November 2016 Report 1064

Highlights of women’s earnings in 2015

Highlights of women’s earnings in 2015 image

In 2015, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 81 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has ranged from 80 to 83 percent. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in Highlights of Women’s Earnings reflect information collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and averaged for the calendar year. These data are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

 

Earnings of full-time workers

Below are data highlights for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics such as age, race and ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2015, median weekly earnings were $726 for all women age 16 and older.  For men 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $895.  Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 and 64, with relatively little difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($804), 45- to 54-year-olds ($799), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($784). For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 54-year-olds ($1,040) and 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,064). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($450 and $510, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

 

In 2015, women’s earnings ranged from 74 to 82 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller, with women earning about 88 to 90 percent of what men did. (See table 1.)

Between 1979 and 2015, women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios rose for most age groups, particularly in the prime working ages from 25 to 54. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 90 percent in 2015; the ratio for 35- to 44-year-olds rose from 58 to 82 percent; and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds, from 57 to 77 percent. For workers age 55 to 64, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio rose from 61 to 74 percent over this period. For young workers age 16 to 24, the earnings ratio increased from 79 to 88 percent between 1979 and 2015, with the gains occurring primarily in the 1980s. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2015. Among women, Whites ($743) earned 85 percent as much as Asians ($877), Blacks ($615) earned 70 percent, and Hispanics ($566) earned 65 percent. In comparison, White men ($920) earned 81 percent as much as Asian men ($1,129), Black men ($680) earned 60 percent as much, and Hispanic men ($631), 56 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

 

Earnings differences between women and men were the most pronounced for Asians and for Whites. Asian women earned 78 percent as much as Asian men in 2015, and White women earned 81 percent as much as their male counterparts. In comparison, Black and Hispanic women had median earnings that were 90 percent of those of their male counterparts. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably among the major race and Hispanic ethnicity groups since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2015, inflation-adjusted earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) have increased by 32 percent for White women, by 19 percent for Black women, and by 18 percent for Hispanic women. In recent years, however, earnings growth appears to have plateaued for White, Black, and Hispanic women. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men declined during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth, before tapering off.  For Hispanic men, earnings also dropped until the mid-1990s, but then began to trend upward. Over the full period, 1979 through 2015, inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men have changed little on net (+1 percent and -2 percent, respectively), while those for Hispanic men have shown a small net decline (-6 percent). (See table 18.)

Comparable earnings data for Asians are available only back to 2003. Between 2003 and 2015, inflation-adjusted earnings grew by 14 percent for Asian women and by 13 percent for Asian men. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($493) were 40 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher ($1,230) in 2015.  For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($678) were 55 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree ($762) made 62 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree or more made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. Although both women and men without a high school diploma have experienced declines in inflation-adjusted earnings since 1979, the drop for women was much smaller than that for men: a 10-percent decrease for women, compared with a 32-percent decline for men. On an inflation-adjusted basis, earnings for women with a bachelor’s degree or higher have increased by 32 percent since 1979. Earnings for men with a bachelor’s degree or higher have risen by 18 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

 

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2015 ($1,073 for women and $1,436 for men). Within management, business, and financial operations occupations, women and men who were chief executives had the highest median weekly earnings in 2015 ($1,836 and $2,251, respectively). (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($963 for women and $1,343 for men). Women who were pharmacists ($1,811) and lawyers ($1,717) had the highest earnings in this category. For men, those who were pharmacists ($2,117), physicians and surgeons ($1,915), and lawyers ($1,914) earned the most. (See table 2.)

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2015, 30 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 19 percent of men. Within this occupational category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying job groups is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2015, 9 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer and engineering fields, compared with 45 percent of men. Women in professional and related occupations were more likely to work in education and healthcare jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-eight percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2015, compared with 30 percent of men. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

 

Earnings for those with and without children under 18

In 2015, a little more than one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (“Children” refers to "own" children and includes sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($727) were essentially the same as earnings for women without children under 18 ($726). Earnings for fathers with children under 18 were $985, compared with $844 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. In addition, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. Thus, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to have a longer workweek. In 2015, 26 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 15 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 11 percent of women worked such hours in 2015, while 5 percent of men did. A majority of both male and female full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 88 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 25 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2015. In comparison, 12 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $251 in 2015, slightly higher than the $238 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers in 2015, 30 percent of women and 45 percent of men were under age 25. Among full-time workers, 9 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2015, 61 percent of women and 56 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $12.56, which were 86 percent of the median hourly earnings of men ($14.67). (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2015, 4 percent of women and 3 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See table 10.)

Among both women and men, hourly paid workers age 16 to 19 were the most likely to have earnings at or below the minimum wage. Eleven percent of teenage workers who were paid hourly rates earned the prevailing federal minimum wage or less in 2015, compared with just 2 percent of hourly paid workers age 25 and older. Six percent of workers age 20 to 24 had earnings at or below the federal minimum wage. (See table 10.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2015 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

109,080 $809 $2 48,334 $726 $2 60,746 $895 $3 81.1

16 to 24 years

9,790 487 2 4,314 450 5 5,476 510 3 88.2

16 to 19 years

1,156 389 4 495 364 6 660 407 5 89.4

20 to 24 years

8,634 501 3 3,818 468 5 4,816 522 4 89.7

25 years and older

99,291 860 2 44,020 761 2 55,270 947 3 80.4

25 to 34 years

26,611 735 3 11,538 690 5 15,073 770 5 89.6

35 to 44 years

24,917 900 5 10,802 804 7 14,114 983 7 81.8

45 to 54 years

25,577 923 5 11,572 799 7 14,005 1,040 8 76.8

55 to 64 years

18,108 927 6 8,295 784 7 9,813 1,064 11 73.7

65 years and older

4,078 873 14 1,813 740 12 2,265 1,003 24 73.8

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

85,443 835 3 36,698 743 3 48,746 920 4 80.8

Black or African American

13,587 641 5 7,142 615 5 6,445 680 8 90.4

Asian

6,638 993 12 2,954 877 15 3,684 1,129 14 77.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,311 604 3 7,168 566 6 11,142 631 6 89.7

Marital status

 

Never married

31,097 643 3 13,626 614 3 17,470 673 5 91.2

Married, spouse present

60,283 930 3 24,544 804 5 35,739 1,030 5 78.1

Other marital status

17,700 766 4 10,164 712 5 7,537 861 8 82.7

Divorced

11,780 810 6 6,809 748 6 4,971 902 10 82.9

Separated

4,157 667 10 2,065 608 8 2,092 738 13 82.4

Widowed

1,764 734 14 1,290 682 14 474 915 28 74.5

Union affiliation(1)

 

Members of unions(2)

13,340 980 5 5,831 928 8 7,509 1,017 7 91.2

Represented by unions(3)

14,768 975 5 6,526 921 7 8,242 1,014 7 90.8

Not represented by a union

94,313 776 2 41,808 697 3 52,504 869 4 80.2

Educational attainment

 

Total, 25 years and older

99,291 860 2 44,020 761 2 55,270 947 3 80.4

Less than a high school diploma

7,289 493 3 2,255 418 3 5,035 520 3 80.4

High school graduates, no college

25,221 678 3 9,905 586 3 15,316 759 4 77.2

Some college or associate's degree

26,801 762 3 12,692 664 3 14,109 883 5 75.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

39,979 1,230 5 19,169 1,064 6 20,811 1,420 8 74.9

(1) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.

(2) Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

(3) Union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2015 annual averages
Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

109,080 $809 $2 48,334 $726 $2 60,746 $895 $3 81.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

44,844 1,158 3 23,038 996 4 21,807 1,383 7 72.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18,422 1,258 7 8,404 1,073 10 10,018 1,436 10 74.7

Management occupations

12,480 1,351 9 5,147 1,139 9 7,332 1,486 17 76.6

Chief executives

1,046 2,041 71 283 1,836 81 763 2,251 86 81.6

General and operations managers

823 1,260 22 202 1,002 94 621 1,347 44 74.4

Legislators

8 4 5

Advertising and promotions managers

55 1,050 96 26 29

Marketing and sales managers

948 1,462 38 378 1,258 108 570 1,603 82 78.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

59 1,557 80 35 24

Administrative services managers

170 1,191 89 73 981 240 96 1,451 60 67.6

Computer and information systems managers

636 1,728 60 169 1,563 59 466 1,817 103 86.0

Financial managers

1,124 1,408 46 573 1,130 27 551 1,732 68 65.2

Compensation and benefits managers

23 16 7

Human resources managers

254 1,365 41 186 1,274 106 68 1,495 160 85.2

Training and development managers

37 20 17

Industrial production managers

267 1,485 79 45 221 1,528 52

Purchasing managers

193 1,348 43 84 1,226 219 109 1,404 81 87.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

276 966 35 52 749 79 224 1,006 46 74.5

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

129 769 97 23 106 847 43

Construction managers

471 1,329 62 42 429 1,357 40

Education administrators

778 1,423 26 496 1,252 94 282 1,585 76 79.0

Architectural and engineering managers

110 1,899 34 10 101 1,892 33

Food service managers

763 742 17 374 680 24 389 820 31 82.9

Funeral service managers

13 2 10

Gaming managers

19 6 13

Lodging managers

123 985 36 68 902 55 54 1,171 103 77.0

Medical and health services managers

592 1,210 54 438 1,156 19 154 1,422 83 81.3

Natural sciences managers

24 13 11

Postmasters and mail superintendents

20 10 10

Property, real estate, and community association managers

401 914 48 230 823 47 171 1,137 48 72.4

Social and community service managers

305 1,022 42 200 965 26 105 1,142 150 84.5

Emergency management directors

9 3 6

Managers, all other

2,803 1,408 20 1,085 1,213 48 1,717 1,525 33 79.5

Business and financial operations occupations

5,942 1,137 8 3,256 1,004 10 2,686 1,327 18 75.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

27 14 13

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11 2 9

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

142 926 51 69 985 50 73 886 53 111.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

