August 2018 Report 1075

Highlights of women's earnings in 2017

Highlights of women's earnings in 2017 image

In 2017, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 82 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey and averaged for the calendar year. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the BLS website for an explanation of the differences in these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the mid-point in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

Below are data highlights for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics such as age, race and ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2017, median weekly earnings were $770 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $941. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 and 64, with essentially no difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds ($860), 45- to 54-year-olds ($855), and 55- to 64-year-olds ($856). For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 54-year-olds ($1,103) and 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,098). Young women and men age 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($499 and $547, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

In 2017, women’s earnings ranged from 77 to 81 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller, with women earning 88 to 91 percent of what men did. (See table 1.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have grown substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains occurred primarily in the 1980s. For workers ages 25 to 64, the gains continued into the 2000s, but have tapered off in recent years. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2017. Among women, Whites ($795) earned 88 percent as much as Asians ($903); Blacks ($657) earned 73 percent; and Hispanics ($603) earned 67 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($971) earned 80 percent as much as Asian men ($1,207); Black men ($710) earned 59 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($690), 57 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and among Whites. Asian women earned 75 percent as much as Asian men in 2017, and White women earned 82 percent as much as their male counterparts. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 93 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 87 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably among the major race and Hispanic ethnicity groups since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2017, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 37 percent for White women, by 23 percent for Black women, and by 22 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, gains tapered off around 2004. Since that time, White and Black women have seen little to no net growth in earnings. Hispanic women’s earnings, on the other hand, have remained on an upward trend, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined through the mid-1990s, then began to trend up. Over the full period, 1979 through 2017, inflation-adjusted earnings for White, Black, and Hispanic men have shown little to no change on net. (See table 18.)

Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Between 2000 and 2017, inflation-adjusted earnings grew by 16 percent for Asian women and by 24 percent for Asian men. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($520) were 41 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher ($1,279) in 2017. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($712) were 56 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree (median weekly earnings of $798) made 62 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree or more made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. Although both women and men without a high school diploma have experienced declines in inflation-adjusted earnings since 1979, the drop for women was much smaller than that for men: a 7-percent decrease for women, compared with a 27-percent decline for men. On an inflation-adjusted basis, earnings for women with a bachelor’s degree or higher have increased by 36 percent since 1979. Earnings for men with a bachelor’s degree or higher have risen by 19 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2017 ($1,134 for women and $1,526 for men). Within this category, women and men who were chief executives had the highest median weekly earnings in 2017 ($1,920 and $2,415, respectively). (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,014 for women and $1,391 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were pharmacists ($1,834), nurse practitioners ($1,832), and physicians and surgeons ($1,759) had the highest earnings in 2017. For men, those who were physicians and surgeons ($2,277), pharmacists ($2,228), and lawyers ($2,105) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2017, 31 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 20 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2017, 10 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,235 for women and $1,552 for men) and engineering ($1,307 for women and $1,518 for men) fields, compared with 46 percent of men. Women were more likely to work in education ($935 for women and $1,202 for men) and healthcare ($1,068 for women and $1,341 for men) jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-seven percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2017, compared with 30 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were registered nurse ($1,143), elementary and middle school teacher ($987), and secretary or administrative assistant ($735). Each of these occupations employed more than 2 million women in 2017, collectively representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $807). In 2017, 2.7 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2017, a total of 1.9 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,520 to $1,891). Another 1.8 million men worked as miscellaneous managers (managers, all other, $1,629), the third most common job for men. (See table 2.)

Earnings for those with and without children under 18

In 2017, a little more than one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” includes sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($777) were little different from the earnings for women without children under 18 ($767). Earnings for fathers of children under 18 were $1,059, compared with $887 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2017, 25 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 11 percent of women worked such hours in 2017, while 4 percent of men did. A majority of both male and female full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 88 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 24 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2017. In comparison, 12 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $265 in 2017, slightly higher than the $250 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 30 percent of women and 44 percent of men were under age 25 in 2017. Among full-time workers, 9 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2017, 61 percent of women and 56 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $13.56 in 2017, which were 89 percent of the $15.20 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2017, 3 percent of women and 2 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2017 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

113,272 $860 $2 50,291 $770 $3 62,980 $941 $4 81.8

16 to 24 years

10,281 519 2 4,490 499 3 5,791 547 5 91.2

16 to 19 years

1,359 424 5 566 402 5 793 459 10 87.6

20 to 24 years

8,922 540 4 3,924 514 3 4,998 570 5 90.2

25 years and older

102,991 907 2 45,801 810 3 57,190 996 3 81.3

25 to 34 years

28,196 773 3 12,381 724 4 15,815 821 5 88.2

35 to 44 years

25,662 964 5 11,173 860 6 14,488 1,062 8 81.0

45 to 54 years

25,650 977 5 11,609 855 7 14,041 1,103 9 77.5

55 to 64 years

19,157 974 6 8,756 856 7 10,401 1,098 13 78.0

65 years and older

4,327 909 12 1,882 782 15 2,445 1,016 18 77.0

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

87,730 890 2 37,727 795 3 50,003 971 4 81.9

Black or African American

14,521 682 4 7,593 657 5 6,928 710 6 92.5

Asian

7,320 1,043 16 3,306 903 15 4,014 1,207 23 74.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,615 655 4 7,719 603 4 11,896 690 4 87.4

Marital Status

Never married

33,425 684 3 14,838 649 4 18,587 711 4 91.3

Married, spouse present(1)

61,943 986 3 25,364 862 4 36,579 1,098 6 78.5

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

17,904 819 5 10,090 759 5 7,814 909 8 83.5

Widowed

1,834 797 14 1,336 763 14 498 910 32 83.8

Divorced

11,792 864 7 6,653 802 8 5,140 945 10 84.9

Separated(2)

4,277 721 8 2,101 639 11 2,176 819 18 78.0

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

13,396 1,041 7 5,701 970 9 7,695 1,102 10 88.0

Represented by unions(5)

14,812 1,028 6 6,419 954 9 8,393 1,094 9 87.2

Not represented by a union

98,460 829 3 43,873 746 3 54,587 914 3 81.6

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

102,991 907 2 45,801 810 3 57,190 996 3 81.3

Less than a high school diploma

7,038 520 3 2,257 447 5 4,781 584 4 76.5

High school graduates, no college

26,011 712 3 10,031 610 3 15,980 797 4 76.5

Some college or associate degree

27,387 798 4 12,846 700 3 14,541 917 5 76.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

42,555 1,279 7 20,668 1,131 5 21,887 1,481 9 76.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

113,272 $860 $2 50,291 $770 $3 62,980 $941 $4 81.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

47,207 1,224 5 24,393 1,052 5 22,815 1,442 6 73.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,414 1,327 9 8,999 1,134 7 10,415 1,526 12 74.3

Management occupations

13,169 1,392 11 5,600 1,173 12 7,568 1,573 15 74.6

Chief executives

1,136 2,296 29 313 1,920 80 823 2,415 89 79.5

General and operations managers

920 1,328 38 321 1,134 31 598 1,488 49 76.2

Legislators

14 - - 9 - - 5 - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

53 1,330 303 29 - - 24 - - -

Marketing and sales managers

994 1,509 47 428 1,288 68 566 1,747 42 73.7

Public relations and fundraising managers

71 1,318 87 47 - - 24 - - -

Administrative services managers

147 1,233 68 57 1,013 35 89 1,629 59 62.2

Computer and information systems managers

594 1,843 87 165 1,629 104 428 1,897 19 85.9

Financial managers

1,111 1,412 50 611 1,222 51 500 1,719 80 71.1

Compensation and benefits managers

16 - - 11 - - 5 - - -

Human resources managers

304 1,448 68 211 1,280 58 92 1,748 48 73.2

Training and development managers

58 1,396 181 35 - - 23 - - -

Industrial production managers

265 1,486 59 63 1,312 146 202 1,526 60 86.0

Purchasing managers

194 1,271 123 104 1,138 36 90 1,420 202 80.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

274 1,039 54 49 - - 225 1,061 57 -

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

121 1,001 60 21 - - 100 963 146 -

Construction managers

582 1,428 30 56 1,243 91 526 1,439 27 86.4

Education administrators

801 1,367 32 497 1,243 27 304 1,561 43 79.6

Architectural and engineering managers

128 1,999 56 10 - - 119 2,020 98 -

Food service managers

816 753 23 394 674 20 421 894 34 75.4

Funeral service managers

9 - - 5 - - 4 - - -

Gaming managers

23 - - 6 - - 17 - - -

Lodging managers

116 882 136 62 844 42 54 982 39 85.9

Medical and health services managers

610 1,319 49 433 1,177 45 177 1,490 57 79.0

Natural sciences managers

17 - - 7 - - 10 - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

23 - - 10 - - 13 - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

421 957 34 241 873 29 181 1,163 114 75.1

Social and community service managers

337 1,136 23 236 1,052 32 101 1,281 137 82.1

Emergency management directors

10 - - 7 - - 4 - - -

Managers, all other

3,004 1,488 24 1,163 1,251 22 1,841 1,629 33 76.8

Business and financial operations occupations

6,245 1,174 13 3,398 1,055 13 2,847 1,390 19 75.9

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

23 - - 15 - - 8 - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10 - - 4 - - 6 - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

154 886 40 87 888 43 67 882 167 100.7

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

240 1,132 44 96 1,085 119 143 1,144 42 94.8

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

346 1,002 22 218 925 41 128 1,108 44 83.5

Compliance officers

240 1,391 56 134 1,296 128 106 1,501 65 86.3

Cost estimators

113 1,139 26 13 - - 100 1,157 25 -

Human resources workers

664 1,086 37 482 1,035 39 182 1,236 99 83.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

60 1,042 93 39 - - 21 - - -

Training and development specialists

114 1,099 127 55 937 104 59 1,255 42 74.7

Logisticians

101 1,230 55 33 - - 67 1,358 307 -

Management analysts

606 1,499 51 255 1,315 68 351 1,651 110 79.6

Meeting, convention, and event planners

102 1,080 106 89 1,064 58 14 - - -

Fundraisers

72 1,152 31 55 1,152 34 17 - - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

258 1,174 108 149 1,061 66 110 1,357 55 78.2

Business operations specialists, all other

250 1,136 38 132 1,013 47 118 1,361 111 74.4

Accountants and auditors

1,512 1,173 24 890 1,065 24 622 1,389 31 76.7

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

55 1,074 64 20 - - 35 - - -

Budget analysts

54 1,377 104 26 - - 29 - - -

Credit analysts

27 - - 15 - - 13 - - -

Financial analysts

264 1,530 49 108 1,369 187 156 1,590 64 86.1

Personal financial advisors

398 1,425 56 131 979 39 267 1,662 108 58.9

Insurance underwriters

92 1,153 45 57 1,115 59 35 - - -

Financial examiners

15 - - 7 - - 8 - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

320 1,070 74 193 958 36 127 1,332 205 71.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

62 1,078 137 33 - - 28 - - -

Tax preparers

56 791 60 39 - - 18 - - -

Financial specialists, all other

36 - - 24 - - 11 - - -

Professional and related occupations

27,794 1,160 4 15,394 1,014 5 12,400 1,391 9 72.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,350 1,465 15 1,110 1,235 23 3,240 1,552 16 79.6

Computer and information research scientists

23 - - 9 - - 13 - - -

Computer systems analysts

522 1,409 35 211 1,270 73 311 1,495 29 84.9

Information security analysts

94 1,725 254 20 - - 74 1,773 661 -

Computer programmers

423 1,483 72 89 1,363 56 333 1,539 49 88.6

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,439 1,792 41 265 1,543 62 1,174 1,863 22 82.8

Web developers

144 1,235 71 46 - - 98 1,342 425 -

Computer support specialists

443 1,068 41 124 919 49 319 1,134 29 81.0

Database administrators

93 1,381 173 37 - - 56 1,745 137 -

Network and computer systems administrators

193 1,395 44 38 - - 155 1,396 52 -

Computer network architects

100 1,636 78 3 - - 97 1,659 77 -

Computer occupations, all other

627 1,194 26 142 1,059 88 484 1,250 32 84.7

Actuaries

23 - - 7 - - 16 - - -

Mathematicians

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Operations research analysts

146 1,396 70 74 1,205 61 71 1,570 61 76.8

Statisticians

77 1,433 34 41 - - 36 - - -

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,936 1,478 19 442 1,307 54 2,494 1,518 20 86.1

Architects, except naval

196 1,453 91 46 - - 150 1,650 81 -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

30 - - 5 - - 25 - - -

Aerospace engineers

137 1,892 69 9 - - 128 1,891 66 -

Agricultural engineers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Biomedical engineers

16 - - 4 - - 11 - - -

Chemical engineers

78 1,626 119 12 - - 66 1,631 487 -

Civil engineers

393 1,494 55 61 1,343 98 332 1,524 43 88.1

Computer hardware engineers

73 1,771 130 13 - - 60 1,793 169 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

276 1,803 99 30 - - 245 1,772 123 -

Environmental engineers

32 - - 11 - - 21 - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

213 1,496 71 46 - - 168 1,520 82 -

Marine engineers and naval architects

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Materials engineers

32 - - 5 - - 28 - - -

Mechanical engineers

337 1,534 41 26 - - 311 1,533 40 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

12 - - 1 - - 10 - - -

Nuclear engineers

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Petroleum engineers

23 - - 6 - - 17 - - -

Engineers, all other

546 1,561 26 73 1,436 122 473 1,571 35 91.4

Drafters

122 1,126 51 21 - - 100 1,149 60 -

Engineering technicians, except drafters

339 1,053 52 70 884 51 269 1,102 37 80.2

Surveying and mapping technicians

63 1,109 38 2 - - 61 1,114 37 -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,238 1,286 51 564 1,183 39 674 1,361 30 86.9

Agricultural and food scientists

25 - - 10 - - 14 - - -

Biological scientists

82 1,140 63 41 - - 41 - - -

Conservation scientists and foresters

26 - - 11 - - 15 - - -

Medical scientists

162 1,378 54 80 1,270 373 82 1,383 43 91.8

Life scientists, all other

4 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Astronomers and physicists

16 - - 1 - - 15 - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

6 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

98 1,425 50 41 - - 56 1,451 45 -

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

80 1,639 260 30 - - 51 1,746 62 -

Physical scientists, all other

270 1,529 73 122 1,409 58 147 1,565 59 90.0

Economists

29 - - 12 - - 18 - - -

Survey researchers

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Psychologists

106 1,454 64 71 1,437 50 35 - - -

Sociologists

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Urban and regional planners

34 - - 16 - - 18 - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

27 - - 9 - - 18 - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

30 - - 10 - - 20 - - -

Biological technicians

23 - - 15 - - 8 - - -

Chemical technicians

62 1,013 28 16 - - 45 - - -

Geological and petroleum technicians

13 - - 4 - - 9 - - -

Nuclear technicians

6 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Social science research assistants

