328 60.3 9,394 935 9.0

1995

10,395 62.3 9,587 809 7.8

1996

10,293 62.3 9,592 701 6.8

1997

10,610 65.0 9,800 810 7.6

1998

10,619 65.2 9,839 780 7.3

1999

10,322 64.4 9,674 648 6.3

2000

10,316 65.3 9,763 553 5.4

2001

10,430 64.4 9,810 620 5.9

2002

10,193 64.1 9,441 752 7.4

2003

10,209 62.9 9,433 776 7.6

2004

10,131 62.2 9,407 724 7.1

2005

10,347 62.6 9,634 714 6.9

2006

10,430 63.0 9,779 651 6.2

2007

10,894 63.5 10,305 589 5.4

2008

10,452 63.6 9,794 657 6.3

2009

10,497 63.6 9,517 980 9.3

2010

10,536 64.2 9,452 1,085 10.3

2011

10,403 64.2 9,268 1,135 10.9

2012

10,462 64.7 9,458 1,004 9.6

2013

10,171 64.7 9,212 958 9.4

2014

9,982 64.3 9,153 829 8.3

2015

10,048 63.9 9,405 643 6.4

2016

9,934 65.3 9,358 576 5.8

2017

9,783 65.1 9,268 515 5.3

With children under age 3

1975

2,824 34.3 2,326 500 17.7

1976

2,702 34.1 2,285 418 15.5

1977

2,795 35.4 2,371 424 15.2

1978

3,179 39.4 2,768 411 12.9

1979

3,380 41.1 2,979 401 11.9

1980

3,565 41.9 3,167 398 11.2

1981

3,826 44.3 3,380 446 11.7

1982

4,133 45.6 3,542 591 14.3

1983

4,233 46.0 3,551 682 16.1

1984

4,401 47.6 3,839 562 12.8

1985

4,601 49.5 4,089 513 11.1

1986

4,786 50.8 4,227 559 11.7

1987

5,064 52.9 4,570 494 9.8

1988

4,947 52.4 4,477 470 9.5

1989

5,053 52.4 4,671 381 7.5

1990

5,216 53.6 4,823 393 7.5

1991

5,417 54.5 4,868 550 10.1

1992

5,329 54.5 4,776 553 10.4

1993

5,349 53.9 4,857 492 9.2

1994

5,724 57.1 5,165 559 9.8

1995

5,650 58.7 5,172 478 8.5

1996

5,619 59.0 5,222 397 7.1

1997

5,839 61.8 5,366 473 8.1

1998

5,882 62.2 5,454 428 7.3

1999

5,645 60.7 5,285 359 6.4

2000

5,670 61.0 5,350 320 5.6

2001

5,743 60.7 5,350 393 6.8

2002

5,600 60.5 5,160 440 7.9

2003

5,568 58.7 5,112 456 8.2

2004

5,401 57.3 4,983 417 7.7

2005

5,704 58.9 5,299 405 7.1

2006

5,842 59.9 5,458 384 6.6

2007

6,006 60.1 5,679 327 5.5

2008

5,754 59.6 5,380 374 6.5

2009

5,960 61.1 5,401 559 9.4

2010

5,878 61.1 5,240 638 10.9

2011

5,639 60.9 5,006 633 11.2

2012

5,529 60.7 4,960 569 10.3

2013

5,448 62.1 4,937 511 9.4

2014

5,358 61.8 4,870 487 9.1

2015

5,494 61.4 5,119 375 6.8

2016

5,486 63.1 5,165 322 5.9

2017

5,449 63.1 5,153 296 5.4

With no children under age 18

1975

22,365 45.1 20,381 1,984 8.9

1976

23,327 45.7 21,389 1,938 8.3

1977

24,385 46.4 22,348 2,037 8.4

1978

25,362 47.0 23,631 1,731 6.8

1979

26,962 48.6 25,285 1,677 6.2

1980

27,144 48.1 25,375 1,769 6.5

1981

27,992 48.7 25,934 2,059 7.4

1982

28,351 48.6 26,041 2,311 8.2

1983

28,856 48.7 26,373 2,483 8.6

1984

29,684 49.3 27,652 2,032 6.8

1985

30,850 50.4 28,814 2,036 6.6

1986

31,112 50.5 29,107 2,005 6.4

1987

31,538 50.5 29,688 1,850 5.9

1988

32,490 51.2 30,911 1,580 4.9

1989

33,255 51.9 31,761 1,495 4.5

1990

33,942 52.3 32,391 1,551 4.6

1991

34,047 52.0 32,167 1,880 5.5

1992

34,487 52.3 32,481 2,006 5.8

1993

34,495 52.1 32,476 2,020 5.9

1994

35,455 53.1 33,345 2,110 6.0

1995

35,843 52.9 34,054 1,789 5.0

1996

36,509 53.0 34,698 1,811 5.0

1997

37,295 53.6 35,572 1,723 4.6

1998

38,253 54.1 36,680 1,573 4.1

1999

39,314 54.3 37,587 1,727 4.4

2000

40,142 54.8 38,408 1,733 4.3

2001

40,996 54.4 39,363 1,633 4.0

2002

41,278 54.0 39,038 2,241 5.4

2003

42,039 54.1 39,667 2,372 5.6

2004

42,289 53.8 40,000 2,289 5.4

2005

42,677 53.5 40,570 2,107 4.9

2006

43,392 53.6 41,440 1,952 4.5

2007

44,039 53.9 42,279 1,760 4.0

2008

45,585 54.3 43,417 2,168 4.8

2009

45,649 53.8 42,343 3,306 7.2

2010

46,098 53.5 42,256 3,842 8.3

2011

46,198 53.0 42,569 3,629 7.9

2012

47,222 52.6 43,494 3,728 7.9

2013

47,607 52.3 44,294 3,313 7.0

2014

48,076 52.1 44,980 3,096 6.4

2015

48,273 51.7 45,794 2,479 5.1

2016

49,663 52.1 47,180 2,484 5.0

2017

50,675 52.5 48,541 2,134 4.2

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and gender Civilian noninstitutional population Civilian labor force Not in labor force
Total Percentage of population Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage of population Total Percentage of labor force

Total

Total, 25 to 64 years

167,388 129,582 77.4 124,898 74.6 4,685 3.6 37,806

Less than a high school diploma

15,833 9,632 60.8 8,994 56.8 638 6.6 6,201

High school graduates, no college

46,214 33,464 72.4 31,888 69.0 1,576 4.7 12,749

Some college or associate's degree

45,258 35,266 77.9 33,952 75.0 1,314 3.7 9,992

Bachelor's degree and higher

60,084 51,220 85.2 50,064 83.3 1,156 2.3 8,864

Bachelor's degree

38,555 32,371 84.0 31,579 81.9 791 2.4 6,184

Advanced degree

21,529 18,849 87.6 18,484 85.9 365 1.9 2,680

Master's degree

16,041 13,894 86.6 13,598 84.8 296 2.1 2,148

Professional degree

2,393 2,120 88.6 2,089 87.3 32 1.5 273

Doctoral degree

3,095 2,835 91.6 2,798 90.4 38 1.3 259

Women

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,483 60,614 70.9 58,370 68.3 2,244 3.7 24,869

Less than a high school diploma

7,519 3,506 46.6 3,244 43.1 262 7.5 4,013

High school graduates, no college

21,571 13,732 63.7 13,043 60.5 690 5.0 7,839

Some college or associate's degree

24,168 17,518 72.5 16,838 69.7 680 3.9 6,650

Bachelor's degree and higher

32,224 25,857 80.2 25,244 78.3 612 2.4 6,368

Bachelor's degree

20,555 16,075 78.2 15,655 76.2 419 2.6 4,480

Advanced degree

11,669 9,782 83.8 9,589 82.2 193 2.0 1,887

Master's degree

9,094 7,538 82.9 7,383 81.2 155 2.1 1,556

Professional degree

1,156 977 84.5 961 83.1 16 1.6 179

Doctoral degree

1,419 1,267 89.3 1,245 87.7 22 1.7 152

Men

Total, 25 to 64 years

81,905 68,968 84.2 66,528 81.2 2,441 3.5 12,936

Less than a high school diploma

8,313 6,126 73.7 5,750 69.2 376 6.1 2,188

High school graduates, no college

24,643 19,732 80.1 18,845 76.5 887 4.5 4,911

Some college or associate's degree

21,090 17,748 84.2 17,113 81.1 634 3.6 3,342

Bachelor's degree and higher

27,859 25,363 91.0 24,819 89.1 544 2.1 2,496

Bachelor's degree

18,000 16,296 90.5 15,924 88.5 372 2.3 1,704

Advanced degree

9,859 9,067 92.0 8,895 90.2 172 1.9 792

Master's degree

6,947 6,356 91.5 6,215 89.5 140 2.2 591

Professional degree

1,237 1,143 92.4 1,127 91.2 16 1.4 93

Doctoral degree

1,675 1,568 93.6 1,552 92.7 16 1.0 107

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total High school College
Less than 4 years 4 years, no college 1 to 3 years 4 years or more

