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November 2019 Report 1083

Highlights of women's earnings in 2018

Highlights of women's earnings in 2018 image

In 2018, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 81 percent of the earnings of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s (when the women’s-to-men’s ratio went from 64 percent to 70 percent) and in the 1990s (when the ratio went from 72 percent to 77 percent). Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect calendar-year averages of information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the BLS website for an explanation of the differences between these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the mid-point in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

Below are data highlights for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics such as age, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2018, median weekly earnings were $789 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $973. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 and 54, with no difference in the earnings of 35- to 44-year-olds and 45- to 54-year-olds (both at $876). Women age 55 to 64 and age 65 and older had earnings that were only slightly lower ($853 and $811, respectively). For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 64-year-olds, with no difference in the earnings of 45- to 54- year-olds and 55- to 64-year-olds (both at $1,137). Earnings were lowest among young women and men age 16 to 24 ($522 and $575, respectively) compared with other ages. (See chart 2 and table 1.)

  

In 2018, women’s earnings ranged from 75 percent to 80 percent of men’s earnings among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller, with women earning 87 percent to 92 percent of what men did. (See table 1.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have grown substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains occurred primarily in the 1980s. For workers ages 25 to 64, the gains continued into the 2000s, but have tapered off in recent years. The earnings ratio for workers age 65 and older has been relatively flat since the late 1990s. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Asian women and men continued to earn more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2018. Among women, Whites ($817) earned 87 percent as much as Asians ($937); Blacks ($654) earned 70 percent; and Hispanics ($617) earned 66 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($1,002) earned 81 percent as much as Asian men ($1,241); Black men ($735) earned 59 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($720) earned 58 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and among Whites. Asian women earned 76 percent as much as Asian men in 2018, and White women earned 82 percent as much as their male counterparts. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 89 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 86 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably over time, while men’s earnings have not. This can be seen among the major race and Hispanic ethnicity groups, with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available). From 1979 to 2018, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 37 percent for White women, by 20 percent for Black women, and by 21 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, gains tapered off around 2004. Since that time, White and Black women have seen little net change in earnings. From 2004 to 2018, the earnings of White women edged up 5 percent, while the earnings of Black women edged slightly lower (-3 percent). On the other hand, Hispanic women’s earnings have remained on an upward trend, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined from 1979 through the mid-1990s, then began to trend up. Over the full period, 1979 through 2018, inflation-adjusted earnings have shown little change on net for White (4 percent) and Hispanic men (2 percent). Black men’s inflation-adjusted earnings showed no net change from 1979 to 2018. (See table 18.)

Data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000. Between 2000 and 2018, inflation-adjusted earnings for Asian women and men remained on an upward trend. Asian women’s earnings grew by 17 percent and Asian men’s earnings grew by 24 percent over the period for which data are available. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among workers age 25 and older, those without a high school diploma had median weekly earnings of $553, representing 42 percent of the earnings of workers with a bachelor’s degree or higher ($1,324) in 2018. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($730) were 55 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Workers with some college or an associate degree (median weekly earnings of $826) made 62 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree or more made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. Although both women and men without a high school diploma have experienced declines in inflation-adjusted earnings since 1979, the drop for women was much smaller than that for men: a 5-percent decrease for women, compared with a 26-percent decline for men. On an inflation-adjusted basis, earnings for women with a bachelor’s degree or higher have increased by 34 percent since 1979, while earnings for men with a bachelor’s degree or higher have risen by 19 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations continued to have higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2018 ($1,168 for women and $1,537 for men). Within this category, women who were chief executives ($1,736) and computer and information systems managers ($1,727) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2018. For men, those who were chief executives ($2,488) and architectural and engineering managers ($2,285) had the highest earnings within this major occupational category in 2018. (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,024 for women and $1,425 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields such as computer science, engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were nurse practitioners ($1,891) and pharmacists ($1,890) had the highest earnings in 2018. For men, those who were physicians and surgeons ($2,513), pharmacists ($2,271), and lawyers ($2,202) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Women and men employed in service occupations continued to earn less in 2018 ($511 for women and $641 for men) than workers in other major occupational categories. Within service occupations, women who were employed as dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers ($408), as cooks ($437), and as food preparation workers ($446) had the lowest median weekly earnings in 2018. For men, those who were employed as combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food ($410) and as dishwashers ($434) earned the least.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support occupations. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2018, 31 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 20 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying job groups is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2018, 10 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the two relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,345 for women and $1,604 for men) and engineering ($1,259 for women and $1,528 for men) occupation groups, compared with 47 percent of men. Women were more likely to work in the education ($934 for women and $1,235 for men) and healthcare ($1,078 for women and $1,383 for men) occupation groups, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-seven percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2018, compared with 29 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were elementary and middle school teacher ($982), registered nurse ($1,156), and secretary or administrative assistant ($753). Each of these occupations employed roughly 2 million women in 2018, collectively representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common occupation by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $829). In 2018, 2.6 million men were truck drivers, representing 4 percent of all male full-time wage and salary workers. Although engineering occupations are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2018, a total of 1.9 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,551 to $1,858). (See table 2.)