4 - - 4 - - 0 - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

132 826 43 63 766 58 70 970 42 79.0

Community and social service occupations

2,165 900 14 1,418 857 13 747 976 28 87.8

Counselors

650 897 20 472 894 28 178 901 25 99.2

Social workers

714 906 26 591 900 27 122 935 48 96.3

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

90 881 89 55 858 42 36 - - -

Social and human service assistants

189 739 34 141 701 33 48 - - -

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

68 829 38 51 791 54 17 - - -

Clergy

342 1,058 29 46 - - 297 1,073 97 -

Directors, religious activities and education

61 844 55 25 - - 36 - - -

Religious workers, all other

50 831 158 37 - - 13 - - -

Legal occupations

1,379 1,443 25 811 1,192 46 568 1,896 23 62.9

Lawyers

781 1,901 17 337 1,753 26 444 2,105 42 83.3

Judicial law clerks

13 - - 6 - - 7 - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

59 1,742 343 17 - - 42 - - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

370 945 25 321 934 28 49 - - -

Miscellaneous legal support workers

156 957 45 130 904 65 26 - - -

Education, training, and library occupations

6,978 1,002 8 5,039 935 8 1,939 1,202 24 77.8

Postsecondary teachers

985 1,312 55 434 1,208 28 551 1,414 38 85.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

530 657 24 518 654 24 12 - - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

2,838 1,023 11 2,224 987 12 614 1,139 18 86.7

Secondary school teachers

917 1,139 19 524 1,091 31 392 1,226 34 89.0

Special education teachers

386 1,024 29 332 1,017 33 54 1,051 57 96.8

Other teachers and instructors

419 897 34 265 820 29 155 1,128 151 72.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

42 - - 24 - - 18 - - -

Librarians

135 1,009 43 104 972 47 31 - - -

Library technicians

16 - - 14 - - 2 - - -

Teacher assistants

590 550 16 523 537 18 67 642 107 83.6

Other education, training, and library workers

120 1,049 73 77 956 66 44 - - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,778 1,066 24 765 943 18 1,013 1,161 15 81.2

Artists and related workers

70 1,209 174 27 - - 43 - - -

Designers

600 1,012 31 273 857 20 327 1,172 49 73.1

Actors

17 - - 6 - - 11 - - -

Producers and directors

131 1,489 57 43 - - 89 1,708 97 -

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

149 898 43 45 - - 104 1,031 101 -

Dancers and choreographers

9 - - 5 - - 4 - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

41 - - 12 - - 29 - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

24 - - 13 - - 10 - - -

Announcers

24 - - 7 - - 18 - - -

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

72 945 78 42 - - 30 - - -

Public relations specialists

92 1,339 39 57 1,203 103 35 - - -

Editors

124 1,084 59 68 992 169 56 1,123 53 88.3

Technical writers

67 1,222 86 37 - - 30 - - -

Writers and authors

106 1,137 27 57 1,045 52 50 1,171 35 89.2

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

53 809 85 28 - - 25 - - -

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

81 1,150 44 10 - - 71 1,160 41 -

Photographers

66 931 80 25 - - 40 - - -

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

46 - - 8 - - 38 - - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

6,970 1,124 8 5,246 1,068 10 1,724 1,341 21 79.6

Chiropractors

11 - - 2 - - 9 - - -

Dentists

41 - - 25 - - 16 - - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

88 991 46 80 996 42 8 - - -

Optometrists

19 - - 13 - - 6 - - -

Pharmacists

254 1,923 123 147 1,834 177 107 2,228 217 82.3

Physicians and surgeons

815 1,918 86 352 1,759 204 463 2,277 82 77.3

Physician assistants

97 1,747 62 66 1,640 71 31 - - -

Podiatrists

7 - - 4 - - 3 - - -

Audiologists

13 - - 12 - - 1 - - -

Occupational therapists

74 1,301 89 62 1,273 107 12 - - -

Physical therapists

182 1,317 51 118 1,297 64 64 1,341 49 96.7

Radiation therapists

11 - - 8 - - 3 - - -

Recreational therapists

5 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Respiratory therapists

83 961 28 56 904 27 27 - - -

Speech-language pathologists

106 1,213 51 102 1,214 48 4 - - -

Exercise physiologists

5 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Therapists, all other

142 983 34 114 947 39 29 - - -

Veterinarians

60 1,840 88 40 - - 20 - - -

Registered nurses

2,536 1,150 10 2,253 1,143 9 283 1,260 69 90.7

Nurse anesthetists

30 - - 17 - - 13 - - -

Nurse midwives

5 - - 5 - - 0 - - -

Nurse practitioners

141 1,841 57 129 1,832 59 12 - - -

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

15 - - 12 - - 3 - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

297 890 38 203 845 38 94 1,061 77 79.6

Dental hygienists

78 1,033 58 73 1,028 84 5 - - -

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

271 1,162 44 186 1,041 50 85 1,404 56 74.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

203 984 50 58 733 68 145 1,119 77 65.5

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

469 710 17 371 678 17 98 858 25 79.0

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

501 815 23 438 814 25 62 817 50 99.6

Medical records and health information technicians

151 763 27 140 761 29 11 - - -

Opticians, dispensing

43 - - 30 - - 13 - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

143 811 33 95 746 46 48 - - -

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

77 1,183 70 28 - - 49 - - -

Service occupations

16,044 544 4 8,059 501 2 7,985 608 4 82.4

Healthcare support occupations

2,500 542 7 2,180 533 7 320 597 19 89.3

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,387 500 5 1,223 493 5 164 583 21 84.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

13 - - 11 - - 1 - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

47 - - 33 - - 15 - - -

Massage therapists

51 632 34 36 - - 15 - - -

Dental assistants

215 608 13 203 602 12 12 - - -

Medical assistants

457 594 12 418 597 11 39 - - -

Medical transcriptionists

21 - - 18 - - 3 - - -

Pharmacy aides

25 - - 14 - - 11 - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

37 - - 33 - - 4 - - -

Phlebotomists

97 635 11 82 639 11 16 - - -

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

150 587 30 110 603 32 40 - - -

Protective service occupations

2,739 852 16 535 690 26 2,204 894 15 77.2

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

50 899 94 12 - - 38 - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

94 1,348 78 13 - - 81 1,347 72 -

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

43 - - 2 - - 42 - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

69 953 59 11 - - 58 938 54 -

Firefighters

272 1,123 45 8 - - 264 1,136 53 -

Fire inspectors

22 - - 0 - - 22 - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

390 771 22 106 669 22 284 825 46 81.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

142 1,256 46 32 - - 110 1,291 91 -

Fish and game wardens

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Parking enforcement workers

4 - - 2 - - 2 - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

688 1,015 31 94 985 42 595 1,024 44 96.2

Transit and railroad police

6 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Animal control workers

12 - - 4 - - 8 - - -

Private detectives and investigators

86 963 61 44 - - 42 - - -

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

740 596 12 170 548 25 570 616 16 89.0

Crossing guards

23 - - 6 - - 17 - - -

Transportation security screeners

43 - - 11 - - 32 - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

49 - - 19 - - 30 - - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,465 484 3 2,106 459 6 2,359 502 5 91.4

Chefs and head cooks

382 634 18 72 514 15 310 655 18 78.5

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

427 537 19 227 500 15 200 613 22 81.6

Cooks

1,365 466 8 506 436 12 859 481 7 90.6

Food preparation workers

510 425 10 269 410 8 242 449 13 91.3

Bartenders

210 554 40 112 515 12 98 600 26 85.8

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

175 407 9 100 401 11 75 415 15 96.6

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

65 460 29 36 - - 29 - - -

Waiters and waitresses

911 493 9 592 475 10 319 533 27 89.1

Food servers, nonrestaurant

88 473 23 59 468 24 28 - - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

134 458 20 55 481 16 79 444 22 108.3

Dishwashers

131 401 12 19 - - 111 408 12 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

67 401 21 58 400 23 9 - - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

1 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,641 522 4 1,268 463 7 2,373 573 7 80.8

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

190 661 36 77 515 16 113 749 33 68.8

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

111 723 40 9 - - 102 760 66 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,595 539 8 459 481 9 1,136 574 9 83.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

815 450 9 687 439 9 128 508 19 86.4

Pest control workers

94 616 27 5 - - 89 617 26 -

Grounds maintenance workers

837 525 10 31 - - 805 526 10 -

Personal care and service occupations

2,699 520 4 1,971 503 4 728 612 12 82.2

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

126 797 39 53 763 30 73 837 43 91.2

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

76 619 37 45 - - 31 - - -

Animal trainers

23 - - 7 - - 16 - - -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

99 506 19 78 504 19 21 - - -

Gaming services workers

66 692 46 28 - - 37 - - -

Motion picture projectionists

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

74 517 18 36 - - 39 - - -

Embalmers and funeral attendants

15 - - 7 - - 8 - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

22 - - 3 - - 19 - - -

Barbers

54 590 28 8 - - 47 - - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

324 528 26 302 521 17 22 - - -

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

235 567 31 187 538 29 48 - - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

70 547 50 14 - - 56 543 48 -

Tour and travel guides

21 - - 6 - - 14 - - -

Childcare workers

448 482 8 413 474 11 35 - - -

Personal care aides

735 486 8 608 479 8 127 520 20 92.1

Recreation and fitness workers

200 616 30 118 565 34 82 726 78 77.8

Residential advisors

27 - - 17 - - 10 - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

76 570 37 40 - - 37 - - -

Sales and office occupations

23,686 718 3 14,205 672 3 9,481 834 9 80.6

Sales and related occupations

9,953 763 7 4,355 609 6 5,598 934 9 65.2

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,388 764 12 1,013 639 12 1,376 891 16 71.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

815 1,062 27 274 965 28 541 1,151 37 83.8

Cashiers

1,360 438 9 982 422 5 378 493 14 85.6

Counter and rental clerks

78 607 43 31 - - 48 - - -

Parts salespersons

115 786 56 7 - - 108 800 56 -

Retail salespersons

1,896 615 6 736 523 12 1,160 704 25 74.3

Advertising sales agents

193 887 30 106 882 33 87 895 55 98.5

Insurance sales agents

440 897 37 242 795 46 198 1,058 49 75.1

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

231 1,332 117 77 911 124 154 1,416 42 64.3

Travel agents

57 665 24 47 - - 10 - - -

Sales representatives, services, all other

458 1,147 40 120 902 49 339 1,332 69 67.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,105 1,157 24 308 956 47 796 1,222 36 78.2

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

16 - - 12 - - 4 - - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

488 953 23 269 818 64 219 1,159 37 70.6

Sales engineers

39 - - 3 - - 36 - - -

Telemarketers

37 - - 27 - - 11 - - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

41 - - 15 - - 27 - - -

Sales and related workers, all other

195 971 96 89 799 77 107 1,147 32 69.7

Office and administrative support occupations

13,733 701 3 9,850 691 3 3,884 735 7 94.0

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,261 867 15 854 819 17 408 987 32 83.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

16 - - 12 - - 3 - - -

Telephone operators

35 - - 27 - - 9 - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Bill and account collectors

130 674 32 92 655 26 38 - - -

Billing and posting clerks

405 696 15 347 691 16 58 718 34 96.2

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

718 719 13 625 716 12 92 743 37 96.4

Gaming cage workers

11 - - 11 - - 0 - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

103 765 28 89 767 28 13 - - -

Procurement clerks

29 - - 15 - - 14 - - -

Tellers

209 572 14 184 562 15 25 - - -

Financial clerks, all other

74 902 40 48 - - 26 - - -

Brokerage clerks

5 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Correspondence clerks

6 - - 5 - - 0 - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

79 738 58 62 718 36 17 - - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

50 807 77 31 - - 20 - - -

Customer service representatives

1,881 654 9 1,234 637 10 646 712 29 89.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

66 849 55 50 779 50 16 - - -

File clerks

135 704 36 109 706 31 26 - - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

84 486 18 49 - - 35 - - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

106 671 32 89 683 34 16 - - -

Library assistants, clerical

45 - - 37 - - 8 - - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

114 742 23 95 725 22 19 - - -

New accounts clerks

36 - - 28 - - 8 - - -

Order clerks

80 629 31 42 - - 38 - - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

45 - - 37 - - 8 - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

892 602 7 826 599 7 66 652 25 91.9

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

99 739 38 56 691 58 43 - - -

Information and record clerks, all other

92 691 32 74 683 32 19 - - -

Cargo and freight agents

14 - - 4 - - 10 - - -

Couriers and messengers

155 725 45 24 - - 131 751 49 -

Dispatchers

255 710 19 145 691 18 110 753 34 91.8

Meter readers, utilities

14 - - 2 - - 12 - - -

Postal service clerks

104 940 90 56 925 72 48 - - -

Postal service mail carriers

266 944 33 108 856 35 158 965 29 88.7

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

49 - - 23 - - 26 - - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

238 911 35 120 798 39 118 1,043 47 76.5

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

544 611 10 165 596 20 379 616 11 96.8

Stock clerks and order fillers

982 559 12 339 538 18 643 571 14 94.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43 - - 21 - - 22 - - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,165 739 8 2,046 735 8 119 852 148 86.3

Computer operators

63 809 67 35 - - 27 - - -

Data entry keyers

224 650 17 176 640 18 48 - - -

Word processors and typists

80 683 29 72 667 24 8 - - -

Desktop publishers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

223 714 16 189 711 17 34 - - -

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

46 - - 16 - - 30 - - -

Office clerks, general

935 682 11 793 670 9 142 780 37 85.9

Office machine operators, except computer

27 - - 17 - - 10 - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

6 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Statistical assistants

17 - - 10 - - 7 - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

473 758 21 352 756 21 122 768 56 98.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,509 801 4 515 579 15 10,994 809 5 71.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

962 539 17 206 471 14 756 585 11 80.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

51 711 37 4 - - 47 - - -

Agricultural inspectors

14 - - 4 - - 10 - - -

Animal breeders

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

99 500 29 67 487 34 32 - - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

701 517 8 127 453 19 574 553 31 81.9

Fishers and related fishing workers

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Hunters and trappers

2 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Forest and conservation workers

25 - - 2 - - 23 - - -

Logging workers

47 - - 1 - - 46 - - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,147 796 6 160 802 26 5,987 796 6 100.8

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

520 1,158 36 14 - - 506 1,166 36 -

Boilermakers

15 - - 0 - - 15 - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

121 787 35 0 - - 121 787 35 -

Carpenters

870 789 12 19 - - 851 789 12 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