Total

1970

61,765 100.0 36.1 38.1 11.8 14.1

1971

62,344 100.0 34.5 38.4 12.3 14.8

1972

63,704 100.0 33.3 38.8 12.4 15.5

1973

64,775 100.0 30.9 39.7 13.0 16.4

1974

66,527 100.0 29.3 39.5 13.7 17.5

1975

67,774 100.0 27.5 39.7 14.4 18.3

1976

69,243 100.0 25.8 39.6 15.2 19.4

1977

71,324 100.0 24.9 39.2 15.7 20.2

1978

73,504 100.0 23.7 39.2 16.5 20.6

1979

75,781 100.0 21.8 39.5 17.3 21.3

1980

78,010 100.0 20.6 39.8 17.6 22.0

1981

80,273 100.0 19.7 40.6 17.7 22.0

1982

81,516 100.0 18.8 40.8 17.3 23.1

1983

83,615 100.0 17.8 39.9 18.1 24.2

1984

86,001 100.0 16.7 40.2 18.4 24.7

1985

88,424 100.0 15.9 40.2 19.0 24.9

1986

90,500 100.0 15.5 40.2 19.5 24.8

1987

92,966 100.0 14.9 40.2 19.7 25.3

1988

94,870 100.0 14.7 39.9 19.7 25.7

1989

97,318 100.0 14.0 39.6 20.0 26.4

1990

99,175 100.0 13.4 39.5 20.7 26.4

1991

100,480 100.0 13.0 39.4 21.1 26.5

Women

1970

22,462 100.0 33.5 44.3 10.9 11.2

1971

22,804 100.0 32.2 44.2 11.9 11.8

1972

23,606 100.0 30.7 45.1 11.8 12.4

1973

24,158 100.0 28.4 45.9 12.4 13.3

1974

25,203 100.0 26.7 45.3 13.4 14.6

1975

26,146 100.0 26.5 45.5 13.9 14.1

1976

27,166 100.0 24.0 45.1 14.7 16.2

1977

28,369 100.0 22.8 45.1 15.2 16.9

1978

29,738 100.0 22.0 44.9 16.1 17.0

1979

31,151 100.0 20.1 45.0 17.1 17.8

1980

32,593 100.0 18.4 45.4 17.4 18.7

1981

33,910 100.0 17.4 46.1 17.9 18.6

1982

34,870 100.0 16.6 45.6 18.3 19.5

1983

35,712 100.0 15.6 44.8 18.8 20.9

1984

37,234 100.0 14.5 44.9 18.9 21.7

1985

38,779 100.0 13.7 44.4 19.9 22.0

1986

39,767 100.0 13.2 44.3 20.3 22.2

1987

41,105 100.0 12.5 44.0 20.7 22.8

1988

42,254 100.0 12.4 43.3 21.2 23.1

1989

43,650 100.0 11.9 42.9 20.9 24.3

1990

44,699 100.0 11.3 42.4 21.9 24.5

1991

45,315 100.0 10.9 41.6 22.2 25.2

Men

1970

39,303 100.0 37.5 34.5 12.2 15.7

1971

39,539 100.0 35.9 35.1 12.5 16.5

1972

40,098 100.0 34.8 35.1 12.8 17.3

1973

40,617 100.0 32.4 36.0 13.4 18.2

1974

41,344 100.0 30.8 36.0 13.9 19.3

1975

41,628 100.0 28.9 36.1 14.8 20.2

1976

42,077 100.0 27.0 36.0 15.5 21.5

1977

42,954 100.0 26.3 35.3 16.1 22.3

1978

43,766 100.0 24.8 35.3 16.9 23.0

1979

44,630 100.0 23.0 35.7 17.5 23.8

1980

45,417 100.0 22.2 35.7 17.7 24.3

1981

46,363 100.0 21.5 36.5 17.4 24.6

1982

47,144 100.0 20.3 36.8 17.5 25.5

1983

47,903 100.0 19.4 36.3 17.7 26.6

1984

48,767 100.0 18.4 36.7 18.0 26.9

1985

49,647 100.0 17.7 36.9 18.3 27.1

1986

50,733 100.0 17.2 37.0 18.9 26.9

1987

51,860 100.0 16.8 37.1 18.9 27.2

1988

52,616 100.0 16.5 37.3 18.5 27.8

1989

53,668 100.0 15.7 36.9 19.2 28.2

1990

54,476 100.0 15.1 37.2 19.7 28.0

1991

55,165 100.0 14.7 37.5 20.2 27.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2017
Year Civilian labor force (thousands) Percent distribution
Total Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college(¹) Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher(²)

Total

1992

103,018 100.0 12.1 35.7 25.6 26.6

1993

104,237 100.0 11.3 35.1 26.6 27.0

1994

105,610 100.0 10.8 33.9 27.7 27.6

1995

107,032 100.0 10.4 33.2 28.1 28.3

1996

108,932 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.8 28.7

1997

110,945 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.5 29.0

1998

111,932 100.0 10.5 32.4 27.4 29.8

1999

113,095 100.0 10.0 31.8 27.6 30.5

2000

115,750 100.0 10.1 31.4 27.8 30.7

2001

116,893 100.0 10.1 30.9 28.0 31.0

2002

118,028 100.0 10.0 30.7 27.7 31.6

2003

119,621 100.0 9.9 30.3 27.6 32.1

2004

120,135 100.0 9.7 30.1 27.7 32.4

2005

121,752 100.0 9.8 29.9 27.8 32.5

2006

123,550 100.0 9.7 29.6 27.7 33.0

2007

125,104 100.0 9.3 29.2 27.7 33.8

2008

126,011 100.0 9.0 28.8 28.0 34.2

2009

126,247 100.0 9.0 28.6 28.0 34.4

2010

126,237 100.0 8.9 28.6 27.9 34.6

2011

125,508 100.0 8.7 28.0 28.0 35.3

2012

125,963 100.0 8.4 27.4 28.2 36.0

2013

125,892 100.0 8.2 27.1 28.0 36.7

2014

126,269 100.0 8.0 26.7 27.9 37.3

2015

127,106 100.0 8.1 25.9 27.7 38.2

2016

128,713 100.0 7.8 25.9 27.6 38.7

2017

129,582 100.0 7.4 25.8 27.2 39.5

Women

1992

46,589 100.0 10.3 37.4 27.3 25.0

1993

47,245 100.0 9.3 36.6 28.4 25.7

1994

48,405 100.0 9.0 35.0 29.8 26.2

1995

49,247 100.0 8.8 34.1 30.2 26.9

1996

50,240 100.0 8.8 33.6 29.9 27.8

1997

51,261 100.0 8.7 33.5 29.4 28.4

1998

51,678 100.0 8.8 32.7 29.4 29.2

1999

52,525 100.0 8.5 32.1 29.5 29.9

2000

53,749 100.0 8.5 31.6 29.8 30.1

2001

54,229 100.0 8.4 31.0 30.2 30.4

2002

54,710 100.0 8.1 30.6 29.9 31.3

2003

55,596 100.0 7.9 30.0 29.9 32.2

2004

55,616 100.0 7.7 29.4 30.2 32.6

2005

56,322 100.0 7.7 28.7 30.2 33.3

2006

57,201 100.0 7.6 28.3 30.2 33.9

2007

57,791 100.0 7.1 27.9 30.1 34.9

2008

58,465 100.0 6.9 27.2 30.4 35.6

2009

58,787 100.0 7.0 26.7 30.3 36.0

2010

58,808 100.0 6.8 26.4 30.3 36.4

2011

58,520 100.0 6.7 25.8 30.4 37.1

2012

59,031 100.0 6.5 25.0 30.4 38.1

2013

58,812 100.0 6.3 24.6 30.1 39.0

2014

58,983 100.0 6.1 24.1 29.8 40.0

2015

59,252 100.0 6.1 23.2 29.6 41.1

2016

60,049 100.0 6.0 22.9 29.6 41.6

2017

60,614 100.0 5.8 22.7 28.9 42.7

Men

1992

56,428 100.0 13.7 34.2 24.3 27.8

1993

56,992 100.0 12.9 33.9 25.1 28.1

1994

57,205 100.0 12.4 33.0 25.9 28.8

1995

57,784 100.0 11.8 32.4 26.3 29.4

1996

58,692 100.0 12.2 32.3 26.1 29.4

1997

59,684 100.0 12.2 32.4 25.9 29.6

1998

60,255 100.0 12.0 32.1 25.6 30.3

1999

60,570 100.0 11.4 31.6 26.0 31.0

2000

62,001 100.0 11.5 31.2 26.1 31.2

2001

62,664 100.0 11.5 30.9 26.2 31.4

2002

63,318 100.0 11.6 30.8 25.8 31.8

2003

64,025 100.0 11.7 30.6 25.6 32.1

2004

64,519 100.0 11.5 30.7 25.6 32.3

2005

65,430 100.0 11.5 30.9 25.7 31.9

2006

66,350 100.0 11.5 30.6 25.5 32.3

2007

67,313 100.0 11.2 30.4 25.6 32.9

2008

67,546 100.0 10.9 30.2 25.9 33.0

2009

67,460 100.0 10.8 30.3 25.9 33.0

2010

67,429 100.0 10.6 30.6 25.8 33.0

2011

66,989 100.0 10.4 30.0 26.0 33.7

2012

66,932 100.0 10.0 29.6 26.2 34.1

2013

67,081 100.0 9.8 29.2 26.2 34.7

2014

67,287 100.0 9.8 29.1 26.2 35.0

2015

67,853 100.0 9.9 28.4 26.0 35.7

2016

68,664 100.0 9.3 28.6 25.9 36.2

2017

68,968 100.0 8.9 28.6 25.7 36.8
Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and gender Year
2016 2017
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

Total, 16 years and older

151,436 100.0 153,337 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,438 39.2 60,901 39.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,941 16.5 25,379 16.6

Professional and related occupations

34,498 22.8 35,522 23.2

Service occupations

26,811 17.7 26,751 17.4

Sales and office occupations

33,539 22.1 33,566 21.9

Sales and related occupations

15,848 10.5 15,815 10.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,691 11.7 17,751 11.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,904 9.2 14,193 9.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,096 0.7 1,184 0.8

Construction and extraction occupations

7,929 5.2 8,031 5.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,879 3.2 4,977 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,743 11.7 17,927 11.7

Production occupations

8,459 5.6 8,482 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,284 6.1 9,445 6.2

Women

Total, 16 years and older

70,868 100.0 71,936 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30,593 43.2 31,413 43.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

10,922 15.4 11,171 15.5

Professional and related occupations

19,671 27.8 20,241 28.1

Service occupations

15,186 21.4 15,130 21.0

Sales and office occupations

20,516 28.9 20,593 28.6

Sales and related occupations

7,761 11.0 7,770 10.8

Office and administrative support occupations

12,755 18.0 12,823 17.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

657 0.9 720 1.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

244 0.3 278 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

236 0.3 243 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

177 0.2 200 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

3,916 5.5 4,080 5.7

Production occupations

2,385 3.4 2,450 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,531 2.2 1,630 2.3

Men

Total, 16 years and older

80,568 100.0 81,402 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28,846 35.8 29,488 36.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14,019 17.4 14,207 17.5

Professional and related occupations

14,827 18.4 15,281 18.8

Service occupations

11,625 14.4 11,621 14.3

Sales and office occupations

13,023 16.2 12,973 15.9

Sales and related occupations

8,088 10.0 8,045 9.9

Office and administrative support occupations

4,936 6.1 4,929 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,247 16.4 13,473 16.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

852 1.1 907 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,693 9.5 7,788 9.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,703 5.8 4,778 5.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,826 17.2 13,846 17.0

