August 2017 Report 1069

Highlights of women’s earnings in 2016

Highlights of women’s earnings in 2016 image

In 2016, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 82 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and averaged for the calendar year. These data are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the mid-point in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

 

Earnings of full-time workers

Below are data highlights for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics such as age, race and ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2016, median weekly earnings were $749 for all women age 16 and older. For men 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $915. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 and 54, with 35- to 44-year-olds ($839) and 45- to 54-year-olds ($836) earning about the same. For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 54-year-olds ($1,075) and 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,102). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($486 and $512, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

 

In 2016, women’s earnings ranged from 74 to 83 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller, with women earning 89 to 96 percent of what men did. (See table 1.)

Between 1979 and 2016, women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios rose for most age groups, particularly in the prime working ages from 25 to 54. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, the ratio increased from 68 percent in 1979 to 89 percent in 2016; the ratio for 35- to 44-year-olds rose from 58 to 83 percent; and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds, from 57 to 78 percent. For workers age 55 to 64, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio rose from 61 to 74 percent over this period. For young workers age 16 to 24, the earnings ratio increased from 79 to 95 percent between 1979 and 2016, with the gains occurring primarily in the 1980s. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2016. Among women, Whites ($766) earned 85 percent as much as Asians ($902); Blacks ($641) earned 71 percent, and Hispanics ($586) earned 65 percent. In comparison, White men ($942) earned 82 percent as much as Asian men ($1,151); Black men ($718) earned 62 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($663), 58 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

 

Earnings differences between women and men were the most pronounced for Asians and for Whites. Asian women earned 78 percent as much as Asian men in 2016, and White women earned 81 percent as much as their male counterparts. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 89 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 88 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably among the major race and Hispanic ethnicity groups since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2016, inflation-adjusted earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 35 percent for White women, by 23 percent for Black women, and by 21 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, earnings growth tapered off around 2004. Earnings for Hispanic women, however, have continued to increase, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined through the mid-1990s, then began to trend upward. Over the full period, 1979 through 2016, inflation-adjusted earnings for White, Black, and Hispanic men have changed little on net: a 2-percent gain for White and Black men, and a 2-percent decline for Hispanic men. (See table 18.)

Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Between 2000 and 2016, inflation-adjusted earnings grew by 18 percent for Asian women and by 21 percent for Asian men. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($504) were 40 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher ($1,259) in 2016. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($692) were 55 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree (median weekly earnings of $779) made 62 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree or more made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. Although both women and men without a high school diploma have experienced declines in inflation-adjusted earnings since 1979, the drop for women was much smaller than that for men: a 10-percent decrease for women, compared with a 29-percent decline for men. On an inflation-adjusted basis, earnings for women with a bachelor’s degree or higher have increased by 35 percent since 1979. Earnings for men with a bachelor’s degree or higher have risen by 20 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

 

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2016 ($1,099 for women and $1,491 for men). Within management, business, and financial operations occupations, women who were chief executives ($1,876) and computer and information systems managers ($1,680) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2016. Among men, those who were chief executives ($2,419) and architectural and engineering managers ($2,265) earned the most. (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($998 for women and $1,364 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were pharmacists ($1,839) and nurse practitioners ($1,753) had the highest earnings in 2016. For men, those who were physicians and surgeons ($2,343), pharmacists ($2,096), and lawyers ($2,086) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

 

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2016, 30 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 19 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2016, 10 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,325 for women and $1,518 for men) and engineering ($1,207 for women and $1,529 for men) fields, compared with 46 percent of men. Women were more likely to work in education ($933 for women and $1,154 for men) and healthcare ($1,036 for women and $1,332 for men) jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-eight percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2016, compared with 30 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were elementary and middle school teacher ($981), registered nurse ($1,143), and secretary or administrative assistant ($708). Each of these occupations employed more than 2 million women in 2016, collectively representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $787). In 2016, 2.7 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2016, a total of 1.9 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,526 to $1,901). (See table 2.)

Earnings for those with and without children under 18

In 2016, a little more than one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” includes only sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($756) were little different from the earnings for women without children under 18 ($746). Earnings for fathers with children under 18 were $1,013, compared with $861 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. In addition, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. Thus, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to have a longer workweek. In 2016, 26 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 11 percent of women worked such hours in 2016, while 5 percent of men did. A majority of both male and female full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 89 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 25 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2016. In comparison, 12 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $255 in 2016, slightly higher than the $245 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 29 percent of women and 44 percent of men were under age 25 in 2016. Among full-time workers, 9 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2016, 62 percent of women and 56 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $13.01, which were 87 percent of the median hourly earnings of men ($14.96). (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2016, 3 percent of women and 2 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See table 10.)

Among both women and men, hourly paid workers age 16 to 19 were the most likely to have earnings at or below the minimum wage. Ten percent of teenage workers who were paid hourly rates earned the prevailing federal minimum wage or less in 2016, compared with just 2 percent of hourly paid workers age 25 and older. Five percent of workers age 20 to 24 had earnings at or below the federal minimum wage. (See table 10.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

111,091 $832 $2 49,161 $749 $2 61,930 $915 $3 81.9

16 to 24 years

10,076 501 2 4,430 486 3 5,646 512 3 94.9

16 to 19 years

1,289 405 4 545 388 5 745 419 5 92.6

20 to 24 years

8,786 513 2 3,885 500 3 4,901 523 4 95.6

25 years and older

101,015 885 2 44,731 784 3 56,284 969 3 80.9

25 to 34 years

27,456 751 3 11,972 705 5 15,484 794 5 88.8

35 to 44 years

25,284 934 5 10,900 839 7 14,383 1,007 6 83.3

45 to 54 years

25,652 955 5 11,555 836 7 14,097 1,075 10 77.8

55 to 64 years

18,496 952 6 8,504 812 7 9,992 1,102 12 73.7

65 years and older

4,128 866 15 1,800 749 13 2,328 992 21 75.5

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

86,474 862 3 37,163 766 3 49,310 942 4 81.3

Black or African American

13,963 678 5 7,235 641 6 6,728 718 7 89.3

Asian

7,030 1,021 13 3,142 902 18 3,888 1,151 12 78.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,950 624 4 7,284 586 4 11,666 663 6 88.4

Marital status

 

Never married

32,229 656 3 14,150 625 4 18,079 682 4 91.6

Married, spouse present(1)

61,044 960 3 24,849 838 5 36,195 1,062 6 78.9

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

17,818 786 5 10,162 735 5 7,656 876 9 83.9

Widowed

1,788 734 15 1,287 697 14 501 856 26 81.4

Divorced

11,764 826 6 6,742 768 6 5,022 915 10 83.9

Separated(2)

4,267 697 9 2,133 625 10 2,134 780 16 80.1

Union affiliation(3)

 

Members of unions(4)

13,119 1,004 5 5,697 955 8 7,421 1,050 11 91.0

Represented by unions(5)

14,593 995 5 6,429 942 8 8,163 1,042 10 90.4

Not represented by a union

96,498 802 2 42,731 723 3 53,767 890 4 81.2

Educational attainment

 

Total, 25 years and older

101,015 885 2 44,731 784 3 56,284 969 3 80.9

Less than a high school diploma

7,108 504 3 2,204 423 3 4,904 551 8 76.8

High school graduates, no college

25,475 692 3 9,856 599 3 15,619 769 5 77.9

Some college or associate's degree

27,307 779 3 12,924 688 4 14,383 896 5 76.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

41,125 1,259 4 19,747 1,101 7 21,378 1,464 8 75.2

(1) Includes people in opposite-sex married couples only. See the technical notes section.

(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent. See the technical notes section.

(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.

(4) Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

(5) Union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2016 annual averages
Occupation Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

111,091 $832 $2 49,161 $749 $2 61,930 $915 $3 81.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

45,930 1,188 5 23,674 1,027 5 22,256 1,420 8 72.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,023 1,284 11 8,761 1,099 11 10,261 1,491 14 73.7

Management occupations

12,828 1,370 10 5,314 1,148 9 7,514 1,539 10 74.6

Chief executives

1,150 2,303 23 318 1,876 110 832 2,419 76 77.6

General and operations managers

876 1,266 30 250 1,037 78 626 1,358 23 76.4

Legislators

11 6 6

Advertising and promotions managers

56 1,332 45 32 24

Marketing and sales managers

921 1,468 40 403 1,142 49 518 1,745 42 65.4

Public relations and fundraising managers

60 1,532 230 38 21

Administrative services managers

172 1,261 54 71 952 50 101 1,398 49 68.1

Computer and information systems managers

592 1,738 24 150 1,680 101 443 1,756 37 95.7

Financial managers

1,105 1,423 35 578 1,157 24 527 1,670 87 69.3

Compensation and benefits managers

16 12 3

Human resources managers

263 1,340 31 190 1,283 57 73 1,737 109 73.9

Training and development managers

58 1,507 147 31 27

Industrial production managers

267 1,361 51 66 1,219 138 201 1,409 104 86.5

Purchasing managers

187 1,274 137 92 1,169 39 95 1,400 48 83.5

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

288 990 40 51 988 424 237 990 37 99.8

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

119 892 78 17 102 906 84

Construction managers

487 1,395 40 35 452 1,401 39

Education administrators

838 1,381 28 541 1,280 45 297 1,528 98 83.8

Architectural and engineering managers

143 2,258 130 9 134 2,265 124

Food service managers

760 739 17 350 632 28 410 853 47 74.1

Funeral service managers

13 1 11

Gaming managers

18 4 14

Lodging managers

124 929 48 64 764 59 59 1,068 69 71.5

Medical and health services managers

533 1,402 67 399 1,254 55 133 1,610 47 77.9

Natural sciences managers

14 8 6

Postmasters and mail superintendents

23 11 12

Property, real estate, and community association managers

402 959 51 221 815 35 181 1,157 50 70.4

Social and community service managers

363 1,079 71 248 992 43 115 1,206 102 82.3

Emergency management directors

8 3 5

Managers, all other

2,960 1,422 23 1,115 1,188 32 1,845 1,542 22 77.0

Business and financial operations occupations

6,195 1,161 8 3,448 1,018 12 2,747 1,373 23 74.1

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

23 12 11

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

8 0 8

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

152 838 49 83 765 29 68 942 61 81.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

253 1,024 39 125 974 120 128 1,037 62 93.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

321 969 25 206 912 21 114 1,139 63 80.1

Compliance officers

252 1,243 38 146 1,163 55 106 1,274 97 91.3

Cost estimators

104 1,159 34 9 96 1,172 54

Human resources workers

631 1,139 26 465 1,089 41 166 1,364 179 79.8

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

72 1,069 58 51 1,001 44 21

Training and development specialists

129 1,103 37 82 959 74 47

Logisticians

111 1,011 87 37 75 1,116 80

Management analysts

585 1,476 41 253 1,342 40 332 1,586 61 84.6

Meeting, convention, and event planners

119 867 49 88 852 39 30

Fundraisers

64 1,111 88 42 22

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

246 1,171 97 130 1,097 63 116 1,345 69 81.6

Business operations specialists, all other

257 1,125 60 146 1,001 29 110 1,263 58 79.3

Accountants and auditors

1,451 1,153 13 892 1,018 20 559 1,441 60 70.6

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

31 13 19

Budget analysts

48 26 22

Credit analysts

28 13 15

Financial analysts

277 1,525 108 104 1,252 40 173 1,747 62 71.7

Personal financial advisors

399 1,404 32 142 953 45 258 1,714 93 55.6

Insurance underwriters

102 1,113 106 68 910 46 34

Financial examiners

13 6 7

Credit counselors and loan officers

351 1,054 93 200 926 29 151 1,331 125 69.6

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

58 1,138 62 38 20

Tax preparers

53 1,049 75 33 20

Financial specialists, all other

56 1,155 136 37 20

Professional and related occupations

26,907 1,141 4 14,912 998 5 11,995 1,364 9 73.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,104 1,443 18 1,035 1,325 23 3,068 1,518 20 87.3

Computer and information research scientists

20 7 13

Computer systems analysts

496 1,393 35 182 1,328 38 314 1,475 53 90.0

Information security analysts

85 1,617 131 20 65 1,826 124

Computer programmers

403 1,398 60 104 1,312 100 300 1,466 63 89.5

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,351 1,776 37 266 1,553 22 1,084 1,863 26 83.4

Web developers

142 1,236 44 45 97 1,284 168

Computer support specialists

491 1,060 43 124 1,014 95 367 1,078 60 94.1

Database administrators

83 1,731 199 37 46

Network and computer systems administrators

197 1,232 44 29 168 1,250 51

Computer network architects

105 1,502 50 12 93 1,535 67

Computer occupations, all other

524 1,195 47 106 1,055 38 418 1,244 36 84.8

Actuaries

12 1 11

Mathematicians

4 0 3

Operations research analysts

125 1,315 51 66 1,300 34 59 1,382 53 94.1

Statisticians

65 1,405 85 35 30

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2 1 1

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,835 1,482 18 398 1,207 47 2,437 1,529 17 78.9

Architects, except naval

178 1,339 47 43 135 1,462 93

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

28 9 19

Aerospace engineers

124 1,854 88 10 114 1,846 84

Agricultural engineers

2 0 2

Biomedical engineers

14 2 12

Chemical engineers

91 1,877 46 18 73 1,901 31

Civil engineers

389 1,504 56 39 350 1,526 49

Computer hardware engineers

58 1,843 32 12 46

Electrical and electronics engineers

271 1,729 70 26 245 1,736 45

Environmental engineers

31 5 27

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

215 1,526 71 46 169 1,580 91

Marine engineers and naval architects

19 1 18

Materials engineers

26 5 21

Mechanical engineers

335 1,560 22 24 311 1,567 21

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 0 7

Nuclear engineers

8 1 7

Petroleum engineers

35 3 32

Engineers, all other

493 1,573 67 63 1,401 152 430 1,659 58 84.4

Drafters

93 990 102 10 83 1,030 124

Engineering technicians, except drafters

350 997 25 75 793 49 275 1,075 50 73.8

Surveying and mapping technicians

67 811 54 5 61 790 126

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,151 1,209 43 486 1,119 42 665 1,319 50 84.8