260 1,009 30 124 986 59 136 1,020 46 96.7

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

317 963 27 176 824 48 141 1,134 32 72.7

Compliance officers

235 1,198 92 109 1,025 56 126 1,375 62 74.5

Cost estimators

95 1,232 54 12 83 1,264 54

Human resources workers

592 1,002 22 441 984 22 151 1,158 183 85.0

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

63 998 68 50 898 93 12

Training and development specialists

107 990 106 65 1,037 48 42

Logisticians

111 1,028 50 44 66 1,075 47

Management analysts

529 1,431 45 237 1,348 50 291 1,519 64 88.7

Meeting, convention, and event planners

117 859 33 90 840 38 27

Fundraisers

62 1,136 62 48 14

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

203 1,284 99 118 1,239 60 85 1,411 181 87.8

Business operations specialists, all other

186 1,090 55 112 969 45 74 1,461 53 66.3

Accountants and auditors

1,464 1,132 18 846 988 25 618 1,345 22 73.5

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

42 21 21

Budget analysts

44 28 17

Credit analysts

17 9 8

Financial analysts

295 1,426 56 127 1,171 100 168 1,680 165 69.7

Personal financial advisors

407 1,419 97 159 1,033 73 248 1,738 127 59.4

Insurance underwriters

106 1,149 118 63 956 53 44

Financial examiners

17 8 9

Credit counselors and loan officers

313 997 50 166 906 39 146 1,186 69 76.4

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

59 1,051 48 39 20

Tax preparers

56 892 68 37 19

Financial specialists, all other

66 1,162 84 40 25

Professional and related occupations

26,423 1,112 6 14,634 963 5 11,789 1,343 8 71.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,009 1,428 16 973 1,245 17 3,036 1,503 23 82.8

Computer and information research scientists

28 5 23

Computer systems analysts

499 1,389 60 173 1,256 43 325 1,462 29 85.9

Information security analysts

67 1,538 56 11 56 1,562 51

Computer programmers

450 1,438 48 93 1,302 89 357 1,501 59 86.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,287 1,682 40 232 1,415 37 1,054 1,751 22 80.8

Web developers

151 1,165 50 53 1,026 129 98 1,233 34 83.2

Computer support specialists

396 1,079 36 105 908 62 291 1,135 36 80.0

Database administrators

90 1,536 249 32 58 1,829 239

Network and computer systems administrators

208 1,242 76 28 179 1,266 105

Computer network architects

115 1,552 81 15 100 1,577 88

Computer occupations, all other

490 1,227 41 116 1,145 39 374 1,252 38 91.5

Actuaries

24 6 18

Mathematicians

6 0 6

Operations research analysts

122 1,441 87 63 1,325 54 59 1,574 175 84.2

Statisticians

76 1,275 63 39 37

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

1 0 1

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,656 1,424 18 383 1,257 34 2,272 1,452 18 86.6

Architects, except naval

138 1,441 110 31 106 1,492 67

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

29 6 23

Aerospace engineers

140 1,662 75 18 122 1,668 96

Agricultural engineers

5 0 5

Biomedical engineers

12 2 10

Chemical engineers

79 1,532 117 10 69 1,583 70

Civil engineers

316 1,460 38 41 275 1,474 53

Computer hardware engineers

72 1,876 47 10 62 1,871 68

Electrical and electronics engineers

283 1,778 79 37 246 1,819 126

Environmental engineers

35 9 26

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

205 1,447 41 37 168 1,430 55

Marine engineers and naval architects

9 0 9

Materials engineers

36 4 33

Mechanical engineers

316 1,534 28 23 294 1,550 30

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15 0 15

Nuclear engineers

5 2 3

Petroleum engineers

43 3 39

Engineers, all other

393 1,527 40 54 1,448 42 339 1,537 37 94.2

Drafters

114 977 45 23 91 977 57

Engineering technicians, except drafters

352 963 23 68 827 134 284 984 32 84.0

Surveying and mapping technicians

58 1,012 66 4 54 1,031 75

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,176 1,206 39 514 1,067 29 662 1,379 34 77.4

Agricultural and food scientists

22 10 12

Biological scientists

74 1,233 45 28 46

Conservation scientists and foresters

23 7 16

Medical scientists

151 1,250 63 84 1,082 105 68 1,362 36 79.4

Life scientists, all other

1 0 1

Astronomers and physicists

14 3 11

Atmospheric and space scientists

8 1 8

Chemists and materials scientists

93 1,432 68 33 61 1,496 95

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

90 1,423 125 25 65 1,740 102

Physical scientists, all other

189 1,553 56 68 1,170 105 121 1,770 162 66.1

Economists

29 12 17

Survey researchers

0 0 0

Psychologists

114 1,367 67 83 1,189 116 31

Sociologists

0 0 0

Urban and regional planners

22 9 13

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

37 19 19

Agricultural and food science technicians

28 7 21

Biological technicians

20 10 10

Chemical technicians

75 944 192 32 43

Geological and petroleum technicians

22 4 18

Nuclear technicians

2 0 2

Social science research assistants

3 3 0

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

157 846 33 78 780 47 79 1,001 160 77.9

Community and social service occupations

2,143 889 12 1,367 845 15 776 973 28 86.8

Counselors

635 904 21 451 902 25 184 908 38 99.3

Social workers

677 877 17 549 862 19 127 943 49 91.4

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

85 967 49 43 42

Social and human service assistants

173 676 34 149 673 28 23

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

92 831 34 63 728 72 29

Clergy

376 1,002 34 60 924 153 316 1,021 54 90.5

Directors, religious activities and education

62 929 61 31 31

Religious workers, all other

44 21 23

Legal occupations

1,346 1,391 37 722 1,135 19 624 1,877 36 60.5

Lawyers

803 1,886 16 300 1,717 99 503 1,914 18 89.7

Judicial law clerks

11 10 1

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

54 1,952 150 20 33

Paralegals and legal assistants

341 927 30 294 910 36 47

Miscellaneous legal support workers

136 770 32 97 746 26 40

Education, training, and library occupations

6,884 956 6 5,034 907 7 1,849 1,144 13 79.3

Postsecondary teachers

917 1,258 21 401 1,144 20 516 1,405 55 81.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

517 616 17 506 618 17 11

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,806 974 8 2,262 957 8 543 1,077 38 88.9

Secondary school teachers

1,048 1,066 23 610 1,006 17 438 1,149 23 87.6

Special education teachers

297 987 22 258 990 22 38

Other teachers and instructors

378 896 40 199 817 28 179 1,024 92 79.8

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

38 20 18

Librarians

130 991 38 102 966 49 27

Library technicians

18 15 4

Teacher assistants

614 541 16 565 530 17 48

Other education, training, and library workers

123 1,001 81 95 1,031 49 28

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,643 1,001 16 713 942 20 930 1,088 54 86.6

Artists and related workers

58 1,166 41 20 39

Designers

593 993 19 291 918 36 301 1,099 83 83.5

Actors

12 4 8

Producers and directors

120 1,270 96 53 1,234 87 67 1,340 69 92.1

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

147 780 37 39 108 818 50

Dancers and choreographers

11 9 2

Musicians, singers, and related workers

42 9 33

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

14 3 11

Announcers

25 5 21

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

56 1,218 41 27 29

Public relations specialists

120 1,211 121 71 971 47 49

Editors

108 1,148 45 50 1,125 265 58 1,205 151 93.4

Technical writers

52 1,158 41 30 22

Writers and authors

79 1,232 76 42 36

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

46 30 16

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

83 954 28 7 77 937 31

Photographers

45 21 24

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

30 1 28

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

2 0 2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,566 1,041 10 4,928 991 8 1,639 1,272 28 77.9

Chiropractors

22 7 15

Dentists

59 1,656 90 20 39

Dietitians and nutritionists

79 886 76 69 879 75 9

Optometrists

19 13 6

Pharmacists

206 1,920 89 108 1,811 52 98 2,117 159 85.5

Physicians and surgeons

740 1,824 114 283 1,533 84 457 1,915 59 80.1

Physician assistants

57 1,368 322 40 17

Podiatrists

9 4 5

Audiologists

8 6 1

Occupational therapists

74 1,210 38 64 1,199 42 10

Physical therapists

178 1,265 30 123 1,215 93 56 1,347 37 90.2

Radiation therapists

12 7 5

Recreational therapists

6 4 2

Respiratory therapists

99 1,000 47 67 937 99 32

Speech-language pathologists

108 1,147 29 106 1,148 29 1

Exercise physiologists

3 0 3

Therapists, all other

132 944 22 101 951 26 31

Veterinarians

55 1,455 61 39 16

Registered nurses

2,382 1,116 13 2,104 1,098 14 278 1,222 41 89.9

Nurse anesthetists

23 12 11

Nurse midwives

6 6 0

Nurse practitioners

115 1,532 42 103 1,522 122 11

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

2 2 0

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

270 901 26 201 796 49 69 1,089 74 73.1

Dental hygienists

86 914 91 80 953 151 6

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

253 964 75 177 908 26 76 1,106 49 82.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

175 811 49 49 126 899 50

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

487 636 20 389 633 21 99 652 51 97.1

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

508 743 16 459 737 16 48

Medical records and health information technicians

174 740 25 157 723 37 17

Opticians, dispensing

44 23 21

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

99 671 29 66 642 27 32

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

78 1,128 118 38 40

Service occupations

15,279 509 2 7,650 463 3 7,629 585 4 79.1

Healthcare support occupations

2,395 498 4 2,074 490 4 320 577 20 84.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,400 467 7 1,237 457 6 163 526 25 86.9

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

17 12 4

Physical therapist assistants and aides

53 742 91 35 18

Massage therapists

37 22 16

Dental assistants

188 531 31 175 522 21 14

Medical assistants

422 539 11 387 530 11 35

Medical transcriptionists

28 26 3

Pharmacy aides

22 18 4

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

21 17 4

Phlebotomists

91 551 34 76 534 31 15

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

115 524 38 71 511 52 44

Protective service occupations

2,729 796 15 547 655 20 2,181 851 16 77.0

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

57 856 83 16 41

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

114 1,427 182 17 97 1,425 182

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

42 3 39

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

72 808 43 16 56 825 137

Firefighters

260 1,033 32 16 245 1,052 30

Fire inspectors

18 3 15

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

453 754 15 112 686 21 341 779 27 88.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

141 1,159 91 41 100 1,265 202

Fish and game wardens

6 1 5

Parking enforcement workers

9 3 6

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

655 1,002 21 86 1,009 52 569 1,001 23 100.8

Transit and railroad police

3 0 3

Animal control workers

4 2 2

Private detectives and investigators

85 843 129 36 49

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

708 567 13 153 515 12 555 592 14 87.0

Crossing guards

26 13 13

Transportation security screeners

33 11 22

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

42 18 24

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,124 441 5 1,991 414 4 2,133 481 6 86.1