Production occupations

6,073 7.5 6,031 7.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,753 9.6 7,815 9.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

153,337 46.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,901 51.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,379 44.0

Management occupations

17,804 39.8

Chief executives

1,639 28.0

General and operations managers

1,005 34.1

Legislators

18 -

Advertising and promotions managers

61 52.7

Marketing and sales managers

1,078 45.3

Public relations and fundraising managers

73 63.5

Administrative services managers

151 40.1

Computer and information systems managers

630 28.6

Financial managers

1,167 55.7

Compensation and benefits managers

16 -

Human resources managers

327 70.8

Training and development managers

63 59.8

Industrial production managers

280 25.7

Purchasing managers

205 52.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

291 19.2

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,018 25.2

Construction managers

1,081 7.4

Education administrators

918 64.2

Architectural and engineering managers

129 8.7

Food service managers

1,210 46.3

Funeral service managers

15 -

Gaming managers

19 -

Lodging managers

156 48.8

Medical and health services managers

671 69.8

Natural sciences managers

16 -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

27 -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

743 48.6

Social and community service managers

390 70.2

Emergency management directors

11 -

Managers, all other

4,398 35.8

Business and financial operations occupations

7,574 54.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

50 44.4

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11 -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

194 55.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

270 44.1

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

350 61.7

Compliance officers

260 57.6

Cost estimators

118 12.9

Human resources workers

736 72.1

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

59 72.3

Training and development specialists

133 47.1

Logisticians

112 34.8

Management analysts

937 42.3

Meeting, convention, and event planners

137 85.1

Fundraisers

84 77.3

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

344 60.8

Business operations specialists, all other

273 52.5

Accountants and auditors

1,804 60.3

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

97 37.4

Budget analysts

53 46.8

Credit analysts

29 -

Financial analysts

309 36.5

Personal financial advisors

525 32.0

Insurance underwriters

104 63.8

Financial examiners

15 -

Credit counselors and loan officers

353 56.5

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

65 58.4

Tax preparers

107 63.1

Financial specialists, all other

45 -

Professional and related occupations

35,522 57.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,804 25.5

Computer and information research scientists

24 -

Computer systems analysts

554 38.9

Information security analysts

105 20.2

Computer programmers

473 21.2

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,536 18.7

Web developers

204 32.3

Computer support specialists

532 27.1

Database administrators

96 40.6

Network and computer systems administrators

210 23.5

Computer network architects

106 4.2

Computer occupations, all other

693 22.6

Actuaries

29 -

Mathematicians

3 -

Operations research analysts

147 51.5

Statisticians

87 48.8

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

3 -

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,224 16.2

Architects, except naval

253 28.6

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

43 -

Aerospace engineers

148 8.9

Agricultural engineers

2 -

Biomedical engineers

17 -

Chemical engineers

77 16.9

Civil engineers

461 14.4

Computer hardware engineers

80 17.2

Electrical and electronics engineers

284 12.3

Environmental engineers

38 -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

221 22.6

Marine engineers and naval architects

12 -

Materials engineers

32 -

Mechanical engineers

344 9.2

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

11 -

Nuclear engineers

8 -

Petroleum engineers

24 -

Engineers, all other

582 14.1

Drafters

137 20.8

Engineering technicians, except drafters

375 20.0

Surveying and mapping technicians

73 4.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,431 47.4

Agricultural and food scientists

32 -

Biological scientists

98 54.4

Conservation scientists and foresters

29 -

Medical scientists

161 52.1

Life scientists, all other

3 -

Astronomers and physicists

18 -

Atmospheric and space scientists

7 -

Chemists and materials scientists

105 38.3

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

84 35.8

Physical scientists, all other

301 47.3

Economists

28 -

Survey researchers

3 -

Psychologists

187 68.9

Sociologists

2 -

Urban and regional planners

32 -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

41 -

Agricultural and food science technicians

32 -

Biological technicians

23 -

Chemical technicians

57 27.4

Geological and petroleum technicians

13 -

Nuclear technicians

7 -

Social science research assistants

4 -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

164 47.7

Community and social service occupations

2,635 66.1

Counselors

853 72.3

Social workers

802 82.5

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

99 63.5

Social and human service assistants

232 75.3

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

76 74.8

Clergy

406 17.0

Directors, religious activities and education

81 54.1

Religious workers, all other

85 65.3

Legal occupations

1,827 52.8

Lawyers

1,137 37.4

Judicial law clerks

14 -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

66 28.1

Paralegals and legal assistants

424 86.3

Miscellaneous legal support workers

186 80.2

Education, training, and library occupations

9,215 73.0

Postsecondary teachers

1,423 47.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

712 97.7

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,268 79.3

Secondary school teachers

1,039 58.5

Special education teachers

422 85.6

Other teachers and instructors

907 65.4

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

59 61.4

Librarians

194 79.5

Library technicians

40 -

Teacher assistants

989 88.5

Other education, training, and library workers

161 67.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,246 46.9

Artists and related workers

236 51.9

Designers

908 52.8

Actors

40 -

Producers and directors

180 29.8

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

345 36.4

Dancers and choreographers

21 -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

188 37.7

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

67 48.1

Announcers

50 23.1

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

84 55.3

Public relations specialists

118 60.9

Editors

174 54.1

Technical writers

76 60.2

Writers and authors

226 60.9

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

112 64.2

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

119 14.4

Photographers

214 46.0

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

82 12.2

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5 -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,141 75.0

Chiropractors

51 21.1

Dentists

159 35.8

Dietitians and nutritionists

114 94.1

Optometrists

51 50.2

Pharmacists

342 57.5

Physicians and surgeons

1,079 40.0

Physician assistants

116 70.9

Podiatrists

12 -

Audiologists

15 -

Occupational therapists

122 87.6

Physical therapists

258 68.2

Radiation therapists

10 -

Recreational therapists

7 -

Respiratory therapists

100 72.4

Speech-language pathologists

141 98.0

Exercise physiologists

5 -

Therapists, all other

221 83.3

Veterinarians

89 62.5

Registered nurses

3,159 89.9

Nurse anesthetists

35 -

Nurse midwives

7 -

Nurse practitioners

175 92.2

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

39 -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

376 69.3

Dental hygienists

168 94.9

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

319 70.8

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

223 30.6

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

632 79.4

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

630 89.5

Medical records and health information technicians

167 91.7

Opticians, dispensing

48 -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

160 66.0

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

110 46.5

Service occupations

26,751 56.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,506 87.1

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,936 88.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

27 -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

83 67.2

Massage therapists

172 82.7

Dental assistants

299 95.9

Medical assistants

539 91.6

Medical transcriptionists

36 -

Pharmacy aides

39 -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

61 84.2

Phlebotomists

112 83.8

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

200 70.5

Protective service occupations

3,113 22.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

52 29.9

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

95 12.5

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44 -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

72 22.0

Firefighters

283 3.5

Fire inspectors

27 -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

408 28.5

Detectives and criminal investigators

136 23.2

Fish and game wardens

4 -

Parking enforcement workers

6 -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

704 13.6

Transit and railroad police

7 -

Animal control workers

15 -

Private detectives and investigators

94 48.8

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

920 24.3

Crossing guards

63 52.2

Transportation security screeners

46 -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

136 49.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,305 53.8

Chefs and head cooks

465 19.7

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

519 54.8

Cooks

2,079 39.3

Food preparation workers

1,068 58.9

Bartenders

417 57.3

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

372 60.0

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

225 62.1

Waiters and waitresses

2,016 69.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

207 69.9

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

334 45.9

Dishwashers

274 19.5

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

324 85.9

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4 -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,888 40.7

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

326 41.1

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

255 8.0

Janitors and building cleaners

2,307 35.2

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,527 88.0

Pest control workers

108 6.5

Grounds maintenance workers

1,365 5.9

Personal care and service occupations

5,939 76.1

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

208 44.3

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

232 66.2

Animal trainers

49 -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

263 78.4

Gaming services workers

90 46.7

Motion picture projectionists

1 -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

37 -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

224 42.9

Embalmers and funeral attendants

17 -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

42 -

Barbers

135 15.6

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

806 92.6

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

397 81.8

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

89 31.1

Tour and travel guides

68 46.4

Childcare workers

1,225 93.7

Personal care aides

1,365 83.7

Recreation and fitness workers

480 62.3

Residential advisors

44 -

Personal care and service workers, all other

167 60.1

Sales and office occupations

33,566 61.3

Sales and related occupations

15,815 49.1

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,272 43.4

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,220 30.0

Cashiers

3,253 72.7

Counter and rental clerks

109 48.9

Parts salespersons

130 7.2

Retail salespersons

3,235 48.2

Advertising sales agents

241 50.4

Insurance sales agents

624 51.8

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

262 34.0

Travel agents

89 82.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

525 27.1

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,264 28.0

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

61 78.4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

997 57.1

Sales engineers

35 -

Telemarketers

58 69.4

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

166 58.4

Sales and related workers, all other

276 50.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,751 72.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,425 70.1

Switchboard operators, including answering service

23 -

Telephone operators

47 -

Communications equipment operators, all other

9 -

Bill and account collectors

139 71.3

Billing and posting clerks

473 85.9

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,089 88.7

Gaming cage workers

14 -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129 89.5

Procurement clerks

30 -

Tellers

306 85.2

Financial clerks, all other

82 60.8

Brokerage clerks

7 -

Correspondence clerks

7 -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

90 75.2

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

55 63.8

Customer service representatives

2,494 65.1

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

62 76.7

File clerks

182 81.4

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

125 60.9

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

142 85.0

Library assistants, clerical

96 80.1

Loan interviewers and clerks

120 80.4

New accounts clerks

32 -

Order clerks

107 54.9

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

45 -

Receptionists and information clerks

1,267 91.0

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

127 58.0

Information and record clerks, all other

110 78.1

Cargo and freight agents

16 -

Couriers and messengers

239 19.4

Dispatchers

292 57.4

Meter readers, utilities

18 -

Postal service clerks

111 55.3

Postal service mail carriers

306 40.8

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

50 56.7

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

270 53.9

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

623 31.3

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,525 37.9

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

52 46.8

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,769 95.0

Computer operators

73 60.2

Data entry keyers

267 79.6

Word processors and typists

94 89.8

Desktop publishers

2 -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

237 84.3

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

61 36.8

Office clerks, general

1,271 83.1

Office machine operators, except computer

33 -

Proofreaders and copy markers

10 -

Statistical assistants

21 -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

576 75.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,193 5.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,184 23.4