Agricultural and food scientists

32 12 20

Biological scientists

81 1,346 148 35 46

Conservation scientists and foresters

26 4 23

Medical scientists

127 1,211 52 57 1,169 56 69 1,250 107 93.5

Life scientists, all other

3 3 0

Astronomers and physicists

20 4 16

Atmospheric and space scientists

6 1 5

Chemists and materials scientists

93 1,306 70 36 56 1,504 66

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

79 1,555 245 21 58 1,591 66

Physical scientists, all other

241 1,416 50 111 1,323 75 131 1,727 138 76.6

Economists

22 9 14

Survey researchers

1 0 1

Psychologists

91 1,260 51 66 1,187 79 25

Sociologists

4 3 1

Urban and regional planners

34 13 21

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

30 11 19

Agricultural and food science technicians

24 6 17

Biological technicians

19 8 11

Chemical technicians

75 919 38 25 50 919 31

Geological and petroleum technicians

17 2 15

Nuclear technicians

4 1 3

Social science research assistants

1 0 1

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

119 894 36 57 826 73 62 949 117 87.0

Community and social service occupations

2,136 919 14 1,377 880 15 759 1,004 25 87.6

Counselors

657 904 21 473 907 21 184 892 62 101.7

Social workers

684 906 26 557 884 26 127 1,039 72 85.1

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

100 992 43 61 1,004 69 39

Social and human service assistants

151 736 29 122 727 46 29

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

83 831 41 63 767 26 20

Clergy

368 1,039 40 53 893 75 315 1,070 41 83.5

Directors, religious activities and education

49 26 23

Religious workers, all other

42 21 21

Legal occupations

1,294 1,431 31 732 1,152 30 562 1,904 22 60.5

Lawyers

745 1,897 17 299 1,619 115 446 2,086 106 77.6

Judicial law clerks

14 7 7

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

56 1,560 501 21 35

Paralegals and legal assistants

351 874 34 308 863 20 43

Miscellaneous legal support workers

128 1,009 197 98 867 73 30

Education, training, and library occupations

6,859 984 8 4,982 933 7 1,877 1,154 11 80.8

Postsecondary teachers

980 1,247 23 445 1,152 20 535 1,356 28 85.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

530 626 18 518 621 14 13

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,836 1,009 11 2,231 981 10 605 1,126 21 87.1

Secondary school teachers

965 1,111 18 562 1,074 24 403 1,146 19 93.7

Special education teachers

313 1,021 27 264 1,018 27 49

Other teachers and instructors

370 938 45 214 786 54 156 1,135 46 69.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

36 25 11

Librarians

140 987 35 117 980 41 23

Library technicians

10 8 2

Teacher assistants

588 523 12 532 525 13 56 501 35 104.8

Other education, training, and library workers

91 1,107 60 67 1,068 27 24

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,671 1,040 20 752 951 22 919 1,139 19 83.5

Artists and related workers

61 1,236 27 23 38

Designers

586 1,086 58 297 922 38 290 1,267 43 72.8

Actors

13 5 8

Producers and directors

128 1,163 41 50 1,030 81 78 1,228 150 83.9

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

141 826 48 35 106 862 45

Dancers and choreographers

5 4 2

Musicians, singers, and related workers

37 13 24

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

13 4 9

Announcers

32 8 24

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

58 1,166 170 27 30

Public relations specialists

107 1,228 80 67 1,134 265 40

Editors

120 1,053 33 56 1,035 26 64 1,112 88 93.1

Technical writers

56 1,253 61 27 29

Writers and authors

99 1,070 42 60 983 97 39

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

59 745 76 36 24

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

80 1,020 216 13 67 1,099 48

Photographers

43 19 24

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

31 7 24

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1 0 1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,857 1,104 10 5,150 1,036 11 1,706 1,332 32 77.8

Chiropractors

18 7 10

Dentists

61 1,850 82 27 34

Dietitians and nutritionists

82 986 56 71 997 50 11

Optometrists

18 15 3

Pharmacists

222 1,924 133 133 1,839 68 89 2,096 126 87.7

Physicians and surgeons

806 1,916 61 308 1,476 116 497 2,343 140 63.0

Physician assistants

75 1,544 55 50 1,547 55 25

Podiatrists

4 0 3

Audiologists

11 8 2

Occupational therapists

71 1,365 61 61 1,315 50 10

Physical therapists

197 1,325 29 128 1,306 34 69 1,348 32 96.9

Radiation therapists

11 10 1

Recreational therapists

9 3 6

Respiratory therapists

76 998 30 54 993 37 22

Speech-language pathologists

112 1,200 124 109 1,172 107 3

Exercise physiologists

1 1 0

Therapists, all other

137 920 54 106 913 53 32

Veterinarians

65 1,338 357 46 19

Registered nurses

2,498 1,154 10 2,213 1,143 10 285 1,261 27 90.6

Nurse anesthetists

14 6 8

Nurse midwives

5 5 0

Nurse practitioners

144 1,750 49 133 1,753 45 11

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

8 8 1

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

295 887 34 198 834 25 97 1,071 97 77.9

Dental hygienists

75 1,034 50 73 1,045 47 2

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

254 1,041 30 175 936 42 79 1,156 29 81.0

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

174 779 32 60 650 47 114 821 42 79.2

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

474 662 15 361 643 16 113 712 25 90.3

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

525 749 12 481 743 12 44

Medical records and health information technicians

170 798 27 159 793 28 11

Opticians, dispensing

42 28 14

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

107 745 23 64 714 20 43

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

96 1,083 152 47 49

Service occupations

15,908 523 2 7,914 487 2 7,994 595 4 81.8

Healthcare support occupations

2,423 525 5 2,094 519 4 329 602 14 86.2

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,386 503 5 1,192 498 5 194 534 33 93.3

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

13 12 1

Physical therapist assistants and aides

48 32 15

Massage therapists

45 30 15

Dental assistants

199 592 15 180 583 17 19

Medical assistants

488 572 13 452 562 14 36

Medical transcriptionists

23 23 0

Pharmacy aides

21 19 2

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

24 17 7

Phlebotomists

84 586 26 71 570 31 12

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

94 537 52 65 504 21 29

Protective service occupations

2,697 809 15 524 688 18 2,173 854 15 80.6

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

55 873 88 20 35

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

120 1,324 73 23 97 1,361 62

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

45 3 41

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

89 880 73 23 66 895 206

Firefighters

252 1,065 75 8 244 1,056 79

Fire inspectors

16 1 15

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

365 749 16 91 672 25 275 793 30 84.7

Detectives and criminal investigators

132 1,182 54 28 104 1,251 98

Fish and game wardens

8 1 7

Parking enforcement workers

6 2 4

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

709 1,004 22 100 938 92 609 1,008 21 93.1

Transit and railroad police

2 0 2

Animal control workers

6 2 4

Private detectives and investigators

60 904 57 29 31

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

727 585 11 152 516 19 576 597 12 86.4

Crossing guards

23 12 11

Transportation security screeners

40 16 23

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

42 14 28

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,619 465 5 2,202 434 6 2,417 491 5 88.4

Chefs and head cooks

356 614 15 68 519 29 288 632 20 82.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

425 528 17 251 485 14 174 666 71 72.8

Cooks

1,408 444 7 515 421 6 892 459 9 91.7

Food preparation workers

477 419 6 262 413 7 215 432 23 95.6

Bartenders

253 602 25 122 498 33 131 701 32 71.0

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

196 396 13 125 402 14 72 381 27 105.5

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

68 374 19 49 20

Waiters and waitresses

949 470 13 607 441 15 342 504 13 87.5

Food servers, nonrestaurant

104 479 19 71 445 48 33

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

133 420 9 51 407 12 82 465 66 87.5

Dishwashers

172 389 9 30 142 388 11

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

74 442 45 50 432 35 24

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3 1 2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,602 510 3 1,210 454 8 2,392 548 9 82.8

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

189 655 41 71 524 33 119 702 20 74.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

113 707 32 1 112 710 32

Janitors and building cleaners

1,580 526 8 441 476 10 1,139 564 12 84.4

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

781 441 9 661 427 9 120 497 15 85.9

Pest control workers

61 655 29 2 59 649 28

Grounds maintenance workers

878 502 6 34 844 503 6

Personal care and service occupations

2,568 505 5 1,884 482 5 684 613 13 78.6

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

127 792 46 59 717 71 68 840 173 85.4

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

62 651 54 37 25

Animal trainers

24 11 13

Nonfarm animal caretakers

88 485 25 71 489 22 17

Gaming services workers

64 624 42 31 33

Motion picture projectionists

2 0 2

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

14 8 6

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

79 481 30 31 48

Embalmers and funeral attendants

3 2 1

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

23 5 18

Barbers

56 584 29 8 48

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

307 510 15 281 500 15 27

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

205 490 19 167 466 45 37

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

56 625 40 10 46

Tour and travel guides

18 8 10

Childcare workers

405 452 13 381 451 12 24

Personal care aides

762 477 7 636 469 10 125 514 17 91.2

Recreation and fitness workers

192 596 24 100 517 23 92 668 50 77.4

Residential advisors

19 11 8

Personal care and service workers, all other

61 573 33 26 35

Sales and office occupations

23,625 698 3 14,163 649 3 9,461 805 8 80.6

Sales and related occupations

9,759 744 6 4,250 590 6 5,509 904 12 65.3

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,368 743 10 1,047 630 13 1,321 857 15 73.5

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

781 1,137 15 230 1,004 26 552 1,161 16 86.5

Cashiers

1,367 414 5 965 403 5 402 475 16 84.8

Counter and rental clerks

84 517 13 36 47

Parts salespersons

96 639 24 11 85 643 22

Retail salespersons

1,831 623 9 728 514 8 1,103 730 19 70.4

Advertising sales agents

203 1,023 56 81 999 122 122 1,034 70 96.6

Insurance sales agents

423 839 38 205 676 57 218 1,166 73 58.0

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

219 1,351 71 63 951 51 155 1,458 120 65.2

Travel agents

46 38 8

Sales representatives, services, all other

427 1,040 66 145 826 63 282 1,202 94 68.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,121 1,047 45 302 872 45 819 1,140 20 76.5

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

14 6 8

Real estate brokers and sales agents

493 983 41 284 780 70 209 1,222 122 63.8

Sales engineers

40 5 35

Telemarketers

42 25 17

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

34 11 23

Sales and related workers, all other

171 805 54 68 709 73 103 946 78 74.9

Office and administrative support occupations

13,866 679 3 9,913 669 4 3,952 708 8 94.5

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,203 848 17 819 809 13 383 942 23 85.9

Switchboard operators, including answering service

17 14 3

Telephone operators

36 31 5

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 4 1

Bill and account collectors

144 625 31 105 650 40 39

Billing and posting clerks

404 666 13 360 660 13 44

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

756 722 13 641 716 13 115 790 43 90.6

Gaming cage workers

9 8 1

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

125 786 29 110 785 30 15

Procurement clerks

25 16 9

Tellers

235 542 13 195 539 13 39

Financial clerks, all other

62 708 146 44 18

Brokerage clerks

3 1 2

Correspondence clerks

5 5 0

Court, municipal, and license clerks

79 691 163 60 681 144 19

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41 33 8

Customer service representatives

1,850 640 10 1,185 623 9 664 676 19 92.2

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

72 828 61 55 735 48 17

File clerks

134 676 25 113 680 21 21

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

102 513 18 66 500 32 36

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

105 639 25 98 634 28 7

Library assistants, clerical

45 38 8

Loan interviewers and clerks

124 774 27 100 756 17 25

New accounts clerks

21 21 0

Order clerks

85 646 44 45 40

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

36 32 4

Receptionists and information clerks

951 583 7 848 581 7 103 600 26 96.8

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

102 705 52 56 646 57 46

Information and record clerks, all other

104 654 26 73 631 36 31

Cargo and freight agents

23 9 14

Couriers and messengers

160 726 60 25 135 739 46

Dispatchers

279 704 24 153 671 27 126 734 24 91.4

Meter readers, utilities

30 1 28

Postal service clerks

111 901 122 53 805 39 58 999 36 80.6

Postal service mail carriers

304 981 19 119 931 38 185 1,020 35 91.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

56 783 89 23 33

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

224 853 26 111 765 37 113 935 28 81.8

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

473 596 10 151 583 18 322 602 12 96.8

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,014 530 13 371 526 16 643 533 19 98.7

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

45 24 21

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,210 713 7 2,078 708 7 133 831 43 85.2

Computer operators

78 811 97 37 41

Data entry keyers

221 638 18 170 630 23 51 655 25 96.2

Word processors and typists

56 730 27 48 7

Desktop publishers

0 0 0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

251 665 19 210 658 22 40

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

56 619 22 23 33

Office clerks, general

900 654 11 760 648 11 140 707 30 91.7

Office machine operators, except computer

30 16 14

Proofreaders and copy markers

5 5 0

Statistical assistants

7 2 5

Office and administrative support workers, all other

457 768 16 351 751 18 107 855 54 87.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,022 786 5 464 580 14 10,558 794 5 73.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

842 520 8 169 465 20 673 544 13 85.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

28 3 25

Agricultural inspectors

18 5 13

Animal breeders

2 1 1

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

74 511 26 48 25

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

659 508 8 111 423 14 547 524 11 80.7

Fishers and related fishing workers

4 0 4

Hunters and trappers

1 0 1

Forest and conservation workers

17 1 17

Logging workers

39 0 39

Construction and extraction occupations

5,979 784 6 151 639 47 5,828 786 6 81.3

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

558 1,091 39 18 540 1,101 44

Boilermakers

26 0 26

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

119 741 49 0 119 741 49

Carpenters

839 730 19 11 828 733 20

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

93 593 28 2 91 597 27

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

47 0 47

Construction laborers

1,322 692 11 41 1,281 697 11

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

11 0 11

Pile-driver operators

4 0 4

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

334 920 40 6 328 922 46

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

138 600 18 1 137 601 18

Electricians

667 952 28 18 649 951 27

Glaziers

48 1 47

Insulation workers

42 2 40

Painters, construction and maintenance

392 612 10 17 375 615 10

Paperhangers

0 0 0

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

475 927 40 11 464 925 41

Plasterers and stucco masons

25 0 25

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12 0 12

Roofers

161 623 21 3 158 624 23

Sheet metal workers

117 819 22 3 115 820 22

Structural iron and steel workers

61 976 55 1 60 983 49

Solar photovoltaic installers

10 0 10

Helpers, construction trades

42 2 40

Construction and building inspectors

68 996 53 6 62 1,040 121

Elevator installers and repairers

41 0 41

Fence erectors

30 0 29

Hazardous materials removal workers

28 4 24

Highway maintenance workers

85 745 119 2 83 723 69

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

8 0 8

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

9 0 9

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

17 0 17

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

29 0 29

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23 0 23

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

10 0 9

Mining machine operators

48 0 48

Roof bolters, mining

3 0 3

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 0 4

Helpers—extraction workers

3 0 3

Other extraction workers

29 0 29

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,201 861 9 144 783 108 4,057 863 9 90.7