Chefs and head cooks

340 619 21 55 492 28 285 656 33 75.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

378 498 14 222 458 11 156 621 43 73.8

Cooks

1,302 416 4 494 400 7 808 427 10 93.7

Food preparation workers

366 402 8 192 388 12 174 414 11 93.7

Bartenders

252 521 16 142 493 21 110 569 36 86.6

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

173 391 10 107 380 17 67 401 12 94.8

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

56 354 18 28 28

Waiters and waitresses

868 451 16 563 411 8 305 501 12 82.0

Food servers, nonrestaurant

93 509 19 62 485 19 31

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

107 403 19 48 59 389 33

Dishwashers

117 398 11 19 98 401 13

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

66 400 11 58 397 11 8

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

6 3 4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,605 486 4 1,275 419 4 2,330 517 5 81.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

172 620 20 64 571 34 108 700 64 81.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

80 649 31 1 79 653 31

Janitors and building cleaners

1,536 507 6 425 429 11 1,111 547 14 78.4

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

876 416 5 742 407 5 134 475 16 85.7

Pest control workers

77 585 19 3 74 591 18

Grounds maintenance workers

862 469 9 39 824 473 9

Personal care and service occupations

2,427 498 5 1,763 475 7 664 597 11 79.6

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

117 769 33 52 680 38 65 900 97 75.6

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

60 608 35 35 25

Animal trainers

26 8 19

Nonfarm animal caretakers

100 505 14 68 501 16 32

Gaming services workers

69 676 179 39 30

Motion picture projectionists

3 0 3

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

9 4 5

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

69 485 27 28 42

Embalmers and funeral attendants

2 0 2

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

23 7 17

Barbers

46 12 33

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

253 461 21 229 463 24 23

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

191 501 10 159 497 11 32

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

75 608 16 12 63 606 17

Tour and travel guides

21 9 11

Childcare workers

407 437 14 393 430 15 14

Personal care aides

680 462 12 552 441 12 128 537 22 82.1

Recreation and fitness workers

185 555 24 107 526 20 78 684 39 76.9

Residential advisors

24 16 8

Personal care and service workers, all other

67 499 16 32 35

Sales and office occupations

23,620 673 3 14,236 627 3 9,384 777 7 80.7

Sales and related occupations

9,725 716 7 4,303 578 6 5,423 880 12 65.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,326 711 13 1,030 614 9 1,296 825 22 74.4

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

835 1,028 36 280 896 26 556 1,140 27 78.6

Cashiers

1,342 415 4 931 405 5 411 471 19 86.0

Counter and rental clerks

73 594 46 37 35

Parts salespersons

92 601 21 11 82 600 24

Retail salespersons

1,918 590 10 759 494 7 1,159 694 19 71.2

Advertising sales agents

161 925 80 83 729 39 78 1,155 74 63.1

Insurance sales agents

427 815 34 232 717 29 194 1,028 100 69.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

211 1,155 37 65 767 43 146 1,461 110 52.5

Travel agents

62 711 27 53 685 29 9

Sales representatives, services, all other

406 966 28 139 699 53 268 1,147 27 60.9

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,138 1,020 24 295 917 50 843 1,066 38 86.0

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15 11 4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

463 837 47 266 735 25 197 1,052 103 69.9

Sales engineers

33 2 31

Telemarketers

39 21 17

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

28 18 9

Sales and related workers, all other

158 916 54 70 727 85 89 1,088 169 66.8

Office and administrative support occupations

13,894 656 3 9,933 646 3 3,961 693 8 93.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,297 812 15 863 781 16 434 878 31 89.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

17 10 7

Telephone operators

22 18 4

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 3 2

Bill and account collectors

152 657 26 98 648 30 54 674 186 96.1

Billing and posting clerks

406 657 14 366 664 14 39

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

769 692 13 682 692 13 87 690 28 100.3

Gaming cage workers

11 10 2

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

128 757 32 111 751 33 17

Procurement clerks

35 21 15

Tellers

264 514 9 231 516 9 33

Financial clerks, all other

61 767 109 32 30

Brokerage clerks

3 1 1

Correspondence clerks

3 2 1

Court, municipal, and license clerks

60 755 66 51 743 63 9

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

42 29 12

Customer service representatives

1,760 621 7 1,149 604 7 611 690 19 87.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

67 781 74 50 805 128 17

File clerks

145 634 25 120 627 25 25

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

127 481 21 69 467 89 58 486 21 96.1

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

105 615 25 89 617 32 16

Library assistants, clerical

35 28 7

Loan interviewers and clerks

134 710 25 109 722 27 25

New accounts clerks

20 17 3

Order clerks

74 599 23 48 26

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

50 737 45 40 11

Receptionists and information clerks

852 575 9 781 569 10 72 619 24 91.9

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

95 713 37 61 680 40 34

Information and record clerks, all other

100 618 15 78 616 18 22

Cargo and freight agents

20 9 12

Couriers and messengers

153 752 32 19 134 750 37

Dispatchers

250 698 28 141 655 30 109 759 44 86.3

Meter readers, utilities

39 4 34

Postal service clerks

127 927 66 51 833 48 76 974 36 85.5

Postal service mail carriers

302 954 29 115 854 39 187 1,021 39 83.6

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

53 828 242 26 27

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

256 838 55 141 732 24 116 978 40 74.8

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

502 591 13 148 566 30 354 604 17 93.7

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,027 520 7 376 506 9 651 537 19 94.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

59 629 48 31 29

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,223 687 8 2,099 683 8 124 786 35 86.9

Computer operators

58 751 51 33 25

Data entry keyers

223 619 13 169 638 24 55 589 21 108.3

Word processors and typists

68 650 33 62 639 30 6

Desktop publishers

1 0 1

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

259 689 16 203 675 18 56 762 43 88.6

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

63 563 49 39 24

Office clerks, general

929 620 8 773 622 9 156 609 21 102.1

Office machine operators, except computer

31 16 14

Proofreaders and copy markers

2 2 0

Statistical assistants

15 10 5

Office and administrative support workers, all other

391 745 20 298 718 27 93 852 62 84.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,834 761 6 453 580 15 10,381 770 6 75.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

810 464 8 174 437 12 637 477 12 91.6

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

42 10 32

Agricultural inspectors

12 6 7

Animal breeders

2 0 2

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

83 486 34 51 468 19 32

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

613 445 10 102 398 16 511 460 12 86.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

11 0 11

Hunters and trappers

0 0 0

Forest and conservation workers

15 5 10

Logging workers

31 0 31

Construction and extraction occupations

5,722 749 9 137 704 28 5,586 751 9 93.7

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

560 1,040 40 20 540 1,047 40

Boilermakers

21 0 21

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

122 652 46 0 122 652 46

Carpenters

802 687 11 10 792 687 12

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

89 637 61 1 89 634 66

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

44 0 44

Construction laborers

1,181 639 18 25 1,155 642 18

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

10 0 10

Pile-driver operators

2 0 2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

324 856 31 6 318 859 33

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

121 596 28 2 119 595 28

Electricians

651 888 28 19 632 891 27

Glaziers

33 0 32

Insulation workers

43 3 41

Painters, construction and maintenance

344 585 16 14 330 587 15

Paperhangers

0 0 0

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

456 863 41 2 455 862 41

Plasterers and stucco masons

20 1 19

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

9 0 9

Roofers

171 584 23 2 170 580 23

Sheet metal workers

106 766 38 6 100 776 36

Structural iron and steel workers

54 869 35 2 52 864 39

Solar photovoltaic installers

8 0 8

Helpers, construction trades

47 0 47

Construction and building inspectors

67 939 37 9 58 965 35

Elevator installers and repairers

23 0 23

Fence erectors

33 0 33

Hazardous materials removal workers

39 5 35

Highway maintenance workers

91 754 62 0 91 755 62

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

9 0 9

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

8 0 8

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

25 2 23

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

28 1 27

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

30 0 30

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

5 0 5

Mining machine operators

68 1,106 43 2 65 1,098 42

Roof bolters, mining

3 0 3

Roustabouts, oil and gas

7 0 7

Helpers—extraction workers

6 0 6

Other extraction workers

61 900 99 3 58 918 140

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,301 839 11 143 761 74 4,159 842 11 90.4

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

270 1,032 37 18 252 1,033 37

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

194 856 73 28 166 865 61

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

139 862 38 13 126 879 53

Avionics technicians

4 0 4

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

22 1 20

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2 0 2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

18 0 17

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

17 0 17

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

30 2 28

Security and fire alarm systems installers

67 911 68 2 65 913 66

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

133 1,025 30 7 125 1,032 31

Automotive body and related repairers

120 846 43 2 118 849 42

Automotive glass installers and repairers

21 1 20

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

710 722 18 16 694 724 19

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

327 831 35 0 327 830 34

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

206 928 35 0 206 928 36

Small engine mechanics

39 0 39

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

66 592 29 1 65 591 32

Control and valve installers and repairers

23 0 23

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

341 806 32 4 337 810 31

Home appliance repairers

36 0 36

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

394 895 22 11 383 894 22

Maintenance and repair workers, general

469 773 23 10 459 771 23

Maintenance workers, machinery

31 1 30

Millwrights

49 1 48

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

113 1,105 55 0 112 1,105 55

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

157 882 46 9 148 880 49

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

64 996 72 4 60 1,009 70

Wind turbine service technicians

3 0 3

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38 4 34

Commercial divers

1 0 1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

12 0 12

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4 1 4

Riggers

7 0 7

Signal and track switch repairers

9 0 9

Helpers—installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17 0 17

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

150 792 64 6 144 810 62

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,504 656 4 2,958 512 4 11,546 704 4 72.7

Production occupations

7,551 663 6 2,003 519 5 5,548 729 6 71.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

783 875 19 133 623 31 650 924 24 67.4

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

15 4 11

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

123 554 37 64 544 48 59 566 53 96.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

14 2 12

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

31 3 28

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

950 581 10 377 512 11 573 637 22 80.4

Bakers

150 505 16 80 475 24 69 570 40 83.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

247 542 23 60 463 24 187 582 17 79.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