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

62 8.7

Agricultural inspectors

18 -

Animal breeders

2 -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

110 67.1

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

854 21.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

44 -

Hunters and trappers

1 -

Forest and conservation workers

27 -

Logging workers

66 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,031 3.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

639 3.0

Boilermakers

15 -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

166 .7

Carpenters

1,351 2.2

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

183 2.4

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

54 1.0

Construction laborers

1,946 3.3

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

15 -

Pile-driver operators

2 -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

358 1.5

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

156 2.7

Electricians

857 2.5

Glaziers

44 -

Insulation workers

58 3.1

Painters, construction and maintenance

540 6.6

Paperhangers

4 -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

600 2.2

Plasterers and stucco masons

27 -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12 -

Roofers

220 .6

Sheet metal workers

137 2.6

Structural iron and steel workers

43 -

Solar photovoltaic installers

11 -

Helpers, construction trades

69 9.4

Construction and building inspectors

89 10.2

Elevator installers and repairers

40 -

Fence erectors

34 -

Hazardous materials removal workers

30 -

Highway maintenance workers

101 2.7

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

17 -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10 -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

24 -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

30 -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23 -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

10 -

Mining machine operators

51 1.1

Roof bolters, mining

2 -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 -

Helpers--extraction workers

4 -

Other extraction workers

54 2.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,977 4.0

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

253 8.4

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

212 11.3

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

134 8.1

Avionics technicians

9 -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

28 -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

12 -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

11 -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

50 2.8

Security and fire alarm systems installers

77 2.6

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

150 5.2

Automotive body and related repairers

140 1.1

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22 -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

902 2.4

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

401 1.8

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

201 2.6

Small engine mechanics

44 -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

83 1.8

Control and valve installers and repairers

26 -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

448 2.0

Home appliance repairers

41 -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

424 3.9

Maintenance and repair workers, general

528 4.5

Maintenance workers, machinery

27 -

Millwrights

40 -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

129 .6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

189 2.7

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

63 14.6

Wind turbine service technicians

5 -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

34 -

Commercial divers

0 -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

35 -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4 -

Riggers

14 -

Signal and track switch repairers

9 -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

18 -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

215 5.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,927 22.8

Production occupations

8,482 28.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

768 19.1

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

1 -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

128 42.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

13 -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

30 -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,033 37.7

Bakers

215 60.1

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

269 24.3

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

12 -

Food batchmakers

89 58.1

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

15 -

Food processing workers, all other

175 32.5

Computer control programmers and operators

99 9.8

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

19 -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

80 11.0

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

38 -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14 -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 -

Machinists

366 5.0

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

19 -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5 -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45 -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 -

Tool and die makers

62 3.2

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

600 4.5

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3 -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

12 -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17 -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

6 -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

388 20.5

Prepress technicians and workers

24 -

Printing press operators

173 17.7

Print binding and finishing workers

11 -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

151 68.0

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

30 -

Sewing machine operators

197 73.2

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

5 -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

5 -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

77 75.9

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

1 -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

8 -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

19 -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

16 -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3 -

Upholsterers

31 -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

18 -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

49 -

Furniture finishers

15 -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1 -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

27 -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

19 -

Woodworkers, all other

28 -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38 -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

76 3.3

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

107 3.8

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42 -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

55 5.7

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

72 14.0

Cutting workers

62 25.3

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

21 -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

10 -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

793 37.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

43 -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

70 63.1

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

292 52.8

Painting workers

157 12.6

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

31 -

Semiconductor processors

3 -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

6 -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

11 -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

3 -

Etchers and engravers

11 -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

35 -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

29 -

Tire builders

10 -

Helpers--production workers

50 37.1

Production workers, all other

995 29.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,445 17.3

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

205 19.5

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

120 6.2

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

17 -

Flight attendants

98 72.9

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

11 -

Bus drivers

578 47.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,506 6.2

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

674 18.9

Motor vehicle operators, all other

76 17.5

Locomotive engineers and operators

42 -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

4 -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

50 5.2

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15 -

Sailors and marine oilers

19 -

Ship and boat captains and operators

35 -

Ship engineers

2 -

Bridge and lock tenders

5 -

Parking lot attendants

95 16.7

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

94 8.8

Transportation inspectors

41 -

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

35 -

Other transportation workers

24 -

Conveyor operators and tenders

1 -

Crane and tower operators

53 4.1

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

30 -

Hoist and winch operators

7 -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

611 8.2

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

331 14.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,930 19.9

Machine feeders and offbearers

31 -

Packers and packagers, hand

539 52.7

Pumping station operators

21 -

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

94 11.7

Mine shuttle car operators

0 -

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6 -

Material moving workers, all other

40 -

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Occupation White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

55,176 9,845 4,458 11,064

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

45.1 35.6 49.7 27.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.3 11.4 16.3 10.5

Professional and related occupations

28.8 24.1 33.5 17.1

Service occupations

19.7 27.0 21.1 31.9

Sales and office occupations

29.0 29.0 21.5 29.1

Sales and related occupations

10.9 10.5 9.6 11.9

Office and administrative support occupations

18.2 18.5 11.9 17.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.1 0.6 0.7 2.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.5 0.1 0.2 1.4

Construction and extraction occupations

0.4 0.2 0.2 0.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.1 7.9 6.9 9.2

Production occupations

3.1 4.2 5.2 5.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.0 3.7 1.7 3.3

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and gender Year
2016 2017
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

Total, 16 years and older

151,436 100.0 153,337 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,460 1.6 2,454 1.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

792 0.5 748 0.5

Construction

10,328 6.8 10,692 7.0

Manufacturing

15,408 10.2 15,408 10.0

Durable goods manufacturing

9,704 6.4 9,698 6.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,704 3.8 5,710 3.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,218 13.4 20,314 13.2

Wholesale trade

3,641 2.4 3,594 2.3

Retail trade

16,577 10.9 16,720 10.9

Transportation and utilities

8,012 5.3 8,159 5.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,693 4.4 6,810 4.4

Utilities

1,319 0.9 1,349 0.9

Information

2,855 1.9 2,903 1.9

Financial activities

10,404 6.9 10,482 6.8

Finance and insurance

7,241 4.8 7,288 4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,163 2.1 3,194 2.1

Professional and business services

18,325 12.1 18,835 12.3

Professional and technical services

11,228 7.4 11,764 7.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,097 4.7 7,072 4.6

Education and health services

34,263 22.6 34,483 22.5

Educational services

13,674 9.0 13,763 9.0

Health care and social assistance

20,589 13.6 20,720 13.5

Hospitals

6,990 4.6 7,042 4.6

Health services, except hospitals

10,220 6.7 10,359 6.8

Social assistance

3,379 2.2 3,319 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

14,193 9.4 14,291 9.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,241 2.1 3,399 2.2

Accommodation and food services

10,952 7.2 10,891 7.1

Other services

7,320 4.8 7,485 4.9

Other services, except private households

6,596 4.4 6,828 4.5

Private households

724 0.5 657 0.4

Public administration

6,857 4.5 7,083 4.6

Women

Total, 16 years and older

70,868 100.0 71,936 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

621 0.9 611 0.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

106 0.1 94 0.1

Construction

939 1.3 971 1.3

Manufacturing

4,460 6.3 4,551 6.3

Durable goods manufacturing

2,418 3.4 2,463 3.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2,042 2.9 2,088 2.9

Wholesale and retail trade

9,005 12.7 9,137 12.7

Wholesale trade

1,074 1.5 1,073 1.5

Retail trade

7,932 11.2 8,064 11.2

Transportation and utilities

1,883 2.7 1,955 2.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,593 2.2 1,681 2.3

Utilities

290 0.4 274 0.4

Information

1,160 1.6 1,132 1.6

Financial activities

5,437 7.7 5,542 7.7

Finance and insurance

3,993 5.6 4,049 5.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,444 2.0 1,494 2.1

Professional and business services

7,581 10.7 7,954 11.1

Professional and technical services

4,743 6.7 5,007 7.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,839 4.0 2,946 4.1

Education and health services

25,572 36.1 25,679 35.7

Educational services

9,360 13.2 9,408 13.1

Health care and social assistance

16,212 22.9 16,271 22.6

Hospitals

5,359 7.6 5,355 7.4

Health services, except hospitals

8,011 11.3 8,135 11.3

Social assistance

2,842 4.0 2,780 3.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,189 10.1 7,294 10.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,465 2.1 1,566 2.2

Accommodation and food services

5,724 8.1 5,728 8.0

Other services

3,820 5.4 3,868 5.4

Other services, except private households

3,157 4.5 3,265 4.5

Private households

664 0.9 602 0.8

Public administration

3,095 4.4 3,148 4.4

Men

Total, 16 years and older

80,568 100.0 81,402 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,839 2.3 1,843 2.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

686 0.9 654 0.8

Construction

9,389 11.7 9,722 11.9

Manufacturing

10,948 13.6 10,857 13.3

Durable goods manufacturing

7,286 9.0 7,235 8.9

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3,662 4.5 3,622 4.4

Wholesale and retail trade

11,213 13.9 11,176 13.7

Wholesale trade

2,567 3.2 2,521 3.1

Retail trade

8,645 10.7 8,656 10.6

Transportation and utilities

6,129 7.6 6,204 7.6

Transportation and warehousing

5,100 6.3 5,129 6.3

Utilities

1,029 1.3 1,075 1.3

Information

1,695 2.1 1,771 2.2

Financial activities

4,967 6.2 4,940 6.1

Finance and insurance

3,248 4.0 3,239 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,719 2.1 1,700 2.1

Professional and business services

10,743 13.3 10,882 13.4

Professional and technical services

6,485 8.0 6,756 8.3

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,258 5.3 4,125 5.1

Education and health services

8,691 10.8 8,804 10.8

Educational services

4,315 5.4 4,355 5.3

Health care and social assistance

4,377 5.4 4,449 5.5

Hospitals

1,630 2.0 1,687 2.1

Health services, except hospitals

2,209 2.7 2,223 2.7

Social assistance

537 0.7 539 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

7,005 8.7 6,996 8.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,776 2.2 1,833 2.3