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

246 1,020 31 25 221 1,016 33

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

165 851 35 15 150 861 35

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

132 950 54 22 110 975 40

Avionics technicians

8 0 8

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

26 2 23

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

3 0 3

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

15 1 14

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

8 0 8

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

33 1 32

Security and fire alarm systems installers

69 927 133 1 68 909 176

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

136 1,047 54 2 134 1,053 54

Automotive body and related repairers

117 761 35 5 112 770 47

Automotive glass installers and repairers

14 0 14

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

688 730 16 11 677 729 16

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

298 874 27 1 297 875 26

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

198 964 35 0 198 964 35

Small engine mechanics

32 1 30

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

74 641 139 0 73 646 148

Control and valve installers and repairers

33 1 32

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

361 864 23 4 357 868 23

Home appliance repairers

25 0 25

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

385 968 23 11 374 973 27

Maintenance and repair workers, general

514 796 26 13 502 797 25

Maintenance workers, machinery

20 1 19

Millwrights

35 0 35

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

126 1,161 96 1 125 1,165 92

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

172 850 116 4 168 824 98

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

56 910 44 10 46

Wind turbine service technicians

5 0 5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

27 3 24

Commercial divers

1 0 1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

12 0 12

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

7 0 7

Riggers

11 0 11

Signal and track switch repairers

4 0 4

Helpers—installation, maintenance, and repair workers

10 1 9

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

137 773 32 8 130 782 37

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,606 665 4 2,945 531 6 11,661 704 4 75.4

Production occupations

7,513 668 6 1,949 527 6 5,564 723 6 72.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

729 923 22 131 723 37 599 972 27 74.4

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

6 2 4

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

105 590 18 50 554 24 55 618 23 89.6

Engine and other machine assemblers

6 0 6

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22 0 22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

990 601 11 345 559 16 645 625 15 89.4

Bakers

138 494 14 83 480 13 55 562 65 85.4

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

244 526 24 61 449 40 183 571 32 78.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

16 2 14

Food batchmakers

81 537 37 42 40

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 1 6

Food processing workers, all other

129 547 21 41 88 579 34

Computer control programmers and operators

85 802 139 6 80 843 71

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 2 11

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 0 5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 3 9

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

86 639 35 18 68 672 55

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 0 8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45 3 42

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 0 12

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 0 2

Machinists

326 824 35 13 313 844 49

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31 1 30

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

3 0 3

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

28 7 21

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 1 1

Tool and die makers

43 0 43

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

558 743 23 23 535 753 23

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 0 2

Layout workers, metal and plastic

6 0 6

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

21 2 20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

4 0 4

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

380 626 20 74 565 20 306 658 29 85.9

Prepress technicians and workers

15 7 8

Printing press operators

170 701 30 33 137 748 41

Print binding and finishing workers

11 2 9

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

135 454 32 80 436 33 55 486 34 89.7

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

30 20 10

Sewing machine operators

165 437 15 114 452 15 52 407 16 111.1

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

4 1 3

Shoe machine operators and tenders

1 0 1

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

32 25 7

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 0 0

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

7 3 4

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13 11 2

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 4 2

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 0 0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1 0 1

Upholsterers

20 1 19

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

13 2 11

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

35 5 30

Furniture finishers

9 1 8

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 0 0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

31 4 27

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23 4 19

Woodworkers, all other

17 1 15

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

39 2 37

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

77 924 112 4 72 954 167

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

76 883 21 3 72 885 20

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42 3 38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

50 924 251 4 46

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

88 643 38 6 82 642 37

Cutting workers

62 576 73 13 50 546 175

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

24 4 19

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

11 1 10

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

686 714 14 241 584 19 445 834 35 70.0

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

18 7 11

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

64 615 38 31 33

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

224 488 16 113 425 17 112 574 32 74.0

Painting workers

158 701 31 11 147 713 30

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

23 12 11

Semiconductor processors

2 0 2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

12 5 7

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

2 0 2

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0 0 0

Etchers and engravers

3 0 3

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

16 2 14

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

27 7 21

Tire builders

11 1 10

Helpers—production workers

25 3 23

Production workers, all other

887 622 13 246 515 12 641 690 17 74.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,093 662 6 997 540 12 6,097 685 6 78.8

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

165 807 34 39 126 843 62

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

119 1,582 95 7 112 1,600 70

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

28 10 19

Flight attendants

68 873 114 49 19

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

15 2 13

Bus drivers

343 641 17 146 589 22 197 691 32 85.2

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,809 780 10 120 630 44 2,689 787 10 80.1

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

261 580 19 38 222 595 19

Motor vehicle operators, all other

25 2 23

Locomotive engineers and operators

45 0 45

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

3 1 3

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

52 1,160 92 1 51 1,148 91

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

13 1 13

Sailors and marine oilers

15 1 14

Ship and boat captains and operators

28 1 26

Ship engineers

4 0 4

Bridge and lock tenders

3 0 3

Parking lot attendants

67 519 18 4 62 513 19

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

73 462 18 5 67 456 18

Transportation inspectors

25 5 20

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

20 10 10

Other transportation workers

31 7 24

Conveyor operators and tenders

4 0 4

Crane and tower operators

66 909 48 0 66 909 48

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

27 0 27

Hoist and winch operators

11 0 10

Industrial truck and tractor operators

564 602 9 54 563 30 510 604 10 93.2

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

252 491 14 28 224 487 14

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,417 566 11 221 509 11 1,196 580 8 87.8

Machine feeders and offbearers

27 13 14

Packers and packagers, hand

383 456 12 216 437 22 166 468 14 93.4

Pumping station operators

13 1 11

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

68 562 125 4 64 584 65

Mine shuttle car operators

0 0 0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

3 0 2

Material moving workers, all other

46 6 40

Note: Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by state, 2016 annual averages
State Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

United States

111,091 $832 $2 49,161 $749 $2 61,930 $915 $3 81.9

Alabama

1,580 743 15 715 651 16 865 856 33 76.1

Alaska

245 932 19 113 841 27 133 1,014 27 82.9

Arizona

2,213 829 16 947 768 14 1,266 890 17 86.3

Arkansas

1,014 716 13 459 638 16 555 769 17 83.0

California

12,862 879 8 5,383 814 11 7,479 925 13 88.0

Colorado

1,995 894 20 841 812 18 1,154 967 20 84.0

Connecticut

1,232 1,014 27 555 876 33 677 1,164 35 75.3

Delaware

357 831 22 166 775 21 191 902 27 85.9

District of Columbia

306 1,198 33 152 1,117 28 154 1,274 38 87.7

Florida

6,799 750 6 3,158 701 10 3,641 805 13 87.1

Georgia

3,581 771 13 1,654 721 16 1,927 839 25 85.9

Hawaii

494 794 16 218 718 21 276 869 29 82.6

Idaho

540 759 14 220 645 18 320 843 19 76.5

Illinois

4,513 887 12 1,979 775 13 2,534 978 19 79.2

Indiana

2,402 762 16 1,079 702 22 1,322 829 22 84.7

Iowa

1,143 763 13 528 684 17 614 895 23 76.4

Kansas

1,026 762 13 460 692 19 566 851 33 81.3

Kentucky

1,413 761 11 650 711 19 763 828 29 85.9

Louisiana

1,517 757 15 704 659 21 813 863 28 76.4

Maine

438 820 18 194 754 17 244 900 28 83.8

Maryland

2,386 987 23 1,120 915 30 1,266 1,048 50 87.3

Massachusetts

2,504 1,019 17 1,114 932 17 1,390 1,105 21 84.3

Michigan

3,260 841 15 1,438 742 12 1,822 932 16 79.6

Minnesota

2,035 946 16 901 849 25 1,134 1,020 28 83.2

Mississippi

941 702 15 452 624 18 490 778 26 80.2

Missouri

2,199 793 16 1,021 703 23 1,178 885 29 79.4

Montana

314 781 17 138 705 19 176 866 23 81.4

Nebraska

706 766 11 318 697 18 388 855 23 81.5

Nevada

996 754 12 414 681 15 582 828 23 82.2

New Hampshire

524 904 25 230 762 16 294 1,013 24 75.2

New Jersey

3,324 998 13 1,448 894 25 1,877 1,113 27 80.3

New Mexico

621 730 16 280 679 22 341 772 24 88.0

New York

6,837 916 10 3,145 840 13 3,692 975 12 86.2

North Carolina

3,533 761 10 1,598 704 11 1,935 836 19 84.2

North Dakota

299 805 12 131 713 12 168 930 19 76.7

Ohio

3,927 806 10 1,717 713 10 2,210 899 17 79.3

Oklahoma

1,248 724 16 534 651 12 714 824 22 79.0

Oregon

1,327 857 18 554 791 24 772 904 23 87.5

Pennsylvania

4,453 857 12 1,984 741 11 2,468 956 12 77.5

Rhode Island

385 839 19 179 765 30 206 907 21 84.3

South Carolina

1,623 779 16 773 687 18 851 884 20 77.7

South Dakota

309 778 14 137 670 12 172 876 16 76.5

Tennessee

2,252 747 14 983 666 17 1,269 821 19 81.1

Texas

9,801 780 8 4,197 707 10 5,603 860 12 82.2

Utah

997 833 18 358 668 16 640 955 20 69.9

Vermont

228 850 14 104 801 27 124 888 27 90.2

Virginia

3,025 902 15 1,376 809 22 1,649 1,013 30 79.9

Washington

2,506 929 21 1,065 814 18 1,441 1,056 33 77.1

West Virginia

565 762 14 248 688 17 316 846 30 81.3

Wisconsin

2,098 843 16 947 737 14 1,152 940 20 78.4

Wyoming

199 848 17 82 699 22 117 970 28 72.1

Note: In general, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates; thus, comparisons of state estimates should be made with caution. Data shown are based on workers' state of residence; workers' reported earnings, however, may or may not be from a job located in the same state.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected demographic characteristics, 2016 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

24,832 $252 $1 16,259 $255 $2 8,573 $245 $2 104.1

16 to 24 years

8,456 194 1 4,698 193 2 3,758 196 2 98.5

16 to 19 years

3,572 157 2 1,893 152 3 1,678 162 3 93.8

20 to 24 years

4,884 222 2 2,805 220 2 2,080 225 3 97.8

25 years and older

16,376 291 2 11,561 291 2 4,815 292 3 99.7

25 to 34 years

4,256 286 3 2,831 287 4 1,424 284 4 101.1

35 to 44 years

3,189 303 4 2,493 304 5 696 301 9 101.0

45 to 54 years

3,119 312 4 2,454 310 5 665 319 7 97.2

55 to 64 years

3,254 298 4 2,304 296 5 950 303 8 97.7

65 years and older

2,559 254 4 1,479 241 5 1,080 274 7 88.0

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

19,536 254 1 12,913 259 2 6,623 244 2 106.1

Black or African American

3,033 236 3 1,917 234 4 1,116 238 5 98.3

Asian

1,305 264 6 827 267 8 478 260 8 102.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4,115 247 3 2,667 246 3 1,449 250 5 98.4

Marital status

 

Never married

11,991 214 1 6,648 213 2 5,342 216 2 98.6

Married, spouse present(1)

9,310 307 2 6,923 305 3 2,387 312 5 97.8

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

3,531 270 3 2,688 268 4 843 279 7 96.1

Widowed

749 247 7 637 246 8 112 250 22 98.4

Divorced

1,957 286 5 1,463 281 6 495 299 10 94.0

Separated(2)

825 259 6 589 260 7 236 258 10 100.8

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only. See the technical notes section.