Earnings for workers with and without children under 18

In 2018, about one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (Children include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Fathers of children under 18 earned more than men without children ($1,098 and $919, respectively). Among women, however, the difference in median weekly earnings between mothers of children under 18 ($799) and those without children under 18 ($784) was much smaller. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2018, 25 percent of men who work full time usually worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 10 percent of women worked such hours in 2018, while 4 percent of men did. A large majority of full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek (75 percent of women and 71 percent of men). Among those with a 40-hour workweek, women earned 86 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are about twice as likely as men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job (including those whose hours vary). Women who worked part time made up 24 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2018. In comparison, 12 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $275 in 2018, slightly higher than the $263 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 29 percent of women and 42 percent of men were under age 25 in 2018. Among full-time workers, 9 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2018, 61 percent of women and 56 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $14.06 in 2018, which were 88 percent of the $16.01 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2018, about 3 percent of women and 2 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

115,567 $886 $2 51,425 $789 $3 64,142 $973 $3 81.1

16 to 24 years

10,428 548 4 4,611 522 3 5,818 575 5 90.8

16 to 19 years

1,382 449 7 545 421 5 837 471 9 89.4

20 to 24 years

9,046 576 3 4,065 546 6 4,981 592 4 92.2

25 years and older

105,138 932 2 46,814 830 3 58,324 1,026 4 80.9

25 to 34 years

28,874 808 4 12,681 750 4 16,193 862 6 87.0

35 to 44 years

26,452 986 5 11,528 876 6 14,924 1,101 10 79.6

45 to 54 years

25,565 1,002 5 11,621 876 6 13,944 1,137 7 77.0

55 to 64 years

19,585 994 6 8,937 853 8 10,647 1,137 8 75.0

65 years and older

4,662 944 12 2,046 811 19 2,616 1,050 25 77.2

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

88,953 916 3 38,384 817 3 50,570 1,002 4 81.5

Black or African American

15,041 694 4 7,760 654 5 7,282 735 7 89.0

Asian

7,643 1,095 16 3,474 937 17 4,169 1,241 16 75.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

20,297 680 4 8,071 617 4 12,226 720 5 85.7

Marital Status

Never married

34,984 710 3 15,541 675 4 19,444 738 4 91.5

Married, spouse present(1)

62,409 1,013 3 25,643 880 4 36,766 1,140 4 77.2

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

18,173 851 6 10,241 778 6 7,933 956 9 81.4

Widowed

1,807 812 17 1,313 755 17 494 946 31 79.8

Divorced

12,008 897 7 6,789 823 8 5,219 990 8 83.1

Separated(2)

4,359 750 10 2,139 667 10 2,220 855 16 78.0

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

13,415 1,051 7 5,773 968 9 7,642 1,123 8 86.2

Represented by unions(5)

14,844 1,042 7 6,493 958 9 8,352 1,121 8 85.5

Not represented by a union

100,722 860 3 44,932 764 2 55,790 948 4 80.6

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

105,138 932 2 46,814 830 3 58,324 1,026 4 80.9

Less than a high school diploma

6,999 553 4 2,238 469 4 4,761 607 4 77.3

High school graduates, no college

26,237 730 3 10,132 616 3 16,105 819 4 75.2

Some college or associate degree

27,476 826 4 12,755 717 4 14,721 951 6 75.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

44,427 1,324 7 21,689 1,145 4 22,738 1,524 8 75.1

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

115,567 $886 $2 51,425 $789 $3 64,142 $973 $3 81.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

48,808 1,246 4 25,123 1,078 6 23,685 1,468 8 73.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,863 1,355 6 9,195 1,168 8 10,668 1,537 10 76.0

Management occupations

13,477 1,429 10 5,724 1,236 11 7,754 1,585 16 78.0

Chief executives

1,098 2,291 23 307 1,736 96 790 2,488 90 69.8

General and operations managers

939 1,338 32 283 1,139 23 656 1,427 39 79.8

Legislators

14 - - 4 - - 10 - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

39 - - 16 - - 23 - - -

Marketing and sales managers

963 1,567 38 447 1,362 34 517 1,852 75 73.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

61 1,415 52 43 - - 18 - - -

Administrative services managers

147 1,215 74 46 - - 101 1,266 123 -

Computer and information systems managers

601 1,877 39 153 1,727 222 448 1,920 98 89.9

Financial managers

1,158 1,466 38 663 1,262 32 495 1,784 69 70.7

Compensation and benefits managers

21 - - 16 - - 5 - - -

Human resources managers

294 1,381 49 221 1,330 66 73 1,761 79 75.5

Training and development managers

52 1,448 106 31 - - 21 - - -

Industrial production managers

243 1,465 47 55 1,296 155 188 1,573 95 82.4

Purchasing managers

222 1,362 73 99 1,229 82 123 1,431 46 85.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