Accommodation and food services

5,229 6.5 5,163 6.3

Other services

3,500 4.3 3,617 4.4

Other services, except private households

3,440 4.3 3,562 4.4

Private households

60 0.1 55 0.1

Public administration

3,762 4.7 3,935 4.8

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

153,337 46.9

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,454 24.9

Crop production

1,202 25.3

Animal production and aquaculture

848 25.4

Forestry, except logging

61 22.7

Logging

103 2.9

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

59 14.4

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

181 36.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

748 12.5

Oil and gas extraction

87 12.8

Coal mining

49 -

Metal ore mining

35 -

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95 10.7

Not specified type of mining

4 -

Support activities for mining

478 14.4

Construction

10,692 9.1

Manufacturing

15,408 29.5

Durable goods manufacturing

9,698 25.4

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

447 22.5

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

23 -

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

29 -

Glass and glass product manufacturing

149 26.5

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

153 12.5

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

94 29.0

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,593 17.6

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

255 12.8

Aluminum production and processing

61 26.5

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

42 -

Foundries

85 16.2

Metal forgings and stampings

56 20.2

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

53 34.7

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

315 15.0

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

297 14.3

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

71 21.9

Ordnance

59 20.6

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

276 21.8

Not specified metal industries

21 -

Machinery manufacturing

1,216 21.8

Agricultural implement manufacturing

104 20.0

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

138 13.8

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

69 38.0

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

158 13.2

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

52 24.7

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

682 23.9

Not specified machinery manufacturing

12 -

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,118 30.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

157 28.3

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

111 30.9

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

210 30.9

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

639 30.6

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

431 30.4

Household appliance manufacturing

90 39.0

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

341 28.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,442 24.0

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,385 26.7

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

753 21.6

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

52 19.5

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

32 -

Ship and boat building

172 16.8

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

50 -

Wood products manufacturing

425 16.2

Sawmills and wood preservation

137 12.9

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

27 -

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

47 -

Miscellaneous wood products

214 18.8

Furniture and related product manufacturing

467 24.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,559 37.2

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

596 40.5

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

115 39.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

532 34.6

Not specified manufacturing industries

316 34.6

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,710 36.6

Food manufacturing

1,819 41.9

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

157 28.3

Sugar and confectionery products

79 49.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

152 39.0

Dairy product manufacturing

160 20.9

Animal slaughtering and processing

468 41.2

Retail bakeries

291 69.6

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

210 40.9

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

206 35.0

Not specified food industries

95 34.8

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

316 22.8

Beverage manufacturing

298 22.0

Tobacco manufacturing

19 -

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

640 56.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

17 -

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

115 36.9

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

11 -

Carpet and rug mills

98 36.8

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

78 62.6

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

23 -

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

239 69.0

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

7 -

Footwear manufacturing

36 -

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

17 -

Paper manufacturing and printing

901 29.8

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

228 21.4

Paperboard container manufacturing

95 30.0

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

88 31.7

Printing and related support activities

490 33.4

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

183 16.9

Petroleum refining

172 17.6

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

11 -

Chemicals manufacturing

1,323 34.6

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

171 23.4

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

36 -

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

518 42.2

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

58 20.3

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

133 51.4

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

407 26.5

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

529 25.8

Plastics product manufacturing

393 26.0

Tire manufacturing

68 16.1

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

68 34.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,314 45.0

Wholesale trade

3,594 29.9

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

180 23.7

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

52 39.6

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

152 18.8

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

323 36.2

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

42 -

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

174 26.5

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

130 18.6

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

339 24.7

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

112 17.5

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

89 36.0

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

51 45.1

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

239 46.8

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

91 55.9

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

878 26.7

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

68 19.5

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

116 22.1

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

146 19.3

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

54 31.8

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

193 41.2

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

87 43.9

Not specified wholesale trade

80 35.8

Retail trade

16,720 48.2

Automobile dealers

1,447 21.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

135 21.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

497 17.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

551 44.4

Household appliance stores

69 32.7

Electronics stores

540 27.9

Building material and supplies dealers

1,089 32.3

Hardware stores

190 34.6

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

241 30.0

Grocery stores

2,771 48.5

Specialty food stores

250 50.9

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

140 40.8

Pharmacies and drug stores

959 64.6

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

429 68.6

Gasoline stations

488 51.4

Clothing stores

988 73.2

Shoe stores

156 54.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

201 66.7

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

450 41.5

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

41 -

Musical instrument and supplies stores

43 -

Book stores and news dealers

103 61.8

Department stores and discount stores

2,069 59.3

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

578 57.8

Retail florists

92 73.8

Office supplies and stationery stores

131 34.0

Used merchandise stores

250 64.5

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

129 69.5

Miscellaneous retail stores

512 55.8

Electronic shopping

351 47.7

Electronic auctions

15 -

Mail-order houses

73 47.2

Vending machine operators

42 -

Fuel dealers

76 25.6

Other direct selling establishments

189 65.2

Not specified retail trade

435 52.9

Transportation and utilities

8,159 24.0

Transportation and warehousing

6,810 24.7

Air transportation

595 40.0

Rail transportation

242 11.6

Water transportation

80 22.2

Truck transportation

1,965 12.5

Bus service and urban transit

535 37.1

Taxi and limousine service

564 17.9

Pipeline transportation

52 11.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

35 -

Services incidental to transportation

786 26.5

Postal Service

612 43.0

Couriers and messengers

748 22.7

Warehousing and storage

597 31.6

Utilities

1,349 20.3

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

706 20.5

Natural gas distribution

116 19.2

Electric and gas, and other combinations

139 26.0

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

266 18.2

Sewage treatment facilities

98 9.8

Not specified utilities

23 -

Information

2,903 39.0

Newspaper publishers

182 47.9

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

211 61.3

Software publishers

105 26.9

Motion pictures and video industries

473 32.9

Sound recording industries

38 -

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

549 36.6

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

118 38.7

Wired telecommunications carriers

505 27.4

Other telecommunications services

380 31.3

Data processing, hosting, and related services

91 42.0

Libraries and archives

221 76.5

Other information services

30 -

Financial activities

10,482 52.9

Finance and insurance

7,288 55.6

Banking and related activities

2,002 58.5

Savings institutions, including credit unions

269 70.7

Nondepository credit and related activities

957 51.0

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,227 37.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,833 61.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,194 46.8

Real estate

2,795 49.1

Rental and leasing services

400 30.6

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

178 35.1

Video tape and disk rental

11 -

Other consumer goods rental

100 30.5

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

111 20.2

Professional and business services

18,835 42.2

Professional and technical services

11,764 42.6

Legal services

1,621 56.6

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,153 60.1

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,779 24.4

Specialized design services

366 58.7

Computer systems design and related services

3,057 27.4

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,706 42.5

Scientific research and development services

644 49.6

Advertising, public relations, and related services

559 49.2

Veterinary services

380 82.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

497 55.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,072 41.7

Management of companies and enterprises

185 45.8

Employment services

995 56.8

Business support services

695 63.4

Travel arrangements and reservation services

323 63.5

Investigation and security services

821 27.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,783 57.3

Landscaping services

1,404 9.9

Other administrative and other support services

331 50.3

Waste management and remediation services

535 17.8

Education and health services

34,483 74.5

Educational services

13,763 68.4

Elementary and secondary schools

9,049 74.9

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,843 53.7

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

98 54.8

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

774 66.7

Health care and social assistance

20,720 78.5

Hospitals

7,042 76.0

Health services, except hospitals

10,359 78.5

Offices of physicians

1,602 76.0

Offices of dentists

879 83.6

Offices of chiropractors

134 64.1

Offices of optometrists

150 76.7

Offices of other health practitioners

300 78.4

Outpatient care centers

1,722 75.1

Home health care services

1,465 88.3

Other health care services

1,576 70.3

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,658 84.1

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

871 75.5

Social assistance

3,319 83.8

Individual and family services

1,549 76.7

Community food and housing, and emergency services

113 67.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

106 55.8

Child day care services

1,551 94.0

Leisure and hospitality

14,291 51.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,399 46.1

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

917 41.6

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

362 50.1

Bowling centers

38 -

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

2,082 47.2

Accommodation and food services

10,891 52.6

Accommodation

1,482 57.7

Traveler accommodation

1,380 58.0

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

102 53.9

Food services and drinking places

9,409 51.8

Restaurants and other food services

9,150 51.8

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

259 50.6

Other services

7,485 51.7

Other services, except private households

6,828 47.8

Repair and maintenance

2,139 11.9

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,244 9.6

Car washes

198 11.5

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

148 19.4

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

322 7.5

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

223 26.6

Footwear and leather goods repair

4 -

Personal and laundry services

2,644 71.3

Barber shops

148 19.3

Beauty salons

1,026 90.5

Nail salons and other personal care services

581 73.9

Drycleaning and laundry services

271 53.6

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

148 39.8

Other personal services

471 63.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,045 55.0

Religious organizations

1,048 46.6

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

763 66.0

Labor unions

75 41.0

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

159 63.5

Private households

657 91.6

Public administration

7,083 44.4

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,202 51.0

Public finance activities

320 61.4

Other general government and support

107 38.4

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,761 34.0

Administration of human resource programs

985 71.9

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

263 40.8

Administration of economic programs and space research

540 43.7

National security and international affairs

904 34.0

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Industry White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

55,176 9,845 4,458 11,064

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related

1.0 0.1 0.3 1.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Construction

1.6 0.5 0.6 1.5

Manufacturing

6.3 5.3 9.3 7.6

Durable goods manufacturing

3.4 2.9 5.4 3.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.9 2.4 3.9 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.9 11.7 11.7 14.2

Wholesale trade

1.6 0.8 1.9 1.8

Retail trade

11.3 10.9 9.8 12.4

Transportation and utilities

2.5 4.5 1.9 3.0

Transportation and warehousing

2.1 4.2 1.7 2.7

Utilities

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3

Information

1.5 1.6 1.9 1.1

Financial activities

7.9 6.7 8.0 6.4

Finance and insurance

5.7 5.2 6.4 4.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.2 1.6 1.6 1.8