(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent. See the technical notes section.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked, 2016 annual averages
Hours of work Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, 16 years and older

136,101 $715 $2 65,512 $616 $2 70,589 $821 $3 75.0

0 to 34 hours

22,690 254 1 14,888 258 1 7,801 247 2 104.5

0 to 4 hours

545 61 2 365 61 3 179 62 4 98.4

5 to 9 hours

1,191 90 2 786 93 3 406 84 4 110.7

10 to 14 hours

1,987 117 1 1,346 118 1 641 115 2 102.6

15 to 19 hours

2,724 168 1 1,770 172 2 954 163 2 105.5

20 to 24 hours

6,692 229 2 4,343 239 2 2,349 217 2 110.1

25 to 29 hours

3,485 284 3 2,326 286 3 1,159 279 4 102.5

30 to 34 hours

6,064 362 3 3,951 374 4 2,113 339 5 110.3

35 hours and over

106,045 838 3 47,166 755 2 58,879 919 3 82.2

35 to 39 hours

8,148 527 5 5,386 544 6 2,762 495 8 109.9

40 hours

76,021 774 2 34,944 732 2 41,077 823 4 88.9

41 hours and over

21,876 1,250 5 6,836 1,129 8 15,040 1,332 9 84.8

41 to 44 hours

1,130 943 21 436 857 24 694 1,003 29 85.4

45 to 48 hours

6,141 1,098 14 2,171 996 15 3,970 1,152 10 86.5

49 to 59 hours

9,834 1,351 9 3,057 1,214 18 6,777 1,409 14 86.2

60 hours and over

4,772 1,412 18 1,172 1,226 33 3,600 1,474 22 83.2

Hours vary

7,366 493 7 3,457 380 6 3,909 656 16 57.9

Usually less than 35 hours

2,142 221 4 1,371 222 5 772 220 7 100.9

Usually 35 or more hours

5,046 697 13 1,995 521 14 3,051 817 16 63.8

Note: Data are for the sole or principal job of full-time and part-time workers. Estimates for the "hours vary" groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for a small number of multiple jobholders whose usual number of hours on the principal job is not identifiable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2016 annual averages (in thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Number of workers with usual weekly earnings of—
Under $350.00 $350.00 to $499.99 $500.00 to $599.99 $600.00 to $749.99 $750.00 to $999.99 $1,000.00 to $1,199.99 $1,200.00 to $1,999.99 $2,000.00 or more

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

111,091 5,903 16,067 10,429 15,085 19,018 11,406 21,707 11,476

16 to 24 years

10,076 1,553 3,432 1,581 1,522 1,059 447 400 81

16 to 19 years

1,289 377 544 141 114 70 23 17 4

20 to 24 years

8,786 1,177 2,888 1,440 1,408 990 424 383 78

25 years and older

101,015 4,350 12,635 8,848 13,564 17,958 10,959 21,307 11,395

25 to 34 years

27,456 1,378 4,501 3,112 4,375 5,205 2,840 4,517 1,528

35 to 44 years

25,284 1,017 2,921 1,960 3,170 4,436 2,839 5,687 3,254

45 to 54 years

25,652 968 2,784 1,994 3,108 4,467 2,834 5,933 3,563

55 to 64 years

18,496 705 1,906 1,400 2,417 3,198 2,052 4,283 2,535

65 years and older

4,128 281 523 383 494 652 394 887 514

Women, 16 years and older

49,161 3,322 8,317 5,197 7,232 8,765 4,861 8,162 3,305

16 to 24 years

4,430 793 1,573 673 633 452 172 113 21

16 to 19 years

545 187 235 50 44 16 8 2 2

20 to 24 years

3,885 606 1,338 622 589 436 164 111 19

25 years and older

44,731 2,528 6,744 4,524 6,599 8,313 4,689 8,049 3,284

25 to 34 years

11,972 735 2,256 1,455 2,002 2,236 1,161 1,676 449

35 to 44 years

10,900 603 1,540 956 1,466 1,996 1,225 2,147 967

45 to 54 years

11,555 595 1,567 1,093 1,571 2,177 1,246 2,242 1,063

55 to 64 years

8,504 447 1,097 819 1,304 1,613 884 1,667 675

65 years and older

1,800 149 285 201 256 291 172 317 130

Men, 16 years and older

61,930 2,581 7,749 5,232 7,853 10,253 6,546 13,545 8,171

16 to 24 years

5,646 760 1,859 908 888 608 275 287 60

16 to 19 years

745 190 309 90 70 53 15 15 2

20 to 24 years

4,901 570 1,550 818 819 554 260 272 58

25 years and older

56,284 1,821 5,890 4,324 6,965 9,645 6,270 13,258 8,111

25 to 34 years

15,484 644 2,245 1,656 2,373 2,969 1,678 2,841 1,079

35 to 44 years

14,383 415 1,381 1,003 1,704 2,440 1,614 3,540 2,287

45 to 54 years

14,097 373 1,217 901 1,537 2,290 1,587 3,691 2,501

55 to 64 years

9,992 258 810 581 1,113 1,585 1,168 2,616 1,861

65 years and older

2,328 132 238 182 238 361 222 570 384

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

86,474 4,186 11,694 7,841 11,650 14,905 9,207 17,659 9,332

Women

37,163 2,311 5,949 3,835 5,478 6,741 3,828 6,446 2,575

Men

49,310 1,875 5,744 4,006 6,172 8,164 5,379 11,213 6,758

Black or African American

13,963 1,144 2,890 1,622 2,151 2,543 1,189 1,732 691

Women

7,235 676 1,605 887 1,139 1,268 600 767 294

Men

6,728 469 1,285 736 1,013 1,275 589 966 397

Asian

7,030 294 810 532 741 986 707 1,763 1,197

Women

3,142 178 422 283 371 476 312 761 339

Men

3,888 116 389 249 370 510 394 1,002 858

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,950 1,549 4,522 2,358 3,137 2,887 1,428 2,216 853

Women

7,284 800 1,953 945 1,126 1,074 461 675 249

Men

11,666 749 2,569 1,413 2,010 1,812 967 1,541 604

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by marital status and presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 2016 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers (thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Women

 

Total, all marital statuses

49,161 $749 $2

With children under 18 years old

17,288 756 4

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,517 772 6

With children under 6 years old

6,771 730 7

With no children under 18 years old

31,873 746 3

Total, married, spouse present(1)

24,849 838 5

With children under 18 years old

11,327 870 7

With children 6 to 17, none younger

6,810 857 9

With children under 6 years old

4,516 885 9

With no children under 18 years old

13,523 815 6

Total, other marital statuses(2)

24,312 671 3

With children under 18 years old

5,961 607 4

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,706 662 8

With children under 6 years old

2,255 524 7

With no children under 18 years old

18,350 697 4

Men

 

Total, all marital statuses

61,930 915 3

With children under 18 years old

22,021 1,013 5

With children 6 to 17, none younger

11,953 1,085 12

With children under 6 years old

10,068 952 8

With no children under 18 years old

39,909 861 4

Total, married, spouse present(1)

36,195 1,062 6

With children under 18 years old

19,297 1,071 8

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,623 1,134 9

With children under 6 years old

8,674 1,013 8

With no children under 18 years old

16,898 1,053 8

Total, other marital statuses(2)

25,736 732 4

With children under 18 years old

2,724 719 10

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,330 813 21

With children under 6 years old

1,394 652 13

With no children under 18 years old

23,011 733 4

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only. See the technical notes section.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent. See the technical notes section.

Note: "Children" refers to "own" children and includes sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household. Not included are other related children, such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, as well as unrelated children in the household.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers (thousands) Median hourly earnings Standard error of median

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,883 $14.00 $0.03 40,315 $13.01 $0.03 39,568 $14.96 $0.02 87.0

16 to 24 years

15,856 10.12 0.01 7,890 10.00 0.02 7,967 10.24 0.04 97.7

16 to 19 years

4,592 9.20 0.03 2,314 9.07 0.03 2,278 9.48 0.09 95.7

20 to 24 years

11,264 10.79 0.05 5,576 10.25 0.04 5,688 11.15 0.05 91.9

25 years and older

64,026 15.13 0.02 32,425 14.23 0.06 31,601 16.25 0.08 87.6

25 to 34 years

18,988 14.00 0.04 9,044 13.08 0.06 9,943 14.83 0.04 88.2

35 to 44 years

14,609 15.77 0.11 7,285 14.75 0.12 7,324 17.20 0.15 85.8

45 to 54 years

14,957 16.29 0.12 7,727 14.97 0.05 7,229 18.03 0.08 83.0

55 to 64 years

11,742 16.20 0.12 6,321 15.10 0.05 5,421 18.05 0.11 83.7

65 years and older

3,731 13.77 0.20 2,048 13.02 0.15 1,683 14.78 0.18 88.1

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

61,080 14.24 0.05 30,256 13.20 0.05 30,823 15.13 0.03 87.2

Black or African American

11,681 12.49 0.10 6,385 12.09 0.06 5,297 13.06 0.09 92.6

Asian

3,962 14.79 0.12 2,121 14.07 0.14 1,841 15.04 0.08 93.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,241 12.69 0.08 7,197 11.79 0.06 9,044 13.83 0.10 85.2

Marital status

 

Never married

31,473 11.78 0.04 14,975 11.03 0.04 16,498 12.10 0.03 91.2

Married, spouse present(1)

35,193 16.07 0.04 17,195 14.91 0.03 17,999 17.73 0.10 84.1

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

13,216 14.75 0.09 8,145 13.81 0.09 5,071 15.78 0.16 87.5

Widowed

1,642 13.63 0.25 1,273 13.15 0.22 369 15.11 0.20 87.0

Divorced

8,230 15.17 0.05 4,994 14.62 0.18 3,235 16.86 0.20 86.7

Separated(2)

3,344 13.02 0.11 1,878 12.17 0.12 1,466 14.11 0.18 86.3

Union affiliation(3)

 

Members of unions(4)

8,606 19.55 0.18 3,369 17.50 0.23 5,237 20.93 0.21 83.6

Represented by unions(5)

9,525 19.15 0.16 3,829 17.23 0.18 5,696 20.55 0.26 83.9

Not represented by a union

70,357 13.34 0.05 36,486 12.68 0.05 33,872 14.23 0.07 89.1

Educational attainment

 

Total, 25 years and older

64,026 15.13 0.02 32,425 14.23 0.06 31,601 16.25 0.08 87.6

Less than a high school diploma

6,854 11.68 0.11 2,660 10.20 0.03 4,194 12.65 0.13 80.6

High school graduates, no college

21,880 14.52 0.09 9,878 12.73 0.07 12,002 15.93 0.07 79.9

Some college or associate's degree

21,344 15.43 0.09 11,561 14.68 0.10 9,783 17.20 0.11 85.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,948 19.94 0.05 8,326 19.53 0.20 5,622 20.79 0.31 93.9

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only. See the technical notes section.

(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent. See the technical notes section.

(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.

(4) Members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

(5) Union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2016 annual averages (in thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Number of workers with hourly earnings of—
Under $6.00 $6.00 to $7.99 $8.00 to $9.99 $10.00 to $11.99 $12.00 to $14.99 $15.00 to $19.99 $20.00 or more

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,883 1,160 2,017 10,525 14,646 14,604 16,603 20,327

16 to 24 years

15,856 471 1,068 4,535 4,482 2,922 1,695 683

16 to 19 years

4,592 153 587 1,967 1,251 411 177 45

20 to 24 years

11,264 318 481 2,568 3,231 2,510 1,518 638

25 years and older

64,026 689 949 5,990 10,164 11,682 14,908 19,644

25 to 34 years

18,988 325 352 2,127 3,543 4,040 4,505 4,096

35 to 44 years

14,609 151 181 1,275 2,149 2,517 3,376 4,960

45 to 54 years

14,957 117 198 1,140 2,065 2,519 3,450 5,467

55 to 64 years

11,742 77 120 960 1,631 1,930 2,848 4,176

65 years and older

3,731 18 98 489 776 676 729 946

Women, 16 years and older

40,315 774 1,235 6,278 8,013 7,660 7,929 8,426

16 to 24 years

7,890 321 619 2,400 2,257 1,368 664 260

16 to 19 years

2,314 93 331 1,044 589 177 63 16

20 to 24 years

5,576 228 288 1,356 1,668 1,191 601 244

25 years and older

32,425 453 616 3,878 5,757 6,292 7,265 8,165

25 to 34 years

9,044 208 219 1,252 1,829 1,962 1,894 1,681

35 to 44 years

7,285 105 133 842 1,239 1,356 1,620 1,990

45 to 54 years

7,727 69 136 787 1,267 1,456 1,739 2,273

55 to 64 years

6,321 61 65 690 986 1,122 1,620 1,776

65 years and older

2,048 11 62 306 435 396 392 445

Men, 16 years and older

39,568 386 783 4,247 6,633 6,944 8,674 11,902

16 to 24 years

7,967 150 449 2,135 2,226 1,553 1,031 423

16 to 19 years

2,278 60 256 922 663 234 114 29

20 to 24 years

5,688 90 193 1,212 1,563 1,319 917 394

25 years and older

31,601 236 333 2,112 4,407 5,390 7,643 11,479

25 to 34 years

9,943 117 134 875 1,714 2,079 2,611 2,414

35 to 44 years

7,324 46 48 433 910 1,161 1,757 2,969

45 to 54 years

7,229 48 62 353 798 1,062 1,711 3,195

55 to 64 years

5,421 16 55 270 645 809 1,227 2,399

65 years and older

1,683 8 35 182 341 280 336 501

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

61,080 938 1,343 7,584 10,855 11,060 12,874 16,425

Women

30,256 647 814 4,510 5,879 5,777 5,993 6,637

Men

30,823 292 530 3,074 4,975 5,284 6,881 9,788

Black or African American

11,681 124 537 2,024 2,393 2,210 2,326 2,067

Women

6,385 65 339 1,228 1,362 1,166 1,274 950

Men

5,297 59 198 795 1,031 1,044 1,052 1,116

Asian

3,962 59 63 417 723 715 777 1,209

Women

2,121 37 38 237 415 400 399 595

Men

1,841 22 25 180 309 315 378 613

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,241 209 325 2,308 3,889 3,277 3,350 2,884

Women

7,197 132 201 1,316 1,949 1,457 1,241 901

Men

9,044 77 124 992 1,940 1,819 2,109 1,983

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected demographic characteristics, 2016 annual averages
Characteristic Workers paid hourly rates
Total (thousands) Below prevailing federal minimum wage (thousands) At prevailing federal minimum wage (thousands) Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Number (thousands) Percentage of workers paid hourly rates

Age

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,883 1,451 701 2,153 2.7

16 to 24 years

15,856 594 383 976 6.2

16 to 19 years

4,592 229 214 443 9.7

20 to 24 years

11,264 364 169 533 4.7

25 years and older

64,026 857 319 1,176 1.8

25 to 34 years

18,988 393 132 526 2.8

35 to 44 years

14,609 178 63 241 1.6

45 to 54 years

14,957 152 65 217 1.5

55 to 64 years

11,742 100 28 129 1.1

65 years and older

3,731 34 30 64 1.7

Women, 16 years and older

40,315 952 432 1,384 3.4

16 to 24 years

7,890 384 235 619 7.8

16 to 19 years

2,314 133 127 260 11.3

20 to 24 years

5,576 251 108 359 6.4

25 years and older

32,425 568 196 764 2.4

25 to 34 years

9,044 257 73 330 3.6

35 to 44 years

7,285 125 43 168 2.3

45 to 54 years

7,727 88 45 132 1.7

55 to 64 years

6,321 77 14 91 1.4

65 years and older

2,048 21 21 43 2.1

Men, 16 years and older

39,568 499 270 769 1.9

16 to 24 years

7,967 210 147 357 4.5

16 to 19 years

2,278 96 87 183 8.0

20 to 24 years

5,688 114 61 174 3.1

25 years and older

31,601 289 122 412 1.3

25 to 34 years

9,943 136 60 196 2.0

35 to 44 years

7,324 53 19 72 1.0

45 to 54 years

7,229 64 21 85 1.2

55 to 64 years

5,421 24 14 38 0.7

65 years and older

1,683 13 9 21 1.3

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

White

61,080 1,127 469 1,597 2.6

Women

30,256 763 280 1,043 3.4

Men

30,823 364 190 554 1.8

Black or African American

11,681 197 193 390 3.3

Women

6,385 103 131 234 3.7

Men

5,297 93 62 156 2.9

Asian

3,962 75 21 96 2.4

Women

2,121 50 11 61 2.9

Men

1,841 25 10 35 1.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,241 264 103 366 2.3