269 1,131 28 43 - - 226 1,138 30 -

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

119 945 47 21 - - 99 1,010 134 -

Construction managers

625 1,431 37 53 1,202 23 572 1,467 38 81.9

Education administrators

857 1,381 41 563 1,245 33 294 1,563 50 79.7

Architectural and engineering managers

149 2,226 192 19 - - 131 2,285 43 -

Food service managers

827 809 27 407 708 26 420 922 39 76.8

Funeral service managers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Gaming managers

23 - - 8 - - 15 - - -

Lodging managers

112 955 52 64 920 99 48 - - -

Medical and health services managers

567 1,408 33 418 1,331 45 149 1,729 140 77.0

Natural sciences managers

8 - - 4 - - 4 - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

22 - - 15 - - 8 - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

390 1,018 32 208 927 47 181 1,148 31 80.7

Social and community service managers

363 1,141 27 251 1,057 32 112 1,336 43 79.1

Emergency management directors

9 - - 3 - - 6 - - -

Managers, all other

3,285 1,525 21 1,263 1,341 21 2,022 1,628 29 82.4

Business and financial operations occupations

6,385 1,216 12 3,471 1,105 15 2,914 1,383 22 79.9

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

31 - - 18 - - 13 - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10 - - 3 - - 7 - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

147 878 61 65 880 114 82 878 97 100.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

223 1,160 50 102 1,032 60 121 1,209 23 85.4

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

334 998 19 189 913 35 145 1,167 32 78.2

Compliance officers

278 1,296 75 149 1,165 49 129 1,450 56 80.3

Cost estimators

109 1,165 36 14 - - 95 1,208 80 -

Human resources workers

620 1,161 29 429 1,107 48 190 1,328 127 83.4

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

48 - - 31 - - 17 - - -

Training and development specialists

111 1,092 65 64 1,086 116 47 - - -

Logisticians

127 1,019 49 46 - - 81 1,131 222 -

Management analysts

635 1,532 45 279 1,437 29 356 1,642 88 87.5

Meeting, convention, and event planners

89 1,002 77 69 1,006 162 21 - - -

Fundraisers

82 1,262 259 60 1,168 37 22 - - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

299 1,246 50 174 1,148 32 125 1,503 183 76.4

Business operations specialists, all other

223 1,150 17 127 1,072 116 95 1,234 205 86.9

Accountants and auditors

1,615 1,209 19 969 1,108 30 646 1,404 57 78.9

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

47 - - 22 - - 24 - - -

Budget analysts

52 1,351 79 35 - - 17 - - -

Credit analysts

27 - - 14 - - 12 - - -

Financial analysts

261 1,470 51 122 1,197 55 138 1,599 110 74.9

Personal financial advisors

414 1,473 89 146 1,207 107 268 1,647 59 73.3

Insurance underwriters

122 1,268 94 71 1,032 76 51 1,413 519 73.0

Financial examiners

11 - - 9 - - 2 - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

332 1,168 47 177 948 38 155 1,443 50 65.7

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

42 - - 29 - - 13 - - -

Tax preparers

62 1,028 82 36 - - 26 - - -

Financial specialists, all other

35 - - 22 - - 13 - - -

Professional and related occupations

28,945 1,176 5 15,929 1,024 6 13,017 1,425 9 71.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,755 1,539 15 1,184 1,345 28 3,571 1,604 22 83.9

Computer and information research scientists

20 - - 4 - - 16 - - -

Computer systems analysts

580 1,521 45 222 1,246 34 358 1,647 39 75.7

Information security analysts

93 1,635 96 18 - - 75 1,625 176 -

Computer programmers

428 1,591 45 91 1,445 54 338 1,662 55 86.9

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,611 1,864 25 327 1,644 36 1,283 1,894 11 86.8

Web developers

164 1,333 56 49 - - 115 1,418 105 -

Computer support specialists

516 1,085 50 140 1,015 68 376 1,114 56 91.1

Database administrators

108 1,493 95 40 - - 67 1,573 229 -

Network and computer systems administrators

192 1,430 65 37 - - 155 1,478 60 -

Computer network architects

112 1,765 39 10 - - 102 1,771 50 -

Computer occupations, all other

678 1,226 57 131 1,208 64 548 1,238 89 97.6

Actuaries

35 - - 11 - - 24 - - -

Mathematicians

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Operations research analysts

125 1,418 77 58 1,299 168 66 1,566 297 83.0

Statisticians

85 1,437 107 43 - - 41 - - -

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,994 1,484 17 453 1,259 30 2,541 1,528 16 82.4

Architects, except naval

170 1,464 37 52 1,301 74 118 1,538 87 84.6

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

35 - - 7 - - 28 - - -

Aerospace engineers

145 1,788 67 16 - - 129 1,836 142 -

Agricultural engineers

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Biomedical engineers

12 - - 1 - - 11 - - -

Chemical engineers

65 1,858 33 8 - - 57 1,858 31 -

Civil engineers

410 1,495 55 63 1,282 48 346 1,551 47 82.7

Computer hardware engineers

70 1,772 271 11 - - 60 1,852 86 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