115 631 48 1 - - 114 628 45 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

47 - - 2 - - 45 - - -

Construction laborers

1,443 670 11 43 - - 1,400 667 11 -

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Pile-driver operators

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

324 868 27 6 - - 318 868 29 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

114 634 54 1 - - 112 628 43 -

Electricians

726 979 26 15 - - 711 974 26 -

Glaziers

39 - - 0 - - 39 - - -

Insulation workers

52 768 27 3 - - 49 - - -

Painters, construction and maintenance

347 683 17 20 - - 328 689 17 -

Paperhangers

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

497 866 35 8 - - 489 865 36 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

13 - - 0 - - 13 - - -

Roofers

174 621 21 0 - - 174 621 21 -

Sheet metal workers

136 865 49 3 - - 132 866 48 -

Structural iron and steel workers

43 - - 2 - - 41 - - -

Solar photovoltaic installers

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Helpers, construction trades

57 621 27 4 - - 53 627 48 -

Construction and building inspectors

63 974 149 4 - - 60 1,068 230 -

Elevator installers and repairers

38 - - 0 - - 38 - - -

Fence erectors

26 - - 1 - - 25 - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

27 - - 6 - - 20 - - -

Highway maintenance workers

91 761 29 4 - - 88 770 30 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

15 - - 1 - - 14 - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

27 - - 0 - - 27 - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Mining machine operators

49 - - 0 - - 49 - - -

Roof bolters, mining

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Helpers--extraction workers

5 - - 1 - - 5 - - -

Other extraction workers

54 900 46 2 - - 52 907 45 -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,400 878 9 149 736 47 4,251 883 8 83.4

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

244 1,092 43 19 - - 225 1,089 49 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

173 819 36 17 - - 156 833 47 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

121 1,010 47 8 - - 113 1,069 99 -

Avionics technicians

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

30 - - 0 - - 30 - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

11 - - 0 - - 11 - - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

38 - - 0 - - 38 - - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

71 945 67 3 - - 68 943 66 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

153 1,169 62 6 - - 146 1,175 65 -

Automotive body and related repairers

124 821 103 1 - - 122 832 124 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

752 761 15 15 - - 737 764 15 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

367 887 25 4 - - 362 887 25 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

177 993 43 4 - - 173 1,005 42 -

Small engine mechanics

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

64 613 38 0 - - 64 613 38 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

25 - - 0 - - 25 - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

376 830 46 7 - - 369 832 47 -

Home appliance repairers

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

395 923 29 16 - - 379 932 41 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

511 828 26 20 - - 490 834 29 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

25 - - 0 - - 25 - - -

Millwrights

40 - - 1 - - 39 - - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

132 1,191 37 0 - - 132 1,191 37 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

187 879 41 5 - - 181 876 45 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

44 - - 10 - - 34 - - -

Wind turbine service technicians

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

24 - - 1 - - 23 - - -

Commercial divers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

20 - - 2 - - 18 - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Riggers

13 - - 0 - - 13 - - -

Signal and track switch repairers

11 - - 0 - - 11 - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

15 - - 2 - - 14 - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

156 774 35 6 - - 150 772 39 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,825 692 3 3,119 545 6 11,705 736 5 74.0

Production occupations

7,589 701 4 2,044 564 7 5,545 769 7 73.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

722 966 24 133 716 53 588 1,007 19 71.1

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

123 624 29 50 587 28 73 682 67 86.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

14 - - 2 - - 11 - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

25 - - 1 - - 24 - - -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

957 630 15 362 559 12 595 700 18 79.9

Bakers

135 472 13 68 464 23 67 488 68 95.1

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

259 587 16 63 487 16 196 621 19 78.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

7 - - 3 - - 4 - - -

Food batchmakers

70 575 29 38 - - 32 - - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

8 - - 5 - - 3 - - -

Food processing workers, all other

171 676 25 52 545 135 119 701 22 77.7

Computer control programmers and operators

100 868 30 12 - - 88 912 50 -

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

18 - - 1 - - 17 - - -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9 - - 1 - - 8 - - -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

84 665 35 9 - - 74 688 48 -

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40 - - 4 - - 35 - - -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14 - - 1 - - 13 - - -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Machinists

343 831 26 16 - - 326 834 28 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

23 - - 3 - - 20 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

3 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

43 - - 5 - - 38 - - -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Tool and die makers

59 1,007 36 3 - - 56 1,021 211 -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

541 812 17 24 - - 517 821 18 -

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

11 - - 0 - - 11 - - -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

16 - - 2 - - 14 - - -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

381 654 18 78 574 29 303 679 19 84.5

Prepress technicians and workers

13 - - 4 - - 8 - - -

Printing press operators

151 758 43 26 - - 126 789 24 -

Print binding and finishing workers

8 - - 4 - - 4 - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

106 450 22 79 443 22 27 - - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

19 - - 9 - - 10 - - -

Sewing machine operators

157 519 21 108 521 23 49 - - -

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

31 - - 21 - - 10 - - -

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

17 - - 9 - - 8 - - -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

12 - - 8 - - 4 - - -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Upholsterers

22 - - 4 - - 18 - - -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

19 - - 9 - - 10 - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

38 - - 2 - - 36 - - -

Furniture finishers

8 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

16 - - 4 - - 12 - - -

Woodworkers, all other

19 - - 4 - - 15 - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

47 - - 2 - - 45 - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

76 1,088 304 4 - - 72 1,142 99 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

107 907 33 5 - - 102 910 33 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

41 - - 6 - - 34 - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

58 877 72 3 - - 55 879 65 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

70 771 25 8 - - 62 795 39 -

Cutting workers

51 521 16 12 - - 40 - - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

13 - - 3 - - 10 - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

717 765 26 275 637 19 443 853 48 74.7

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

24 - - 5 - - 20 - - -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

57 598 74 40 - - 16 - - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

275 553 20 147 516 14 128 598 17 86.3

Painting workers

131 693 28 14 - - 117 705 33 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

23 - - 7 - - 16 - - -

Semiconductor processors

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

10 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Etchers and engravers

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

25 - - 4 - - 21 - - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

28 - - 5 - - 23 - - -

Tire builders

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Helpers--production workers

30 - - 11 - - 19 - - -

Production workers, all other

890 663 16 238 570 20 653 716 15 79.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,236 681 5 1,075 514 6 6,160 710 5 72.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

192 881 123 31 - - 160 919 75 -

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

112 1,736 200 7 - - 105 1,750 119 -

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

16 - - 5 - - 11 - - -

Flight attendants

71 860 96 51 873 82 20 - - -

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

8 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Bus drivers

356 605 16 148 517 28 209 671 27 77.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,828 797 8 139 589 28 2,689 807 9 73.0

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

362 604 18 54 453 30 308 623 24 72.7

Motor vehicle operators, all other

33 - - 5 - - 28 - - -

Locomotive engineers and operators

43 - - 7 - - 36 - - -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

42 - - 2 - - 39 - - -

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

9 - - 2 - - 7 - - -

Sailors and marine oilers

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

29 - - 0 - - 29 - - -

Ship engineers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Bridge and lock tenders

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Parking lot attendants

65 560 45 16 - - 49 - - -

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

80 514 43 7 - - 73 535 45 -

Transportation inspectors

41 - - 8 - - 33 - - -

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

21 - - 10 - - 11 - - -

Other transportation workers

20 - - 1 - - 19 - - -

Conveyor operators and tenders

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Crane and tower operators

52 902 54 1 - - 51 898 53 -

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

29 - - 1 - - 28 - - -

Hoist and winch operators

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

584 624 14 46 - - 538 632 19 -

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

237 530 25 40 - - 197 531 37 -

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,450 578 7 254 500 10 1,196 595 7 84.0

Machine feeders and offbearers

29 - - 15 - - 14 - - -

Packers and packagers, hand

368 480 8 210 462 14 158 500 13 92.4

Pumping station operators

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

56 522 68 7 - - 49 - - -

Mine shuttle car operators

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Material moving workers, all other

41 - - 6 - - 34 - - -

Note: Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by state, 2017 annual averages
State Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

United States

113,272 $860 $2 50,291 $770 $3 62,980 $941 $4 81.8

Alabama

1,593 753 14 712 656 17 881 845 25 77.6

Alaska

253 979 18 117 883 27 136 1,090 43 81.0

Arizona

2,283 830 17 970 749 17 1,312 916 26 81.8

Arkansas

1,023 722 13 496 665 15 527 799 23 83.2

California

13,145 913 8 5,620 827 11 7,525 992 11 83.4

Colorado

2,049 918 14 854 838 20 1,195 986 20 85.0

Connecticut

1,290 1,011 19 577 938 40 713 1,102 47 85.1

Delaware

349 840 22 160 785 19 189 905 26 86.7

District of Columbia

311 1,273 30 158 1,191 45 153 1,385 50 86.0

Florida

7,092 768 7 3,312 726 9 3,780 826 14 87.9

Georgia

3,717 775 12 1,736 720 17 1,981 866 29 83.1

Hawaii

497 821 18 234 734 23 263 918 28 80.0

Idaho

568 794 16 230 695 13 338 893 17 77.8

Illinois

4,426 918 12 1,965 791 16 2,460 1,017 17 77.8

Indiana

2,425 805 14 1,075 708 19 1,350 903 28 78.4

Iowa

1,167 825 15 522 738 17 645 907 20 81.4

Kansas

1,040 823 18 459 749 20 581 916 21 81.8

Kentucky

1,477 774 15 676 673 20 801 834 30 80.7

Louisiana

1,498 773 15 673 686 20 825 886 26 77.4

Maine

445 845 24 201 760 23 244 911 22 83.4

Maryland

2,295 1,036 28 1,041 959 37 1,254 1,131 41 84.8

Massachusetts

2,597 1,078 21 1,157 971 18 1,440 1,204 32 80.6

Michigan

3,405 853 16 1,455 765 12 1,950 928 17 82.4

Minnesota

2,128 955 20 937 844 26 1,191 1,026 24 82.3

Mississippi

944 723 13 454 643 18 490 794 25 81.0

Missouri

2,166 826 17 1,006 733 20 1,160 925 27 79.2

Montana

321 800 19 135 713 15 185 883 22 80.7

Nebraska

696 814 16 311 760 23 385 871 28 87.3

Nevada

1,071 746 12 451 675 14 621 808 16 83.5

New Hampshire

512 918 20 225 838 21 287 1,003 25 83.5

New Jersey

3,241 1,016 13 1,486 929 17 1,755 1,138 23 81.6

New Mexico

622 737 13 268 701 16 354 771 22 90.9

New York

7,120 918 9 3,303 850 15 3,817 984 13 86.4

North Carolina

3,574 810 10 1,655 754 13 1,919 874 19 86.3

North Dakota

291 857 18 128 740 18 164 952 18 77.7

Ohio

4,021 832 12 1,801 743 13 2,220 908 15 81.8

Oklahoma

1,308 766 11 554 685 16 754 859 25 79.7

Oregon

1,413 873 23 604 770 24 810 945 22 81.5

Pennsylvania

4,448 869 13 1,985 768 11 2,463 971 17 79.1

Rhode Island

391 897 14 178 833 24 213 956 32 87.1

South Carolina

1,673 799 14 753 696 16 920 898 20 77.5

South Dakota

308 769 13 141 679 15 168 858 19 79.1

Tennessee

2,291 780 15 1,034 704 17 1,257 874 23 80.5

Texas

9,918 813 9 4,243 734 9 5,675 894 11 82.1

Utah

1,044 827 15 394 692 14 650 952 18 72.7

Vermont

227 874 19 103 816 24 124 918 21 88.9

Virginia

3,134 937 18 1,414 844 20 1,720 1,043 33 80.9

Washington

2,538 961 20 1,066 825 22 1,472 1,093 27 75.5

West Virginia

569 747 12 253 670 20 316 830 22 80.7

Wisconsin

2,159 860 13 926 777 18 1,233 936 21 83.0

Wyoming

197 875 21 82 720 17 115 1,006 21 71.6

Note: In general, the sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates; thus, comparisons of state estimates should be made with caution. Data shown are based on workers' state of residence; workers' reported earnings, however, may or may not be from a job located in the same state.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by selected demographic characteristics, 2017 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

24,433 $260 $1 16,054 $265 $2 8,378 $250 $2 106.0

16 to 24 years

8,453 200 2 4,771 199 2 3,683 201 2 99.0

16 to 19 years

3,605 160 2 1,981 159 3 1,625 162 3 98.1

20 to 24 years

4,848 232 2 2,790 229 3 2,058 237 4 96.6

25 years and older

15,980 301 2 11,284 302 2 4,696 301 3 100.3

25 to 34 years

4,178 300 3 2,812 300 4 1,367 300 5 100.0

35 to 44 years

3,028 319 4 2,322 318 4 706 322 10 98.8

45 to 54 years

2,970 319 4 2,337 318 4 633 324 10 98.1

55 to 64 years

3,195 302 4 2,295 304 5 900 294 8 103.4

65 years and older

2,609 258 5 1,518 249 6 1,091 273 8 91.2

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

19,235 264 2 12,781 269 2 6,454 253 3 106.3

Black or African American

2,953 243 3 1,858 247 4 1,095 237 5 104.2

Asian

1,237 275 6 798 276 7 439 275 11 100.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4,024 262 3 2,588 260 3 1,436 265 5 98.1

Marital Status

Never married

11,972 221 1 6,769 220 2 5,203 222 2 99.1

Married, spouse present(1)

9,178 313 2 6,795 312 3 2,383 314 5 99.4

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

3,283 285 4 2,491 285 4 792 286 7 99.7

Widowed

720 254 7 605 255 8 115 250 21 102.0

Divorced

1,846 297 5 1,364 296 6 483 300 10 98.7

Separated(2)

717 285 6 522 289 7 195 272 14 106.2

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by hours usually worked, 2017 annual averages
Hours of work Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Total, 16 years and older