Professional and business services

11.4 8.8 12.7 11.4

Professional and technical services

7.4 3.5 10.5 4.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

4.0 5.3 2.2 7.3

Education and health services

35.5 39.9 31.5 29.9

Educational services

14.0 10.7 9.1 10.0

Health care and social assistance

21.5 29.3 22.4 19.9

Hospitals

7.2 8.6 9.0 5.0

Health services, except hospitals

10.7 15.2 10.3 10.3

Social assistance

3.6 5.5 3.1 4.6

Leisure and hospitality

9.9 9.7 10.4 14.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.3 1.4 1.9 1.8

Accommodation and food services

7.6 8.3 8.5 12.4

Other services

5.4 4.2 8.2 5.9

Other services, except private households

4.5 3.6 7.7 3.8

Private households

0.9 0.6 0.5 2.1

Public administration

3.9 6.8 3.4 3.3

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2017 annual averages
Year and gender Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

1979

$241 $248 $199 - $194

1980

262 269 212 - 209

1981

284 291 235 - 223

1982

302 310 245 - 240

1983

313 320 261 - 250

1984

326 336 269 - 259

1985

344 356 277 - 270

1986

359 371 291 - 277

1987

374 384 301 - 285

1988

385 395 314 - 290

1989

399 409 319 - 298

1990

412 424 329 - 304

1991

426 442 348 - 312

1992

440 458 357 - 321

1993

459 475 369 - 331

1994

467 484 371 - 324

1995

479 494 383 - 329

1996

490 506 387 - 339

1997

503 519 400 - 351

1998

523 545 426 - 370

1999

549 573 445 - 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

2017

860 890 682 1,043 655

Women

1979

$182 $184 $169 - $157

1980

201 203 185 - 172

1981

219 221 206 - 190

1982

239 242 217 - 203

1983

252 254 232 - 215

1984

265 268 241 - 223

1985

277 281 252 - 230

1986

291 294 264 - 241

1987

303 307 276 - 251

1988

315 318 288 - 260

1989

328 334 301 - 269

1990

346 353 308 - 278

1991

366 373 323 - 292

1992

380 387 335 - 302

1993

393 401 348 - 313

1994

399 408 346 - 305

1995

406 415 355 - 305

1996

418 428 362 - 316

1997

431 444 375 - 318

1998

456 468 400 - 337

1999

473 483 409 - 348

2000

493 502 429 $547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

2017

770 795 657 903 603

Men

1979

$292 $298 $227 - $219

1980

313 320 244 - 234

1981

340 350 268 - 251

1982

364 375 278 - 269

1983

379 387 294 - 274

1984

392 401 303 - 287

1985

407 418 305 - 296

1986

419 433 319 - 299

1987

434 450 327 - 306

1988

449 465 348 - 308

1989

468 482 348 - 315

1990

481 494 361 - 318

1991

493 506 375 - 323

1992

501 514 380 - 339

1993

510 524 392 - 346

1994

522 547 400 - 343

1995

538 566 411 - 350

1996

557 580 412 - 356

1997

579 595 432 - 371

1998

598 615 468 - 390

1999

618 638 488 - 406

2000

641 662 510 $685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

2017

941 971 710 1,207 690

Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

2017

81.8 81.9 92.5 74.8 87.4

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2017 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total employed (in thousands) Median weekly earnings

Total

Total

102,991 $907

Less than high school diploma

7,038 520

High school graduate or more

95,953 944

High school graduate, no college

26,011 712

Some college or associate's degree

27,387 798

Some college, no degree

16,008 774

Associate's degree

11,379 836

Occupational program

4,737 829

Academic program

6,642 840

Bachelor's degree and higher

42,555 1,279

Bachelor's degree

26,456 1,173

Master's degree

11,946 1,401

Professional degree

1,738 1,836

Doctoral degree

2,415 1,743

Women

Total

45,801 $810

Less than high school diploma

2,257 447

High school graduate or more

43,545 838

High school graduate, no college

10,031 610

Some college or associate's degree

12,846 700

Some college, no degree

7,176 680

Associate's degree

5,670 727

Occupational program

2,123 707

Academic program

3,546 743

Bachelor's degree and higher

20,668 1,131

Bachelor's degree

12,548 1,013

Master's degree

6,260 1,241

Professional degree

831 1,573

Doctoral degree

1,028 1,543

Men

Total

57,190 $996

Less than high school diploma

4,781 584

High school graduate or more

52,409 1,048

High school graduate, no college

15,980 797

Some college or associate's degree

14,541 917

Some college, no degree

8,832 886

Associate's degree

5,709 978

Occupational program

2,613 976

Academic program

3,096 979

Bachelor's degree and higher

21,887 1,481

Bachelor's degree

13,908 1,378

Master's degree

5,685 1,633

Professional degree

908 2,012

Doctoral degree

1,387 1,886

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

113,272 $860 50,291 $770 62,980 $941 81.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

47,207 1,224 24,393 1,052 22,815 1,442 73.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,414 1,327 8,999 1,134 10,415 1,526 74.3

Management occupations

13,169 1,392 5,600 1,173 7,568 1,573 74.6

Chief executives

1,136 2,296 313 1,920 823 2,415 79.5

General and operations managers

920 1,328 321 1,134 598 1,488 76.2

Legislators

14 - 9 - 5 - -

Advertising and promotions managers

53 1,330 29 - 24 - -

Marketing and sales managers

994 1,509 428 1,288 566 1,747 73.7

Public relations and fundraising managers

71 1,318 47 - 24 - -

Administrative services managers

147 1,233 57 1,013 89 1,629 62.2

Computer and information systems managers

594 1,843 165 1,629 428 1,897 85.9

Financial managers

1,111 1,412 611 1,222 500 1,719 71.1

Compensation and benefits managers

16 - 11 - 5 - -

Human resources managers

304 1,448 211 1,280 92 1,748 73.2

Training and development managers

58 1,396 35 - 23 - -

Industrial production managers

265 1,486 63 1,312 202 1,526 86.0

Purchasing managers

194 1,271 104 1,138 90 1,420 80.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

274 1,039 49 - 225 1,061 -

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

121 1,001 21 - 100 963 -

Construction managers

582 1,428 56 1,243 526 1,439 86.4

Education administrators

801 1,367 497 1,243 304 1,561 79.6

Architectural and engineering managers

128 1,999 10 - 119 2,020 -

Food service managers

816 753 394 674 421 894 75.4

Funeral service managers

9 - 5 - 4 - -

Gaming managers

23 - 6 - 17 - -

Lodging managers

116 882 62 844 54 982 85.9

Medical and health services managers

610 1,319 433 1,177 177 1,490 79.0

Natural sciences managers

17 - 7 - 10 - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

23 - 10 - 13 - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

421 957 241 873 181 1,163 75.1

Social and community service managers

337 1,136 236 1,052 101 1,281 82.1

Emergency management directors

10 - 7 - 4 - -

Managers, all other

3,004 1,488 1,163 1,251 1,841 1,629 76.8

Business and financial operations occupations

6,245 1,174 3,398 1,055 2,847 1,390 75.9

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

23 - 15 - 8 - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10 - 4 - 6 - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

154 886 87 888 67 882 100.7

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

240 1,132 96 1,085 143 1,144 94.8

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

346 1,002 218 925 128 1,108 83.5

Compliance officers

240 1,391 134 1,296 106 1,501 86.3

Cost estimators

113 1,139 13 - 100 1,157 -

Human resources workers

664 1,086 482 1,035 182 1,236 83.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

60 1,042 39 - 21 - -

Training and development specialists

114 1,099 55 937 59 1,255 74.7

Logisticians

101 1,230 33 - 67 1,358 -

Management analysts

606 1,499 255 1,315 351 1,651 79.6

Meeting, convention, and event planners

102 1,080 89 1,064 14 - -

Fundraisers

72 1,152 55 1,152 17 - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

258 1,174 149 1,061 110 1,357 78.2

Business operations specialists, all other

250 1,136 132 1,013 118 1,361 74.4

Accountants and auditors

1,512 1,173 890 1,065 622 1,389 76.7

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

55 1,074 20 - 35 - -

Budget analysts

54 1,377 26 - 29 - -

Credit analysts

27 - 15 - 13 - -

Financial analysts

264 1,530 108 1,369 156 1,590 86.1

Personal financial advisors

398 1,425 131 979 267 1,662 58.9

Insurance underwriters

92 1,153 57 1,115 35 - -

Financial examiners

15 - 7 - 8 - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

320 1,070 193 958 127 1,332 71.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

62 1,078 33 - 28 - -

Tax preparers

56 791 39 - 18 - -

Financial specialists, all other

36 - 24 - 11 - -

Professional and related occupations

27,794 1,160 15,394 1,014 12,400 1,391 72.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,350 1,465 1,110 1,235 3,240 1,552 79.6

Computer and information research scientists

23 - 9 - 13 - -

Computer systems analysts

522 1,409 211 1,270 311 1,495 84.9

Information security analysts

94 1,725 20 - 74 1,773 -

Computer programmers

423 1,483 89 1,363 333 1,539 88.6

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,439 1,792 265 1,543 1,174 1,863 82.8

Web developers

144 1,235 46 - 98 1,342 -

Computer support specialists

443 1,068 124 919 319 1,134 81.0

Database administrators

93 1,381 37 - 56 1,745 -

Network and computer systems administrators

193 1,395 38 - 155 1,396 -

Computer network architects

100 1,636 3 - 97 1,659 -

Computer occupations, all other

627 1,194 142 1,059 484 1,250 84.7

Actuaries

23 - 7 - 16 - -

Mathematicians

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Operations research analysts

146 1,396 74 1,205 71 1,570 76.8

Statisticians

77 1,433 41 - 36 - -

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2 - 1 - 1 - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,936 1,478 442 1,307 2,494 1,518 86.1

Architects, except naval

196 1,453 46 - 150 1,650 -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

30 - 5 - 25 - -

Aerospace engineers

137 1,892 9 - 128 1,891 -

Agricultural engineers

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Biomedical engineers

16 - 4 - 11 - -

Chemical engineers

78 1,626 12 - 66 1,631 -

Civil engineers

393 1,494 61 1,343 332 1,524 88.1

Computer hardware engineers

73 1,771 13 - 60 1,793 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

276 1,803 30 - 245 1,772 -

Environmental engineers

32 - 11 - 21 - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

213 1,496 46 - 168 1,520 -

Marine engineers and naval architects

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Materials engineers

32 - 5 - 28 - -

Mechanical engineers

337 1,534 26 - 311 1,533 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

12 - 1 - 10 - -

Nuclear engineers

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Petroleum engineers

23 - 6 - 17 - -

Engineers, all other

546 1,561 73 1,436 473 1,571 91.4

Drafters

122 1,126 21 - 100 1,149 -

Engineering technicians, except drafters

339 1,053 70 884 269 1,102 80.2

Surveying and mapping technicians

63 1,109 2 - 61 1,114 -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,238 1,286 564 1,183 674 1,361 86.9

