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December 2020 Report 1089

Highlights of women's earnings in 2019

Highlights of women's earnings in 2019 image

In 2019, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 82 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s (when the women’s to men’s ratio went from 64 percent to 70 percent) and in the 1990s (when the ratio went from 72 percent to 77 percent). Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey and averaged for the calendar year. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the BLS website for an explanation of the differences between these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the mid-point in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the accompanying technical notes section for more information, including a description of the of the data source and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

Below are data highlights for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics, such as age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2019, median weekly earnings were $821 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $1,007. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 to 44, with earnings of $920, and those ages 45 to 54, with earnings of $904. Women ages 55 to 64 and age 65 and older had slightly lower earnings—$880 and $815, respectively. For men, earnings were highest for 35- to 64-year-olds, with little difference in the earnings of 45- to 54-year-olds and 55- to 64-year-olds ($1,169 and $1,166, respectively). Men between the ages of 35 to 44 had median weekly earnings of $1,149. Young women and men ages 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($540 and $607, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

In 2019, women’s earnings ranged from 76 percent to 80 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller, with women earning 84 percent to 90 percent of what men did. The earnings difference between men and women has historically been smaller for those under age 35 than for those in older age groups. (See table 1 and table 12.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have grown substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains occurred primarily in the 1980s. For workers ages 25 to 64, the gains continued into the 2000s, but have tapered off in recent years. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2019. Among women, Whites ($840) earned 82 percent as much as Asians ($1,025); Blacks ($704) earned 69 percent; and Hispanics ($642) earned 63 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($1,036) earned 78 percent as much as Asian men ($1,336); Black men ($769) earned 58 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($747) earned 56 percent (See chart 3 and table 1.)

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and among Whites. Asian women earned 77 percent as much as Asian men in 2019, and White women earned 81 percent as much as White men. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 92 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 86 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2019, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 39 percent for White women, by 27 percent for Black women, and by 24 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, gains tapered off around 2004. Since that time, White and Black women have seen little net growth in earnings. From 2004 to 2019, White women experienced an earnings growth of 6 percent, and Black women experienced an earnings increase of 3 percent. On the other hand, Hispanic women’s earnings have remained on an upward trend, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined from 1979 through the mid-1990s, then began to trend up. Over the full period, 1979 through 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings have shown little change on net for White (6 percent), Black (3 percent), and Hispanic (4 percent) men. (See table 18.)

Between 2000 and 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings for Asian women and men remained on an upward trend. (Data for Asians are not available prior to 2000.) Asian women’s earnings grew by 26 percent, and Asian men’s earnings grew by 31 percent over that period. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($592) were 43 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,367) in 2019. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($746) were 55 percent of those for workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree (median weekly earnings of $856) made 63 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. The inflation-adjusted earnings of women without a high school diploma changed little between 1979 and 2019 (a 1-percent decrease). By contrast, inflation-adjusted earnings for men declined by 22 percent. For those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, inflation-adjusted earnings for women have increased by 38 percent since 1979, while earnings for men have risen by 21 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2019 ($1,221 for women and $1,598 for men). Within this category, the highest earning women and men were chief executives ($2,019 and $2,509, respectively) and computer and information systems managers ($1,892 and $2,019, respectively). (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,085 for women and $1,493 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were veterinarians ($1,985), lawyers ($1,878), and physicians and surgeons ($1,878) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2019. For men, those who were physicians and surgeons ($2,500), pharmacists ($2,245), and lawyers ($2,202) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Women and men employed in service occupations earned the least in 2019 ($537 for women and $659 for men). Within this category, women who were employed as hostesses at restaurants, lounges, and coffee shops ($441) and food preparation workers ($463) had the lowest median weekly earnings. For men, those who were employed as combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food ($457) and dishwashers ($464) earned the least. 

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in construction, production, or transportation occupations, and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2019, 31 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 20 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2019, 11 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,353 for women and $1,658 for men) and engineering ($1,339 for women and $1,589 for men) occupations, compared with 47 percent of men. Women were over twice as likely to work in education ($987 for women and $1,265 for men) and healthcare ($1,130 for women and $1,422 for men) jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-seven percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2019, compared with 29 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were registered nurse ($1,217), elementary and middle school teacher ($1,042), and secretary or administrative assistant ($763). Collectively, these occupations employed 6.8 million women in 2019, representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $861). In 2019, 2.6 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2019, a total of 1.9 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,616 to $2,018). (See table 2.)