282 1,646 37 31 - - 251 1,661 35 -

Environmental engineers

35 - - 5 - - 30 - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

245 1,499 39 54 1,163 57 191 1,571 57 74.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

15 - - 0 - - 15 - - -

Materials engineers

42 - - 10 - - 32 - - -

Mechanical engineers

313 1,562 47 31 - - 282 1,581 67 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Nuclear engineers

13 - - 1 - - 12 - - -

Petroleum engineers

27 - - 5 - - 22 - - -

Engineers, all other

528 1,575 36 65 1,356 113 463 1,610 58 84.2

Drafters

112 1,021 46 22 - - 91 1,029 45 -

Engineering technicians, except drafters

398 1,129 26 66 934 73 332 1,154 22 80.9

Surveying and mapping technicians

63 984 80 3 - - 60 995 83 -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,308 1,270 34 575 1,156 24 733 1,357 20 85.2

Agricultural and food scientists

30 - - 13 - - 16 - - -

Biological scientists

101 1,250 82 46 - - 55 1,164 203 -

Conservation scientists and foresters

17 - - 8 - - 9 - - -

Medical scientists

160 1,319 139 81 1,156 49 80 1,416 223 81.6

Life scientists, all other

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Astronomers and physicists

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

7 - - 1 - - 6 - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

115 1,284 73 45 - - 70 1,362 57 -

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

80 1,336 40 28 - - 52 1,427 43 -

Physical scientists, all other

289 1,455 39 120 1,341 57 169 1,582 51 84.8

Economists

35 - - 6 - - 29 - - -

Survey researchers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Psychologists

134 1,331 106 99 1,255 73 35 - - -

Sociologists

5 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Urban and regional planners

28 - - 13 - - 15 - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39 - - 14 - - 25 - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

31 - - 7 - - 24 - - -

Biological technicians

17 - - 7 - - 10 - - -

Chemical technicians

58 1,002 42 17 - - 42 - - -

Geological and petroleum technicians

11 - - 4 - - 7 - - -

Nuclear technicians

11 - - 3 - - 8 - - -

Social science research assistants

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

124 862 31 58 856 23 66 893 123 95.9

Community and social service occupations

2,223 913 10 1,469 886 11 754 984 21 90.0

Counselors

705 941 15 506 913 19 199 1,004 19 90.9

Social workers

753 907 15 611 897 15 141 958 40 93.6

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

105 944 30 60 930 34 45 - - -

Social and human service assistants

166 749 22 133 752 22 33 - - -

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

62 881 78 48 - - 14 - - -

Clergy

337 990 45 68 855 39 268 1,036 36 82.5

Directors, religious activities and education

51 927 49 25 - - 27 - - -

Religious workers, all other

45 - - 18 - - 27 - - -

Legal occupations

1,466 1,467 29 815 1,243 32 651 1,910 31 65.1

Lawyers

853 1,947 70 344 1,762 26 509 2,202 187 80.0

Judicial law clerks

15 - - 8 - - 7 - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

69 1,602 84 19 - - 49 - - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

413 948 25 359 953 25 54 917 42 103.9

Miscellaneous legal support workers

117 1,143 46 85 1,109 58 32 - - -

Education, training, and library occupations

7,166 1,002 9 5,251 934 8 1,915 1,235 17 75.6

Postsecondary teachers

994 1,439 29 460 1,253 36 534 1,603 60 78.2

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

568 648 28 555 643 28 14 - - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,030 1,010 11 2,410 982 11 620 1,148 19 85.5

Secondary school teachers

948 1,141 12 556 1,092 26 392 1,226 36 89.1

Special education teachers

324 1,039 20 281 1,042 18 43 - - -

Other teachers and instructors

388 957 47 215 840 41 172 1,095 47 76.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

37 - - 20 - - 17 - - -

Librarians

127 927 79 98 910 55 29 - - -

Library technicians

10 - - 7 - - 3 - - -

Teacher assistants

615 556 14 553 550 17 62 584 82 94.2

Other education, training, and library workers

125 1,095 98 95 1,036 83 30 - - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,880 1,086 24 828 997 23 1,052 1,151 14 86.6

Artists and related workers

64 1,078 71 18 - - 46 - - -

Designers

684 1,060 24 327 932 38 357 1,169 27 79.7

Actors

7 - - 2 - - 5 - - -

Producers and directors

147 1,224 113 49 - - 98 1,476 204 -

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

164 1,044 25 35 - - 129 1,049 27 -

Dancers and choreographers

11 - - 7 - - 4 - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

47 - - 19 - - 28 - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

17 - - 10 - - 7 - - -

Announcers

26 - - 4 - - 22 - - -

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

59 1,012 42 30 - - 29 - - -

Public relations specialists

118 1,313 92 78 1,169 78 40 - - -

Editors

124 1,112 35 67 1,138 129 57 1,104 34 103.1

Technical writers

60 1,318 108 35 - - 25 - - -

Writers and authors

110 1,233 70 68 1,036 55 42 - - -

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

62 880 28 51 850 36 12 - - -

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

73 1,028 67 7 - - 66 1,038 61 -

Photographers

68 904 102 16 - - 51 1,006 124 -

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

35 - - 6 - - 30 - - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,154 1,140 8 5,354 1,078 11 1,800 1,383 27 77.9