Agricultural and food scientists

25 - 10 - 14 - -

Biological scientists

82 1,140 41 - 41 - -

Conservation scientists and foresters

26 - 11 - 15 - -

Medical scientists

162 1,378 80 1,270 82 1,383 91.8

Life scientists, all other

4 - 3 - 1 - -

Astronomers and physicists

16 - 1 - 15 - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

6 - 2 - 4 - -

Chemists and materials scientists

98 1,425 41 - 56 1,451 -

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

80 1,639 30 - 51 1,746 -

Physical scientists, all other

270 1,529 122 1,409 147 1,565 90.0

Economists

29 - 12 - 18 - -

Survey researchers

2 - 1 - 1 - -

Psychologists

106 1,454 71 1,437 35 - -

Sociologists

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Urban and regional planners

34 - 16 - 18 - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

27 - 9 - 18 - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

30 - 10 - 20 - -

Biological technicians

23 - 15 - 8 - -

Chemical technicians

62 1,013 16 - 45 - -

Geological and petroleum technicians

13 - 4 - 9 - -

Nuclear technicians

6 - 2 - 4 - -

Social science research assistants

4 - 4 - 0 - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

132 826 63 766 70 970 79.0

Community and social service occupations

2,165 900 1,418 857 747 976 87.8

Counselors

650 897 472 894 178 901 99.2

Social workers

714 906 591 900 122 935 96.3

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

90 881 55 858 36 - -

Social and human service assistants

189 739 141 701 48 - -

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

68 829 51 791 17 - -

Clergy

342 1,058 46 - 297 1,073 -

Directors, religious activities and education

61 844 25 - 36 - -

Religious workers, all other

50 831 37 - 13 - -

Legal occupations

1,379 1,443 811 1,192 568 1,896 62.9

Lawyers

781 1,901 337 1,753 444 2,105 83.3

Judicial law clerks

13 - 6 - 7 - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

59 1,742 17 - 42 - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

370 945 321 934 49 - -

Miscellaneous legal support workers

156 957 130 904 26 - -

Education, training, and library occupations

6,978 1,002 5,039 935 1,939 1,202 77.8

Postsecondary teachers

985 1,312 434 1,208 551 1,414 85.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

530 657 518 654 12 - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,838 1,023 2,224 987 614 1,139 86.7

Secondary school teachers

917 1,139 524 1,091 392 1,226 89.0

Special education teachers

386 1,024 332 1,017 54 1,051 96.8

Other teachers and instructors

419 897 265 820 155 1,128 72.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

42 - 24 - 18 - -

Librarians

135 1,009 104 972 31 - -

Library technicians

16 - 14 - 2 - -

Teacher assistants

590 550 523 537 67 642 83.6

Other education, training, and library workers

120 1,049 77 956 44 - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,778 1,066 765 943 1,013 1,161 81.2

Artists and related workers

70 1,209 27 - 43 - -

Designers

600 1,012 273 857 327 1,172 73.1

Actors

17 - 6 - 11 - -

Producers and directors

131 1,489 43 - 89 1,708 -

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

149 898 45 - 104 1,031 -

Dancers and choreographers

9 - 5 - 4 - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

41 - 12 - 29 - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

24 - 13 - 10 - -

Announcers

24 - 7 - 18 - -

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

72 945 42 - 30 - -

Public relations specialists

92 1,339 57 1,203 35 - -

Editors

124 1,084 68 992 56 1,123 88.3

Technical writers

67 1,222 37 - 30 - -

Writers and authors

106 1,137 57 1,045 50 1,171 89.2

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

53 809 28 - 25 - -

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

81 1,150 10 - 71 1,160 -

Photographers

66 931 25 - 40 - -

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

46 - 8 - 38 - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5 - 2 - 3 - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,970 1,124 5,246 1,068 1,724 1,341 79.6

Chiropractors

11 - 2 - 9 - -

Dentists

41 - 25 - 16 - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

88 991 80 996 8 - -

Optometrists

19 - 13 - 6 - -

Pharmacists

254 1,923 147 1,834 107 2,228 82.3

Physicians and surgeons

815 1,918 352 1,759 463 2,277 77.3

Physician assistants

97 1,747 66 1,640 31 - -

Podiatrists

7 - 4 - 3 - -

Audiologists

13 - 12 - 1 - -

Occupational therapists

74 1,301 62 1,273 12 - -

Physical therapists

182 1,317 118 1,297 64 1,341 96.7

Radiation therapists

11 - 8 - 3 - -

Recreational therapists

5 - 3 - 1 - -

Respiratory therapists

83 961 56 904 27 - -

Speech-language pathologists

106 1,213 102 1,214 4 - -

Exercise physiologists

5 - 3 - 1 - -

Therapists, all other

142 983 114 947 29 - -

Veterinarians

60 1,840 40 - 20 - -

Registered nurses

2,536 1,150 2,253 1,143 283 1,260 90.7

Nurse anesthetists

30 - 17 - 13 - -

Nurse midwives

5 - 5 - 0 - -

Nurse practitioners

141 1,841 129 1,832 12 - -

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

15 - 12 - 3 - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

297 890 203 845 94 1,061 79.6

Dental hygienists

78 1,033 73 1,028 5 - -

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

271 1,162 186 1,041 85 1,404 74.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

203 984 58 733 145 1,119 65.5

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

469 710 371 678 98 858 79.0

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

501 815 438 814 62 817 99.6

Medical records and health information technicians

151 763 140 761 11 - -

Opticians, dispensing

43 - 30 - 13 - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

143 811 95 746 48 - -

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

77 1,183 28 - 49 - -

Service occupations

16,044 544 8,059 501 7,985 608 82.4

Healthcare support occupations

2,500 542 2,180 533 320 597 89.3

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,387 500 1,223 493 164 583 84.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

13 - 11 - 1 - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

47 - 33 - 15 - -

Massage therapists

51 632 36 - 15 - -

Dental assistants

215 608 203 602 12 - -

Medical assistants

457 594 418 597 39 - -

Medical transcriptionists

21 - 18 - 3 - -

Pharmacy aides

25 - 14 - 11 - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

37 - 33 - 4 - -

Phlebotomists

97 635 82 639 16 - -

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

150 587 110 603 40 - -

Protective service occupations

2,739 852 535 690 2,204 894 77.2

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

50 899 12 - 38 - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

94 1,348 13 - 81 1,347 -

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

43 - 2 - 42 - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

69 953 11 - 58 938 -

Firefighters

272 1,123 8 - 264 1,136 -

Fire inspectors

22 - 0 - 22 - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

390 771 106 669 284 825 81.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

142 1,256 32 - 110 1,291 -

Fish and game wardens

5 - 0 - 5 - -

Parking enforcement workers

4 - 2 - 2 - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

688 1,015 94 985 595 1,024 96.2

Transit and railroad police

6 - 2 - 4 - -

Animal control workers

12 - 4 - 8 - -

Private detectives and investigators

86 963 44 - 42 - -

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

740 596 170 548 570 616 89.0

Crossing guards

23 - 6 - 17 - -

Transportation security screeners

43 - 11 - 32 - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

49 - 19 - 30 - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,465 484 2,106 459 2,359 502 91.4

Chefs and head cooks

382 634 72 514 310 655 78.5

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

427 537 227 500 200 613 81.6

Cooks

1,365 466 506 436 859 481 90.6

Food preparation workers

510 425 269 410 242 449 91.3

Bartenders

210 554 112 515 98 600 85.8

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

175 407 100 401 75 415 96.6

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

65 460 36 - 29 - -

Waiters and waitresses

911 493 592 475 319 533 89.1

Food servers, nonrestaurant

88 473 59 468 28 - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

134 458 55 481 79 444 108.3

Dishwashers

131 401 19 - 111 408 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

67 401 58 400 9 - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

1 - 1 - 1 - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,641 522 1,268 463 2,373 573 80.8

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

190 661 77 515 113 749 68.8

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

111 723 9 - 102 760 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,595 539 459 481 1,136 574 83.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

815 450 687 439 128 508 86.4

Pest control workers

94 616 5 - 89 617 -

Grounds maintenance workers

837 525 31 - 805 526 -

Personal care and service occupations

2,699 520 1,971 503 728 612 82.2

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

126 797 53 763 73 837 91.2

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

76 619 45 - 31 - -

Animal trainers

23 - 7 - 16 - -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

99 506 78 504 21 - -

Gaming services workers

66 692 28 - 37 - -

Motion picture projectionists

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

8 - 2 - 6 - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

74 517 36 - 39 - -

Embalmers and funeral attendants

15 - 7 - 8 - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

22 - 3 - 19 - -

Barbers

54 590 8 - 47 - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

324 528 302 521 22 - -

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

235 567 187 538 48 - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

70 547 14 - 56 543 -

Tour and travel guides

21 - 6 - 14 - -

Childcare workers

448 482 413 474 35 - -

Personal care aides

735 486 608 479 127 520 92.1

Recreation and fitness workers

200 616 118 565 82 726 77.8

Residential advisors

27 - 17 - 10 - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

76 570 40 - 37 - -

Sales and office occupations

23,686 718 14,205 672 9,481 834 80.6

Sales and related occupations

9,953 763 4,355 609 5,598 934 65.2

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,388 764 1,013 639 1,376 891 71.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

815 1,062 274 965 541 1,151 83.8

Cashiers

1,360 438 982 422 378 493 85.6

Counter and rental clerks

78 607 31 - 48 - -

Parts salespersons

115 786 7 - 108 800 -

Retail salespersons

1,896 615 736 523 1,160 704 74.3

Advertising sales agents

193 887 106 882 87 895 98.5

Insurance sales agents

440 897 242 795 198 1,058 75.1

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

231 1,332 77 911 154 1,416 64.3

Travel agents

57 665 47 - 10 - -

Sales representatives, services, all other

458 1,147 120 902 339 1,332 67.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,105 1,157 308 956 796 1,222 78.2