Earnings for workers with and without children under 18

In 2019, about one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($842) were higher than the earnings for women without children under 18 ($812). Earnings for fathers of children under 18, at $1,140, were higher than the earnings of $951 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

As mentioned earlier, among full-time workers, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week, men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2019, 25 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 10 percent of women worked such hours in 2019, while 4 percent of men did. A majority of both male (71 percent) and female (75 percent) full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 87 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 23 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2019. In comparison, 11 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $284 in 2019, slightly higher than the $269 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 29 percent of women and 43 percent of men were under age 25 in 2019. Among full-time workers, 9 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25 (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2019, 61 percent of women and 56 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $14.85 in 2019, which were 89 percent of the $16.76 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2019, 3 percent of women and 1 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2019 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

117,584 $917 $2 52,577 $821 $3 65,007 $1,007 $3 81.5

16 to 24 years

10,766 581 3 4,830 540 5 5,936 607 3 89.0

16 to 19 years

1,439 481 5 601 427 10 838 506 7 84.4

20 to 24 years

9,327 598 3 4,229 563 5 5,098 623 5 90.4

25 years and older

106,818 969 2 47,747 865 3 59,070 1,070 4 80.8

25 to 34 years

29,576 846 4 13,094 788 5 16,482 897 5 87.8

35 to 44 years

26,783 1,035 6 11,677 920 6 15,105 1,149 7 80.1

45 to 54 years

25,390 1,033 6 11,630 904 6 13,760 1,169 8 77.3

55 to 64 years

20,065 1,017 6 9,188 880 7 10,878 1,166 9 75.5

65 years and older

5,004 936 11 2,158 815 16 2,846 1,066 28 76.5

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

90,194 945 3 39,084 840 3 51,110 1,036 4 81.1

Black or African American

15,460 735 4 8,081 704 5 7,378 769 6 91.5

Asian

7,898 1,174 14 3,563 1,025 24 4,334 1,336 20 76.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

21,227 706 3 8,616 642 5 12,611 747 5 85.9

Marital Status

Never married

36,480 740 3 16,179 702 4 20,301 774 4 90.7

Married, spouse present(1)

62,704 1,056 4 25,942 917 4 36,762 1,170 5 78.4

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

18,400 879 6 10,456 803 6 7,944 985 8 81.5

Widowed

1,943 824 17 1,427 785 16 516 985 36 79.7

Divorced

12,125 929 7 6,815 846 9 5,310 1,033 12 81.9

Separated(2)

4,332 767 10 2,214 696 10 2,118 848 15 82.1

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

13,224 1,095 7 5,711 1,018 9 7,513 1,147 8 88.8

Represented by unions(5)

14,822 1,082 7 6,495 1,004 8 8,326 1,139 8 88.1

Not represented by a union

102,762 892 2 46,082 792 3 56,680 986 4 80.3

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

106,818 969 2 47,747 865 3 59,070 1,070 4 80.8

Less than a high school diploma

7,011 592 3 2,262 494 3 4,749 644 5 76.7

High school graduates, no college

26,756 746 3 10,328 633 4 16,428 844 6 75.0

Some college or associate degree

27,279 856 4 12,631 737 4 14,648 991 5 74.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

45,772 1,367 5 22,526 1,195 7 23,246 1,573 8 76.0

Footnotes
(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2019 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

117,584 $917 $2 52,577 $821 $3 65,007 $1,007 $3 81.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

50,119 1,309 7 25,859 1,135 4 24,260 1,539 7 73.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,696 1,415 8 9,585 1,221 10 11,111 1,598 16 76.4

Management occupations

13,948 1,478 11 5,946 1,266 14 8,002 1,659 17 76.3

Chief executives

1,113 2,380 71 302 2,019 113 812 2,509 53 80.5

General and operations managers

990 1,384 43 312 1,153 25 678 1,476 30 78.1

Legislators

14 - - 5 - - 9 - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

45 - - 27 - - 19 - - -

Marketing and sales managers

1,109 1,600 57 518 1,393 67 591 1,895 21 73.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