Women

7,197 171 59 229 3.2

Men

9,044 93 44 137 1.5

Full- and part-time status(1)

 

Full-time workers

59,198 702 183 884 1.5

Women

26,780 434 116 550 2.1

Men

32,418 268 66 334 1.0

Part-time workers

20,582 748 519 1,267 6.2

Women

13,474 517 316 833 6.2

Men

7,108 231 203 434 6.1

(1) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data do not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

Note: See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, 1979–2016 annual averages
Year Total wage and salary workers (thousands) Workers paid hourly rates
Total (thousands) Percentage of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing federal minimum wage(1) (thousands) At prevailing federal minimum wage(1) (thousands) Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Number (thousands) Percentage of workers paid hourly rates

Total

 

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 1,096 3,228 5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 2,906 5,283 8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 1,861 3,724 5.4

1997

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 1,764 4,754 6.7

1998

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 1,462 267 1,729 2.3

2008

129,377 75,305 58.2 1,940 286 2,226 3.0

2009

124,490 72,611 58.3 2,592 980 3,572 4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 2,541 1,820 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 2,152 1,677 3,829 5.2

2012

127,577 75,276 59.0 1,984 1,566 3,550 4.7

2013

129,110 75,948 58.8 1,768 1,532 3,301 4.3

2014

131,431 77,207 58.7 1,737 1,255 2,992 3.9

2015

133,743 78,232 58.5 1,691 870 2,561 3.3

2016

136,101 79,883 58.7 1,451 701 2,153 2.7

Women

 

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 711 2,131 6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 1,792 3,374 10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 1,106 2,350 6.8

1997

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 1,092 2,935 8.3

1998

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 1,002 181 1,183 3.1

2008

62,532 37,972 60.7 1,302 196 1,498 3.9

2009

60,951 37,426 61.4 1,603 612 2,215 5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,598 1,151 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,366 1,029 2,395 6.4

2012

61,679 38,163 61.9 1,288 999 2,287 6.0

2013

62,316 38,404 61.6 1,148 910 2,058 5.4

2014

63,383 38,802 61.2 1,139 739 1,878 4.8

2015

64,445 39,500 61.3 1,062 540 1,602 4.1

2016

65,512 40,315 61.5 952 432 1,384 3.4

Men

 

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 385 1,097 3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 1,114 1,909 6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 755 1,374 3.9

1997

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 673 1,820 5.1

1998

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 460 86 546 1.4

2008

66,846 37,334 55.9 638 90 728 1.9

2009

63,539 35,185 55.4 990 368 1,358 3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 943 669 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 785 648 1,433 3.9

2012

65,898 37,113 56.3 696 567 1,263 3.4

2013

66,794 37,544 56.2 621 622 1,243 3.3

2014

68,048 38,405 56.4 598 516 1,114 2.9

2015

69,298 38,732 55.9 629 330 959 2.5

2016

70,589 39,568 56.1 499 270 769 1.9
Footnotes:

(1) Data for 1990–91, 1996–97, and 2007–09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2016
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

1979

62.3 78.6 85.2 76.3 62.1 67.5 58.3 56.8 60.6 77.6

1980

64.2 80.3 89.5 78.1 62.8 69.4 58.3 56.9 59.4 76.4

1981

64.4 82.6 91.7 80.6 62.6 70.3 59.9 56.8 58.9 71.1

1982

65.7 85.3 92.9 82.4 64.9 72.1 61.1 60.1 61.4 70.3

1983

66.5 88.8 94.0 85.5 65.8 73.3 61.5 59.5 61.8 68.8

1984

67.6 87.9 93.1 85.2 67.1 74.6 62.0 59.4 61.5 66.8

1985

68.1 87.6 90.7 85.7 66.8 75.1 63.0 59.7 61.0 65.9

1986

69.5 89.0 91.4 87.5 66.5 76.1 63.9 60.9 61.2 71.5

1987

69.8 88.3 87.8 88.0 67.3 76.7 66.1 62.3 62.2 68.7

1988

70.2 89.7 89.8 90.0 68.8 77.7 68.5 61.7 62.3 70.9

1989

70.1 90.8 94.3 89.7 70.2 78.3 68.3 62.7 63.9 74.3

1990

71.9 90.1 90.8 90.3 72.1 79.3 69.6 63.8 63.7 74.4

1991

74.2 93.3 93.6 93.3 74.0 81.0 70.7 65.0 64.5 68.3

1992

75.8 94.0 94.0 94.3 74.6 82.0 71.9 65.8 64.9 77.9

1993

77.1 94.8 92.8 95.4 74.8 83.0 73.0 67.4 67.4 74.3

1994

76.4 93.9 92.5 94.5 73.1 82.9 72.6 67.1 66.0 76.2

1995

75.5 90.8 88.1 92.4 72.8 82.2 72.6 67.7 64.7 80.0

1996

75.0 92.5 88.8 92.8 74.1 83.2 73.3 68.9 65.3 70.0

1997

74.4 92.1 91.6 90.5 75.1 82.9 74.0 69.4 64.7 77.0

1998

76.3 91.3 88.6 89.4 75.9 82.9 73.6 70.5 68.1 72.6

1999

76.5 91.0 91.4 90.5 74.4 81.5 71.7 70.0 67.9 78.7

2000

76.9 91.7 92.5 92.7 74.5 82.4 71.6 73.2 69.1 75.1

2001

76.4 90.3 90.3 91.9 75.4 83.0 72.5 73.5 70.5 69.0

2002

77.9 93.9 94.6 93.9 77.6 84.5 75.2 74.6 71.6 73.8

2003

79.4 93.2 93.1 93.9 78.5 86.9 76.1 73.0 72.7 71.1

2004

80.4 93.8 92.1 93.8 78.6 87.8 75.6 72.9 73.0 74.6

2005

81.0 93.2 92.1 93.8 79.4 89.0 75.5 75.5 74.7 76.4

2006

80.8 94.5 87.6 94.9 78.7 88.2 77.2 73.5 72.9 77.5

2007

80.2 92.3 89.1 90.3 78.5 86.9 76.5 74.5 72.8 77.8

2008

79.9 91.1 87.3 92.5 78.2 88.5 74.5 74.9 75.4 74.8

2009

80.2 92.6 90.7 92.9 78.7 88.7 77.4 73.6 75.3 76.1

2010

81.2 95.3 94.6 93.8 80.5 90.8 79.9 76.5 75.2 75.7

2011

82.2 92.5 88.6 93.2 81.0 92.3 78.5 76.0 75.1 80.9

2012

80.9 88.9 88.5 89.0 79.9 90.2 78.1 75.1 76.2 77.6

2013

82.1 88.3 89.7 89.8 81.1 89.4 80.2 76.6 77.1 73.7

2014

82.5 91.5 91.1 92.3 81.6 89.9 81.0 77.2 76.4 78.6

2015

81.1 88.2 89.4 89.7 80.4 89.6 81.8 76.8 73.7 73.8

2016

81.9 94.9 92.6 95.6 80.9 88.8 83.3 77.8 73.7 75.5

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at ww.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 22.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2016
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 23. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2016
Year Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher

1979

62.1 60.3 60.1 64.1 66.7

1980

62.8 61.4 61.5 64.5 67.9

1981

62.6 61.2 61.0 65.6 66.9

1982

64.9 62.8 63.1 66.7 68.8

1983

65.8 64.8 63.4 68.2 71.2

1984

67.1 64.9 64.9 68.4 69.4

1985

66.8 64.3 65.8 67.2 70.2

1986

66.5 64.8 66.6 68.0 70.6

1987

67.3 66.0 68.1 69.8 71.4

1988

68.8 66.6 68.2 71.6 71.4

1989

70.2 66.8 67.6 73.3 71.9

1990

72.1 68.8 68.6 72.9 72.2

1991

74.0 71.6 69.8 72.6 73.6

1992

74.6 72.9 70.4 73.3 75.1

1993

74.8 73.9 71.3 73.8 75.8

1994

73.1 75.1 70.8 72.1 76.8

1995

72.8 75.5 70.2 71.6 76.2

1996

74.1 75.1 70.7 73.2 75.2

1997

75.1 75.3 70.7 73.9 75.0

1998

75.9 73.9 70.8 74.0 75.3

1999

74.4 73.4 69.8 73.4 75.7

2000

74.5 74.9 71.1 73.1 74.1

2001

75.4 75.4 72.7 71.9 73.7

2002

77.6 77.2 74.2 74.3 74.2

2003

78.5 76.7 75.5 75.7 73.6

2004

78.6 74.9 75.7 75.8 75.2

2005

79.4 74.9 75.6 76.6 75.7

2006

78.7 76.3 73.7 75.6 75.1

2007

78.5 76.7 74.3 75.2 75.0

2008

78.2 76.1 73.3 75.7 74.3

2009

78.7 76.4 75.7 75.4 73.1

2010

80.5 79.8 76.5 75.5 74.1

2011

81.0 80.9 76.9 76.8 74.9

2012

79.9 76.0 76.3 76.9 73.0

2013

81.1 80.0 78.3 76.6 74.8

2014

81.6 79.1 77.0 75.8 75.7

2015

80.4 80.4 77.2 75.2 74.9

2016

80.9 76.8 77.9 76.8 75.2

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older in table 24.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2016
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

1979

64.1 81.8 95.0 75.9 58.3 63.3 55.8 54.1 56.9 87.6

1980

64.8 84.1 93.2 77.0 58.7 64.1 54.9 54.4 56.4 89.2

1981

65.1 86.1 96.7 80.0 60.3 66.7 57.5 54.1 56.2 88.1

1982

67.3 86.3 97.0 81.8 62.1 67.7 57.1 55.7 59.0 88.1

1983

69.4 87.2 96.7 84.4 62.9 70.3 57.6 56.7 58.0 87.6

1984

69.8 86.0 96.5 84.5 63.7 71.1 59.0 56.9 59.5 89.0

1985

70.0 85.7 96.3 87.2 64.7 72.4 60.3 57.8 60.4 88.8

1986

70.2 85.8 95.5 86.7 66.0 74.1 61.4 59.0 60.3 91.3

1987

72.1 85.9 93.9 86.1 67.2 74.3 62.9 61.3 62.0 91.2

1988

73.8 89.1 94.4 87.2 68.7 75.6 66.1 61.6 62.4 92.8

1989

75.4 90.7 93.4 86.9 69.8 78.0 67.0 63.4 63.8 87.1

1990

77.9 91.0 93.8 90.1 71.8 79.4 68.7 64.3 66.2 89.6

1991

78.6 91.0 97.9 91.7 73.5 80.4 70.4 65.0 68.9 92.6

1992

80.3 91.3 97.7 92.5 76.0 82.6 73.1 66.1 69.3 92.6

1993

80.4 91.7 97.1 94.2 77.3 83.6 73.1 67.3 69.0 92.1

1994

80.6 90.5 97.0 91.2 78.2 85.5 73.4 69.9 70.7 94.0

1995

80.8 90.9 96.1 89.3 76.1 83.7 72.6 70.8 71.4 94.2

1996

81.2 92.1 97.0 89.6 78.2 83.1 74.6 72.1 72.4 91.6

1997

80.8 92.2 96.6 91.2 78.8 82.7 75.7 72.3 70.5 98.1

1998

81.8 90.3 96.7 89.1 77.9 86.1 77.4 75.0 72.4 93.2

1999

83.8 92.7 96.8 89.9 79.4 83.9 76.9 72.7 76.4 95.4

2000

83.8 91.7 93.8 93.0 80.8 88.3 76.3 73.2 76.8 94.7

2001

85.2 90.5 95.8 89.7 79.2 85.8 75.0 76.1 80.2 90.4

2002

85.0 92.5 96.9 91.3 82.1 85.1 78.7 77.6 80.8 89.3

2003

84.8 93.2 97.6 91.0 83.1 87.5 79.1 79.0 78.4 90.3

2004

84.6 93.9 95.9 91.7 81.7 88.3 78.4 79.1 79.6 92.5

2005

84.8 92.6 96.0 92.4 83.2 89.2 79.6 80.2 80.2 97.8

2006

84.0 90.9 95.7 90.5 83.2 87.6 80.0 76.4 80.6 93.0

2007

84.8 89.3 95.4 90.4 81.7 87.4 81.5 79.6 79.2 92.2

2008

85.4 91.2 96.6 91.6 83.0 87.0 80.5 78.2 81.8 91.6

2009

85.5 93.1 97.1 92.0 84.7 90.6 80.7 77.0 84.5 92.6

2010

86.0 93.6 97.8 91.7 85.6 91.9 82.9 79.9 83.2 93.8

2011

86.8 94.6 97.5 92.5 86.7 92.0 83.8 81.5 82.2 91.5

2012

86.4 93.0 97.9 92.0 86.8 91.5 83.9 81.2 83.1 90.9

2013

86.6 92.3 96.7 94.0 87.5 91.1 84.9 81.2 84.1 94.9

2014

84.6 92.4 96.1 96.3 85.7 87.0 84.6 81.2 81.3 89.2

2015

85.6 95.1 97.5 93.5 87.8 91.0 85.7 84.3 82.1 89.5

2016

87.0 97.7 95.7 91.9 87.6 88.2 85.8 83.0 83.7 88.1

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information on historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of workers paid hourly rates in table 25.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2016
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1979