9 1 7

Food batchmakers

79 500 18 54 489 23 25

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 2 5

Food processing workers, all other

132 594 24 50 508 48 82 679 53 74.8

Computer control programmers and operators

83 833 97 2 81 857 97

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 1 7

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6 0 6

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

15 3 12

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

78 633 36 15 62 674 40

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 1 5

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

41 3 39

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

12 1 11

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1 0 1

Machinists

338 834 17 17 320 840 17

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

29 1 28

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

6 3 3

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

47 9 39

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1 0 1

Tool and die makers

49 0 49

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

568 760 17 23 545 767 18

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 0 4

Layout workers, metal and plastic

4 1 4

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

24 0 24

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

7 0 7

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

351 639 23 72 581 19 278 678 23 85.7

Prepress technicians and workers

14 2 12

Printing press operators

160 707 39 26 134 729 19

Print binding and finishing workers

16 6 9

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

133 466 22 80 460 22 53 487 59 94.5

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

21 12 9

Sewing machine operators

147 493 14 105 476 16 42

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

5 1 4

Shoe machine operators and tenders

1 1 0

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

37 27 9

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2 0 2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9 2 7

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

8 4 3

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

7 2 5

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 0 0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

4 1 3

Upholsterers

29 7 21

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

16 4 12

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

40 2 38

Furniture finishers

6 0 6

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 0 0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

26 4 22

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23 1 21

Woodworkers, all other

17 3 14

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

35 1 34

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

84 996 69 3 81 1,012 68

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

82 880 42 3 79 868 37

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

35 3 33

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

62 1,052 141 5 57 1,082 33

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

82 652 51 7 75 668 48

Cutting workers

51 685 44 9 41

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

31 6 25

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

6 0 5

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

701 710 17 260 583 15 440 844 28 69.1

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

19 7 11

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

86 648 28 42 44

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

239 518 15 120 482 17 118 605 47 79.7

Painting workers

129 708 34 18 110 733 30

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

26 14 12

Semiconductor processors

1 0 1

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

9 4 5

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

4 1 2

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4 0 3

Etchers and engravers

12 4 8

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

14 2 12

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

27 5 22

Tire builders

8 0 8

Helpers—production workers

24 7 18

Production workers, all other

846 625 12 203 501 16 643 666 14 75.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,953 646 7 955 494 9 5,998 679 6 72.8

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

186 894 35 33 153 898 43

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

114 1,735 243 9 104 1,830 265

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

32 8 24

Flight attendants

63 846 64 43 20

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

18 4 14

Bus drivers

323 615 14 138 572 26 184 681 24 84.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,687 747 9 105 632 53 2,582 751 9 84.2

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

253 585 15 38 216 600 14

Motor vehicle operators, all other

21 3 18

Locomotive engineers and operators

44 2 42

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

5 0 5

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

55 1,117 67 4 52 1,137 38

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15 3 12

Sailors and marine oilers

10 0 9

Ship and boat captains and operators

29 1 28

Ship engineers

5 1 4

Bridge and lock tenders

4 0 4

Parking lot attendants

57 492 25 8 49

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

63 452 48 5 58 470 44

Transportation inspectors

21 7 14

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

17 8 9

Other transportation workers

39 4 35

Conveyor operators and tenders

7 0 7

Crane and tower operators

75 988 72 4 71 1,016 73

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

25 0 25

Hoist and winch operators

5 0 5

Industrial truck and tractor operators

579 609 11 37 541 612 12

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

222 485 19 22 200 498 19

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,433 526 9 219 455 16 1,214 547 12 83.2

Machine feeders and offbearers

30 9 21

Packers and packagers, hand

385 438 13 227 424 12 158 462 23 91.8

Pumping station operators

18 1 17

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

72 501 23 6 66 496 24

Mine shuttle car operators

0 0 0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6 0 6

Material moving workers, all other

37 5 32

Note: Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by state, 2015 annual averages
State Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

United States

109,080 $809 $2 48,334 $726 $2 60,746 $895 $3 81.1

Alabama

1,580

711

14

724

615 12 856 815 32 75.5

Alaska

255 903 15 110 787 21 145 1,034 24 76.1

Arizona

2,180 745 11 960 674 13 1,219 816 20 82.6

Arkansas

983 682 14 459 607 12 524 761 19 79.8

California

12,555 849 11 5,315 775 10 7,241 914 12 84.8

Colorado

1,895 863 16 821 779 17 1,074 941 20 82.8

Connecticut

1,245 1,012 31 586 874 29 659 1,139 23 76.7

Delaware

345 788 17 165 740 17 180 848 22 87.3

District of Columbia

295 1,148 15 147 1,070 44 149 1,224 41 87.4

Florida

6,601 747 7 3,041 699 9 3,559 800 16 87.4

Georgia

3,402 751 12 1,552 692 15 1,850 816 18 84.8

Hawaii

470 775 20 215 729 21 255 829 30 87.9

Idaho

530 726 11 217 654 12 312 806 22 81.1

Illinois

4,479 846 10 2,009 760 11 2,470 911 14 83.4

Indiana

2,284 769 15 997 687 23 1,287 861 27 79.8

Iowa

1,122 774 15 510 684 16 612 870 25 78.6

Kansas

1,023 765 13 456 667 17 567 870 21 76.7

Kentucky

1,392 756 16 637 685 17 755 849 25 80.7

Louisiana

1,559 727 15 716 630 17 843 828 27 76.1

Maine

423 790 19 194 711 19 229 889 31 80.0

Maryland

2,325 974 21 1,117 884 43 1,208 1,055 28 83.8

Massachusetts

2,423 1,001 15 1,076 907 21 1,347 1,112 39 81.6

Michigan

3,205 823 12 1,389 715 14 1,815 931 19 76.8

Minnesota

2,020 887 16 897 786 26 1,123 954 26 82.4

Mississippi

923 668 17 438 591 14 485 772 20 76.6

Missouri

2,168 768 15 1,006 667 14 1,162 863 22 77.3

Montana

329 730 11 147 660 17 182 794 24 83.1

Nebraska

714 754 10 322 652 16 392 856 19 76.2

Nevada

1,010 730 12 437 660 13 573 809 23 81.6

New Hampshire

503 865 23 219 746 18 284 965 25 77.3

New Jersey

3,208 969 13 1,396 874 18 1,812 1,050 30 83.2

New Mexico

624 722 17 286 638 16 338 812 31 78.6

New York

6,834 888 9 3,147 816 18 3,687 939 13 86.9

North Carolina

3,399 723 11 1,515 664 11 1,884 774 17 85.8

North Dakota

290 797 14 123 682 16 166 912 18 74.8

Ohio

3,888 800 12 1,723 716 13 2,165 882 14 81.2

Oklahoma

1,313 739 12 579 640 19 734 831 26 77.0

Oregon

1,235 826 19 527 734 21 708 884 22 83.0

Pennsylvania

4,461 833 11 1,960 723 13 2,501 922 15 78.4

Rhode Island

376 827 22 174 737 20 202 926 28 79.6

South Carolina

1,638 696 15 756 642 11 881 762 17 84.3

South Dakota

319 705 9 152 624 10 167 788 18 79.2

Tennessee

2,196 705 13 938 647 15 1,257 756 19 85.6

Texas

9,556 770 7 4,094 683 11 5,462 864 14 79.1

Utah

993 787 13 366 660 19 626 878 23 75.2

Vermont

223 831 17 102 752 17 120 902 23 83.4

Virginia

3,039 937 19 1,364 825 29 1,675 1,031 29 80.0

Washington

2,403 909 16 1,005 797 22 1,398 1,025 30 77.8

West Virginia

552 724 14 247 640 17 305 803 18 79.7

Wisconsin

2,082 824 14 909 707 16 1,173 920 24 76.8

Wyoming

217 797 19 89 654 15 128 948 25 69.0

Note: In general, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates; thus, comparisons of state estimates should be made with caution. Data shown are based on workers' state of residence; workers' reported earnings, however, may or may not be from a job located in the same state.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected demographic characteristics, 2015 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

24,445 $246 $1 16,022 $251 $1 8,423 $238 $2 105.5

16 to 24 years

8,496 190 1 4,735 189 2 3,760 192 2 98.4

16 to 19 years

3,478 153 2 1,848 152 3 1,630 154 3 98.7

20 to 24 years

5,018 215 2 2,887 212 3 2,131 218 3 97.2

25 years and older

15,949 287 2 11,287 286 2 4,663 287 3 99.7

25 to 34 years

4,210 279 3 2,766 275 4 1,444 287 5 95.8

35 to 44 years

3,134 305 5 2,433 307 5 701 297 9 103.4

45 to 54 years

3,146 301 4 2,480 303 5 666 296 7 102.4

55 to 64 years

3,141 290 4 2,277 289 5 863 293 7 98.6

65 years and older

2,318 252 5 1,331 237 6 988 270 7 87.8

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

19,368 249 1 12,818 255 2 6,551 239 2 106.7

Black or African American

2,944 227 3 1,844 229 3 1,100 222 4 103.2

Asian

1,239 265 6 814 267 7 425 262 10 101.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4,017 242 2 2,504 238 3 1,514 247 4 96.4

Marital status

 

Never married

11,832 210 1 6,556 208 2 5,277 211 2 98.6

Married, spouse present

9,180 305 3 6,834 307 3 2,347 300 4 102.3

Other marital status

3,433 262 3 2,633 261 4 800 266 7 98.1

Divorced

1,982 272 4 1,489 272 5 493 270 10 100.7

Separated

789 255 6 586 256 7 203 252 10 101.6

Widowed

663 241 8 558 236 8 104 286 18 82.5

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked, 2015 annual averages
Hours of work Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older