Chiropractors

15 - - 3 - - 12 - - -

Dentists

56 1,884 40 28 - - 27 - - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

70 967 45 63 940 41 8 - - -

Optometrists

29 - - 15 - - 13 - - -

Pharmacists

263 2,071 249 165 1,890 172 98 2,271 111 83.2

Physicians and surgeons

827 2,001 148 352 1,677 101 475 2,513 231 66.7

Physician assistants

118 1,752 37 80 1,646 585 37 - - -

Podiatrists

4 - - 1 - - 3 - - -

Audiologists

8 - - 6 - - 2 - - -

Occupational therapists

80 1,283 41 64 1,252 65 16 - - -

Physical therapists

209 1,395 46 139 1,387 53 71 1,410 79 98.4

Radiation therapists

13 - - 8 - - 6 - - -

Recreational therapists

11 - - 10 - - 1 - - -

Respiratory therapists

95 1,074 48 59 1,000 44 36 - - -

Speech-language pathologists

105 1,215 64 100 1,214 62 6 - - -

Exercise physiologists

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Therapists, all other

155 1,047 37 122 1,014 75 33 - - -

Veterinarians

64 1,677 107 46 - - 18 - - -

Registered nurses

2,584 1,167 11 2,270 1,156 11 315 1,271 31 91.0

Nurse anesthetists

22 - - 8 - - 13 - - -

Nurse midwives

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Nurse practitioners

158 1,894 23 134 1,891 22 24 - - -

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

10 - - 4 - - 6 - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

290 893 34 215 911 34 75 819 41 111.2

Dental hygienists

75 1,047 45 72 1,055 64 3 - - -

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

269 1,140 44 172 1,061 61 97 1,232 44 86.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

180 894 48 59 764 24 122 943 50 81.0

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

542 691 17 431 655 15 112 807 21 81.2

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

490 757 21 434 743 21 56 936 139 79.4

Medical records and health information technicians

140 765 40 129 739 38 11 - - -

Opticians, dispensing

47 - - 36 - - 11 - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

117 873 97 73 791 31 44 - - -

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

100 1,022 52 52 961 40 48 - - -

Service occupations

16,288 569 3 8,340 511 2 7,948 641 6 79.7

Healthcare support occupations

2,595 561 6 2,235 548 6 361 661 21 82.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,419 516 4 1,265 513 4 154 558 22 91.9

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

24 - - 21 - - 4 - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

68 848 32 43 - - 24 - - -

Massage therapists

40 - - 24 - - 15 - - -

Dental assistants

197 606 13 187 598 12 9 - - -

Medical assistants

499 612 10 454 607 10 45 - - -

Medical transcriptionists

23 - - 18 - - 4 - - -

Pharmacy aides

28 - - 23 - - 5 - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

49 - - 39 - - 10 - - -

Phlebotomists

96 624 16 67 602 14 29 - - -

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

154 598 16 93 559 20 61 703 52 79.5

Protective service occupations

2,836 848 15 578 613 10 2,258 922 17 66.5

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

47 - - 13 - - 35 - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

85 1,460 48 12 - - 74 1,461 63 -

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

52 1,304 65 2 - - 50 1,321 59 -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

74 839 212 16 - - 58 886 61 -

Firefighters

295 1,126 43 14 - - 280 1,133 24 -

Fire inspectors

18 - - 2 - - 16 - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

394 742 28 105 646 26 289 811 35 79.7

Detectives and criminal investigators

157 1,331 65 35 - - 122 1,317 71 -

Fish and game wardens

6 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Parking enforcement workers

4 - - 4 - - 0 - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

728 1,092 26 106 816 80 622 1,131 24 72.1

Transit and railroad police

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Animal control workers

13 - - 8 - - 5 - - -

Private detectives and investigators

89 851 69 46 - - 43 - - -

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

781 596 9 187 506 9 594 636 19 79.6

Crossing guards

28 - - 6 - - 22 - - -

Transportation security screeners

33 - - 6 - - 27 - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

31 - - 16 - - 15 - - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,394 501 4 2,184 473 5 2,210 533 9 88.7

Chefs and head cooks

365 615 13 65 562 38 300 624 20 90.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

397 583 20 231 539 17 166 668 21 80.7

Cooks

1,325 486 6 521 437 9 804 518 8 84.4

Food preparation workers

473 463 11 267 446 13 206 486 14 91.8

Bartenders

275 581 11 151 560 23 124 601 17 93.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

147 436 26 83 475 32 64 410 16 115.9

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

41 - - 22 - - 19 - - -

Waiters and waitresses

932 496 8 611 478 9 321 551 35 86.8

Food servers, nonrestaurant

106 484 13 74 475 46 32 - - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

118 447 34 58 408 13 59 500 24 81.6

Dishwashers

111 441 22 22 - - 89 434 22 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