64.1 62.5 72.6 71.8

1980

64.8 63.6 74.9 75.1

1981

65.1 63.8 72.1 76.4

1982

67.3 66.0 75.2 75.6

1983

69.4 68.0 79.2 76.1

1984

69.8 68.6 79.1 77.0

1985

70.0 67.8 82.0 79.4

1986

70.2 68.8 78.7 80.8

1987

72.1 70.9 80.1 80.2

1988

73.8 72.7 80.8 81.1

1989

75.4 74.0 83.2 83.0

1990

77.9 75.6 84.5 86.1

1991

78.6 76.6 86.5 86.9

1992

80.3 78.6 87.1 88.3

1993

80.4 78.9 89.6 88.6

1994

80.6 79.7 87.5 89.3

1995

80.8 78.4 87.3 90.9

1996

81.2 79.6 88.0 88.8

1997

80.8 80.3 87.5 86.3

1998

81.8 81.8 86.9 87.6

1999

83.8 82.3 83.2 86.6

2000

83.8 83.0 88.8 90.5 87.3

2001

85.2 83.8 89.9 85.1 85.6

2002

85.0 83.8 92.3 91.7 86.1

2003

84.8 84.0 91.7 89.8 88.5

2004

84.6 84.0 91.3 88.8 90.2

2005

84.8 84.2 91.1 91.3 90.1

2006

84.0 83.6 88.5 90.7 87.6

2007

84.8 83.7 90.3 89.5 88.5

2008

85.4 84.5 89.9 87.3 85.1

2009

85.5 84.8 89.7 90.4 84.6

2010

86.0 85.0 92.1 88.0 86.2

2011

86.8 85.9 93.5 89.8 86.8

2012

86.4 85.3 92.0 90.1 85.4

2013

86.6 85.7 94.9 91.6 87.5

2014

84.6 83.3 94.8 90.2 86.6

2015

85.6 85.9 92.4 92.8 85.8

2016

87.0 87.2 92.6 93.6 85.2

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in table 26. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–02 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2016 annual averages (in constant 2016 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

 

1979

$744 $531 $444 $574 $818 $787 $864 $852 $809 $611

1980

728 519 428 556 794 767 839 828 792 564

1981

721 508 409 541 782 751 827 812 784 563

1982

722 498 392 526 782 744 847 825 778 605

1983

718 484 376 511 787 736 849 842 794 599

1984

718 478 372 509 797 738 857 848 806 599

1985

732 477 370 511 806 743 864 851 811 632

1986

751 485 372 519 818 753 877 870 831 623

1987

756 491 376 523 814 754 879 867 818 626

1988

752 486 383 520 809 748 879 885 818 631

1989

746 484 381 516 798 736 882 882 806 624

1990

734 480 373 508 800 725 866 872 815 611

1991

732 476 366 500 802 713 856 871 806 655

1992

738 463 356 487 804 708 844 876 810 634

1993

751 462 350 486 804 714 846 887 805 643

1994

748 458 354 481 801 704 861 907 803 615

1995

750 457 362 479 798 706 861 911 804 609

1996

747 454 366 476 793 706 852 905 816 585

1997

751 457 376 479 806 718 864 906 833 587

1998

770 470 395 499 842 739 879 913 872 596

1999

791 491 405 523 853 746 880 939 870 582

2000

803 503 414 534 849 766 872 933 865 646

2001

808 508 413 534 854 780 890 939 864 661

2002

812 509 407 533 862 789 892 943 900 670

2003

809 505 406 525 864 775 897 944 924 674

2004

811 496 393 516 868 767 906 944 921 712

2005

800 488 391 505 855 749 898 919 912 699

2006

799 487 386 504 855 739 890 920 911 694

2007

804 491 390 521 854 744 890 914 929 700

2008

805 494 389 521 848 742 896 916 920 718

2009

827 494 385 519 866 758 914 937 941 765

2010

823 476 382 500 861 751 907 930 947 753

2011

807 470 376 488 851 740 893 924 940 792

2012

803 464 372 485 852 739 897 917 937 791

2013

799 468 384 486 852 729 900 909 931 825

2014

802 484 383 498 851 736 894 912 924 836

2015

819 493 394 507 870 744 911 934 938 884

2016

832 501 405 513 885 751 934 955 952 866

Women

 

1979

562 475 407 497 602 614 605 593 583 525

1980

558 464 403 486 592 606 594 581 569 486

1981

556 457 391 485 591 607 604 571 563 480

1982

572 459 378 481 610 617 617 603 586 505

1983

578 454 362 475 615 624 624 606 589 486

1984

584 447 357 469 623 628 643 615 595 482

1985

589 449 353 470 630 630 653 621 606 515

1986

609 458 356 483 644 640 667 644 619 536

1987

612 459 347 489 648 638 681 655 622 527

1988

615 459 359 490 654 639 691 662 619 547

1989

613 460 368 486 656 636 692 667 622 546

1990

617 453 353 480 658 635 695 672 620 535

1991

629 457 352 481 665 637 699 684 624 548

1992

638 448 344 470 671 641 701 700 631 550

1993

643 447 336 473 679 646 712 720 646 548

1994

639 442 338 465 675 636 718 721 638 538

1995

635 430 336 455 670 631 709 726 631 552

1996

637 433 340 454 677 633 706 733 640 509

1997

643 436 358 457 690 637 719 739 646 519

1998

672 449 367 470 714 664 733 760 701 515

1999

682 467 383 494 716 677 725 769 709 533

2000

688 480 395 510 720 688 727 787 709 547

2001

694 478 390 508 736 694 741 795 726 528

2002

706 490 394 514 758 708 762 804 766 574

2003

721 484 390 505 762 713 770 795 785 568

2004

728 476 372 497 761 713 773 794 781 607

2005

719 468 373 486 752 704 763 791 785 604

2006

714 470 363 492 746 694 768 785 783 607

2007

711 473 368 493 748 691 773 784 786 618

2008

711 468 359 496 747 695 760 788 793 628

2009

735 474 361 498 768 709 793 796 813 673

2010

737 465 370 483 775 714 805 804 811 662

2011

730 449 350 467 766 707 783 794 799 709

2012

722 435 345 448 760 696 781 780 800 697

2013

727 436 360 455 762 685 790 784 802 712

2014

729 457 362 475 763 689 792 791 791 751

2015

735 455 368 474 770 698 814 809 794 749

2016

749 486 388 500 784 705 839 836 812 749

Men

 

1979

901 605 478 651 969 910 1,037 1,043 963 676

1980

869 578 450 622 942 872 1,019 1,019 958 636

1981

863 553 426 602 944 863 1,008 1,005 957 675

1982

871 538 407 584 940 856 1,010 1,002 955 718

1983

869 511 385 555 933 851 1,014 1,018 954 706

1984

863 509 383 551 930 841 1,037 1,035 967 722

1985

866 513 389 549 943 838 1,036 1,040 994 781

1986

877 515 389 552 969 841 1,044 1,059 1,013 749

1987

877 519 396 556 964 832 1,030 1,051 1,000 768

1988

877 512 400 545 951 822 1,010 1,072 994 771

1989

875 507 391 542 935 811 1,013 1,064 974 735

1990

857 503 389 531 913 800 998 1,053 973 718

1991

847 490 376 515 899 787 990 1,052 967 802

1992

841 477 366 498 899 782 975 1,064 971 706

1993

835 471 362 496 908 779 975 1,069 959 738

1994

837 471 365 492 923 768 989 1,075 966 707

1995

842 474 382 493 920 767 977 1,072 975 690

1996

849 468 383 489 913 761 963 1,064 980 727

1997

864 473 391 504 918 769 972 1,064 999 675

1998

881 492 414 526 941 801 997 1,078 1,029 710

1999

890 513 419 546 963 831 1,012 1,099 1,045 677

2000

894 523 427 551 967 834 1,015 1,075 1,025 728

2001

908 530 432 553 976 836 1,022 1,083 1,030 766

2002

907 522 417 547 977 837 1,013 1,077 1,071 778

2003

907 520 419 538 971 820 1,012 1,089 1,080 799

2004

906 508 404 530 968 812 1,022 1,089 1,071 814

2005

887 502 405 518 947 791 1,010 1,048 1,050 791

2006

885 498 414 518 949 787 995 1,068 1,074 783

2007

887 513 413 546 953 795 1,010 1,052 1,080 794

2008

890 514 411 536 955 785 1,020 1,052 1,051 839

2009

916 512 398 536 977 800 1,025 1,082 1,079 885

2010

907 488 391 515 963 786 1,008 1,051 1,078 874

2011

888 486 395 502 946 765 998 1,045 1,064 876

2012

892 489 390 504 951 771 1,000 1,039 1,050 899

2013

886 493 402 507 939 766 985 1,024 1,041 965

2014

883 500 398 514 935 766 978 1,025 1,035 955

2015

906 516 412 528 959 779 995 1,053 1,077 1,015

2016

915 512 419 523 969 794 1,007 1,075 1,102 992

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2016 annual averages (in constant 2016 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$744 $765 $614 $599

1980

728 747 589 581

1981

721 739 596 566

1982

722 742 586 574

1983

718 734 599 573

1984

718 740 593 570

1985

732 757 589 574

1986

751 776 609 579

1987

756 776 608 576

1988

752 771 613 566

1989

746 764 596 557

1990

734 756 586 542

1991

732 759 598 536

1992

738 768 599 539

1993

751 777 604 542

1994

748 776 595 519

1995

750 773 599 515

1996

747 771 590 517

1997

751 775 597 524

1998

770 803 627 545

1999

791 826 641 555

2000

803 823 661 $858 556

2001

808 827 665 866 565

2002

812 832 665 879 566

2003

809 830 671 905 574

2004

811 835 667 900 579

2005

800 826 639 925 579

2006

799 821 660 933 579

2007

804 829 659 961 582

2008

805 827 657 960 590

2009

827 847 672 984 605

2010

823 843 673 942 589

2011

807 827 656 924 586

2012

803 828 649 961 594

2013

799 826 648 970 595

2014

802 828 648 967 602

2015

819 845 649 1,005 611

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

Women

 

1979

562 568 522 485

1980

558 564 514 478

1981

556 561 523 482

1982

572 579 519 486

1983

578 583 532 493

1984

584 590 531 491

1985

589 598 536 489

1986

609 615 552 504

1987

612 620 558 507

1988

615 621 562 508

1989

613 624 563 503

1990

617 629 549 496

1991

629 641 555 502

1992

638 649 562 507

1993

643 656 570 512

1994

639 654 554 489

1995

635 649 556 477

1996

637 652 552 482

1997

643 663 560 475

1998

672 689 589 496

1999

682 696 589 501

2000

688 700 598 763 510

2001

694 707 615 763 526

2002

706 730 632 756 530

2003

721 740 641 781 535

2004

728 742 642 779 532

2005

719 732 613 817 527

2006

714 725 618 832 524

2007

711 725 617 846 547

2008

711 729 618 839 559

2009

735 748 651 871 569

2010

737 753 652 851 559

2011

730 750 635 801 553

2012

722 742 626 805 544

2013

727 744 624 843 557

2014

729 744 620 853 556

2015

735 752 622 888 573

2016

749 766 641 902 586

Men

 

1979

901 920 701 676

1980

869 889 678 650

1981

863 888 680 637

1982

871 897 665 644

1983

869 888 674 628

1984

863 883 667 632

1985

866 889 649 630

1986

877 906 667 626

1987

877 909 661 618

1988

877 908 680 602

1989

875 901 650 589

1990

857 881 643 567

1991

847 869 644 555

1992

841 862 638 569

1993

835 858 642 566

1994

837 877 641 550

1995

842 886 643 548

1996

849 884 628 543

1997

864 888 645 554

1998

881 906 689 574

1999

890 919 703 585

2000

894 923 711 955 582

2001

908 934 717 992 596

2002

907 937 700 1,009 602

2003

907 933 725 1,008 606

2004

906 930 723 1,019 610

2005

887 913 687 1,014 601

2006

885 906 704 1,050 601

2007

887 912 694 1,083 602

2008

890 920 691 1,077 623

2009

916 945 695 1,065 636

2010

907 936 697 1,031 617

2011

888 914 697 1,035 609

2012

892 918 695 1,102 619

2013

886 910 684 1,091 612

2014

883 910 690 1,095 625

2015

906 931 688 1,143 639

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 19. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2016 annual averages (in constant 2016 dollars)
Year Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree and higher

Total

 

1979

$818 $648 $769 $870 $1,062

1980

794 617 739 844 1,044

1981

782 609 726 822 1,033

1982

782 593 722 840 1,048

1983

787 587 713 833 1,057

1984

797 579 711 841 1,070

1985

806 574 709 849 1,077

1986

818 582 720 856 1,098

1987

814 574 719 851 1,139

1988

809 562 719 840 1,143

1989

798 555 701 845 1,138

1990

800 540 688 848 1,137

1991

802 527 682 840 1,144

1992

804 522 676 812 1,168

1993

804 514 679 809 1,170

1994

801 492 675 800 1,175

1995

798 484 676 795 1,169

1996

793 483 675 790 1,155

1997

806 479 688 799 1,163

1998

842 496 705 822 1,209

1999

853 499 706 836 1,239

2000

849 505 704 831 1,243

2001

854 518 705 836 1,248

2002

862 518 714 840 1,256

2003

864 517 723 834 1,258

2004

868 510 729 840 1,253

2005

855 502 716 823 1,244

2006

855 499 708 824 1,237

2007

854 495 699 815 1,241

2008

848 505 689 805 1,243

2009

866 508 700 812 1,272

2010

861 489 689 808 1,260

2011

851 481 681 789 1,227

2012

852 492 681 783 1,217

2013

852 486 670 770 1,230

2014

851 495 677 772 1,210

2015

870 499 686 771 1,245

2016

885 504 692 779 1,259

Women

 

1979

602 469 571 651 815

1980

592 456 558 642 806

1981

591 444 551 647 807

1982

610 440 565 656 828

1983

615 447 564 661 846

1984

623 441 570 672 859

1985

630 430 570 674 881

1986

644 435 579 690 912

1987

648 432 582 701 941

1988

654 432 582 703 947

1989

656 432 568 708 948

1990

658 428 561 704 954

1991

665 430 564 703 966

1992

671 430 565 683 997

1993

679 430 568 691 1,000

1994

675 412 562 678 1,016

1995

670 410 557 668 1,008

1996

677 409 556 674 1,002

1997

690 410 564 685 1,003

1998

714 417 583 701 1,041

1999

716 418 584 703 1,066

2000

720 424 586 704 1,054

2001

736 428 600 705 1,065

2002

758 434 611 725 1,080

2003

762 430 619 731 1,086

2004

761 424 620 733 1,093

2005

752 419 606 721 1,085

2006

746 426 595 717 1,077

2007

748 427 593 705 1,079

2008

747 421 580 700 1,065

2009

768 427 606 705 1,085

2010

775 427 598 703 1,086

2011

766 422 591 688 1,065

2012

760 403 586 689 1,046

2013

762 412 590 677 1,074

2014

763 415 586 670 1,064

2015

770 423 593 672 1,077

2016

784 423 599 688 1,101

Men

 