133,743 $695 $2 64,445 $603 $2 69,298 $799 $3 75.5

0 to 34 hours

22,171 249 1 14,599 254 1 7,572 239 2 106.3

0 to 4 hours

472 63 3 317 61 3 155 68 6 89.7

5 to 9 hours

1,168 79 3 769 83 3 399 73 3 113.7

10 to 14 hours

1,878 114 1 1,252 115 1 626 113 2 101.8

15 to 19 hours

2,639 164 1 1,764 168 2 876 157 2 107.0

20 to 24 hours

6,429 223 1 4,159 233 3 2,271 214 2 108.9

25 to 29 hours

3,510 272 2 2,332 275 3 1,178 267 3 103.0

30 to 34 hours

6,076 347 3 4,008 358 4 2,067 326 4 109.8

35 hours and over

103,944 813 2 46,256 732 2 57,688 898 3 81.5

35 to 39 hours

7,936 519 5 5,250 537 6 2,686 490 8 109.6

40 hours

74,389 752 2 34,280 705 3 40,109 801 3 88.0

41 hours and over

21,619 1,231 7 6,725 1,111 11 14,894 1,289 12 86.2

41 to 44 hours

1,174 909 21 452 824 26 722 964 25 85.5

45 to 48 hours

5,844 1,074 13 2,121 1,002 15 3,723 1,126 13 89.0

49 to 59 hours

9,872 1,321 14 2,986 1,189 23 6,886 1,371 13 86.7

60 hours and over

4,728 1,384 16 1,166 1,199 40 3,562 1,442 22 83.1

Hours vary

7,628 483 7 3,590 365 7 4,038 623 14 58.6

Usually less than 35 hours

2,274 218 4 1,423 216 5 851 221 6 97.7

Usually 35 or more hours

5,137 704 14 2,078 537 19 3,058 817 17 65.7

Note: Data are for the sole or principal job of full-time and part-time workers. Estimates for the "hours vary" groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for a small number of multiple jobholders whose usual number of hours on the principal job is not identifiable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2015 annual averages (in thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Number of workers with usual weekly earnings of—
Under $350.00 $350.00 to $499.99 $500.00 to $599.99 $600.00 to $749.99 $750.00 to $999.99 $1,000.00 to $1,199.99 $1,200.00 to $1,999.99 $2,000.00 or more

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

109,080 6,724 16,468 10,426 14,758 18,602 10,945 20,581 10,576

16 to 24 years

9,790 1,736 3,399 1,336 1,442 1,066 360 370 81

16 to 19 years

1,156 404 468 103 88 57 17 15 2

20 to 24 years

8,634 1,331 2,930 1,233 1,353 1,009 343 355 79

25 years and older

99,291 4,988 13,069 9,090 13,317 17,536 10,585 20,211 10,495

25 to 34 years

26,611 1,633 4,430 3,078 4,239 4,993 2,734 4,151 1,355

35 to 44 years

24,917 1,127 3,101 2,080 3,188 4,325 2,730 5,492 2,873

45 to 54 years

25,577 1,112 2,965 2,035 3,174 4,503 2,777 5,657 3,356

55 to 64 years

18,108 802 1,989 1,551 2,280 3,087 1,950 4,073 2,376

65 years and older

4,078 315 584 347 437 628 394 838 536

Women, 16 years and older

48,334 3,839 8,510 5,232 7,114 8,483 4,552 7,552 3,052

16 to 24 years

4,314 953 1,606 561 600 380 97 101 16

16 to 19 years

495 211 199 40 24 18 0 2 2

20 to 24 years

3,818 742 1,407 521 576 362 97 99 14

25 years and older

44,020 2,886 6,904 4,671 6,514 8,103 4,455 7,451 3,036

25 to 34 years

11,538 864 2,097 1,475 1,873 2,232 1,104 1,465 428

35 to 44 years

10,802 668 1,580 1,024 1,534 1,971 1,146 2,041 838

45 to 54 years

11,572 706 1,682 1,112 1,664 2,139 1,183 2,127 959

55 to 64 years

8,295 485 1,216 870 1,230 1,462 833 1,519 680

65 years and older

1,813 162 330 189 214 299 190 299 130

Men, 16 years and older

60,746 2,885 7,958 5,195 7,644 10,119 6,393 13,029 7,524

16 to 24 years

5,476 783 1,793 775 842 686 264 269 65

16 to 19 years

660 193 270 63 64 40 17 13 0

20 to 24 years

4,816 590 1,524 712 777 647 247 256 65

25 years and older

55,270 2,102 6,165 4,419 6,802 9,433 6,129 12,760 7,460

25 to 34 years

15,073 768 2,333 1,603 2,366 2,761 1,630 2,686 927

35 to 44 years

14,114 458 1,521 1,056 1,654 2,355 1,584 3,451 2,035

45 to 54 years

14,005 406 1,283 922 1,510 2,364 1,594 3,529 2,397

55 to 64 years

9,813 316 773 681 1,050 1,625 1,117 2,554 1,696

65 years and older

2,265 153 254 157 222 329 204 540 406

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

85,443 4,732 12,134 7,794 11,580 14,919 8,872 16,702 8,711

Women

36,698 2,660 6,109 3,873 5,509 6,672 3,589 5,911 2,374

Men

48,746 2,072 6,025 3,921 6,070 8,247 5,283 10,790 6,337

Black or African American

13,587 1,373 2,892 1,719 1,980 2,211 1,044 1,789 579

Women

7,142 844 1,666 887 1,025 1,111 507 832 271

Men

6,445 529 1,225 832 955 1,100 537 957 309

Asian

6,638 348 756 520 729 926 699 1,588 1,072

Women

2,954 192 386 281 370 449 323 624 329

Men

3,684 155 371 239 359 477 376 964 743

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,311 1,779 4,687 2,299 2,831 2,695 1,318 1,933 769

Women

7,168 941 1,981 927 1,075 993 443 584 225

Men

11,142 838 2,706 1,372 1,756 1,702 875 1,350 544

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by marital status and presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 2015 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Women

 

Total, all marital statuses

48,334 $726 $2

With children under 18 years old

17,325 727 4

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,517 748 5

With children under 6 years old

6,808 689 8

With no children under 18 years old

31,009 726 3

Total, married, spouse present

24,544 804 5

With children under 18 years old

11,366 827 7

With children 6 to 17, none younger

6,854 823 9

With children under 6 years old

4,512 834 11

With no children under 18 years old

13,178 786 6

Total, other marital statuses(1)

23,790 652 3

With children under 18 years old

5,959 587 4

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,664 639 8

With children under 6 years old

2,296 506 6

With no children under 18 years old

17,831 679 4

Men

 

Total, all marital statuses

60,746 895 3

With children under 18 years old

21,932 985 6

With children 6 to 17, none younger

11,915 1,037 9

With children under 6 years old

10,018 916 8

With no children under 18 years old

38,814 844 4

Total, married, spouse present

35,739 1,030 5

With children under 18 years old

19,307 1,028 7

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,645 1,075 12

With children under 6 years old

8,662 984 9

With no children under 18 years old

16,432 1,032 8

Total, other marital statuses(1)

25,007 726 4

With children under 18 years old

2,625 714 11

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,270 830 19

With children under 6 years old

1,356 624 12

With no children under 18 years old

22,382 727 4

(1) Includes never-married, divorced, separated, and widowed people.

Note: "Children" refers to "own" children and includes sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household. Not included are other related children, such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, as well as unrelated children in the household.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2015 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

78,232 $13.44 $.05 39,500 $12.56 $.06 38,732 $14.67 $.07 85.6

16 to 24 years

15,562 9.85 .01 7,784 9.54 .05 7,778 10.03 .02 95.1

16 to 19 years

4,355 8.85 .02 2,231 8.75 .04 2,124 8.97 .04 97.5

20 to 24 years

11,207 10.14 .02 5,553 9.95 .02 5,654 10.64 .11 93.5

25 years and older

62,670 14.91 .02 31,716 13.92 .04 30,954 15.86 .05 87.8

25 to 34 years

18,302 13.60 .09 8,613 12.89 .07 9,689 14.17 .09 91.0

35 to 44 years

14,530 15.16 .05 7,222 14.13 .09 7,308 16.48 .19 85.7

45 to 54 years

14,917 15.84 .09 7,866 14.80 .08 7,051 17.55 .19 84.3

55 to 64 years

11,400 15.91 .09 6,093 14.77 .12 5,307 17.99 .11 82.1

65 years and older

3,520 13.08 .10 1,922 12.66 .21 1,598 14.15 .29 89.5

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

60,306 13.87 .04 29,858 12.82 .05 30,448 14.93 .03 85.9

Black or African American

11,178 12.06 .04 6,163 11.70 .10 5,015 12.66 .13 92.4

Asian

3,690 14.19 .20 1,975 13.80 .26 1,715 14.87 .13 92.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

15,809 12.04 .04 6,984 11.08 .06 8,825 12.92 .07 85.8

Marital status

 

Never married

30,332 11.02 .03 14,425 10.34 .06 15,908 11.83 .04 87.4

Married, spouse present

34,804 15.58 .08 17,023 14.62 .10 17,782 16.99 .07 86.1

Other marital status

13,096 14.13 .06 8,053 13.13 .08 5,042 15.38 .19 85.4

Divorced

8,283 14.94 .05 5,019 14.03 .09 3,264 16.20 .18 86.6

Separated

3,276 12.34 .16 1,844 11.72 .20 1,432 13.84 .20 84.7

Widowed

1,536 13.06 .17 1,190 12.59 .30 347 15.53 .69 81.1

Union affiliation(1)

 

Members of unions(2)

8,570 18.97 .14 3,450 16.79 .16 5,120 20.13 .07 83.4

Represented by unions(3)

9,469 18.72 .20 3,896 16.57 .20 5,573 20.04 .07 82.7

Not represented by a union

68,763 12.92 .03 35,604 12.16 .02 33,159 13.86 .05 87.7

Educational attainment

 

Total, 25 years and older

62,670 14.91 .02 31,716 13.92 .04 30,954 15.86 .05 87.8

Less than a high school diploma

6,967 11.04 .06 2,676 9.98 .03 4,291 12.16 .06 82.1

High school graduates, no college

21,536 14.00 .04 9,839 12.28 .07 11,697 15.33 .13 80.1

Some college or associate's degree

20,737 15.07 .03 11,251 14.05 .06 9,486 16.59 .14 84.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,429 19.72 .15 7,950 19.17 .21 5,479 19.93 .09 96.2

(1) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.