102 471 23 78 473 22 24 - - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,695 551 6 1,322 477 5 2,373 604 5 79.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

193 711 27 77 615 49 116 772 34 79.7

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

95 770 20 2 - - 93 774 34 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,672 571 8 480 491 8 1,193 607 8 80.9

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

825 467 8 723 457 8 102 559 21 81.8

Pest control workers

75 688 94 4 - - 70 725 82 -

Grounds maintenance workers

834 572 12 36 - - 798 576 10 -

Personal care and service occupations

2,768 544 7 2,022 517 5 746 638 25 81.0

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

125 793 71 43 - - 83 914 46 -

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

86 747 47 60 739 49 27 - - -

Animal trainers

11 - - 7 - - 4 - - -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

102 555 42 79 548 55 24 - - -

Gaming services workers

73 654 44 36 - - 37 - - -

Motion picture projectionists

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

5 - - 3 - - 3 - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

85 523 33 28 - - 56 518 24 -

Embalmers and funeral attendants

11 - - 3 - - 8 - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

27 - - 7 - - 20 - - -

Barbers

48 - - 15 - - 34 - - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

309 545 17 287 548 16 22 - - -

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

258 523 22 206 512 13 52 615 40 83.3

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

73 620 16 13 - - 59 652 103 -

Tour and travel guides

22 - - 9 - - 13 - - -

Childcare workers

437 500 10 405 492 10 32 - - -

Personal care aides

786 500 7 654 493 8 132 555 33 88.8

Recreation and fitness workers

208 603 24 109 543 43 100 724 57 75.0

Residential advisors

29 - - 18 - - 11 - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

74 522 50 42 - - 32 - - -

Sales and office occupations

23,714 742 3 14,166 696 4 9,548 846 8 82.3

Sales and related occupations

10,077 798 7 4,455 651 7 5,621 949 10 68.6

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,421 795 14 1,062 672 12 1,359 911 16 73.8

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

893 1,153 21 305 1,054 49 588 1,199 64 87.9

Cashiers

1,390 465 7 1,013 463 8 377 468 16 98.9

Counter and rental clerks

82 729 22 30 - - 51 769 24 -

Parts salespersons

109 702 40 11 - - 98 718 43 -

Retail salespersons

1,860 657 12 716 543 14 1,144 764 14 71.1

Advertising sales agents

169 998 119 79 1,053 39 91 950 39 110.8

Insurance sales agents

466 859 22 261 809 20 205 1,048 189 77.2

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

197 1,440 35 66 1,047 95 131 1,639 249 63.9

Travel agents

53 789 57 43 - - 10 - - -

Sales representatives, services, all other

427 1,230 89 113 933 103 315 1,345 30 69.4

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,112 1,161 15 295 1,009 36 817 1,239 27 81.4

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15 - - 11 - - 3 - - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

528 1,019 51 291 883 53 236 1,264 127 69.9

Sales engineers

38 - - 4 - - 34 - - -

Telemarketers

50 559 29 31 - - 19 - - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

41 - - 17 - - 25 - - -

Sales and related workers, all other

227 1,036 62 109 873 40 118 1,323 57 66.0

Office and administrative support occupations

13,637 717 3 9,711 711 4 3,926 738 8 96.3

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,279 885 15 892 835 14 386 1,050 37 79.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

21 - - 19 - - 3 - - -

Telephone operators

29 - - 22 - - 6 - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

7 - - 2 - - 5 - - -

Bill and account collectors

114 711 21 85 694 20 28 - - -

Billing and posting clerks

417 721 22 361 725 19 56 664 27 109.2

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

679 742 10 575 739 10 104 778 52 95.0

Gaming cage workers

7 - - 6 - - 1 - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

111 827 38 100 807 39 11 - - -

Procurement clerks

30 - - 14 - - 16 - - -

Tellers

240 584 8 206 584 8 34 - - -

Financial clerks, all other

77 839 166 48 - - 30 - - -

Brokerage clerks

5 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Correspondence clerks

5 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

78 897 71 61 804 54 17 - - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

50 818 149 30 - - 21 - - -

Customer service representatives

1,904 683 9 1,226 680 10 678 689 18 98.7

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

67 887 61 53 841 79 14 - - -

File clerks

110 650 33 86 624 26 23 - - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

85 520 28 56 505 26 29 - - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

114 702 45 96 686 53 18 - - -

Library assistants, clerical

34 - - 26 - - 8 - - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

115 827 42 99 797 49 16 - - -

New accounts clerks

21 - - 13 - - 8 - - -

Order clerks

57 659 29 29 - - 28 - - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

53 816 126 45 - - 7 - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

934 605 6 853 606 6 81 593 33 102.2

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

109 745 114 60 766 86 50 681 143 112.5

Information and record clerks, all other

95 733 22 71 724 21 24 - - -

Cargo and freight agents

18 - - 12 - - 6 - - -

Couriers and messengers

192 786 33 29 - - 164 821 42 -

Dispatchers

270 783 47 162 725 29 108 926 63 78.3

Meter readers, utilities

24 - - 2 - - 22 - - -

Postal service clerks

115 765 58 63 771 80 51 758 84 101.7

Postal service mail carriers

288 931 28 118 808 51 170 983 30 82.2

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

53 980 139 32 - - 22 - - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

252 870 39 134 790 49 119 1,004 88 78.7

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

524 632 16 160 590 24 365 654 20 90.2

Stock clerks and order fillers

988 562 11 359 570 16 629 558 15 102.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