137,890 $740 $2 66,421 $641 $2 71,469 $852 $4 75.2

0 to 34 hours

22,410 263 1 14,767 268 2 7,644 253 2 105.9

0 to 4 hours

530 62 3 349 62 3 181 63 5 98.4

5 to 9 hours

1,195 89 2 784 88 3 412 91 4 96.7

10 to 14 hours

2,025 122 1 1,331 123 2 694 118 2 104.2

15 to 19 hours

2,704 174 2 1,799 184 3 905 164 2 112.2

20 to 24 hours

6,575 238 2 4,348 245 2 2,227 224 3 109.4

25 to 29 hours

3,369 297 2 2,202 301 3 1,167 291 3 103.4

30 to 34 hours

6,013 378 3 3,953 390 4 2,060 360 4 108.3

35 hours and over

108,270 865 2 48,321 776 3 59,949 945 4 82.1

35 to 39 hours

7,849 537 6 5,249 550 6 2,601 514 7 107.0

40 hours

78,506 801 2 36,175 752 3 42,331 853 4 88.2

41 hours and over

21,915 1,276 8 6,897 1,173 11 15,018 1,343 8 87.3

41 to 44 hours

1,221 949 22 518 877 28 703 1,010 31 86.8

45 to 48 hours

6,161 1,149 9 2,157 1,113 19 4,004 1,172 15 95.0

49 to 59 hours

9,873 1,377 11 3,032 1,273 19 6,842 1,414 13 90.0

60 hours and over

4,660 1,452 15 1,191 1,261 24 3,469 1,499 18 84.1

Hours vary

7,210 519 8 3,334 397 6 3,876 666 17 59.6

Usually less than 35 hours

2,022 226 5 1,288 231 6 735 219 7 105.5

Usually 35 or more hours

5,002 722 13 1,971 576 17 3,031 864 18 66.7

Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time and part-time workers. Estimates for the "hours vary" groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for a small number of multiple jobholders whose usual number of hours on the principal job is not identifiable.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2017 annual averages [In thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Number of workers by usual weekly earnings
Under
$350.00
$350.00
to
$499.99
$500.00
to
$599.99
$600.00
to
$749.99
$750.00
to
$999.99
$1,000.00
to
$1,199.99
$1,200.00
to
$1,999.99
$2,000.00
or
more

Age

Total, 16 years and older

113,272 5,132 15,128 10,221 15,876 19,574 11,945 22,859 12,537

16 to 24 years

10,281 1,288 3,340 1,556 1,657 1,330 482 536 93

16 to 19 years

1,359 331 583 173 135 79 17 35 6

20 to 24 years

8,922 957 2,758 1,383 1,522 1,251 465 501 86

25 years and older

102,991 3,844 11,788 8,666 14,219 18,244 11,463 22,323 12,444

25 to 34 years

28,196 1,278 4,104 2,938 4,795 5,481 3,023 4,834 1,743

35 to 44 years

25,662 878 2,720 1,951 3,283 4,308 2,932 6,129 3,460

45 to 54 years

25,650 867 2,552 1,912 3,174 4,440 2,957 5,996 3,751

55 to 64 years

19,157 568 1,901 1,451 2,439 3,356 2,104 4,512 2,826

65 years and older

4,327 253 511 414 529 658 447 851 664

Women, 16 years and older

50,291 2,885 7,908 5,219 7,684 9,127 5,182 8,616 3,671

16 to 24 years

4,490 671 1,564 698 664 529 169 169 26

16 to 19 years

566 169 268 61 28 27 4 10 0

20 to 24 years

3,924 502 1,296 638 636 502 166 160 26

25 years and older

45,801 2,214 6,344 4,521 7,020 8,598 5,012 8,446 3,645

25 to 34 years

12,381 664 2,001 1,487 2,239 2,465 1,266 1,733 526

35 to 44 years

11,173 537 1,453 983 1,565 2,049 1,266 2,326 994

45 to 54 years

11,609 560 1,468 1,033 1,665 2,139 1,317 2,309 1,118

55 to 64 years

8,756 324 1,158 796 1,286 1,614 970 1,785 823

65 years and older

1,882 130 264 222 265 331 193 293 184

Men, 16 years and older

62,980 2,246 7,220 5,003 8,192 10,448 6,763 14,243 8,866

16 to 24 years

5,791 617 1,776 858 993 801 312 367 67

16 to 19 years

793 162 315 112 107 52 13 25 6

20 to 24 years

4,998 454 1,461 746 886 749 299 342 61

25 years and older

57,190 1,630 5,444 4,145 7,199 9,646 6,451 13,876 8,799

25 to 34 years

15,815 614 2,103 1,450 2,556 3,016 1,757 3,102 1,217

35 to 44 years

14,488 341 1,267 968 1,718 2,260 1,667 3,803 2,466

45 to 54 years

14,041 307 1,084 879 1,509 2,301 1,640 3,687 2,633

55 to 64 years

10,401 244 743 656 1,153 1,742 1,134 2,727 2,003

65 years and older

2,445 123 247 192 264 328 254 558 480

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

87,730 3,567 10,836 7,531 12,129 15,395 9,583 18,478 10,212

Women

37,727 1,950 5,571 3,741 5,763 7,036 4,036 6,742 2,888

Men

50,003 1,617 5,265 3,790 6,366 8,359 5,547 11,736 7,323

Black or African American

14,521 1,048 2,921 1,744 2,345 2,461 1,307 1,947 749

Women

7,593 632 1,612 957 1,225 1,273 676 904 313

Men

6,928 416 1,309 787 1,120 1,188 630 1,042 436

Asian

7,320 289 747 520 780 1,066 732 1,867 1,320

Women

3,306 170 405 304 405 541 332 747 401

Men

4,014 119 341 215 375 525 400 1,121 920

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,615 1,381 4,461 2,329 3,337 3,185 1,578 2,364 981

Women

7,719 735 2,040 966 1,193 1,209 549 767 259

Men

11,896 646 2,421 1,362 2,144 1,975 1,029 1,596 722

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by marital status and presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 2017 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers (in thousands) Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Women

Total, all marital statuses

50,291 $770 $3

With children under 18 years old

17,301 777 5

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,619 802 7

With children under 6 years old

6,682 743 7

With no children under 18 years old

32,990 767 3

Total, married, spouse present(1)

25,364 862 4

With children under 18 years old

11,357 887 6

With children 6 to 17, none younger

6,919 878 8

With children under 6 years old

4,437 902 10

With no children under 18 years old

14,007 842 5

Total, other marital statuses(2)

24,928 694 3

With children under 18 years old

5,945 628 5

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,700 696 8

With children under 6 years old

2,245 555 10

With no children under 18 years old

18,983 717 4

Men

Total, all marital statuses

62,980 941 4

With children under 18 years old

21,868 1,059 8

With children 6 to 17, none younger

11,960 1,129 8

With children under 6 years old

9,909 988 8

With no children under 18 years old

41,112 887 4

Total, married, spouse present(1)

36,579 1,098 6

With children under 18 years old

19,139 1,120 7

With children 6 to 17, none younger

10,571 1,159 7

With children under 6 years old

8,568 1,049 11

With no children under 18 years old

17,440 1,076 8

Total, other marital statuses(2)

26,401 761 4

With children under 18 years old

2,729 762 10

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,389 880 23

With children under 6 years old

1,341 688 14

With no children under 18 years old

23,672 761 4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.

Note: Children refer to "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded are other related children such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, as well as unrelated children.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected characteristics, 2017 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
hourly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
hourly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
hourly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

80,439 $14.63 $0.05 40,658 $13.56 $0.06 39,781 $15.20 $0.04 89.2

16 to 24 years

15,974 10.68 0.04 7,965 10.28 0.04 8,009 10.99 0.04 93.5

16 to 19 years

4,660 9.79 0.02 2,409 9.59 0.10 2,252 9.88 0.03 97.1

20 to 24 years

11,314 11.35 0.08 5,557 11.00 0.04 5,757 11.88 0.04 92.6

25 years and older

64,465 15.65 0.05 32,693 14.83 0.02 31,772 17.00 0.05 87.2

25 to 34 years

19,269 14.83 0.03 9,350 14.00 0.06 9,919 15.15 0.04 92.4

35 to 44 years

14,620 16.10 0.06 7,188 14.92 0.05 7,432 17.89 0.07 83.4

45 to 54 years

14,793 16.72 0.11 7,641 15.16 0.05 7,152 18.74 0.22 80.9

55 to 64 years

11,865 16.82 0.11 6,361 15.21 0.10 5,504 18.60 0.21 81.8

65 years and older

3,918 14.32 0.21 2,153 13.88 0.17 1,766 14.93 0.11 93.0

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

61,258 14.89 0.02 30,398 13.87 0.04 30,861 15.79 0.07 87.8

Black or African American

11,829 12.90 0.06 6,445 12.55 0.10 5,385 13.34 0.14 94.1

Asian

4,001 15.06 0.08 2,160 14.23 0.30 1,841 16.65 0.43 85.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,604 13.16 0.06 7,473 12.09 0.04 9,131 14.37 0.18 84.1

Marital Status

Never married

32,149 12.15 0.02 15,538 11.85 0.03 16,612 12.77 0.07 92.8

Married, spouse present(1)

35,317 16.64 0.08 17,212 15.13 0.03 18,106 18.16 0.07 83.3

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

12,973 14.97 0.04 7,909 14.14 0.08 5,064 16.22 0.18 87.2

Widowed

1,627 14.11 0.19 1,255 13.76 0.26 372 15.25 0.52 90.2

Divorced

8,165 15.55 0.15 4,873 14.88 0.06 3,292 17.20 0.22 86.5

Separated(2)

3,182 13.52 0.23 1,781 12.59 0.18 1,400 15.01 0.10 83.9

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

8,614 20.11 0.06 3,315 17.79 0.19 5,299 22.12 0.19 80.4

Represented by unions(5)

9,493 19.94 0.06 3,775 17.42 0.24 5,719 21.86 0.21 79.7

Not represented by a union

70,946 13.98 0.03 36,884 13.12 0.03 34,062 14.87 0.02 88.2

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

64,465 15.65 0.05 32,693 14.83 0.02 31,772 17.00 0.05 87.2

Less than a high school diploma

6,689 12.02 0.04 2,687 10.78 0.06 4,001 13.22 0.13 81.5

High school graduates, no college

21,809 14.94 0.03 9,749 13.13 0.05 12,060 16.66 0.13 78.8

Some college or associate degree

21,365 15.92 0.05 11,472 14.92 0.04 9,893 17.85 0.09 83.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

14,602 19.98 0.05 8,785 19.78 0.14 5,817 20.52 0.27 96.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by hourly earnings and selected demographic characteristics, 2017 annual averages [In thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Number of workers by hourly earnings
Under
$6.00
$6.00
to
$7.99
$8.00
to
$9.99
$10.00
to
$11.99
$12.00
to
$14.99
$15.00
to
$19.99
$20.00
or
more

Age

Total, 16 years and older

80,439 990 1,624 8,340 14,686 15,223 17,708 21,869

16 to 24 years

15,974 430 912 3,684 4,739 3,319 2,003 886

16 to 19 years

4,660 131 519 1,689 1,498 585 189 50

20 to 24 years

11,314 299 394 1,995 3,241 2,735 1,814 836

25 years and older

64,465 560 711 4,656 9,946 11,904 15,705 20,983

25 to 34 years

19,269 282 238 1,563 3,275 4,169 5,053 4,689

35 to 44 years

14,620 123 160 1,001 2,134 2,520 3,513 5,169

45 to 54 years

14,793 97 131 916 2,074 2,464 3,540 5,572

55 to 64 years

11,865 52 106 738 1,680 2,030 2,782 4,476

65 years and older

3,918 7 77 437 783 721 817 1,077

Women, 16 years and older

40,658 663 943 5,140 8,113 8,153 8,615 9,031

16 to 24 years

7,965 284 520 2,037 2,378 1,594 808 345

16 to 19 years

2,409 77 295 933 757 280 51 15

20 to 24 years

5,557 207 225 1,103 1,621 1,314 756 330

25 years and older

32,693 379 423 3,103 5,735 6,559 7,808 8,686

25 to 34 years

9,350 190 129 967 1,692 2,123 2,342 1,907

35 to 44 years

7,188 85 97 687 1,242 1,387 1,648 2,041

45 to 54 years

7,641 65 90 664 1,308 1,396 1,852 2,266

55 to 64 years

6,361 34 61 512 1,072 1,224 1,495 1,964

65 years and older

2,153 5 46 272 420 429 471 509

Men, 16 years and older

39,781 327 681 3,200 6,573 7,070 9,093 12,838

16 to 24 years

8,009 146 392 1,647 2,362 1,725 1,196 541

16 to 19 years

2,252 54 223 756 741 305 138 35

20 to 24 years

5,757 91 169 892 1,620 1,421 1,058 506

25 years and older

31,772 181 289 1,553 4,211 5,345 7,897 12,297

25 to 34 years

9,919 92 108 596 1,583 2,047 2,711 2,782

35 to 44 years

7,432 38 63 314 892 1,132 1,865 3,129

45 to 54 years

7,152 32 40 252 766 1,067 1,689 3,306

55 to 64 years

5,504 18 45 226 608 806 1,287 2,512

65 years and older

1,766 1 31 165 363 292 346 568

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

61,258 811 1,114 5,883 10,669 11,371 13,726 17,685

Women

30,398 560 638 3,629 5,908 6,017 6,506 7,140

Men

30,861 251 476 2,253 4,761 5,355 7,220 10,545

Black or African American

11,829 93 392 1,766 2,485 2,487 2,469 2,137

Women

6,445 48 236 1,081 1,347 1,389 1,336 1,007

Men

5,385 46 155 684 1,138 1,098 1,133 1,130

Asian

4,001 41 56 305 749 725 766 1,359

Women

2,160 28 35 189 453 412 411 632

Men

1,841 14 21 116 296 313 355 727

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,604 148 311 1,709 3,953 3,578 3,649 3,255

Women

7,473 94 180 1,058 2,043 1,641 1,415 1,041

Men

9,131 55 131 651 1,910 1,936 2,235 2,214

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected demographic characteristics, 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Workers paid hourly rates
Total Below
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage
At
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage
Total at or below
prevailing federal
minimum wage
Number Percentage of
workers
paid hourly
rates

Age

Total, 16 years and older

80,439 1,282 542 1,824 2.3

16 to 24 years

15,974 569 321 891 5.6

16 to 19 years

4,660 215 172 388 8.3

20 to 24 years

11,314 354 149 503 4.4

25 years and older

64,465 712 221 933 1.4

25 to 34 years

19,269 338 76 415 2.2

35 to 44 years

14,620 162 47 210 1.4

45 to 54 years

14,793 121 38 158 1.1

55 to 64 years

11,865 62 42 105 0.9

65 years and older

3,918 29 18 46 1.2

Women, 16 years and older

40,658 829 316 1,146 2.8

16 to 24 years

7,965 371 190 562 7.1

16 to 19 years

2,409 134 107 241 10.0

20 to 24 years

5,557 237 83 320 5.8

25 years and older

32,693 458 126 584 1.8

25 to 34 years

9,350 222 38 260 2.8

35 to 44 years

7,188 104 29 133 1.9

45 to 54 years

7,641 77 25 102 1.3

55 to 64 years

6,361 42 22 65 1.0

65 years and older

2,153 13 12 25 1.1

Men, 16 years and older

39,781 452 226 678 1.7

16 to 24 years

8,009 198 131 329 4.1

16 to 19 years

2,252 81 65 146 6.5

20 to 24 years

5,757 117 65 183 3.2

25 years and older

31,772 254 95 349 1.1

25 to 34 years

9,919 117 38 155 1.6

35 to 44 years

7,432 59 18 77 1.0

45 to 54 years

7,152 43 13 56 0.8

55 to 64 years

5,504 20 20 40 0.7

65 years and older

1,766 16 6 21 1.2

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

61,258 1,016 359 1,375 2.2

Women

30,398 680 205 885 2.9

Men

30,861 336 154 490 1.6

Black or African American

11,829 155 146 301 2.5

Women

6,445 79 88 166 2.6

Men

5,385 76 58 135 2.5

Asian

4,001 56 14 70 1.7

Women

2,160 37 10 47 2.2

Men

1,841 19 4 23 1.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,604 200 101 301 1.8