1979

969 778 951 1,015 1,222

1980

942 742 908 994 1,186

1981

944 726 904 987 1,206

1982

940 701 895 983 1,203

1983

933 690 890 968 1,188

1984

930 678 879 982 1,238

1985

943 668 866 1,004 1,255

1986

969 672 870 1,015 1,293

1987

964 655 855 1,004 1,319

1988

951 648 854 982 1,326

1989

935 647 841 966 1,318

1990

913 622 818 966 1,321

1991

899 600 808 967 1,313

1992

899 589 804 931 1,327

1993

908 583 797 936 1,319

1994

923 548 795 941 1,324

1995

920 543 793 933 1,322

1996

913 544 787 921 1,332

1997

918 545 799 927 1,337

1998

941 564 823 947 1,383

1999

963 569 836 958 1,408

2000

967 566 824 964 1,423

2001

976 568 825 980 1,446

2002

977 562 824 976 1,455

2003

971 560 820 966 1,477

2004

968 567 820 967 1,452

2005

947 559 801 941 1,434

2006

949 558 807 948 1,435

2007

953 557 797 938 1,439

2008

955 554 790 925 1,433

2009

977 559 801 934 1,484

2010

963 535 782 931 1,465

2011

946 521 768 896 1,422

2012

951 531 768 896 1,433

2013

939 515 754 884 1,437

2014

935 524 762 884 1,405

2015

959 526 768 894 1,437

2016

969 551 769 896 1,464

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 20. Inflation-adjusted median hourly earnings, by age, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2016 annual averages (in constant 2016 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

 

1979

$13.70 $10.77 $9.57 $12.41 $15.77 $16.05 $16.33 $15.93 $15.34 $9.97

1980

13.39 10.31 8.94 11.92 15.42 15.72 16.00 15.69 14.97 9.89

1981

13.07 10.08 9.09 11.70 15.20 15.46 15.74 15.25 14.75 9.95

1982

12.92 9.69 8.61 11.15 15.02 15.19 15.81 15.36 14.62 9.86

1983

12.82 9.36 8.28 10.76 15.02 14.91 15.85 15.44 14.70 10.09

1984

12.84 9.21 8.04 10.62 15.07 14.91 15.79 15.59 14.58 10.20

1985

12.83 9.06 7.81 10.51 15.00 14.72 15.94 15.68 14.70 10.09

1986

12.97 9.23 7.76 10.59 15.13 14.67 16.30 16.17 15.00 10.40

1987

13.07 9.27 7.70 10.53 15.07 14.53 16.04 15.88 14.99 10.26

1988

13.14 9.36 7.87 10.51 15.12 14.51 15.96 15.94 14.61 10.21

1989

13.07 9.25 7.89 10.56 14.84 14.28 16.00 15.74 14.62 10.13

1990

12.89 9.20 8.00 10.53 14.55 14.08 15.72 15.67 14.30 10.25

1991

12.89 9.04 8.06 10.31 14.57 13.81 15.76 15.65 14.07 10.21

1992

12.95 9.01 7.94 10.12 14.65 13.71 15.74 15.97 14.23 10.30

1993

12.88 9.02 7.86 10.07 14.65 13.54 15.73 16.14 14.57 10.46

1994

12.84 9.01 7.87 9.97 14.62 13.43 15.90 16.06 14.46 10.24

1995

12.79 9.08 7.89 10.05 14.65 13.63 15.68 15.85 14.40 10.41

1996

12.80 9.05 7.88 10.20 14.66 13.45 15.46 15.61 14.31 10.32

1997

13.06 9.18 8.22 10.31 14.73 13.49 15.46 15.82 14.52 10.28

1998

13.40 9.69 8.66 10.66 14.92 14.21 15.99 16.14 14.85 10.90

1999

13.73 9.90 8.76 11.15 15.09 14.38 15.88 16.33 14.96 11.10

2000

13.82 10.10 8.94 11.26 15.17 14.20 15.83 16.49 15.09 11.23

2001

13.81 10.42 9.16 11.36 15.45 14.46 16.22 16.49 15.41 11.56

2002

13.98 10.43 9.23 11.31 15.79 14.66 16.26 16.64 15.82 12.11

2003

14.16 10.31 9.05 11.31 15.73 14.69 16.27 16.93 15.91 12.00

2004

13.98 10.14 8.89 11.16 15.54 14.45 16.38 16.81 15.98 12.22

2005

13.75 9.91 8.66 10.95 15.33 14.45 16.11 16.56 15.91 12.20

2006

14.00 9.81 8.61 10.90 15.40 14.23 16.06 16.70 15.87 12.08

2007

13.83 10.01 8.76 11.18 15.23 13.95 16.12 16.66 15.87 12.00

2008

13.63 9.89 8.74 10.88 15.40 13.94 16.03 16.58 15.83 12.14

2009

13.91 9.96 8.86 10.93 15.56 14.09 16.32 16.61 16.44 12.85

2010

13.77 9.80 8.81 10.50 15.40 13.80 16.09 16.50 16.40 12.72

2011

13.56 9.57 8.60 10.26 15.07 13.56 15.83 16.01 16.08 13.01

2012

13.38 9.46 8.46 10.14 14.89 13.40 15.53 15.75 16.08 12.76

2013

13.32 9.43 8.43 10.12 14.93 13.26 15.43 15.62 16.09 12.84

2014

13.33 9.69 8.55 10.12 15.01 13.32 15.32 15.61 15.58 13.20

2015

13.60 9.97 8.96 10.26 15.09 13.77 15.34 16.03 16.10 13.24

2016

14.00 10.12 9.20 10.79 15.13 14.00 15.77 16.29 16.20 13.77

Women

 

1979

11.17 9.85 9.35 10.86 12.04 12.47 12.25 11.85 11.57 9.63

1980

10.97 9.58 8.72 10.53 11.78 12.33 11.92 11.75 11.33 9.39

1981

10.86 9.42 8.93 10.38 11.90 12.41 12.11 11.65 11.24 9.42

1982

11.03 9.04 8.49 10.02 12.01 12.42 12.15 11.84 11.48 9.40

1983

11.01 8.76 8.14 9.77 12.00 12.48 12.18 11.90 11.63 9.54

1984

10.95 8.66 7.91 9.60 12.07 12.33 12.36 12.14 11.61 9.63

1985

10.91 8.53 7.68 9.70 12.19 12.32 12.57 12.26 11.62 9.43

1986

11.15 8.60 7.64 9.85 12.45 12.45 12.82 12.53 12.03 9.90

1987

11.31 8.53 7.49 9.88 12.44 12.40 12.83 12.69 12.18 9.80

1988

11.41 8.75 7.64 9.86 12.58 12.42 13.20 12.87 11.88 10.00

1989

11.42 8.77 7.66 9.78 12.67 12.49 13.27 12.90 11.93 9.61

1990

11.48 8.82 7.75 9.93 12.60 12.50 13.14 12.76 12.00 9.71

1991

11.60 8.73 7.97 9.81 12.61 12.35 13.28 13.08 11.94 9.90

1992

11.68 8.66 7.87 9.68 12.84 12.50 13.41 13.32 12.08 10.02

1993

11.65 8.63 7.74 9.75 12.88 12.45 13.36 13.39 12.37 10.11

1994

11.62 8.53 7.74 9.58 12.90 12.47 13.53 13.56 12.53 10.00

1995

11.67 8.59 7.73 9.53 12.79 12.39 13.51 13.65 12.41 10.09

1996

11.78 8.66 7.76 9.54 12.85 12.29 13.55 13.63 12.30 9.83

1997

11.85 8.88 8.09 9.78 13.06 12.24 13.64 13.82 12.40 10.19

1998

12.12 9.19 8.51 10.21 13.45 12.96 14.23 14.40 13.03 10.62

1999

12.45 9.51 8.62 10.40 13.73 13.11 14.16 14.34 13.44 10.81

2000

12.64 9.76 8.69 10.88 13.79 13.51 13.99 14.20 13.72 10.98

2001

13.06 9.82 8.96 10.84 13.82 13.47 14.15 14.70 14.08 11.03

2002

13.20 9.95 9.08 10.83 14.30 13.51 14.66 14.93 14.43 11.66

2003

13.16 9.91 8.94 10.69 14.37 13.72 14.58 15.39 14.43 11.54

2004

12.92 9.80 8.72 10.57 14.27 13.49 14.55 15.18 14.70 11.64

2005

12.67 9.58 8.50 10.44 14.23 13.34 14.55 14.90 14.57 12.06

2006

12.68 9.51 8.46 10.50 14.13 13.18 14.35 14.60 14.43 11.87

2007

12.71 9.43 8.58 10.42 13.95 12.97 14.31 14.87 14.16 11.75

2008

12.81 9.40 8.60 10.21 13.91 13.07 14.37 14.67 14.49 11.74

2009

13.15 9.60 8.75 10.28 14.27 13.38 14.54 14.64 15.20 12.43

2010

13.03 9.49 8.71 10.00 14.19 13.26 14.45 14.87 15.07 12.31

2011

12.79 9.32 8.50 9.78 13.98 12.93 14.34 14.69 14.97 12.55

2012

12.53 9.17 8.38 9.58 13.76 12.70 14.06 14.42 15.01 12.37

2013

12.48 9.20 8.33 9.68 13.76 12.60 14.18 14.36 14.96 12.58

2014

12.35 9.27 8.41 9.91 13.69 12.42 14.20 14.34 14.39 12.65

2015

12.71 9.66 8.86 10.07 14.09 13.05 14.30 14.98 14.95 12.81

2016

13.01 10.00 9.07 10.25 14.23 13.08 14.75 14.97 15.10 13.02

Men

 

1979

17.44 12.04 9.85 14.32 20.65 19.69 21.98 21.91 20.34 10.99

1980

16.94 11.39 9.36 13.67 20.06 19.25 21.69 21.61 20.11 10.53

1981

16.68 10.94 9.24 12.97 19.75 18.60 21.07 21.55 20.00 10.69

1982

16.39 10.48 8.76 12.25 19.33 18.35 21.27 21.24 19.47 10.67

1983

15.87 10.05 8.42 11.58 19.06 17.75 21.15 21.01 20.05 10.89

1984

15.68 10.07 8.19 11.37 18.94 17.36 20.95 21.34 19.52 10.81

1985

15.60 9.96 7.98 11.13 18.83 17.02 20.85 21.21 19.23 10.62

1986

15.88 10.02 7.99 11.36 18.87 16.80 20.90 21.23 19.96 10.84

1987

15.70 9.92 7.98 11.47 18.51 16.69 20.40 20.69 19.64 10.75

1988

15.45 9.82 8.09 11.31 18.32 16.43 19.96 20.88 19.02 10.78

1989

15.14 9.66 8.21 11.25 18.15 16.00 19.79 20.34 18.69 11.03

1990

14.74 9.70 8.27 11.02 17.54 15.74 19.13 19.84 18.13 10.84

1991

14.76 9.59 8.14 10.70 17.15 15.36 18.87 20.12 17.32 10.69

1992

14.55 9.48 8.05 10.47 16.88 15.13 18.34 20.17 17.43 10.82

1993

14.50 9.41 7.97 10.36 16.66 14.89 18.27 19.89 17.94 10.98

1994

14.42 9.42 7.98 10.51 16.49 14.58 18.43 19.39 17.72 10.64

1995

14.44 9.45 8.04 10.67 16.79 14.80 18.61 19.28 17.39 10.72

1996

14.51 9.41 8.00 10.66 16.43 14.79 18.16 18.90 17.00 10.73

1997

14.67 9.63 8.37 10.72 16.57 14.81 18.01 19.10 17.60 10.39

1998

14.82 10.18 8.81 11.46 17.26 15.05 18.38 19.20 18.00 11.40

1999

14.86 10.26 8.90 11.57 17.29 15.62 18.41 19.71 17.59 11.33

2000

15.08 10.64 9.26 11.70 17.07 15.30 18.33 19.39 17.87 11.59

2001

15.34 10.85 9.35 12.09 17.45 15.69 18.86 19.31 17.55 12.20

2002

15.54 10.75 9.37 11.86 17.42 15.87 18.64 19.23 17.86 13.06

2003

15.52 10.63 9.16 11.75 17.30 15.68 18.45 19.49 18.39 12.78

2004

15.27 10.43 9.09 11.52 17.46 15.29 18.55 19.20 18.48 12.58

2005

14.94 10.34 8.86 11.30 17.09 14.95 18.28 18.59 18.17 12.33

2006

15.10 10.46 8.85 11.61 16.99 15.04 17.93 19.10 17.90 12.76

2007

14.99 10.57 8.99 11.53 17.07 14.85 17.56 18.69 17.88 12.74

2008

15.01 10.30 8.90 11.15 16.76 15.02 17.86 18.75 17.73 12.82

2009

15.39 10.31 9.00 11.17 16.86 14.77 18.01 19.00 18.00 13.42

2010

15.15 10.14 8.91 10.90 16.56 14.43 17.43 18.60 18.12 13.13

2011

14.73 9.85 8.71 10.57 16.13 14.07 17.11 18.01 18.22 13.71

2012

14.50 9.86 8.56 10.42 15.85 13.88 16.77 17.75 18.06 13.62

2013

14.42 9.96 8.62 10.30 15.73 13.82 16.69 17.68 17.80 13.26

2014

14.59 10.03 8.75 10.29 15.98 14.28 16.78 17.66 17.71 14.18

2015

14.85 10.15 9.08 10.77 16.05 14.34 16.68 17.76 18.21 14.32

2016

14.96 10.24 9.48 11.15 16.25 14.83 17.20 18.03 18.05 14.78

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 21. Inflation-adjusted median hourly earnings, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2016 annual averages (in constant 2016 dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$13.70 $13.92 $12.69 $12.59