44 - - 14 - - 30 - - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants

1,977 759 7 1,855 753 7 122 903 54 83.4

Computer operators

67 763 31 40 - - 27 - - -

Data entry keyers

224 655 22 173 643 25 52 730 68 88.1

Word processors and typists

53 858 69 43 - - 9 - - -

Desktop publishers

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

211 719 20 175 713 26 36 - - -

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

44 - - 13 - - 31 - - -

Office clerks, general

925 697 11 797 701 11 128 670 29 104.6

Office machine operators, except computer

13 - - 9 - - 5 - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

7 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Statistical assistants

41 - - 25 - - 16 - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

456 794 25 352 762 15 104 920 38 82.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,546 824 6 516 638 28 11,030 834 7 76.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

850 581 7 183 483 12 667 602 8 80.2

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

45 - - 7 - - 37 - - -

Agricultural inspectors

18 - - 6 - - 13 - - -

Animal breeders

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

75 593 26 37 - - 38 - - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

641 552 13 130 474 13 512 578 9 82.0

Fishers and related fishing workers

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Hunters and trappers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Forest and conservation workers

17 - - 3 - - 15 - - -

Logging workers

36 - - 0 - - 36 - - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,414 808 5 191 785 41 6,223 809 6 97.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

541 1,059 36 20 - - 521 1,073 37 -

Boilermakers

16 - - 0 - - 16 - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

102 763 48 2 - - 100 761 48 -

Carpenters

973 756 15 20 - - 953 759 15 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

108 692 31 4 - - 105 682 31 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

46 - - 0 - - 46 - - -

Construction laborers

1,470 717 8 49 - - 1,421 717 8 -

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

19 - - 0 - - 18 - - -

Pile-driver operators

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

328 905 21 5 - - 323 905 21 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

125 704 26 1 - - 124 707 26 -

Electricians

781 965 22 16 - - 766 966 22 -

Glaziers

35 - - 0 - - 35 - - -

Insulation workers

49 - - 1 - - 48 - - -

Painters, construction and maintenance

380 679 15 20 - - 360 679 14 -

Paperhangers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

531 921 31 17 - - 514 916 26 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

15 - - 1 - - 14 - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Roofers

148 687 18 2 - - 146 686 19 -

Sheet metal workers

129 881 24 2 - - 127 882 23 -

Structural iron and steel workers

52 934 52 1 - - 51 941 52 -

Solar photovoltaic installers

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Helpers, construction trades

68 620 18 1 - - 67 622 18 -

Construction and building inspectors

82 996 121 14 - - 68 1,015 93 -

Elevator installers and repairers

25 - - 2 - - 23 - - -

Fence erectors

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

30 - - 3 - - 27 - - -

Highway maintenance workers

109 781 35 4 - - 105 772 39 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

25 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

29 - - 1 - - 28 - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23 - - 0 - - 23 - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Mining machine operators

59 1,402 81 4 - - 55 1,389 79 -

Roof bolters, mining

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Helpers--extraction workers

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Other extraction workers

35 - - 0 - - 34 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,282 934 9 142 823 62 4,140 936 9 87.9

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

270 1,087 75 15 - - 255 1,111 77 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

157 932 25 20 - - 137 940 24 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

125 1,131 50 18 - - 108 1,134 37 -

Avionics technicians

11 - - 1 - - 10 - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

22 - - 2 - - 20 - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

12 - - 2 - - 10 - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

29 - - 0 - - 29 - - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

47 - - 0 - - 47 - - -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

155 1,117 34 7 - - 147 1,141 51 -

Automotive body and related repairers

114 820 42 0 - - 114 820 44 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22 - - 1 - - 21 - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

709 800 12 10 - - 698 802 13 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

358 942 31 5 - - 352 943 31 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

199 1,013 26 3 - - 196 1,011 26 -

Small engine mechanics

28 - - 0 - - 28 - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

68 611 38 3 - - 65 612 37 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

20 - - 2 - - 18 - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

384 890 38 3 - - 381 891 38 -

Home appliance repairers

28 - - 0 - - 28 - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

424 981 32 6 - - 418 982 32 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

456 870 30 16 - - 439 874 29 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

23 - - 0 - - 23 - - -

Millwrights

40 - - 1 - - 39 - - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

129 1,300 55 5 - - 124 1,292 54 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

196 1,014 46 9 - - 187 1,026 51 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