Women

7,473 123 53 176 2.4

Men

9,131 77 48 124 1.4

Full- and Part-time Status(1)

Full-time workers

60,205 510 130 640 1.1

Women

27,397 303 71 375 1.4

Men

32,808 207 59 265 0.8

Part-time workers

20,139 769 412 1,181 5.9

Women

13,219 524 245 769 5.8

Men

6,921 245 167 412 5.9

Footnotes
(1) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data do not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

Note: See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, 1979–2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Year Total
wage
and
salary
workers
Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percentage
of total
wage
and
salary
workers
Below
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage(1)
At
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage(1)
Total at or below
prevailing federal
minimum wage
Number Percentage of
workers
paid hourly
rates

Total

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 1,096 3,228 5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 2,906 5,283 8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 1,861 3,724 5.4

1997

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 1,764 4,754 6.7

1998

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 1,462 267 1,729 2.3

2008

129,377 75,305 58.2 1,940 286 2,226 3.0

2009

124,490 72,611 58.3 2,592 980 3,572 4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 2,541 1,820 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 2,152 1,677 3,829 5.2

2012

127,577 75,276 59.0 1,984 1,566 3,550 4.7

2013

129,110 75,948 58.8 1,768 1,532 3,301 4.3

2014

131,431 77,207 58.7 1,737 1,255 2,992 3.9

2015

133,743 78,232 58.5 1,691 870 2,561 3.3

2016

136,101 79,883 58.7 1,451 701 2,153 2.7

2017

137,890 80,439 58.3 1,282 542 1,824 2.3

Women

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 711 2,131 6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 1,792 3,374 10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 1,106 2,350 6.8

1997

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 1,092 2,935 8.3

1998

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 1,002 181 1,183 3.1

2008

62,532 37,972 60.7 1,302 196 1,498 3.9

2009

60,951 37,426 61.4 1,603 612 2,215 5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,598 1,151 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,366 1,029 2,395 6.4

2012

61,679 38,163 61.9 1,288 999 2,287 6.0

2013

62,316 38,404 61.6 1,148 910 2,058 5.4

2014

63,383 38,802 61.2 1,139 739 1,878 4.8

2015

64,445 39,500 61.3 1,062 540 1,602 4.1

2016

65,512 40,315 61.5 952 432 1,384 3.4

2017

66,421 40,658 61.2 829 316 1,146 2.8

Men

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 385 1,097 3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 1,114 1,909 6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 755 1,374 3.9

1997

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 673 1,820 5.1

1998

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 460 86 546 1.4

2008

66,846 37,334 55.9 638 90 728 1.9

2009

63,539 35,185 55.4 990 368 1,358 3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 943 669 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 785 648 1,433 3.9

2012

65,898 37,113 56.3 696 567 1,263 3.4

2013

66,794 37,544 56.2 621 622 1,243 3.3

2014

68,048 38,405 56.4 598 516 1,114 2.9

2015

69,298 38,732 55.9 629 330 959 2.5

2016

70,589 39,568 56.1 499 270 769 1.9

2017

71,469 39,781 55.7 452 226 678 1.7

Footnotes
(1) Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. See the technical notes section for information about the federal minimum wage level and estimating the number of minimum wage workers.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2017
Year Total,
16 years
and older
16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19
years
20 to 24
years
Total 25 to 34
years
35 to 44
years
45 to 54
years
55 to 64
years
65 years
and older

1979

62.3 78.6 85.2 76.3 62.1 67.5 58.3 56.8 60.6 77.6

1980

64.2 80.3 89.5 78.1 62.8 69.4 58.3 56.9 59.4 76.4

1981

64.4 82.6 91.7 80.6 62.6 70.3 59.9 56.8 58.9 71.1

1982

65.7 85.3 92.9 82.4 64.9 72.1 61.1 60.1 61.4 70.3

1983

66.5 88.8 94.0 85.5 65.8 73.3 61.5 59.5 61.8 68.8

1984

67.6 87.9 93.1 85.2 67.1 74.6 62.0 59.4 61.5 66.8

1985

68.1 87.6 90.7 85.7 66.8 75.1 63.0 59.7 61.0 65.9

1986

69.5 89.0 91.4 87.5 66.5 76.1 63.9 60.9 61.2 71.5

1987

69.8 88.3 87.8 88.0 67.3 76.7 66.1 62.3 62.2 68.7

1988

70.2 89.7 89.8 90.0 68.8 77.7 68.5 61.7 62.3 70.9

1989

70.1 90.8 94.3 89.7 70.2 78.3 68.3 62.7 63.9 74.3

1990

71.9 90.1 90.8 90.3 72.1 79.3 69.6 63.8 63.7 74.4

1991

74.2 93.3 93.6 93.3 74.0 81.0 70.7 65.0 64.5 68.3

1992

75.8 94.0 94.0 94.3 74.6 82.0 71.9 65.8 64.9 77.9

1993

77.1 94.8 92.8 95.4 74.8 83.0 73.0 67.4 67.4 74.3

1994

76.4 93.9 92.5 94.5 73.1 82.9 72.6 67.1 66.0 76.2

1995

75.5 90.8 88.1 92.4 72.8 82.2 72.6 67.7 64.7 80.0

1996

75.0 92.5 88.8 92.8 74.1 83.2 73.3 68.9 65.3 70.0

1997

74.4 92.1 91.6 90.5 75.1 82.9 74.0 69.4 64.7 77.0

1998

76.3 91.3 88.6 89.4 75.9 82.9 73.6 70.5 68.1 72.6

1999

76.5 91.0 91.4 90.5 74.4 81.5 71.7 70.0 67.9 78.7

2000

76.9 91.7 92.5 92.7 74.5 82.4 71.6 73.2 69.1 75.1

2001

76.4 90.3 90.3 91.9 75.4 83.0 72.5 73.5 70.5 69.0

2002

77.9 93.9 94.6 93.9 77.6 84.5 75.2 74.6 71.6 73.8

2003

79.4 93.2 93.1 93.9 78.5 86.9 76.1 73.0 72.7 71.1

2004

80.4 93.8 92.1 93.8 78.6 87.8 75.6 72.9 73.0 74.6

2005

81.0 93.2 92.1 93.8 79.4 89.0 75.5 75.5 74.7 76.4

2006

80.8 94.5 87.6 94.9 78.7 88.2 77.2 73.5 72.9 77.5

2007

80.2 92.3 89.1 90.3 78.5 86.9 76.5 74.5 72.8 77.8

2008

79.9 91.1 87.3 92.5 78.2 88.5 74.5 74.9 75.4 74.8

2009

80.2 92.6 90.7 92.9 78.7 88.7 77.4 73.6 75.3 76.1

2010

81.2 95.3 94.6 93.8 80.5 90.8 79.9 76.5 75.2 75.7

2011

82.2 92.5 88.6 93.2 81.0 92.3 78.5 76.0 75.1 80.9

2012

80.9 88.9 88.5 89.0 79.9 90.2 78.1 75.1 76.2 77.6

2013

82.1 88.3 89.7 89.8 81.1 89.4 80.2 76.6 77.1 73.7

2014

82.5 91.5 91.1 92.3 81.6 89.9 81.0 77.2 76.4 78.6

2015

81.1 88.2 89.4 89.7 80.4 89.6 81.8 76.8 73.7 73.8

2016

81.9 94.9 92.6 95.6 80.9 88.8 83.3 77.8 73.7 75.5

2017

81.8 91.2 87.6 90.2 81.3 88.2 81.0 77.5 78.0 77.0

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 22.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2017
Year Total,
16 years
and older
White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or
Latino ethnicity

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

2017

81.8 81.9 92.5 74.8 87.4

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in table 23. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2017
Year Total, 25 years and older Less than a high school diploma High school graduates, no college Some college or associate degree Bachelor's degree and higher

1979

62.1 60.3 60.1 64.1 66.7

1980

62.8 61.4 61.5 64.5 67.9

1981

62.6 61.2 61.0 65.6 66.9

1982

64.9 62.8 63.1 66.7 68.8

1983

65.8 64.8 63.4 68.2 71.2

1984

67.1 64.9 64.9 68.4 69.4

1985

66.8 64.3 65.8 67.2 70.2

1986

66.5 64.8 66.6 68.0 70.6

1987

67.3 66.0 68.1 69.8 71.4

1988

68.8 66.6 68.2 71.6 71.4

1989

70.2 66.8 67.6 73.3 71.9

1990

72.1 68.8 68.6 72.9 72.2

1991

74.0 71.6 69.8 72.6 73.6

1992

74.6 72.9 70.4 73.3 75.1

1993

74.8 73.9 71.3 73.8 75.8

1994

73.1 75.1 70.8 72.1 76.8

1995

72.8 75.5 70.2 71.6 76.2

1996

74.1 75.1 70.7 73.2 75.2

1997

75.1 75.3 70.7 73.9 75.0

1998

75.9 73.9 70.8 74.0 75.3

1999

74.4 73.4 69.8 73.4 75.7

2000

74.5 74.9 71.1 73.1 74.1

2001

75.4 75.4 72.7 71.9 73.7

2002

77.6 77.2 74.2 74.3 74.2

2003

78.5 76.7 75.5 75.7 73.6

2004

78.6 74.9 75.7 75.8 75.2

2005

79.4 74.9 75.6 76.6 75.7

2006

78.7 76.3 73.7 75.6 75.1

2007

78.5 76.7 74.3 75.2 75.0

2008

78.2 76.1 73.3 75.7 74.3

2009

78.7 76.4 75.7 75.4 73.1

2010

80.5 79.8 76.5 75.5 74.1

2011

81.0 80.9 76.9 76.8 74.9

2012

79.9 76.0 76.3 76.9 73.0

2013

81.1 80.0 78.3 76.6 74.8

2014

81.6 79.1 77.0 75.8 75.7

2015

80.4 80.4 77.2 75.2 74.9

2016

80.9 76.8 77.9 76.8 75.2

2017

81.3 76.5 76.5 76.3 76.4

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older in table 24.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by age, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2017
Year Total,
16 years
and
older
16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19
years
20 to 24
years
Total 25 to 34
years
35 to 44
years
45 to 54
years
55 to 64
years
65 years
and
older

1979

64.1 81.8 95.0 75.9 58.3 63.3 55.8 54.1 56.9 87.6

1980

64.8 84.1 93.2 77.0 58.7 64.1 54.9 54.4 56.4 89.2

1981

65.1 86.1 96.7 80.0 60.3 66.7 57.5 54.1 56.2 88.1

1982

67.3 86.3 97.0 81.8 62.1 67.7 57.1 55.7 59.0 88.1

1983

69.4 87.2 96.7 84.4 62.9 70.3 57.6 56.7 58.0 87.6

1984

69.8 86.0 96.5 84.5 63.7 71.1 59.0 56.9 59.5 89.0

1985

70.0 85.7 96.3 87.2 64.7 72.4 60.3 57.8 60.4 88.8

1986

70.2 85.8 95.5 86.7 66.0 74.1 61.4 59.0 60.3 91.3

1987

72.1 85.9 93.9 86.1 67.2 74.3 62.9 61.3 62.0 91.2

1988

73.8 89.1 94.4 87.2 68.7 75.6 66.1 61.6 62.4 92.8

1989

75.4 90.7 93.4 86.9 69.8 78.0 67.0 63.4 63.8 87.1

1990

77.9 91.0 93.8 90.1 71.8 79.4 68.7 64.3 66.2 89.6

1991

78.6 91.0 97.9 91.7 73.5 80.4 70.4 65.0 68.9 92.6

1992

80.3 91.3 97.7 92.5 76.0 82.6 73.1 66.1 69.3 92.6

1993

80.4 91.7 97.1 94.2 77.3 83.6 73.1 67.3 69.0 92.1

1994

80.6 90.5 97.0 91.2 78.2 85.5 73.4 69.9 70.7 94.0

1995

80.8 90.9 96.1 89.3 76.1 83.7 72.6 70.8 71.4 94.2

1996

81.2 92.1 97.0 89.6 78.2 83.1 74.6 72.1 72.4 91.6

1997

80.8 92.2 96.6 91.2 78.8 82.7 75.7 72.3 70.5 98.1

1998

81.8 90.3 96.7 89.1 77.9 86.1 77.4 75.0 72.4 93.2

1999

83.8 92.7 96.8 89.9 79.4 83.9 76.9 72.7 76.4 95.4

2000

83.8 91.7 93.8 93.0 80.8 88.3 76.3 73.2 76.8 94.7

2001

85.2 90.5 95.8 89.7 79.2 85.8 75.0 76.1 80.2 90.4

2002

85.0 92.5 96.9 91.3 82.1 85.1 78.7 77.6 80.8 89.3

2003

84.8 93.2 97.6 91.0 83.1 87.5 79.1 79.0 78.4 90.3

2004

84.6 93.9 95.9 91.7 81.7 88.3 78.4 79.1 79.6 92.5

2005

84.8 92.6 96.0 92.4 83.2 89.2 79.6 80.2 80.2 97.8

2006

84.0 90.9 95.7 90.5 83.2 87.6 80.0 76.4 80.6 93.0

2007

84.8 89.3 95.4 90.4 81.7 87.4 81.5 79.6 79.2 92.2

2008

85.4 91.2 96.6 91.6 83.0 87.0 80.5 78.2 81.8 91.6

2009

85.5 93.1 97.1 92.0 84.7 90.6 80.7 77.0 84.5 92.6

2010

86.0 93.6 97.8 91.7 85.6 91.9 82.9 79.9 83.2 93.8

2011

86.8 94.6 97.5 92.5 86.7 92.0 83.8 81.5 82.2 91.5

2012

86.4 93.0 97.9 92.0 86.8 91.5 83.9 81.2 83.1 90.9

2013

86.6 92.3 96.7 94.0 87.5 91.1 84.9 81.2 84.1 94.9

2014

84.6 92.4 96.1 96.3 85.7 87.0 84.6 81.2 81.3 89.2

2015

85.6 95.1 97.5 93.5 87.8 91.0 85.7 84.3 82.1 89.5

2016

87.0 97.7 95.7 91.9 87.6 88.2 85.8 83.0 83.7 88.1

2017

89.2 93.5 97.1 92.6 87.2 92.4 83.4 80.9 81.8 93.0

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information on historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of workers paid hourly rates in table 25.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 16. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2017
Year Total,
16 years
and
older
White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1979