1980

13.39 13.56 12.33 12.33

1981

13.07 13.15 12.44 12.21

1982

12.92 13.09 12.11 11.99

1983

12.82 12.98 11.81 11.67

1984

12.84 13.00 11.81 11.61

1985

12.83 12.98 11.70 11.64

1986

12.97 13.14 12.13 11.82

1987

13.07 13.25 12.10 11.76

1988

13.14 13.30 12.01 11.62

1989

13.07 13.23 12.02 11.35

1990

12.89 13.07 12.14 11.19

1991

12.89 13.08 12.03 11.10

1992

12.95 13.12 11.85 11.16

1993

12.88 13.04 11.75 11.18

1994

12.84 13.00 11.68 11.11

1995

12.79 13.02 11.99 10.95

1996

12.80 13.06 11.83 10.93

1997

13.06 13.25 11.96 11.03

1998

13.40 13.58 12.36 11.66

1999

13.73 14.03 12.75 11.63

2000

13.82 13.89 13.03 $14.04 11.91

2001

13.81 13.90 13.25 14.57 12.28

2002

13.98 14.30 13.26 13.83 12.31

2003

14.16 14.32 13.25 14.52 12.74

2004

13.98 14.14 12.95 14.10 12.47

2005

13.75 14.10 12.49 14.75 12.22

2006

14.00 14.12 12.69 14.92 12.05

2007

13.83 13.98 12.60 14.14 11.85

2008

13.63 13.98 12.49 14.50 12.23

2009

13.91 14.16 13.02 14.72 12.35

2010

13.77 14.03 12.96 14.56 11.98

2011

13.56 13.78 12.58 14.25 11.79

2012

13.38 13.63 12.37 13.82 11.62

2013

13.32 13.54 12.26 14.03 11.59

2014

13.33 13.76 12.05 14.20 12.00

2015

13.60 14.04 12.21 14.36 12.19

2016

14.00 14.24 12.49 14.79 12.69

Women

 

1979

11.17 11.17 10.96 10.62

1980

10.97 11.00 10.78 10.50

1981

10.86 10.86 10.63 10.41

1982

11.03 11.03 10.74 10.36

1983

11.01 11.03 10.83 10.14

1984

10.95 10.97 10.73 10.24

1985

10.91 10.94 10.72 10.26

1986

11.15 11.19 10.82 10.46

1987

11.31 11.35 10.91 10.32

1988

11.41 11.45 10.96 10.31

1989

11.42 11.46 10.99 10.34

1990

11.48 11.52 11.11 10.34

1991

11.60 11.62 11.25 10.27

1992

11.68 11.73 11.14 10.35

1993

11.65 11.72 11.24 10.33

1994

11.62 11.76 11.11 10.26

1995

11.67 11.80 11.14 10.33

1996

11.78 11.88 10.98 10.32

1997

11.85 11.94 11.33 10.18

1998

12.12 12.27 11.63 10.63

1999

12.45 12.58 11.71 10.75

2000

12.64 12.68 12.36 13.63 11.00

2001

13.06 13.18 12.40 13.64 11.22

2002

13.20 13.27 12.62 13.48 11.40

2003

13.16 13.20 12.94 13.94 11.59

2004

12.92 12.97 12.62 13.43 11.49

2005

12.67 12.90 12.20 14.30 11.28

2006

12.68 12.82 12.04 14.23 11.31

2007

12.71 12.80 12.09 13.69 11.34

2008

12.81 13.04 12.02 13.66 11.23

2009

13.15 13.23 12.32 14.17 11.29

2010

13.03 13.08 12.33 13.67 11.13

2011

12.79 12.86 12.04 13.66 10.94

2012

12.53 12.62 11.73 13.32 10.67

2013

12.48 12.57 11.88 13.43 10.80

2014

12.35 12.56 11.73 13.42 10.87

2015

12.71 12.98 11.84 13.97 11.21

2016

13.01 13.20 12.09 14.07 11.79

Men

 

1979

17.44 17.87 15.09 14.78

1980

16.94 17.31 14.39 13.97

1981

16.68 17.03 14.75 13.63

1982

16.39 16.70 14.28 13.71

1983

15.87 16.22 13.67 13.33

1984

15.68 15.99 13.57 13.30

1985

15.60 16.13 13.09 12.91

1986

15.88 16.28 13.74 12.95

1987

15.70 16.02 13.62 12.87

1988

15.45 15.74 13.55 12.71

1989

15.14 15.48 13.21 12.45

1990

14.74 15.24 13.14 12.01

1991

14.76 15.15 13.01 11.82

1992

14.55 14.92 12.79 11.73

1993

14.50 14.84 12.55 11.65

1994

14.42 14.76 12.69 11.49

1995

14.44 15.05 12.77 11.36

1996

14.51 14.92 12.47 11.62

1997

14.67 14.87 12.94 11.79

1998

14.82 14.99 13.39 12.14

1999

14.86 15.29 14.08 12.41

2000

15.08 15.27 13.92 15.05 12.61

2001

15.34 15.73 13.79 16.04 13.10

2002

15.54 15.83 13.67 14.71 13.24

2003

15.52 15.70 14.11 15.52 13.09

2004

15.27 15.45 13.82 15.12 12.73

2005

14.94 15.32 13.39 15.66 12.52

2006

15.10 15.33 13.60 15.69 12.90

2007

14.99 15.30 13.39 15.30 12.81

2008

15.01 15.44 13.37 15.64 13.19

2009

15.39 15.60 13.72 15.67 13.33

2010

15.15 15.39 13.39 15.54 12.92

2011

14.73 14.96 12.87 15.21 12.60

2012

14.50 14.81 12.75 14.79 12.50

2013

14.42 14.67 12.52 14.67 12.35

2014

14.59 15.07 12.38 14.87 12.56

2015

14.85 15.11 12.81 15.05 13.08

2016

14.96 15.13 13.06 15.04 13.83

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 22. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by age, 1979–2016 annual averages (in current dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

 

1979

$241 $172 $144 $186 $265 $255 $280 $276 $262 $198

1980

262 187 154 200 286 276 302 298 285 203

1981

284 200 161 213 308 296 326 320 309 222

1982

302 208 164 220 327 311 354 345 325 253

1983

313 211 164 223 343 321 370 367 346 261

1984

326 217 169 231 362 335 389 385 366 272

1985

344 224 174 240 379 349 406 400 381 297

1986

359 232 178 248 391 360 419 416 397 298

1987

374 243 186 259 403 373 435 429 405 310

1988

385 249 196 266 414 383 450 453 419 323

1989

399 259 204 276 427 394 472 472 431 334

1990

412 269 209 285 449 407 486 489 457 343

1991

426 277 213 291 467 415 498 507 469 381

1992

440 276 212 290 479 422 503 522 483 378

1993

459 282 214 297 491 436 517 542 492 393

1994

467 286 221 300 500 439 537 566 501 384

1995

479 292 231 306 510 451 550 582 514 389

1996

490 298 240 312 520 463 559 594 535 384

1997

503 306 252 321 540 481 579 607 558 393

1998

523 319 268 339 572 502 597 620 592 405

1999

549 341 281 363 592 518 611 652 604 404

2000

576 361 297 383 609 549 625 669 620 463

2001

596 375 305 394 630 576 657 693 638 488

2002

608 381 305 399 646 591 668 706 674 502

2003

620 387 311 402 662 594 687 723 708 516

2004

638 390 309 406 683 604 713 743 725 560

2005

651 397 318 411 696 610 731 748 742 569

2006

671 409 324 423 718 621 748 773 765 583

2007

695 424 337 450 738 643 769 790 803 605

2008

722 443 349 467 761 666 804 822 825 644

2009

739 442 344 464 774 678 817 838 841 684

2010

747 432 347 454 782 682 824 844 860 684

2011

756 440 352 457 797 693 837 866 881 742

2012

768 444 356 464 815 707 858 878 897 757

2013

776 454 373 472 827 708 874 883 904 801

2014

791 477 378 491 839 726 881 899 911 824

2015

809 487 389 501 860 735 900 923 927 873

2016

832 501 405 513 885 751 934 955 952 866

Women

 

1979

182 154 132 161 195 199 196 192 189 170

1980

201 167 145 175 213 218 214 209 205 175

1981

219 180 154 191 233 239 238 225 222 189

1982

239 192 158 201 255 258 258 252 245 211

1983

252 198 158 207 268 272 272 264 257 212

1984

265 203 162 213 283 285 292 279 270 219

1985

277 211 166 221 296 296 307 292 285 242

1986

291 219 170 231 308 306 319 308 296 256

1987

303 227 172 242 321 316 337 324 308 261

1988

315 235 184 251 335 327 354 339 317 280

1989

328 246 197 260 351 340 370 357 333 292

1990

346 254 198 269 369 356 390 377 348 300

1991

366 266 205 280 387 371 407 398 363 319

1992

380 267 205 280 400 382 418 417 376 328

1993

393 273 205 289 415 395 435 440 395 335

1994

399 276 211 290 421 397 448 450 398 336

1995

406 275 215 291 428 403 453 464 403 353

1996

418 284 223 298 444 415 463 481 420 334

1997

431 292 240 306 462 427 482 495 433 348

1998

456 305 249 319 485 451 498 516 476 350

1999

473 324 266 343 497 470 503 534 492 370

2000

493 344 283 366 516 493 521 564 508 392

2001

512 353 288 375 543 512 547 587 536 390

2002

529 367 295 385 568 530 571 602 574 430

2003

552 371 299 387 584 546 590 609 601 435

2004

573 375 293 391 599 561 608 625 615 478

2005

585 381 304 396 612 573 621 644 639 492

2006

600 395 305 413 627 583 645 659 658 510

2007

614 409 318 426 646 597 668 677 679 534

2008

638 420 322 445 670 623 682 707 711 563

2009

657 424 323 445 687 634 709 712 727 602

2010

669 422 336 439 704 648 731 730 736 601

2011

684 421 328 438 718 662 734 744 749 664

2012

691 416 330 429 727 666 747 746 766 667

2013

706 423 350 442 740 665 767 761 779 691

2014

719 451 357 468 752 679 781 780 780 740

2015

726 450 364 468 761 690 804 799 784 740

2016

749 486 388 500 784 705 839 836 812 749

Men

 

1979

292 196 155 211 314 295 336 338 312 219

1980

313 208 162 224 339 314 367 367 345 229

1981

340 218 168 237 372 340 397 396 377 266

1982

364 225 170 244 393 358 422 419 399 300

1983

379 223 168 242 407 371 442 444 416 308

1984

392 231 174 250 422 382 471 470 439 328

1985

407 241 183 258 443 394 487 489 467 367

1986

419 246 186 264 463 402 499 506 484 358

1987

434 257 196 275 477 412 510 520 495 380

1988

449 262 205 279 487 421 517 549 509 395

1989

468 271 209 290 500 434 542 569 521 393

1990

481 282 218 298 512 449 560 591 546 403

1991

493 285 219 300 523 458 576 612 563 467

1992

501 284 218 297 536 466 581 634 579 421

1993

510 288 221 303 555 476 596 653 586 451

1994

522 294 228 307 576 479 617 671 603 441

1995

538 303 244 315 588 490 624 685 623 441

1996

557 307 251 321 599 499 632 698 643 477

1997

579 317 262 338 615 515 651 713 669 452

1998

598 334 281 357 639 544 677 732 699 482

1999

618 356 291 379 668 577 702 763 725 470

2000

641 375 306 395 693 598 728 771 735 522

2001

670 391 319 408 720 617 754 799 760 565

2002

679 391 312 410 732 627 759 807 802 583

2003

695 398 321 412 744 628 775 834 827 612

2004

713 400 318 417 762 639 804 857 843 641

2005

722 409 330 422 771 644 822 853 855 644

2006

743 418 348 435 797 661 836 897 902 658

2007

766 443 357 472 823 687 873 909 933 686

2008

798 461 369 481 857 704 915 944 943 753

2009

819 458 356 479 873 715 916 967 965 791

2010

824 443 355 468 874 714 915 954 979 794

2011

832 455 370 470 886 717 935 979 997 821

2012

854 468 373 482 910 738 957 994 1,005 860

2013

860 479 390 492 912 744 956 994 1,011 937

2014

871 493 392 507 922 755 964 1,011 1,021 942

2015

895 510 407 522 947 770 983 1,040 1,064 1,003

2016

915 512 419 523 969 794 1,007 1,075 1,102 992

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 23. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2016 annual averages (in current dollars)
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

 

1979

$241 $248 $199 $194

1980

262 269 212 209

1981

284 291 235 223

1982

302 310 245 240

1983

313 320 261 250

1984

326 336 269 259

1985

344 356 277 270

1986

359 371 291 277

1987

374 384 301 285

1988

385 395 314 290

1989

399 409 319 298

1990

412 424 329 304

1991

426 442 348 312

1992

440 458 357 321

1993

459 475 369 331

1994

467 484 371 324

1995

479 494 383 329

1996

490 506 387 339

1997

503 519 400 351

1998

523 545 426 370

1999

549 573 445 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

Women

 

1979

182 184 169 157

1980

201 203 185 172

1981

219 221 206 190

1982

239 242 217 203

1983

252 254 232 215

1984

265 268 241 223

1985

277 281 252 230

1986

291 294 264 241

1987

303 307 276 251

1988

315 318 288 260

1989

328 334 301 269

1990

346 353 308 278

1991

366 373 323 292

1992

380 387 335 302

1993

393 401 348 313

1994

399 408 346 305

1995

406 415 355 305

1996

418 428 362 316

1997

431 444 375 318

1998

456 468 400 337

1999

473 483 409 348

2000

493 502 429 547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

Men

 

1979

292 298 227 219

1980

313 320 244 234

1981

340 350 268 251

1982

364 375 278 269

1983

379 387 294 274

1984

392 401 303 287

1985

407 418 305 296

1986

419 433 319 299

1987

434 450 327 306

1988

449 465 348 308

1989

468 482 348 315

1990

481 494 361 318

1991

493 506 375 323

1992

501 514 380 339

1993

510 524 392 346

1994

522 547 400 343

1995

538 566 411 350

1996

557 580 412 356

1997

579 595 432 371

1998

598 615 468 390

1999

618 638 488 406

2000

641 662 510 685 417