46 - - 6 - - 39 - - -

Wind turbine service technicians

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

25 - - 2 - - 23 - - -

Commercial divers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

18 - - 0 - - 18 - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Riggers

13 - - 0 - - 13 - - -

Signal and track switch repairers

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17 - - 1 - - 17 - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

111 827 68 3 - - 108 837 83 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,210 707 4 3,279 561 6 11,932 762 5 73.6

Production occupations

7,668 723 5 2,041 575 6 5,627 793 6 72.5

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

792 980 28 150 745 37 642 1,050 38 71.0

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

6 - - 1 - - 5 - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

110 605 27 53 518 20 57 706 200 73.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

7 - - 2 - - 5 - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

27 - - 0 - - 27 - - -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

989 663 13 348 583 10 641 723 15 80.6

Bakers

151 549 16 89 533 23 61 565 21 94.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

223 606 11 65 557 56 158 632 31 88.1

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Food batchmakers

55 557 22 34 - - 21 - - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

8 - - 5 - - 3 - - -

Food processing workers, all other

142 624 31 52 539 24 90 749 55 72.0

Computer control programmers and operators

106 882 29 12 - - 94 890 30 -

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17 - - 4 - - 12 - - -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

11 - - 3 - - 7 - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

58 745 35 5 - - 53 766 39 -

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

35 - - 2 - - 33 - - -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Machinists

309 863 29 16 - - 293 878 26 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

17 - - 1 - - 16 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

35 - - 3 - - 32 - - -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Tool and die makers

47 - - 2 - - 45 - - -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

562 840 23 32 - - 530 847 23 -

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

10 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

10 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17 - - 4 - - 13 - - -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

356 698 18 66 611 14 290 724 29 84.4

Prepress technicians and workers

14 - - 3 - - 11 - - -

Printing press operators

137 754 48 26 - - 111 804 55 -

Print binding and finishing workers

12 - - 6 - - 6 - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

108 432 23 76 416 13 32 - - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

28 - - 18 - - 11 - - -

Sewing machine operators

131 498 9 94 497 11 37 - - -

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

6 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

43 - - 24 - - 19 - - -

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

5 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3 - - 3 - - 0 - - -

Upholsterers

19 - - 5 - - 14 - - -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

14 - - 7 - - 7 - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

47 - - 3 - - 44 - - -

Furniture finishers

15 - - 2 - - 13 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

32 - - 4 - - 27 - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23 - - 10 - - 13 - - -

Woodworkers, all other

11 - - 0 - - 11 - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

33 - - 1 - - 32 - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

84 1,073 96 2 - - 82 1,086 72 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

99 943 45 5 - - 94 940 44 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

35 - - 0 - - 35 - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

65 894 35 8 - - 57 899 34 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

83 672 37 5 - - 78 673 51 -

Cutting workers

56 595 35 12 - - 43 - - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

17 - - 3 - - 14 - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

20 - - 4 - - 15 - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

756 771 17 267 679 23 490 868 38 78.2

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

20 - - 7 - - 13 - - -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

74 741 31 41 - - 33 - - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

250 529 25 140 496 14 110 602 27 82.4

Painting workers

159 710 24 16 - - 142 725 35 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

15 - - 4 - - 11 - - -

Semiconductor processors

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

8 - - 3 - - 5 - - -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Etchers and engravers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

28 - - 0 - - 27 - - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

20 - - 4 - - 16 - - -

Tire builders

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Helpers--production workers

37 - - 10 - - 26 - - -

Production workers, all other

992 678 13 263 566 18 729 725 16 78.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,542 689 5 1,237 538 9 6,305 724 7 74.3

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

197 850 39 45 - - 152 878 66 -

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

98 1,743 593 7 - - 91 1,837 291 -

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

38 - - 3 - - 35 - - -

Flight attendants

74 878 82 53 822 60 21 - - -

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Bus drivers

361 655 23 144 599 14 216 735 33 81.5

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,791 817 10 155 559 39 2,636 829 12 67.4

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

399 611 13 58 450 32 341 628 19 71.7

Motor vehicle operators, all other

39 - - 5 - - 34 - - -

Locomotive engineers and operators

34 - - 5 - - 30 - - -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

54 1,132 65 4 - - 50 1,143 56 -

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Sailors and marine oilers

21 - - 1 - - 20 - - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

30 - - 1 - - 29 - - -

Ship engineers

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Bridge and lock tenders

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Parking lot attendants

61 575 46 8 - - 54 575 45 -

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

70 570 68 14 - - 56 575 54 -

Transportation inspectors

37 - - 3 - - 34 - - -

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

19 - - 13 - - 5 - - -

Other transportation workers

19 - - 0 - - 18 - - -

Conveyor operators and tenders

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Crane and tower operators

64 1,122 108 3 - - 60 1,079 271 -

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Hoist and winch operators

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

596 641 15 48 - - 549 641 16 -

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

232 538 22 40 - - 192 536 25 -

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,595 603 6 318 541 12 1,277 620 7 87.3

Machine feeders and offbearers

25 - - 10 - - 15