64.1 62.5 72.6 - 71.8

1980

64.8 63.6 74.9 - 75.1

1981

65.1 63.8 72.1 - 76.4

1982

67.3 66.0 75.2 - 75.6

1983

69.4 68.0 79.2 - 76.1

1984

69.8 68.6 79.1 - 77.0

1985

70.0 67.8 82.0 - 79.4

1986

70.2 68.8 78.7 - 80.8

1987

72.1 70.9 80.1 - 80.2

1988

73.8 72.7 80.8 - 81.1

1989

75.4 74.0 83.2 - 83.0

1990

77.9 75.6 84.5 - 86.1

1991

78.6 76.6 86.5 - 86.9

1992

80.3 78.6 87.1 - 88.3

1993

80.4 78.9 89.6 - 88.6

1994

80.6 79.7 87.5 - 89.3

1995

80.8 78.4 87.3 - 90.9

1996

81.2 79.6 88.0 - 88.8

1997

80.8 80.3 87.5 - 86.3

1998

81.8 81.8 86.9 - 87.6

1999

83.8 82.3 83.2 - 86.6

2000

83.8 83.0 88.8 90.5 87.3

2001

85.2 83.8 89.9 85.1 85.6

2002

85.0 83.8 92.3 91.7 86.1

2003

84.8 84.0 91.7 89.8 88.5

2004

84.6 84.0 91.3 88.8 90.2

2005

84.8 84.2 91.1 91.3 90.1

2006

84.0 83.6 88.5 90.7 87.6

2007

84.8 83.7 90.3 89.5 88.5

2008

85.4 84.5 89.9 87.3 85.1

2009

85.5 84.8 89.7 90.4 84.6

2010

86.0 85.0 92.1 88.0 86.2

2011

86.8 85.9 93.5 89.8 86.8

2012

86.4 85.3 92.0 90.1 85.4

2013

86.6 85.7 94.9 91.6 87.5

2014

84.6 83.3 94.8 90.2 86.6

2015

85.6 85.9 92.4 92.8 85.8

2016

87.0 87.2 92.6 93.6 85.2

2017

89.2 87.8 94.1 85.5 84.1

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The women's-to-men's earnings ratios shown here are calculated from the current-dollar median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in table 26. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 17. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by age, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2017 annual averages [In constant 2017 dollars]
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

1979

$760 $543 $454 $587 $836 $804 $883 $871 $826 $625

1980

744 531 438 568 812 784 858 847 810 577

1981

738 519 418 553 800 769 847 831 803 577

1982

738 509 401 538 800 760 866 844 795 619

1983

735 495 385 523 805 754 869 862 812 613

1984

734 489 381 520 815 755 876 867 824 613

1985

749 488 379 523 826 760 885 871 830 647

1986

769 497 381 531 837 771 897 891 850 638

1987

774 503 385 536 834 772 901 888 839 642

1988

768 497 391 531 826 764 898 904 836 645

1989

764 496 391 529 818 755 904 904 826 640

1990

752 491 381 520 819 743 887 892 834 626

1991

750 488 375 512 822 731 877 893 826 671

1992

756 474 364 498 823 725 864 897 830 649

1993

769 472 358 497 822 730 866 908 824 658

1994

767 470 363 493 821 721 882 929 823 631

1995

768 468 370 490 817 723 881 933 824 623

1996

764 465 374 487 811 722 872 927 835 599

1997

768 467 385 490 824 734 884 927 852 600

1998

789 481 404 511 863 757 900 935 893 611

1999

810 503 414 535 873 764 901 962 891 596

2000

822 515 424 546 869 783 892 954 884 660

2001

828 521 424 547 875 800 912 962 886 678

2002

831 520 417 545 883 807 913 964 921 686

2003

829 517 416 537 885 794 918 967 947 690

2004

830 507 402 528 888 785 927 966 943 728

2005

819 499 400 517 875 767 919 941 933 716

2006

818 499 395 516 876 757 912 943 933 711

2007

823 502 399 533 874 762 911 936 951 717

2008

824 506 398 533 869 760 918 938 942 735

2009

847 506 394 532 887 777 936 960 963 784

2010

841 486 391 511 881 768 928 950 968 770

2011

825 480 384 499 870 757 914 945 962 810

2012

821 475 381 496 872 756 918 939 959 810

2013

818 478 393 497 871 746 921 930 953 844

2014

820 494 392 509 869 752 913 932 944 854

2015

837 504 403 519 890 761 932 955 960 904

2016

850 512 414 524 904 767 954 975 972 885

2017

860 519 424 540 907 773 964 977 974 909

Women

1979

$574 $486 $416 $508 $615 $628 $618 $606 $596 $536

1980

571 474 412 497 605 619 608 594 582 497

1981

569 468 400 496 605 621 618 584 577 491

1982

584 469 386 491 623 631 631 616 599 516

1983

592 465 371 486 629 638 638 620 603 498

1984

597 457 365 480 637 642 658 628 608 493

1985

603 460 362 481 645 645 669 636 621 527

1986

623 469 364 495 660 655 683 660 634 548

1987

627 470 356 501 665 654 698 671 638 540

1988

629 469 367 501 669 653 707 677 633 559

1989

628 471 377 498 672 651 709 684 638 559

1990

631 464 361 491 673 650 712 688 635 547

1991

644 468 361 493 681 653 717 701 639 562

1992

653 459 352 481 687 656 718 716 646 564

1993

658 457 343 484 695 662 729 737 662 561

1994

655 453 346 476 691 652 736 739 654 552

1995

651 441 345 466 686 646 726 744 646 566

1996

652 443 348 465 693 647 722 750 655 521

1997

658 446 366 467 705 652 736 756 661 531

1998

688 460 376 481 732 680 751 778 718 528

1999

698 478 392 506 733 693 742 788 726 546

2000

703 491 404 522 736 703 743 805 725 559

2001

711 490 400 521 754 711 760 815 744 542

2002

723 501 403 526 776 724 780 822 784 587

2003

738 496 400 517 781 730 789 814 803 582

2004

745 488 381 508 779 730 791 813 800 622

2005

736 479 382 498 770 721 781 810 804 619

2006

732 482 372 504 765 711 787 804 802 622

2007

727 485 377 505 765 707 791 802 805 633

2008

728 479 368 508 765 711 779 807 812 643

2009

753 486 370 510 787 726 812 816 833 690

2010

753 475 378 494 793 730 823 822 829 677

2011

747 460 358 478 784 723 801 812 818 725

2012

739 445 353 459 778 712 799 798 819 713

2013

744 446 369 466 780 701 808 802 821 728

2014

745 467 370 485 779 704 809 808 808 767

2015

752 466 377 484 788 714 832 827 812 766

2016

765 496 396 511 801 720 857 854 829 765

2017

770 499 402 514 810 724 860 855 856 782

Men

1979

$921 $618 $489 $666 $991 $931 $1,060 $1,066 $984 $691

1980

889 591 460 636 963 892 1,043 1,043 980 651

1981

883 566 436 616 966 883 1,031 1,029 979 691

1982

890 550 416 597 961 875 1,032 1,024 976 733

1983

890 523 394 568 955 871 1,038 1,042 977 723

1984

883 520 392 563 950 860 1,061 1,059 989 739

1985

887 525 399 562 965 858 1,061 1,065 1,017 800

1986

897 527 398 565 991 861 1,069 1,084 1,036 767

1987

899 532 406 569 988 853 1,056 1,077 1,025 787

1988

896 523 409 557 972 840 1,032 1,096 1,016 788

1989

897 519 400 556 958 831 1,038 1,090 998 753

1990

878 515 398 544 934 819 1,022 1,078 996 735

1991

868 502 386 528 921 806 1,014 1,077 991 822

1992

861 488 375 510 921 801 998 1,089 995 723

1993

854 482 370 508 930 797 998 1,094 982 755

1994

857 483 374 504 946 787 1,013 1,102 990 724

1995

862 486 391 505 942 785 1,000 1,098 998 707

1996

869 479 392 501 934 778 986 1,089 1,003 744

1997

884 484 400 516 939 786 994 1,089 1,021 690

1998

902 504 424 538 964 821 1,021 1,104 1,054 727

1999

912 525 429 559 985 851 1,035 1,125 1,069 693

2000

914 535 437 563 989 853 1,039 1,100 1,049 745

2001

931 543 443 567 1,000 857 1,047 1,110 1,056 785

2002

928 534 426 560 1,000 857 1,037 1,102 1,096 796

2003

929 532 429 551 995 840 1,036 1,115 1,106 818

2004

927 520 414 542 991 831 1,046 1,114 1,096 834

2005

908 514 415 531 970 810 1,034 1,073 1,075 810

2006

906 510 424 530 972 806 1,020 1,094 1,100 802

2007

908 525 423 559 975 814 1,034 1,077 1,105 813

2008

911 526 421 549 978 804 1,045 1,078 1,076 860

2009

938 525 408 549 1,000 819 1,049 1,108 1,105 906

2010

928 499 400 527 984 804 1,030 1,074 1,102 894

2011

908 497 404 513 967 783 1,021 1,069 1,088 896

2012

913 501 399 516 973 789 1,024 1,063 1,075 920

2013

906 505 411 518 961 784 1,007 1,047 1,065 987

2014

903 511 406 525 955 782 999 1,048 1,058 976

2015

927 528 421 540 980 797 1,018 1,077 1,101 1,038

2016

935 523 428 534 990 811 1,029 1,098 1,126 1,013

2017

941 547 459 570 996 821 1,062 1,103 1,098 1,016

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 18. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for full-time wage and salary workers, 1979–2017 annual averages [In constant 2017 dollars]
Year Total, 16 years and older White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

1979

$760 $782 $628 - $612

1980

744 764 602 - 594

1981

738 756 610 - 579

1982

738 758 599 - 587

1983

735 751 613 - 587

1984

734 757 606 - 583

1985

749 776 603 - 588

1986

769 794 623 - 593

1987

774 795 623 - 590

1988

768 788 627 - 579

1989

764 784 611 - 571

1990

752 774 600 - 555

1991

750 778 613 - 549

1992

756 787 613 - 552

1993

769 796 618 - 554

1994

767 795 609 - 532

1995

768 792 614 - 527

1996

764 789 604 - 529

1997

768 792 611 - 536

1998

789 822 643 - 558

1999

810 845 656 - 568

2000

822 842 676 $877 569

2001

828 847 682 888 579

2002

831 851 680 899 579

2003

829 850 687 926 588

2004

830 854 683 921 593

2005

819 845 654 947 592

2006

818 841 676 956 593

2007

823 848 674 983 596

2008

824 847 672 983 604

2009

847 867 688 1,008 620

2010

841 861 688 963 602

2011

825 846 671 945 599

2012

821 847 664 984 607

2013

818 845 663 993 609

2014

820 846 662 988 616

2015

837 864 664 1,028 625

2016

850 880 693 1,043 637

2017

860 890 682 1,043 655

Women

1979

$574 $580 $533 - $495

1980

571 577 526 - 489

1981

569 574 535 - 494

1982

584 592 531 - 496

1983

592 596 545 - 505

1984

597 604 543 - 502

1985

603 612 549 - 501

1986

623 630 565 - 516

1987

627 636 571 - 520

1988

629 635 575 - 519

1989

628 640 577 - 515

1990

631 644 562 - 507

1991

644 657 569 - 514

1992

653 665 576 - 519

1993

658 672 583 - 524

1994

655 670 568 - 501

1995

651 665 569 - 489

1996

652 668 565 - 493

1997

658 678 573 - 485

1998

688 706 603 - 508

1999

698 712 603 - 513

2000

703 716 612 $780 522

2001

711 725 631 782 539

2002

723 747 646 773 542

2003

738 758 656 799 548

2004

745 759 657 797 545

2005

736 750 628 836 540

2006

732 743 633 852 537

2007

727 742 632 866 560

2008

728 747 632 860 572

2009

753 766 667 892 583

2010

753 770 667 870 572

2011

747 767 650 820 566

2012

739 759 641 824 557

2013

744 761 639 863 570

2014

745 761 633 872 568

2015

752 769 637 908 586

2016

765 782 655 921 599

2017

770 795 657 903 603

Men

1979

$921 $940 $716 - $691

1980

889 909 693 - 665

1981

883 909 696 - 652

1982

890 917 680 - 658

1983

890 908 690 - 643

1984

883 903 682 - 646

1985

887 911 664 - 645

1986

897 927 683 - 640

1987

899 932 677 - 634

1988

896 928 695 - 615

1989

897 923 667 - 603

1990

878 901 659 - 580

1991

868 891 660 - 569

1992

861 883 653 - 582

1993

854 878 657 - 580

1994

857 898 657 - 563

1995

862 907 659 - 561

1996

869 905 643 - 555

1997

884 908 660 - 566

1998

902 928 706 - 588

1999

912 941 720 - 599

2000

914 944 728 $977 595

2001

931 957 735 1,017 611

2002

928 959 716 1,033 616

2003

929 956 742 1,032 620

2004

927 952 740 1,043 624

2005

908 935 703 1,038 615

2006

906 928 721 1,076 616

2007

908 934 711 1,109 616

2008

911 942 708 1,103 638

2009

938 968 711 1,090 652

2010

928 957 713 1,054 631

2011

908 934 713 1,059 623

2012

913 940 711 1,128 633

2013

906 932 700 1,116 626

2014

903 930 705 1,119 638

2015

927 952 704 1,169 653

2016

935 962 733 1,176 677

2017

941 971 710 1,207 690

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 19. Inflation-adjusted median usual weekly earnings, by educational attainment, for full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and older, 1979–2017 annual averages [In constant 2017 dollars]
Year Total,
25 years
and older
Less than a
high school
diploma
High school
graduates, no
college
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher

Total

1979

$836 $662 $785 $890 $1,085

1980

812 631 756 864 1,068

1981

800 623 743 842 1,057

1982

800 606 738 858 1,071

1983

805 601 730 852 1,082

1984

815 592 727 860 1,095

1985

826 588 725 869 1,102

1986

837 595 737 876 1,124

1987

834 588 737 872 1,168

1988

826 575 735 858 1,168

1989

818 569 718 866 1,167

1990

819 553 704 869 1,164

1991

822 540 699 861 1,173

1992

823 534 692 832 1,196

1993

822 526 695 827 1,198

1994

821 504 691 819 1,204

1995

817 495 692 814 1,197

1996

811 495 691 808 1,183

1997

824 490 704 817 1,189

1998

863 508 722 842 1,238

1999

873 510 723 855 1,268

2000

869 516 720 850 1,271

2001

875 531 722 857 1,279

2002

883 530 731 859 1,286

2003

885 529 741 854 1,289

2004

888 521 746 860 1,282

2005

875 514 733 843 1,274

2006

876 511 726 844 1,267

2007

874 507 716 834 1,270

2008

869 517 705 824 1,273

2009

887 520 717 832 1,302

2010

881 500 705 827 1,288

2011

870 492 697 807 1,255

2012

872 504 697 801 1,246

2013

871 497 686 788 1,258

2014

869 506 692 789 1,236

2015

890 510 702 789 1,273

2016

904 515 707 796 1,286

2017

907 520 712 798 1,279

Women

1979

$615 $479 $584 $666 $833

1980

605 466 571 656 824

1981

605 455 564 662 826

1982

623 450 577 670 846

1983

629 458 577 676 866

1984

637 450 583 687 878

1985

645 440 584 691 902

1986

660 445 593 707 934

1987

665 443 596 718 965

1988

669 441 595 719 968

1989

672 443 582 726 971

1990

673 438 575 721 976

1991

681 440 577 720 989

1992

687 440 579 699 1,021

1993

695 441 581 707 1,023

1994

691 422 576 695 1,041

1995

686 420 571 684 1,032

1996

693 418 569 690 1,025

1997

705 420 577 701 1,026

1998

732 427 597 718 1,066

1999

733 428 597 720 1,091

2000

736 434 599 720 1,078

2001

754 439 615 722 1,092

2002

776 444 626 742 1,105

2003

781 440 634 749 1,112

2004

779 434 635 750 1,118

2005

770 429 620 738 1,111

2006

765 437 610 734 1,104

2007

765 437 607 722 1,104

2008

765 432 594 717 1,090

2009

787 438 621 722 1,111

2010

793 437 611 718 1,110

2011

784 431 605 704 1,090

2012

778 413 600 705 1,071

2013

780 421 604 692 1,099

2014

779 424 599 685 1,087

2015

788 433 607 687 1,101

2016

801 432 612 703 1,125

2017

810 447 610 700 1,131

Men

1979

$991 $795 $972 $1,038 $1,249

1980

963 759 929 1,017 1,213

1981

966 743 925 1,010 1,234

1982

961 716 914 1,005 1,230

1983

955 707 911 991 1,216

1984

950 694 899 1,005 1,266

1985

965 684 887 1,028 1,285

1986

991 687 891 1,039 1,323

1987

988 671 876 1,029 1,352

1988

972 663 872 1,004 1,355

1989

958 663 862 990 1,351

1990

934 637 838 989 1,352

1991

921 614 827 991 1,345

1992

921 603 823 954 1,359

1993

930 596 816 958 1,350

1994

946 562 814 964 1,356

1995

942 556 812 955 1,354

1996

934 557 805 942 1,363

1997

939 557 817 948 1,368

1998

964 578 843 970 1,416

1999

985 583 855 981 1,441

2000

989 579 843 986 1,455

2001

1,000 582 846 1,004 1,482

2002

1,000 575 843 999 1,489

2003

995 574 840 989 1,512

2004

991 580 839 990 1,486

2005

970 572 820 964 1,468

2006

972 572 827 971 1,470

2007

975 570 816 960 1,473

2008

978 567 809 947 1,467

2009

1,000 573 820 956 1,520

2010

984 547 800 952 1,498

2011

967 533 786 917 1,454

2012

973 543 786 917 1,466

2013

961 527 771 904 1,470

2014

955 536 778 904 1,435

2015

980 538 786 914 1,470

2016

990 563 785 915 1,495

2017

996 584 797 917 1,481

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 20. Inflation-adjusted median hourly earnings, by age, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2017 annual averages [In constant 2017 dollars]
Year Total, 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19 years 20 to 24 years Total 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older

Total

1979

$14.01 $11.01 $9.78 $12.68 $16.12 $16.40 $16.69 $16.28 $15.68 $10.19

1980

13.69 10.54 9.15 12.19 15.77 16.08 16.36 16.05 15.31 10.11

1981

13.38 10.31 9.30 11.97 15.56 15.82 16.10 15.61 15.09 10.18

1982

13.20 9.90 8.80 11.39 15.35 15.53 16.16 15.70 14.94 10.07

1983

13.12 9.58 8.47 11.01 15.38 15.26 16.22 15.80 15.05 10.33

1984

13.13 9.41 8.22 10.86 15.41 15.25 16.15 15.95 14.91 10.43

1985

13.14 9.28 8.00 10.76 15.36 15.08 16.32 16.06 15.05 10.33

1986

13.28 9.44 7.94 10.84 15.48 15.01 16.68 16.55 15.35 10.64

1987

13.40 9.50 7.89 10.79 15.45 14.89 16.44 16.27 15.36 10.52

1988

13.43 9.56 8.04 10.74 15.45 14.83 16.31 16.29 14.93 10.44

1989

13.39 9.48 8.08 10.82 15.21 14.64 16.40 16.13 14.98 10.38

1990

13.19 9.42 8.19 10.78 14.89 14.42 16.09 16.04 14.64 10.49

1991

13.20 9.26 8.26 10.56 14.93 14.15 16.14 16.04 14.42 10.46

1992

13.26 9.23 8.13 10.36 15.00 14.04 16.12 16.36 14.57 10.55

1993

13.18 9.23 8.04 10.30 14.99 13.85 16.10 16.52 14.91 10.70

1994

13.15 9.23 8.06 10.21 14.98 13.76 16.29 16.45 14.81 10.49

1995

13.09 9.29 8.08 10.29 15.00 13.96 16.06 16.23 14.74 10.66

1996

13.10 9.27 8.07 10.44 15.01 13.76 15.82 15.98 14.65 10.56

1997

13.36 9.39 8.41 10.55 15.07 13.80 15.82 16.18 14.85 10.52

1998

13.73 9.92 8.87 10.92 15.28 14.56 16.38 16.53 15.20 11.16

1999

14.06 10.13 8.97 11.42 15.44 14.72 16.25 16.71 15.31 11.36

2000

14.14 10.33 9.14 11.51 15.52 14.52 16.19 16.86 15.44 11.48

2001

14.15 10.68 9.39 11.64 15.83 14.82 16.62 16.90 15.79 11.85

2002

14.30 10.67 9.44 11.57 16.16 15.00 16.64 17.02 16.19 12.39

2003

14.51 10.56 9.26 11.58 16.11 15.04 16.66 17.34 16.30 12.29

2004

14.30 10.38 9.10 11.42 15.90 14.79 16.76 17.20 16.36 12.51

2005

14.08 10.15 8.87 11.21 15.70 14.79 16.49 16.96 16.29 12.49

2006

14.34 10.05 8.82 11.17 15.78 14.57 16.45 17.11 16.26 12.38

2007

14.16 10.25 8.97 11.45 15.59 14.28 16.50 17.05 16.24 12.29

2008

13.96 10.13 8.95 11.14 15.76 14.27 16.42 16.97 16.21 12.43

2009

14.25 10.19 9.07 11.19 15.93 14.43 16.71 17.01 16.84 13.16

2010

14.08 10.02 9.01 10.73 15.74 14.11 16.45 16.87 16.77 13.01

2011

13.88 9.79 8.80 10.49 15.41 13.88 16.19 16.38 16.45 13.31

2012

13.69 9.68 8.66 10.37 15.24 13.71 15.89 16.12 16.46 13.06

2013

13.62 9.65 8.63 10.36 15.28 13.57 15.79 15.99 16.46 13.14

2014

13.62 9.90 8.74 10.34 15.34 13.61 15.66 15.95 15.92 13.49

2015

13.91 10.20 9.16 10.50 15.43 14.08 15.69 16.40 16.47 13.54

2016

14.30 10.34 9.40 11.02 15.45 14.30 16.11 16.64 16.55 14.07

2017

14.63 10.68 9.79 11.35 15.65 14.83 16.10 16.72 16.82 14.32

Women

1979

$11.42 $10.06 $9.56 $11.10 $12.30 $12.74 $12.52 $12.11 $11.83 $9.84

1980

11.22 9.80 8.92 10.77 12.05 12.61 12.19 12.02 11.59 9.60

1981

11.12 9.64 9.14 10.62 12.18 12.70 12.39 11.92 11.51 9.64

1982

11.27 9.24 8.68 10.24 12.27 12.69 12.42 12.10 11.74 9.61

1983

11.27 8.97 8.33 10.00 12.28 12.77 12.46 12.18 11.90 9.77

1984

11.19 8.85 8.09 9.82 12.34 12.61 12.64 12.41 11.87 9.84

1985

11.18 8.74 7.86 9.93 12.48 12.61 12.88 12.55 11.90 9.65

1986

11.41 8.80 7.82 10.09 12.74 12.74 13.13 12.83 12.31 10.13

1987

11.59 8.74 7.68 10.12 12.75 12.71 13.15 13.00 12.48 10.04

1988

11.66 8.94 7.80 10.08 12.85 12.69 13.49 13.15 12.14 10.22

1989

11.70 8.98 7.85 10.02 12.99 12.80 13.60 13.22 12.22 9.85

1990

11.75 9.03 7.94 10.16 12.90 12.79 13.45 13.07 12.28 9.95

1991

11.88 8.94 8.17 10.05 12.92 12.66 13.61 13.40 12.24 10.14

1992

11.96 8.87 8.06 9.91 13.14 12.80 13.73 13.64 12.37 10.26

1993

11.93 8.83 7.92 9.98 13.18 12.75 13.67 13.70 12.66 10.35

1994

11.90 8.74 7.93 9.82 13.22 12.78 13.86 13.89 12.84 10.25

1995

11.96 8.80 7.92 9.76 13.09 12.69 13.83 13.97 12.71 10.34

1996

12.06 8.86 7.94 9.77 13.15 12.57 13.87 13.95 12.59 10.06

1997

12.12 9.08 8.27 10.00 13.36 12.52 13.95 14.14 12.69 10.43

1998

12.41 9.41 8.72 10.45 13.77 13.27 14.57 14.75 13.35 10.87

1999

12.74 9.73 8.82 10.65 14.06 13.42 14.50 14.68 13.76 11.06

2000

12.92 9.99 8.89 11.13 14.11 13.82 14.31 14.52 14.04 11.23

2001

13.39 10.07 9.18 11.11 14.17 13.81 14.50 15.07 14.43 11.31

2002

13.51 10.18 9.29 11.08 14.63 13.83 15.00 15.27 14.77 11.93

2003

13.48 10.15 9.16 10.95 14.72 14.05 14.93 15.76 14.77 11.82

2004

13.22 10.03 8.92 10.82 14.60 13.81 14.89 15.54 15.05 11.91

2005

12.97 9.81 8.70 10.69 14.57 13.66 14.89 15.26 14.92 12.35

2006

12.99 9.74 8.67 10.76 14.48 13.50 14.70 14.95 14.78 12.16

2007

13.01 9.66 8.78 10.66 14.28 13.28 14.64 15.23 14.49 12.03

2008

13.12 9.62 8.80 10.46 14.25 13.38 14.71 15.02 14.84 12.02

2009

13.47 9.83 8.96 10.53 14.62 13.70 14.89 14.99 15.57 12.73

2010

13.32 9.71 8.91 10.23 14.50 13.56 14.77 15.20 15.41 12.59

2011

13.08 9.53 8.69 10.00 14.30 13.23 14.67 15.02 15.32 12.84

2012

12.82 9.39 8.58 9.81 14.09 12.99 14.40 14.76 15.36 12.66

2013

12.77 9.41 8.52 9.91 14.08 12.89 14.51 14.69 15.31 12.88

2014

12.62 9.47 8.59 10.12 13.99 12.69 14.51 14.65 14.70 12.92

2015

13.00 9.88 9.06 10.30 14.41 13.34 14.63 15.32 15.29 13.11

2016

13.29 10.21 9.26 10.47 14.54 13.36 15.07 15.29 15.42 13.30

2017

13.56 10.28 9.59 11.00 14.83 14.00 14.92 15.16 15.21 13.88

Men

1979

$17.82 $12.30 $10.06 $14.64 $21.10 $20.13 $22.46 $22.40 $20.79 $11.23

1980

17.33 11.65 9.57 13.98 20.51 19.69 22.19 22.10 20.57 10.77

1981

17.06 11.19 9.45 13.27 20.21 19.04 21.56 22.05 20.47 10.94

1982

16.75 10.71 8.95 12.52 19.76 18.75 21.74 21.71 19.90 10.90

1983

16.24 10.28 8.62 11.85 19.51 18.17 21.64 21.50 20.52 11.15

1984

16.04 10.29 8.38 11.62 19.37 17.75 21.42 21.82 19.95 11.06

1985

15.97 10.20 8.17 11.39 19.28 17.43 21.35 21.72 19.69 10.87

1986

16.25 10.26 8.18 11.63 19.31 17.19 21.39 21.73 20.43 11.09

1987

16.09 10.17 8.18 11.76 18.96 17.10 20.91 21.20 20.12 11.01

1988

15.79 10.04 8.26 11.56 18.72 16.79 20.40 21.34 19.44 11.02

1989

15.52 9.90 8.41 11.53 18.60 16.40 20.29 20.84 19.16 11.30

1990

15.09 9.93 8.47 11.28 17.96 16.11 19.58 20.31 18.56 11.09

1991

15.12 9.82 8.35 10.97 17.57 15.74 19.33 20.62 17.75 10.95

1992

14.90 9.71 8.25 10.72 17.29 15.50 18.78 20.65 17.85 11.08

1993

14.84 9.63 8.16 10.60 17.05 15.24 18.69 20.35 18.36 11.24

1994

14.78 9.66 8.18 10.77 16.90 14.94 18.88 19.87 18.16 10.90

1995

14.79 9.68 8.24 10.93 17.20 15.16 19.05 19.74 17.80 10.98

1996

14.85 9.63 8.19 10.90 16.82 15.13 18.58 19.34 17.39 10.98

1997

15.01 9.85 8.56 10.96 16.95 15.15 18.43 19.54 18.00 10.63

1998

15.17 10.42 9.02 11.73 17.68 15.41 18.82 19.67 18.43 11.67

1999

15.21 10.50 9.12 11.84 17.70 15.99 18.85 20.18 18.01 11.59

2000

15.42 10.88 9.47 11.97 17.46 15.65 18.74 19.83 18.27 11.85

2001

15.72 11.12 9.58 12.39 17.89 16.08 19.33 19.79 17.99 12.50

2002

15.90 11.00 9.59 12.13 17.83 16.24 19.07 19.67 18.28 13.36

2003

15.90 10.88 9.39 12.03 17.71 16.06 18.89 19.96 18.84 13.09

2004

15.63 10.68 9.30 11.79 17.87 15.64 18.99 19.65 18.91 12.87

2005

15.30 10.59 9.07 11.57 17.50 15.31 18.72 19.03 18.60 12.63

2006

15.46 10.72 9.06 11.89 17.40 15.40 18.37 19.56 18.34 13.07

2007

15.34 10.82 9.21 11.80 17.48 15.20 17.97 19.14 18.31 13.05

2008

15.37 10.55 9.11 11.42 17.16 15.38 18.29 19.20 18.15 13.13

2009

15.76 10.56 9.22 11.44 17.26 15.12 18.44 19.46 18.43 13.75

2010

15.50 10.37 9.11 11.15 16.94 14.75 17.83 19.02 18.52 13.42

2011

15.07 10.08 8.91 10.81 16.50 14.39 17.50 18.43 18.64 14.03

2012

14.84 10.10 8.76 10.66 16.22 14.20 17.17 18.17 18.48 13.94

2013

14.75 10.19 8.82 10.54 16.09 14.14 17.08 18.09 18.21 13.57

2014

14.91 10.25 8.94 10.52 16.33 14.59 17.15 18.04 18.09 14.49

2015

15.19 10.38 9.29 11.01 16.42 14.67 17.06 18.17 18.62 14.65

2016

15.28 10.46 9.68 11.39 16.60 15.15 17.57 18.42 18.44 15.10

2017

15.20 10.99 9.88 11.88 17.00 15.15 17.89 18.74 18.60 14.93

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 21. Inflation-adjusted median hourly earnings, by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, for wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, 1979–2017 annual averages [In constant 2017 dollars]
Year Total,
16 years
and
older
White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