(2) Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

(3) Union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2015 annual averages (in thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Number of workers with hourly earnings of—
Under $6.00 $6.00 to $7.99 $8.00 to $9.99 $10.00 to $11.99 $12.00 to $14.99 $15.00 to $19.99 $20.00 or more

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

78,232 1,265 2,766 13,204 13,095 13,588 15,339 18,975

16 to 24 years

15,562 502 1,462 5,534 3,676 2,280 1,473 634

16 to 19 years

4,355 137 780 2,107 883 273 132 42

20 to 24 years

11,207 365 682 3,427 2,792 2,007 1,342 592

25 years and older

62,670 762 1,303 7,670 9,420 11,308 13,865 18,341

25 to 34 years

18,302 353 467 2,594 3,194 3,765 4,062 3,867

35 to 44 years

14,530 185 270 1,681 2,046 2,543 3,224 4,582

45 to 54 years

14,917 124 272 1,586 2,006 2,465 3,368 5,097

55 to 64 years

11,400 85 199 1,191 1,475 1,942 2,534 3,975

65 years and older

3,520 15 95 618 699 594 678 821

Women, 16 years and older

39,500 821 1,681 7,774 7,051 7,033 7,209 7,932

16 to 24 years

7,784 354 829 2,986 1,821 1,033 562 198

16 to 19 years

2,231 91 443 1,110 414 116 49 9

20 to 24 years

5,553 263 386 1,876 1,407 917 513 189

25 years and older

31,716 467 851 4,788 5,230 6,000 6,647 7,734

25 to 34 years

8,613 221 258 1,460 1,523 1,842 1,670 1,639

35 to 44 years

7,222 114 196 1,082 1,174 1,254 1,531 1,870

45 to 54 years

7,866 73 196 1,068 1,226 1,392 1,711 2,200

55 to 64 years

6,093 50 140 812 900 1,167 1,385 1,639

65 years and older

1,922 9 61 366 406 346 350 385

Men, 16 years and older

38,732 443 1,085 5,430 6,044 6,555 8,130 11,044

16 to 24 years

7,778 148 633 2,548 1,855 1,247 911 437

16 to 19 years

2,124 46 337 997 470 157 83 34

20 to 24 years

5,654 102 296 1,551 1,385 1,090 829 403

25 years and older

30,954 296 452 2,882 4,190 5,308 7,219 10,607

25 to 34 years

9,689 132 208 1,134 1,671 1,923 2,393 2,228

35 to 44 years

7,308 71 74 599 871 1,289 1,693 2,711

45 to 54 years

7,051 51 76 518 779 1,073 1,656 2,896

55 to 64 years

5,307 36 59 379 574 775 1,149 2,336

65 years and older

1,598 7 35 252 294 248 328 436

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

60,306 1,023 1,837 9,693 9,850 10,340 12,244 15,321

Women

29,858 685 1,113 5,681 5,234 5,322 5,630 6,194

Men

30,448 338 723 4,011 4,616 5,018 6,614 9,128

Black or African American

11,178 140 716 2,288 2,117 2,089 1,883 1,945

Women

6,163 69 443 1,389 1,232 1,098 989 942

Men

5,015 71 273 899 885 991 894 1,003

Asian

3,690 53 99 598 565 603 686 1,086

Women

1,975 39 60 341 294 344 361 536

Men

1,715 14 40 257 270 258 326 550

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

15,809 208 530 3,369 3,271 3,008 2,898 2,526

Women

6,984 126 310 1,853 1,540 1,265 1,102 788

Men

8,825 81 219 1,516 1,731 1,742 1,796 1,738

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected demographic characteristics, 2015 annual averages
Characteristic Workers paid hourly rates
Total
(thousands)
Below prevailing federal minimum wage
(thousands)
At prevailing federal minimum wage
(thousands)
Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Number
(thousands)
Percentage of workers paid hourly rates

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

78,232 1,691 870 2,561 3.3

16 to 24 years

15,562 678 475 1,153 7.4

16 to 19 years

4,355 229 258 487 11.2

20 to 24 years

11,207 449 217 666 5.9

25 years and older

62,670 1,013 395 1,408 2.2

25 to 34 years

18,302 439 157 596 3.3

35 to 44 years

14,530 243 73 316 2.2

45 to 54 years

14,917 197 63 260 1.7

55 to 64 years

11,400 106 81 186 1.6

65 years and older

3,520 28 22 50 1.4

Women, 16 years and older

39,500 1,062 540 1,602 4.1

16 to 24 years

7,784 454 282 736 9.5

16 to 19 years

2,231 143 150 293 13.1

20 to 24 years

5,553 311 132 443 8.0

25 years and older

31,716 608 258 866 2.7

25 to 34 years

8,613 258 90 348 4.0

35 to 44 years

7,222 152 50 202 2.8

45 to 54 years

7,866 121 48 169 2.2

55 to 64 years

6,093 63 53 116 1.9

65 years and older

1,922 14 16 30 1.6

Men, 16 years and older

38,732 629 330 959 2.5

16 to 24 years

7,778 224 193 417 5.4

16 to 19 years

2,124 87 107 194 9.1

20 to 24 years

5,654 138 85 223 3.9

25 years and older

30,954 404 137 542 1.8

25 to 34 years

9,689 181 67 248 2.6

35 to 44 years

7,308 91 23 113 1.6

45 to 54 years

7,051 76 15 90 1.3

55 to 64 years

5,307 42 28 70 1.3

65 years and older

1,598 14 6 20 1.3

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

60,306 1,311 561 1,872 3.1

Women

29,858 862 343 1,205 4.0

Men

30,448 450 218 667 2.2

Black or African American

11,178 234 247 481 4.3

Women

6,163 108 162 270 4.4

Men

5,015 127 85 212 4.2

Asian

3,690 78 32 109 3.0

Women

1,975 55 20 74 3.8

Men

1,715 23 12 35 2.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

15,809 300 159 459 2.9

Women

6,984 179 92 272 3.9

Men

8,825 121 67 188 2.1

Full- and part-time status(1)

 

Full-time workers

57,809 787 288 1,075 1.9

Women

26,146 436 170 606 2.3

Men

31,662 351 118 469 1.5

Part-time workers

20,285 898 579 1,477 7.3

Women

13,296 624 367 991 7.5

Men

6,989 274 212 486 7.0

(1) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data do not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

Note: See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, 1979–2015 annual averages
Year Total wage and salary workers (thousands) Workers paid hourly rates
Total
(thousands)
Percentage of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing federal minimum wage
(thousands)(1)
At prevailing federal minimum wage
thousands)(1)
Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Number
(thousands)
Percentage of workers paid hourly rates

Total

 

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 1,096 3,228 5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 2,906 5,283 8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 1,861 3,724 5.4

1997

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 1,764 4,754 6.7

1998

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 1,462 267 1,729 2.3

2008

129,377 75,305 58.2 1,940 286 2,226 3.0

2009

124,490 72,611 58.3 2,592 980 3,572 4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 2,541 1,820 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 2,152 1,677 3,829 5.2

2012

127,577 75,276 59.0 1,984 1,566 3,550 4.7

2013

129,110 75,948 58.8 1,768 1,532 3,301 4.3

2014

131,431 77,207 58.7 1,737 1,255 2,992 3.9

2015

133,743 78,232 58.5 1,691 870 2,561 3.3

Women

 

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 711 2,131 6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 1,792 3,374 10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 1,106 2,350 6.8

1997

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 1,092 2,935 8.3

1998

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 1,002 181 1,183 3.1

2008

62,532 37,972 60.7 1,302 196 1,498 3.9

2009

60,951 37,426 61.4 1,603 612 2,215 5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,598 1,151 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,366 1,029 2,395 6.4

2012

61,679 38,163 61.9 1,288 999 2,287 6.0

2013

62,316 38,404 61.6 1,148 910 2,058 5.4

2014

63,383 38,802 61.2 1,139 739 1,878 4.8

2015

64,445 39,500 61.3 1,062 540 1,602 4.1

Men

 

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 385 1,097 3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 1,114 1,909 6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 755 1,374 3.9

1997

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 673 1,820 5.1

1998

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 460 86 546 1.4

2008

66,846 37,334 55.9 638 90 728 1.9

2009

63,539 35,185 55.4 990 368 1,358 3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 943 669 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 785 648 1,433 3.9

2012

65,898 37,113 56.3 696 567 1,263 3.4

2013

66,794 37,544 56.2 621 622 1,243 3.3

2014

68,048 38,405 56.4 598 516 1,114 2.9

2015

69,298 38,732 55.9 629 330 959 2.5

(1) Data for 1990–91, 1996–97, and 2007–09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2015
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

1979

62.3 78.6 85.2 76.3 62.1 67.5 58.3 56.8 60.6 77.6

1980

64.2 80.3 89.5 78.1 62.8 69.4 58.3 56.9 59.4 76.4

1981

64.4 82.6 91.7 80.6 62.6 70.3 59.9 56.8 58.9 71.1

1982

65.7 85.3 92.9 82.4 64.9 72.1 61.1 60.1 61.4 70.3

1983

66.5 88.8 94.0 85.5 65.8 73.3 61.5 59.5 61.8 68.8

1984

67.6 87.9 93.1 85.2 67.1 74.6 62.0 59.4 61.5 66.8

1985

68.1 87.6 90.7 85.7 66.8 75.1 63.0 59.7 61.0 65.9

1986

69.5 89.0 91.4 87.5 66.5 76.1 63.9 60.9 61.2 71.5

1987

69.8 88.3 87.8 88.0 67.3 76.7 66.1 62.3 62.2 68.7

1988

70.2 89.7 89.8 90.0 68.8 77.7 68.5 61.7 62.3 70.9

1989

70.1 90.8 94.3 89.7 70.2 78.3 68.3 62.7 63.9 74.3

1990

71.9 90.1 90.8 90.3 72.1 79.3 69.6 63.8 63.7 74.4

1991

74.2 93.3 93.6 93.3 74.0 81.0 70.7 65.0 64.5 68.3

1992

75.8 94.0 94.0 94.3 74.6 82.0 71.9 65.8 64.9 77.9

1993

77.1 94.8 92.8 95.4 74.8 83.0 73.0 67.4 67.4 74.3

1994

76.4 93.9 92.5 94.5 73.1 82.9 72.6 67.1 66.0 76.2

1995

75.5 90.8 88.1 92.4 72.8 82.2 72.6 67.7 64.7 80.0

1996

75.0 92.5 88.8 92.8 74.1 83.2 73.3 68.9 65.3 70.0

1997

74.4 92.1 91.6 90.5 75.1 82.9 74.0 69.4 64.7 77.0

1998

76.3 91.3 88.6 89.4 75.9 82.9 73.6 70.5 68.1 72.6

1999

76.5 91.0 91.4 90.5 74.4 81.5 71.7 70.0 67.9 78.7

2000

76.9 91.7 92.5 92.7 74.5 82.4 71.6 73.2 69.1 75.1

2001

76.4 90.3 90.3 91.9 75.4 83.0 72.5 73.5 70.5 69.0

2002

77.9 93.9 94.6 93.9 77.6 84.5 75.2 74.6 71.6 73.8

2003

79.4 93.2 93.1 93.9 78.5 86.9 76.1 73.0 72.7 71.1

2004

80.4 93.8 92.1 93.8 78.6 87.8 75.6 72.9 73.0 74.6

2005

81.0 93.2 92.1 93.8 79.4 89.0 75.5 75.5 74.7 76.4

2006

80.8 94.5 87.6 94.9 78.7 88.2 77.2 73.5 72.9 77.5

2007

80.2 92.3 89.1 90.3 78.5 86.9 76.5 74.5 72.8 77.8

2008

79.9 91.1 87.3 92.5 78.2 88.5 74.5 74.9 75.4 74.8

2009

80.2 92.6 90.7 92.9 78.7 88.7 77.4 73.6 75.3 76.1

2010

81.2 95.3 94.6 93.8 80.5 90.8 79.9 76.5 75.2 75.7

2011

82.2 92.5 88.6 93.2 81.0 92.3 78.5 76.0 75.1 80.9

2012

80.9 88.9 88.5 89.0 79.9 90.2 78.1 75.1 76.2 77.6

2013

82.1 88.3 89.7 89.8 81.1 89.4 80.2 76.6 77.1 73.7

2014

82.5 91.5 91.1 92.3 81.6 89.9 81.0 77.2 76.4 78.6

2015

81.1 88.2 89.4 89.7 80.4 89.6 81.8 76.8 73.7 73.8

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 22.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2015
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 23. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2015
Year Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher

1979

62.1 60.3 60.1 64.1 66.7

1980

62.8 61.4 61.5 64.5 67.9

1981

62.6 61.2 61.0 65.6 66.9

1982

64.9 62.8 63.1 66.7 68.8

1983

65.8 64.8 63.4 68.2 71.2

1984

67.1 64.9 64.9 68.4 69.4

1985

66.8 64.3 65.8 67.2 70.2

1986

66.5 64.8 66.6 68.0 70.6

1987

67.3 66.0 68.1 69.8 71.4

1988

68.8 66.6 68.2 71.6 71.4

1989

70.2 66.8 67.6 73.3 71.9

1990

72.1 68.8 68.6 72.9 72.2

1991

74.0 71.6 69.8 72.6 73.6

1992

74.6 72.9 70.4 73.3 75.1

1993

74.8 73.9 71.3 73.8 75.8

1994

73.1 75.1 70.8 72.1 76.8

1995

72.8 75.5 70.2 71.6 76.2

1996

74.1 75.1 70.7 73.2 75.2

1997

75.1 75.3 70.7 73.9 75.0

1998

75.9 73.9 70.8 74.0 75.3

1999

74.4 73.4 69.8 73.4 75.7

2000

74.5 74.9 71.1 73.1 74.1

2001

75.4 75.4 72.7 71.9 73.7

2002

77.6 77.2 74.2 74.3 74.2

2003

78.5 76.7 75.5 75.7 73.6

2004

78.6 74.9 75.7 75.8 75.2

2005

79.4 74.9 75.6 76.6 75.7

2006

78.7 76.3 73.7 75.6 75.1

2007

78.5 76.7 74.3 75.2 75.0

2008

78.2 76.1 73.3 75.7 74.3

2009

78.7 76.4 75.7 75.4 73.1

2010

80.5 79.8 76.5 75.5 74.1

2011

81.0 80.9 76.9 76.8 74.9

2012

79.9 76.0 76.3 76.9 73.0
2013 81.1 80.0 78.3 76.6 74.8

2014

81.6 79.1 77.0 75.8 75.7

2015

80.4 80.4 77.2 75.2 74.9

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older in table 24.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2015
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

1979

64.1 81.8 95.0 75.9 58.3 63.3 55.8 54.1 56.9 87.6

1980

64.8 84.1 93.2 77.0 58.7 64.1 54.9 54.4 56.4 89.2

1981

65.1 86.1 96.7 80.0 60.3 66.7 57.5 54.1 56.2 88.1

1982

67.3 86.3 97.0 81.8 62.1 67.7 57.1 55.7 59.0 88.1

1983

69.4 87.2 96.7 84.4 62.9 70.3 57.6 56.7 58.0 87.6

1984

69.8 86.0 96.5 84.5 63.7 71.1 59.0 56.9 59.5 89.0

1985

70.0 85.7 96.3 87.2 64.7 72.4 60.3 57.8 60.4 88.8

1986

70.2 85.8 95.5 86.7 66.0 74.1 61.4 59.0 60.3 91.3

1987

72.1 85.9 93.9 86.1 67.2 74.3 62.9 61.3 62.0 91.2

1988

73.8 89.1 94.4 87.2 68.7 75.6 66.1 61.6 62.4 92.8

1989

75.4 90.7 93.4 86.9 69.8 78.0 67.0 63.4 63.8 87.1

1990

77.9 91.0 93.8 90.1 71.8 79.4 68.7 64.3 66.2 89.6

1991

78.6 91.0 97.9 91.7 73.5 80.4 70.4 65.0 68.9 92.6

1992

80.3 91.3 97.7 92.5 76.0 82.6 73.1 66.1 69.3 92.6

1993

80.4 91.7 97.1 94.2 77.3 83.6 73.1 67.3 69.0 92.1

1994

80.6 90.5 97.0 91.2 78.2 85.5 73.4 69.9 70.7 94.0

1995

80.8 90.9 96.1 89.3 76.1 83.7 72.6 70.8 71.4 94.2

1996

81.2 92.1 97.0 89.6 78.2 83.1 74.6 72.1 72.4 91.6

1997

80.8 92.2 96.6 91.2 78.8 82.7 75.7 72.3 70.5 98.1

1998

81.8 90.3 96.7 89.1 77.9 86.1 77.4 75.0 72.4 93.2

1999

83.8 92.7 96.8 89.9 79.4 83.9 76.9 72.7 76.4 95.4

2000

83.8 91.7 93.8 93.0 80.8 88.3 76.3 73.2 76.8 94.7

2001

85.2 90.5 95.8 89.7 79.2 85.8 75.0 76.1 80.2 90.4

2002

85.0 92.5 96.9 91.3 82.1 85.1 78.7 77.6 80.8 89.3

2003

84.8 93.2 97.6 91.0 83.1 87.5 79.1 79.0 78.4 90.3

2004

84.6 93.9 95.9 91.7 81.7 88.3 78.4 79.1 79.6 92.5

2005

84.8 92.6 96.0 92.4 83.2 89.2 79.6 80.2 80.2 97.8

2006

84.0 90.9 95.7 90.5 83.2 87.6 80.0 76.4 80.6 93.0

2007

84.8 89.3 95.4 90.4 81.7 87.4 81.5 79.6 79.2 92.2

2008

85.4 91.2 96.6 91.6 83.0 87.0 80.5 78.2 81.8 91.6

2009

85.5 93.1 97.1 92.0 84.7 90.6 80.7 77.0 84.5 92.6

2010

86.0 93.6 97.8 91.7 85.6 91.9 82.9 79.9 83.2 93.8

2011

86.8 94.6 97.5 92.5 86.7 92.0 83.8 81.5 82.2 91.5

2012

86.4 93.0 97.9 92.0 86.8 91.5 83.9 81.2 83.1 90.9

2013

86.6 92.3 96.7 94.0 87.5 91.1 84.9 81.2 84.1 94.9

2014

84.6 92.4 96.1 96.3 85.7 87.0 84.6 81.2 81.3 89.2

2015

85.6 95.1 97.5 93.5 87.8 91.0 85.7 84.3 82.1 89.5

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information on historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of workers paid hourly rates in table 25.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2015
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1979

64.1 62.5 72.6 71.8

1980

64.8 63.6 74.9 75.1

1981

65.1 63.8 72.1 76.4

1982

67.3 66.0 75.2 75.6

1983

69.4 68.0 79.2 76.1

1984

69.8 68.6 79.1 77.0

1985

70.0 67.8 82.0 79.4

1986

70.2 68.8 78.7 80.8

1987

72.1 70.9 80.1 80.2

1988

73.8 72.7 80.8 81.1

1989

75.4 74.0 83.2 83.0

1990

77.9 75.6 84.5 86.1

1991

78.6 76.6 86.5 86.9

1992

80.3 78.6 87.1 88.3

1993

80.4 78.9 89.6 88.6

1994

80.6 79.7 87.5 89.3

1995

80.8 78.4 87.3 90.9

1996

81.2 79.6 88.0 88.8

1997

80.8 80.3 87.5 86.3

1998

81.8 81.8 86.9 87.6

1999

83.8 82.3 83.2 86.6

2000

83.8 83.0 88.8 90.5 87.3

2001

85.2 83.8 89.9 85.1 85.6

2002

85.0 83.8 92.3 91.7 86.1

2003

84.8 84.0 91.7 89.8 88.5

2004

84.6 84.0 91.3 88.8 90.2

2005

84.8 84.2 91.1 91.3 90.1

2006

84.0 83.6 88.5 90.7 87.6

2007

84.8 83.7 90.3 89.5 88.5

2008

85.4 84.5 89.9 87.3 85.1

2009

85.5 84.8 89.7 90.4 84.6

2010

86.0 85.0 92.1 88.0 86.2

2011

86.8 85.9 93.5 89.8 86.8

2012

86.4 85.3 92.0 90.1 85.4

2013

86.6 85.7 94.9 91.6 87.5

2014

84.6 83.3 94.8 90.2 86.6

2015

85.6 85.9 92.4 92.8 85.8

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in table 26. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2015 annual averages (in constant 2015 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

 

1979

$735 $524 $439 $567 $808 $777 $854 $841 $799 $604

1980

718 512 422 548 784 756 827 816 781 556

1981

710 500 402 532 770 740 815 800 772 555

1982

712 491 387 519 771 733 835 814 767 597

1983

708 477 371 505 776 726 837 830 783 590

1984

709 472 367 502 787 728 846 837 796 591

1985

723 471 366 504 796 733 853 840 800 624

1986

742 479 368 512 808 744 866 860 820 616

1987

747 485 371 517 804 745 868 856 808 619

1988

742 480 378 513 798 738 867 873 807 622

1989

736 478 376 509 788 727 871 871 795 616

1990

725 474 368 502 790 717 856 861 805 604

1991

723 470 362 494 793 705 846 861 796 647

1992

728 457 351 480 793 699 833 864 800 626

1993

742 456 346 480 793 704 835 876 795 635

1994

739 453 350 475 791 695 850 896 793 608

1995

740 451 357 473 788 697 850 900 794 601

1996

737 448 361 469 782 696 841 893 805 577

1997

741 451 371 473 795 708 853 894 822 579

1998

760 464 390 493 831 730 868 901 860 589

1999

781 485 400 516 842 737 869 927 859 575

2000

792 497 409 527 838 755 860 920 853 637

2001

798 502 408 527 843 771 880 928 854 653

2002

801 502 402 526 851 779 880 930 888 661

2003

799 499 401 518 853 765 885 932 912 665

2004

801 489 388 509 857 758 895 932 910 703

2005

790 482 386 499 845 740 887 908 900 691

2006

788 481 381 497 844 730 879 908 899 685

2007

794 485 385 514 843 735 879 903 918 691

2008

795 488 384 514 838 733 885 905 909 709

2009

817 488 380 513 855 749 903 926 929 756

2010

812 470 377 493 850 741 896 917 935 743

2011

797 464 371 482 840 730 882 913 928 782

2012

793 458 367 479 841 730 885 906 926 781

2013

789 462 379 480 841 720 889 898 920 815

2014

792 477 378 491 840 727 882 900 912 825

2015

809 487 389 501 860 735 900 923 927 873

Women

 