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

16 - 12 - 4 - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

488 953 269 818 219 1,159 70.6

Sales engineers

39 - 3 - 36 - -

Telemarketers

37 - 27 - 11 - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

41 - 15 - 27 - -

Sales and related workers, all other

195 971 89 799 107 1,147 69.7

Office and administrative support occupations

13,733 701 9,850 691 3,884 735 94.0

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,261 867 854 819 408 987 83.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

16 - 12 - 3 - -

Telephone operators

35 - 27 - 9 - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 - 2 - 4 - -

Bill and account collectors

130 674 92 655 38 - -

Billing and posting clerks

405 696 347 691 58 718 96.2

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

718 719 625 716 92 743 96.4

Gaming cage workers

11 - 11 - 0 - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

103 765 89 767 13 - -

Procurement clerks

29 - 15 - 14 - -

Tellers

209 572 184 562 25 - -

Financial clerks, all other

74 902 48 - 26 - -

Brokerage clerks

5 - 3 - 2 - -

Correspondence clerks

6 - 5 - 0 - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

79 738 62 718 17 - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

50 807 31 - 20 - -

Customer service representatives

1,881 654 1,234 637 646 712 89.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

66 849 50 779 16 - -

File clerks

135 704 109 706 26 - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

84 486 49 - 35 - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

106 671 89 683 16 - -

Library assistants, clerical

45 - 37 - 8 - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

114 742 95 725 19 - -

New accounts clerks

36 - 28 - 8 - -

Order clerks

80 629 42 - 38 - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

45 - 37 - 8 - -

Receptionists and information clerks

892 602 826 599 66 652 91.9

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

99 739 56 691 43 - -

Information and record clerks, all other

92 691 74 683 19 - -

Cargo and freight agents

14 - 4 - 10 - -

Couriers and messengers

155 725 24 - 131 751 -

Dispatchers

255 710 145 691 110 753 91.8

Meter readers, utilities

14 - 2 - 12 - -

Postal service clerks

104 940 56 925 48 - -

Postal service mail carriers

266 944 108 856 158 965 88.7

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

49 - 23 - 26 - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

238 911 120 798 118 1,043 76.5

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

544 611 165 596 379 616 96.8

Stock clerks and order fillers

982 559 339 538 643 571 94.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43 - 21 - 22 - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,165 739 2,046 735 119 852 86.3

Computer operators

63 809 35 - 27 - -

Data entry keyers

224 650 176 640 48 - -

Word processors and typists

80 683 72 667 8 - -

Desktop publishers

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

223 714 189 711 34 - -

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

46 - 16 - 30 - -

Office clerks, general

935 682 793 670 142 780 85.9

Office machine operators, except computer

27 - 17 - 10 - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

6 - 4 - 2 - -

Statistical assistants

17 - 10 - 7 - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

473 758 352 756 122 768 98.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,509 801 515 579 10,994 809 71.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

962 539 206 471 756 585 80.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

51 711 4 - 47 - -

Agricultural inspectors

14 - 4 - 10 - -

Animal breeders

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

99 500 67 487 32 - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

701 517 127 453 574 553 81.9

Fishers and related fishing workers

21 - 0 - 21 - -

Hunters and trappers

2 - 1 - 0 - -

Forest and conservation workers

25 - 2 - 23 - -

Logging workers

47 - 1 - 46 - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,147 796 160 802 5,987 796 100.8

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

520 1,158 14 - 506 1,166 -

Boilermakers

15 - 0 - 15 - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

121 787 0 - 121 787 -

Carpenters

870 789 19 - 851 789 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

115 631 1 - 114 628 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

47 - 2 - 45 - -

Construction laborers

1,443 670 43 - 1,400 667 -

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

12 - 0 - 12 - -

Pile-driver operators

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

324 868 6 - 318 868 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

114 634 1 - 112 628 -

Electricians

726 979 15 - 711 974 -

Glaziers

39 - 0 - 39 - -

Insulation workers

52 768 3 - 49 - -

Painters, construction and maintenance

347 683 20 - 328 689 -

Paperhangers

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

497 866 8 - 489 865 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

24 - 0 - 24 - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

13 - 0 - 13 - -

Roofers

174 621 0 - 174 621 -

Sheet metal workers

136 865 3 - 132 866 -

Structural iron and steel workers

43 - 2 - 41 - -

Solar photovoltaic installers

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Helpers, construction trades

57 621 4 - 53 627 -

Construction and building inspectors

63 974 4 - 60 1,068 -

Elevator installers and repairers

38 - 0 - 38 - -

Fence erectors

26 - 1 - 25 - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

27 - 6 - 20 - -

Highway maintenance workers

91 761 4 - 88 770 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10 - 0 - 10 - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6 - 0 - 6 - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

15 - 1 - 14 - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

27 - 0 - 27 - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

17 - 0 - 17 - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

12 - 0 - 12 - -

Mining machine operators

49 - 0 - 49 - -

Roof bolters, mining

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 - 0 - 4 - -

Helpers--extraction workers

5 - 1 - 5 - -

Other extraction workers

54 900 2 - 52 907 -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,400 878 149 736 4,251 883 83.4

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

244 1,092 19 - 225 1,089 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

173 819 17 - 156 833 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

121 1,010 8 - 113 1,069 -

Avionics technicians

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

30 - 0 - 30 - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

14 - 0 - 14 - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

11 - 0 - 11 - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

38 - 0 - 38 - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

71 945 3 - 68 943 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

153 1,169 6 - 146 1,175 -

Automotive body and related repairers

124 821 1 - 122 832 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

21 - 0 - 21 - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

752 761 15 - 737 764 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

367 887 4 - 362 887 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

177 993 4 - 173 1,005 -

Small engine mechanics

26 - 0 - 26 - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

64 613 0 - 64 613 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

25 - 0 - 25 - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

376 830 7 - 369 832 -

Home appliance repairers

26 - 0 - 26 - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

395 923 16 - 379 932 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

511 828 20 - 490 834 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

25 - 0 - 25 - -

Millwrights

40 - 1 - 39 - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

132 1,191 0 - 132 1,191 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

187 879 5 - 181 876 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

44 - 10 - 34 - -

Wind turbine service technicians

6 - 0 - 6 - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

24 - 1 - 23 - -

Commercial divers

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

20 - 2 - 18 - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Riggers

13 - 0 - 13 - -

Signal and track switch repairers

11 - 0 - 11 - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

15 - 2 - 14 - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

156 774 6 - 150 772 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,825 692 3,119 545 11,705 736 74.0

Production occupations

7,589 701 2,044 564 5,545 769 73.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

722 966 133 716 588 1,007 71.1

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

123 624 50 587 73 682 86.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

14 - 2 - 11 - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

25 - 1 - 24 - -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

957 630 362 559 595 700 79.9

Bakers

135 472 68 464 67 488 95.1

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

259 587 63 487 196 621 78.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

7 - 3 - 4 - -

Food batchmakers

70 575 38 - 32 - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

8 - 5 - 3 - -

Food processing workers, all other

171 676 52 545 119 701 77.7

Computer control programmers and operators

100 868 12 - 88 912 -

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

18 - 1 - 17 - -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9 - 1 - 8 - -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9 - 2 - 6 - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

84 665 9 - 74 688 -

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40 - 4 - 35 - -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14 - 1 - 13 - -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - 2 - 3 - -

Machinists

343 831 16 - 326 834 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

23 - 3 - 20 - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

3 - 3 - 1 - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

43 - 5 - 38 - -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - 1 - 4 - -

Tool and die makers

59 1,007 3 - 56 1,021 -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

541 812 24 - 517 821 -

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 - 1 - 1 - -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

11 - 0 - 11 - -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

16 - 2 - 14 - -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

381 654 78 574 303 679 84.5

Prepress technicians and workers

13 - 4 - 8 - -

Printing press operators

151 758 26 - 126 789 -

Print binding and finishing workers

8 - 4 - 4 - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

106 450 79 443 27 - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

19 - 9 - 10 - -

Sewing machine operators

157 519 108 521 49 - -

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

3 - 1 - 2 - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

31 - 21 - 10 - -

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 - 4 - 2 - -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

17 - 9 - 8 - -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

12 - 8 - 4 - -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Upholsterers

22 - 4 - 18 - -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

19 - 9 - 10 - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

38 - 2 - 36 - -

Furniture finishers

8 - 1 - 7 - -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

26 - 0 - 26 - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

16 - 4 - 12 - -

Woodworkers, all other

19 - 4 - 15 - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

47 - 2 - 45 - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

76 1,088 4 - 72 1,142 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

107 907 5 - 102 910 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

41 - 6 - 34 - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

58 877 3 - 55 879 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

70 771 8 - 62 795 -

Cutting workers

51 521 12 - 40 - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

13 - 3 - 10 - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

5 - 0 - 5 - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

717 765 275 637 443 853 74.7

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

24 - 5 - 20 - -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

57 598 40 - 16 - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

275 553 147 516 128 598 86.3

Painting workers

131 693 14 - 117 705 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

23 - 7 - 16 - -

Semiconductor processors

2 - 2 - 0 - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

4 - 0 - 4 - -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

10 - 2 - 8 - -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

2 - 1 - 1 - -

Etchers and engravers

5 - 2 - 3 - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

25 - 4 - 21 - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

28 - 5 - 23 - -

Tire builders

10 - 0 - 10 - -

Helpers--production workers

30 - 11 - 19 - -

Production workers, all other

890 663 238 570 653 716 79.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,236 681 1,075 514 6,160 710 72.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

192 881 31 - 160 919 -

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

112 1,736 7 - 105 1,750 -

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

16 - 5 - 11 - -

Flight attendants

71 860 51 873 20 - -

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

8 - 1 - 7 - -

Bus drivers

356 605 148 517 209 671 77.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,828 797 139 589 2,689 807 73.0

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

362 604 54 453 308 623 72.7

Motor vehicle operators, all other

33 - 5 - 28 - -

Locomotive engineers and operators

43 - 7 - 36 - -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

5 - 0 - 5 - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

42 - 2 - 39 - -

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

9 - 2 - 7 - -

Sailors and marine oilers

19 - 0 - 19 - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

29 - 0 - 29 - -

Ship engineers

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Bridge and lock tenders

5 - 2 - 3 - -

Parking lot attendants

65 560 16 - 49 - -

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

80 514 7 - 73 535 -

Transportation inspectors