1979

$14.01 $14.23 $12.97 - $12.87

1980

13.69 13.86 12.61 - 12.61

1981

13.38 13.45 12.73 - 12.49

1982

13.20 13.37 12.37 - 12.25

1983

13.12 13.29 12.09 - 11.95

1984

13.13 13.29 12.07 - 11.87

1985

13.14 13.29 11.98 - 11.92

1986

13.28 13.45 12.42 - 12.10

1987

13.40 13.58 12.40 - 12.05

1988

13.43 13.59 12.28 - 11.88

1989

13.39 13.56 12.32 - 11.63

1990

13.19 13.38 12.43 - 11.46

1991

13.20 13.40 12.32 - 11.37

1992

13.26 13.44 12.13 - 11.43

1993

13.18 13.35 12.03 - 11.44

1994

13.15 13.32 11.97 - 11.38

1995

13.09 13.33 12.28 - 11.22

1996

13.10 13.37 12.11 - 11.19

1997

13.36 13.56 12.23 - 11.28

1998

13.73 13.91 12.65 - 11.95

1999

14.06 14.37 13.05 - 11.90

2000

14.14 14.21 13.32 $14.37 12.18

2001

14.15 14.25 13.58 14.93 12.58

2002

14.30 14.63 13.57 14.15 12.60

2003

14.51 14.67 13.57 14.87 13.05

2004

14.30 14.47 13.25 14.43 12.76

2005

14.08 14.44 12.79 15.11 12.52

2006

14.34 14.46 13.00 15.28 12.34

2007

14.16 14.31 12.90 14.48 12.13

2008

13.96 14.32 12.79 14.85 12.52

2009

14.25 14.50 13.33 15.07 12.65

2010

14.08 14.35 13.25 14.89 12.25

2011

13.88 14.09 12.87 14.57 12.06

2012

13.69 13.95 12.66 14.15 11.89

2013

13.62 13.86 12.54 14.35 11.85

2014

13.62 14.06 12.31 14.51 12.26

2015

13.91 14.36 12.48 14.69 12.46

2016

14.30 14.55 12.76 15.11 12.96

2017

14.63 14.89 12.90 15.06 13.16

Women

1979

$11.42 $11.42 $11.20 - $10.85

1980

11.22 11.25 11.02 - 10.74

1981

11.12 11.12 10.88 - 10.65

1982

11.27 11.27 10.98 - 10.59

1983

11.27 11.29 11.08 - 10.38

1984

11.19 11.22 10.97 - 10.47

1985

11.18 11.20 10.98 - 10.50

1986

11.41 11.46 11.07 - 10.71

1987

11.59 11.64 11.18 - 10.58

1988

11.66 11.70 11.20 - 10.54

1989

11.70 11.74 11.26 - 10.59

1990

11.75 11.79 11.37 - 10.58

1991

11.88 11.90 11.53 - 10.53

1992

11.96 12.01 11.41 - 10.60

1993

11.93 11.99 11.51 - 10.57

1994

11.90 12.05 11.38 - 10.51

1995

11.96 12.08 11.41 - 10.58

1996

12.06 12.15 11.23 - 10.56

1997

12.12 12.21 11.59 - 10.41

1998

12.41 12.56 11.92 - 10.89

1999

12.74 12.88 11.99 - 11.00

2000

12.92 12.97 12.64 $13.94 11.26

2001

13.39 13.51 12.71 13.99 11.50

2002

13.51 13.58 12.91 13.80 11.67

2003

13.48 13.52 13.25 14.28 11.87

2004

13.22 13.28 12.91 13.75 11.76

2005

12.97 13.21 12.49 14.64 11.55

2006

12.99 13.13 12.33 14.57 11.59

2007

13.01 13.10 12.38 14.02 11.61

2008

13.12 13.36 12.31 13.98 11.50

2009

13.47 13.55 12.61 14.51 11.56

2010

13.32 13.38 12.61 13.98 11.39

2011

13.08 13.16 12.31 13.97 11.19

2012

12.82 12.92 12.01 13.64 10.92

2013

12.77 12.87 12.16 13.74 11.05

2014

12.62 12.83 11.99 13.71 11.11

2015

13.00 13.27 12.11 14.29 11.47

2016

13.29 13.48 12.35 14.37 12.04

2017

13.56 13.87 12.55 14.23 12.09

Men

1979

$17.82 $18.26 $15.43 - $15.11

1980

17.33 17.70 14.72 - 14.29

1981

17.06 17.43 15.09 - 13.95

1982

16.75 17.07 14.60 - 14.01

1983

16.24 16.60 13.99 - 13.64

1984

16.04 16.35 13.87 - 13.60

1985

15.97 16.51 13.40 - 13.22

1986

16.25 16.66 14.07 - 13.25

1987

16.09 16.42 13.95 - 13.19

1988

15.79 16.09 13.85 - 12.99

1989

15.52 15.86 13.54 - 12.76

1990

15.09 15.60 13.45 - 12.30

1991

15.12 15.53 13.33 - 12.11

1992

14.90 15.27 13.09 - 12.01

1993

14.84 15.19 12.85 - 11.93

1994

14.78 15.12 13.00 - 11.77

1995

14.79 15.42 13.08 - 11.63

1996

14.85 15.27 12.76 - 11.89

1997

15.01 15.21 13.24 - 12.06

1998

15.17 15.35 13.71 - 12.43

1999

15.21 15.65 14.41 - 12.70

2000

15.42 15.62 14.24 $15.39 12.90

2001

15.72 16.12 14.14 16.44 13.43

2002

15.90 16.20 13.99 15.05 13.55

2003

15.90 16.08 14.45 15.90 13.41

2004

15.63 15.81 14.15 15.47 13.03

2005

15.30 15.69 13.71 16.04 12.82

2006

15.46 15.71 13.93 16.07 13.22

2007

15.34 15.66 13.71 15.66 13.12

2008

15.37 15.81 13.69 16.02 13.50

2009

15.76 15.98 14.05 16.05 13.65

2010

15.50 15.73 13.69 15.89 13.21

2011

15.07 15.31 13.17 15.56 12.89

2012

14.84 15.16 13.05 15.13 12.79

2013

14.75 15.01 12.81 15.01 12.63

2014

14.91 15.40 12.65 15.19 12.83

2015

15.19 15.46 13.11 15.39 13.37

2016

15.28 15.45 13.34 15.36 14.13

2017

15.20 15.79 13.34 16.65 14.37

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. As of 2003, estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian data for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders. As of 2003, Asians constitute a separate category. Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics. The Consumer Price Index research series using current methods (CPI-U-RS) is used to convert current dollars to constant (inflation-adjusted) dollars. See the technical notes section. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 22. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by age, 1979–2017 annual averages [In current dollars]
Year Total,
16 years
and older
16 to 24 years 25 years and older
Total 16 to 19
years
20 to 24
years
Total 25 to 34
years
35 to 44
years
45 to 54
years
55 to 64
years
65 years
and older

Total

1979

$241 $172 $144 $186 $265 $255 $280 $276 $262 $198

1980

262 187 154 200 286 276 302 298 285 203

1981

284 200 161 213 308 296 326 320 309 222

1982

302 208 164 220 327 311 354 345 325 253

1983

313 211 164 223 343 321 370 367 346 261

1984

326 217 169 231 362 335 389 385 366 272

1985

344 224 174 240 379 349 406 400 381 297

1986

359 232 178 248 391 360 419 416 397 298

1987

374 243 186 259 403 373 435 429 405 310

1988

385 249 196 266 414 383 450 453 419 323

1989

399 259 204 276 427 394 472 472 431 334

1990

412 269 209 285 449 407 486 489 457 343

1991

426 277 213 291 467 415 498 507 469 381

1992

440 276 212 290 479 422 503 522 483 378

1993

459 282 214 297 491 436 517 542 492 393

1994

467 286 221 300 500 439 537 566 501 384

1995

479 292 231 306 510 451 550 582 514 389

1996

490 298 240 312 520 463 559 594 535 384

1997

503 306 252 321 540 481 579 607 558 393

1998

523 319 268 339 572 502 597 620 592 405

1999

549 341 281 363 592 518 611 652 604 404

2000

576 361 297 383 609 549 625 669 620 463

2001

596 375 305 394 630 576 657 693 638 488

2002

608 381 305 399 646 591 668 706 674 502

2003

620 387 311 402 662 594 687 723 708 516

2004

638 390 309 406 683 604 713 743 725 560

2005

651 397 318 411 696 610 731 748 742 569

2006

671 409 324 423 718 621 748 773 765 583

2007

695 424 337 450 738 643 769 790 803 605

2008

722 443 349 467 761 666 804 822 825 644

2009

739 442 344 464 774 678 817 838 841 684

2010

747 432 347 454 782 682 824 844 860 684

2011

756 440 352 457 797 693 837 866 881 742

2012

768 444 356 464 815 707 858 878 897 757

2013

776 454 373 472 827 708 874 883 904 801

2014

791 477 378 491 839 726 881 899 911 824

2015

809 487 389 501 860 735 900 923 927 873

2016

832 501 405 513 885 751 934 955 952 866

2017

860 519 424 540 907 773 964 977 974 909

Women

1979

$182 $154 $132 $161 $195 $199 $196 $192 $189 $170

1980

201 167 145 175 213 218 214 209 205 175

1981

219 180 154 191 233 239 238 225 222 189

1982

239 192 158 201 255 258 258 252 245 211

1983

252 198 158 207 268 272 272 264 257 212

1984

265 203 162 213 283 285 292 279 270 219

1985

277 211 166 221 296 296 307 292 285 242

1986

291 219 170 231 308 306 319 308 296 256

1987

303 227 172 242 321 316 337 324 308 261

1988

315 235 184 251 335 327 354 339 317 280

1989

328 246 197 260 351 340 370 357 333 292

1990

346 254 198 269 369 356 390 377 348 300

1991

366 266 205 280 387 371 407 398 363 319

1992

380 267 205 280 400 382 418 417 376 328

1993

393 273 205 289 415 395 435 440 395 335

1994

399 276 211 290 421 397 448 450 398 336

1995

406 275 215 291 428 403 453 464 403 353

1996

418 284 223 298 444 415 463 481 420 334

1997

431 292 240 306 462 427 482 495 433 348

1998

456 305 249 319 485 451 498 516 476 350

1999

473 324 266 343 497 470 503 534 492 370

2000

493 344 283 366 516 493 521 564 508 392

2001

512 353 288 375 543 512 547 587 536 390

2002

529 367 295 385 568 530 571 602 574 430

2003

552 371 299 387 584 546 590 609 601 435

2004

573 375 293 391 599 561 608 625 615 478

2005

585 381 304 396 612 573 621 644 639 492

2006

600 395 305 413 627 583 645 659 658 510

2007

614 409 318 426 646 597 668 677 679 534

2008

638 420 322 445 670 623 682 707 711 563

2009

657 424 323 445 687 634 709 712 727 602

2010

669 422 336 439 704 648 731 730 736 601

2011

684 421 328 438 718 662 734 744 749 664

2012

691 416 330 429 727 666 747 746 766 667

2013

706 423 350 442 740 665 767 761 779 691

2014

719 451 357 468 752 679 781 780 780 740

2015

726 450 364 468 761 690 804 799 784 740

2016

749 486 388 500 784 705 839 836 812 749

2017

770 499 402 514 810 724 860 855 856 782

Men

1979

$292 $196 $155 $211 $314 $295 $336 $338 $312 $219

1980

313 208 162 224 339 314 367 367 345 229

1981

340 218 168 237 372 340 397 396 377 266

1982

364 225 170 244 393 358 422 419 399 300

1983

379 223 168 242 407 371 442 444 416 308

1984

392 231 174 250 422 382 471 470 439 328

1985

407 241 183 258 443 394 487 489 467 367

1986

419 246 186 264 463 402 499 506 484 358

1987

434 257 196 275 477 412 510 520 495 380

1988

449 262 205 279 487 421 517 549 509 395

1989

468 271 209 290 500 434 542 569 521 393

1990

481 282 218 298 512 449 560 591 546 403

1991

493 285 219 300 523 458 576 612 563 467

1992

501 284 218 297 536 466 581 634 579 421

1993

510 288 221 303 555 476 596 653 586 451

1994

522 294 228 307 576 479 617 671 603 441

1995

538 303 244 315 588 490 624 685 623 441

1996

557 307 251 321 599 499 632 698 643 477

1997

579 317 262 338 615 515 651 713 669 452

1998

598 334 281 357 639 544 677 732 699 482

1999

618 356 291 379 668 577 702 763 725 470

2000

641 375 306 395