1979

555 470 402 491 595 607 598 585 576 518

1980

551 458 397 479 584 597 586 573 562 479

1981

548 450 385 478 582 598 595 562 555 472

1982

564 453 373 474 601 608 608 594 578 498

1983

570 448 357 468 606 615 615 597 581 480

1984

576 441 352 463 615 620 635 607 587 476

1985

582 443 349 464 622 622 645 613 599 508

1986

601 452 351 477 636 632 659 636 612 529

1987

605 453 343 483 641 631 673 647 615 521

1988

607 453 355 484 645 630 682 653 611 539

1989

605 454 363 480 648 627 683 659 614 539

1990

609 447 349 474 650 627 687 664 613 528

1991

621 452 348 475 657 630 691 676 616 542

1992

629 442 339 464 662 632 692 690 623 543

1993

635 441 331 467 670 638 703 711 638 541

1994

631 437 334 459 666 628 709 712 630 532

1995

628 425 332 450 662 623 700 717 623 546

1996

629 427 335 448 668 624 696 723 632 502

1997

635 430 353 451 680 629 710 729 638 513

1998

663 443 362 464 705 656 724 750 692 509

1999

673 461 378 488 707 669 716 760 700 526

2000

678 473 389 503 710 678 717 776 699 539

2001

685 473 386 502 727 685 732 786 718 522

2002

697 484 389 507 748 698 752 793 756 567

2003

711 478 385 499 753 704 760 785 774 561

2004

719 471 368 491 752 704 763 784 772 600

2005

710 462 369 481 743 695 754 782 775 597

2006

705 464 358 485 737 685 758 774 773 599

2007

702 467 363 487 738 682 763 774 776 610

2008

703 463 355 490 738 686 751 779 783 620

2009

726 469 357 492 759 701 783 787 803 665

2010

727 459 365 477 765 704 795 793 800 653

2011

721 444 346 462 757 698 773 784 789 700

2012

713 429 341 443 750 687 771 770 791 688

2013

718 430 356 450 753 677 780 774 792 703

2014

720 451 357 468 753 680 782 781 781 741

2015

726 450 364 468 761 690 804 799 784 740

Men

 

1979

890 598 473 643 957 899 1,024 1,030 951 668

1980

858 570 444 614 929 860 1,005 1,005 945 627

1981

850 545 420 592 930 850 992 990 942 665

1982

858 531 401 575 927 844 995 988 941 708

1983

857 505 380 548 921 839 1,000 1,005 941 697

1984

852 502 378 543 917 830 1,024 1,022 954 713

1985

855 506 384 542 931 828 1,023 1,027 981 771

1986

866 508 384 545 957 831 1,031 1,045 1,000 740

1987

866 513 391 549 952 822 1,018 1,038 988 758

1988

865 505 395 538 938 811 996 1,058 981 761

1989

863 500 386 535 923 801 1,000 1,050 961 725

1990

847 496 384 525 901 790 986 1,040 961 710

1991

837 484 372 509 888 778 978 1,039 956 793

1992

829 470 361 492 887 772 962 1,050 959 697

1993

824 465 357 489 897 769 963 1,055 947 729

1994

826 465 361 486 911 758 976 1,062 954 698

1995

832 468 377 487 909 757 964 1,059 963 682

1996

838 462 377 483 901 750 950 1,050 967 717

1997

853 467 386 498 906 758 959 1,050 985 666

1998

869 485 408 519 929 791 984 1,064 1,016 701

1999

879 506 414 539 950 821 999 1,085 1,031 669

2000

882 516 421 543 953 823 1,001 1,061 1,011 718

2001

897 523 427 546 964 826 1,009 1,070 1,017 756

2002

895 515 411 540 964 826 1,000 1,063 1,057 768

2003

896 513 414 531 959 809 999 1,075 1,066 789

2004

895 502 399 523 956 802 1,009 1,075 1,058 804

2005

876 496 400 512 936 782 998 1,035 1,038 782

2006

873 491 409 511 937 777 982 1,054 1,060 773

2007

875 506 408 539 941 785 998 1,039 1,066 784

2008

879 508 406 530 944 775 1,008 1,040 1,039 829

2009

905 506 393 529 965 790 1,012 1,069 1,066 874

2010

896 482 386 509 950 776 995 1,037 1,064 863

2011

877 479 390 495 934 756 985 1,032 1,051 865

2012

881 483 385 497 939 762 988 1,026 1,037 888

2013

875 487 397 501 928 757 973 1,011 1,028 953

2014

872 493 392 508 923 756 965 1,012 1,022 943

2015

895 510 407 522 947 770 983 1,040 1,064 1,003

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2015 annual averages (in constant 2015 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$735 $756 $607 $591

1980

718 737 581 573

1981

710 728 588 558

1982

712 731 578 566

1983

708 724 590 566

1984

709 730 585 563

1985

723 748 582 567

1986

742 767 601 572

1987

747 766 601 569

1988

742 761 605 559

1989

736 755 589 550

1990

725 746 579 535

1991

723 750 591 530

1992

728 758 591 531

1993

742 767 596 535

1994

739 766 587 513

1995

740 764 592 509

1996

737 761 582 510

1997

741 764 589 517

1998

760 792 619 538

1999

781 815 633 548

2000

792 812 652 $846 549

2001

798 817 657 855 558

2002

801 821 656 867 559

2003

799 820 662 893 567

2004

801 824 659 888 572

2005

790 816 631 914 572

2006

788 811 651 921 571

2007

794 818 650 949 575

2008

795 817 649 948 583

2009

817 836 664 972 598

2010

812 832 664 929 582

2011

797 817 648 913 579

2012

793 817 641 949 586

2013

789 816 640 958 588

2014

792 817 640 954 595

2015

809 835 641 993 604

Women

 

1979

555 561 515 479

1980

551 556 507 471

1981

548 552 515 475

1982

564 571 512 479

1983

570 575 525 486

1984

576 583 524 485

1985

582 590 529 483

1986

601 607 545 498

1987

605 613 551 501

1988

607 613 555 501

1989

605 616 555 496

1990

609 621 542 489

1991

621 633 548 496

1992

629 641 555 500

1993

635 648 562 506

1994

631 646 547 483

1995

628 641 549 471

1996

629 644 544 475

1997

635 654 552 468

1998

663 680 581 490

1999

673 687 582 495

2000

678 691 590 752 503

2001

685 699 608 754 519

2002

697 721 623 746 523

2003

711 731 633 771 528

2004

719 733 634 769 526

2005

710 723 606 807 521

2006

705 716 610 821 517

2007

702 715 609 835 541

2008

703 720 610 829 552

2009

726 739 643 861 562

2010

727 743 643 840 552

2011

721 741 627 791 546

2012

713 733 618 795 538

2013

718 734 616 833 550

2014

720 735 612 842 549

2015

726 743 615 877 566

Men

 

1979

890 909 692 668

1980

858 877 668 641

1981

850 875 670 628

1982

858 884 656 634

1983

857 876 665 620

1984

852 872 659 624

1985

855 878 641 622

1986

866 895 659 618

1987

866 898 653 611

1988

865 896 671 593

1989

863 889 642 581

1990

847 870 636 560

1991

837 859 637 548

1992

829 851 629 561

1993

824 847 633 559

1994

826 866 633 543

1995

832 875 635 541

1996

838 872 620 535

1997

853 876 636 546

1998

869 894 680 567

1999

879 908 694 578

2000

882 911 702 942 574

2001

897 922 708 980 589

2002

895 925 690 996 594

2003

896 921 715 995 598

2004

895 918 714 1,006 602

2005

876 902 678 1,001 593

2006

873 894 694 1,036 593

2007

875 901 686 1,070 594

2008

879 909 683 1,064 616

2009

905 934 686 1,052 629

2010

896 924 688 1,017 609

2011

877 902 688 1,022 602

2012

881 907 686 1,089 611

2013

875 899 675 1,077 604

2014

872 898 681 1,081 617

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 19. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2015 annual averages (in constant 2015 dollars)
Year Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher

Total

 

1979

$808 $640 $759 $860 $1,049

1980

784 608 729 833 1,030

1981

770 600 715 810 1,018

1982

771 585 712 828 1,033

1983

776 579 704 821 1,043

1984

787 572 702 830 1,057

1985

796 567 700 838 1,063

1986

808 574 711 845 1,085

1987

804 567 711 840 1,126

1988

798 555 709 829 1,127

1989

788 548 692 834 1,124

1990

790 533 680 838 1,123

1991

793 521 674 830 1,131

1992

793 515 667 801 1,152

1993

793 507 670 798 1,155

1994

791 486 666 790 1,160

1995

788 478 668 785 1,155

1996

782 477 666 779 1,140

1997

795 473 679 788 1,147

1998

831 490 696 811 1,193

1999

842 492 697 825 1,223

2000

838 498 695 820 1,226

2001

843 511 696 826 1,233

2002

851 511 705 829 1,240

2003

853 510 714 823 1,242

2004

857 503 720 829 1,237

2005

845 496 708 813 1,229

2006

844 492 699 813 1,221

2007

843 489 690 805 1,225

2008

838 499 681 795 1,228

2009

855 502 692 802 1,256

2010

850 483 680 798 1,243

2011

840 475 672 779 1,212

2012

841 486 673 773 1,202

2013

841 480 662 761 1,215

2014

840 488 669 762 1,194

2015

860 493 678<