72 1,416 407 50 1,399 96 22 - - -

Administrative services managers

154 1,235 35 61 1,084 190 93 1,277 66 84.9

Computer and information systems managers

629 1,984 57 190 1,892 47 439 2,019 89 93.7

Financial managers

1,142 1,447 37 619 1,207 49 523 1,897 17 63.6

Compensation and benefits managers

23 - - 15 - - 7 - - -

Human resources managers

299 1,592 68 230 1,538 83 69 1,829 250 84.1

Training and development managers

44 - - 25 - - 19 - - -

Industrial production managers

270 1,472 44 62 1,497 216 208 1,469 44 101.9

Purchasing managers

214 1,539 120 84 1,390 77 129 1,657 47 83.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

261 1,160 31 49 - - 213 1,238 44 -

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

114 987 114 20 - - 94 1,162 126 -

Construction managers

610 1,468 43 71 1,210 106 539 1,511 39 80.1

Education administrators

811 1,371 34 536 1,335 42 276 1,467 65 91.0

Architectural and engineering managers

148 2,471 94 20 - - 128 2,457 107 -

Food service managers

785 863 29 365 719 29 420 964 25 74.6

Funeral service managers

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Gaming managers

18 - - 9 - - 10 - - -

Lodging managers

116 975 44 55 894 37 61 1,096 47 81.6

Medical and health services managers

578 1,478 51 409 1,362 66 169 1,828 174 74.5

Natural sciences managers

12 - - 3 - - 9 - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

28 - - 14 - - 13 - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

438 954 29 224 849 22 214 1,168 92 72.7

Social and community service managers

403 1,243 34 260 1,156 29 143 1,452 73 79.6

Emergency management directors

9 - - 3 - - 6 - - -

Managers, all other

3,497 1,533 18 1,409 1,317 44 2,088 1,725 37 76.3

Business and financial operations occupations

6,748 1,285 16 3,639 1,148 10 3,109 1,468 16 78.2

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

28 - - 15 - - 13 - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

7 - - 1 - - 6 - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

162 979 34 76 977 43 87 982 55 99.5

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

248 1,170 34 113 1,081 73 134 1,202 34 89.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

299 1,103 43 195 972 46 104 1,277 63 76.1

Compliance officers

271 1,346 58 165 1,264 87 105 1,561 130 81.0

Cost estimators

113 1,254 33 13 - - 100 1,264 39 -

Human resources workers

680 1,203 34 494 1,149 42 186 1,325 63 86.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

46 - - 32 - - 14 - - -

Training and development specialists

120 1,127 95 68 968 194 51 1,249 71 77.5

Logisticians

152 1,093 48 45 - - 107 1,149 30 -

Management analysts

692 1,622 49 303 1,517 44 389 1,870 141 81.1

Meeting, convention, and event planners

116 1,023 41 89 1,018 53 28 - - -

Fundraisers

85 1,330 118 52 1,229 75 33 - - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

281 1,363 37 152 1,228 143 130 1,688 168 72.7

Business operations specialists, all other

248 1,283 65 148 1,193 49 100 1,540 131 77.5

Accountants and auditors

1,683 1,221 25 1,013 1,141 18 670 1,419 44 80.4

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

46 - - 23 - - 24 - - -

Budget analysts

40 - - 21 - - 19 - - -

Credit analysts

26 - - 18 - - 9 - - -

Financial analysts

307 1,613 76 104 1,386 152 203 1,763 102 78.6

Personal financial advisors

448 1,618 110 152 1,232 110 296 1,905 21 64.7

Insurance underwriters

116 1,169 93 59 1,142 72 57 1,338 45 85.4

Financial examiners

20 - - 10 - - 10 - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

366 1,235 67 193 1,020 44 173 1,542 50 66.1

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

49 - - 31 - - 18 - - -

Tax preparers

46 - - 26 - - 20 - - -

Financial specialists, all other

50 1,209 42 26 - - 24 - - -

Professional and related occupations

29,423 1,237 5 16,274 1,085 7 13,149 1,493 11 72.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,947 1,579 14 1,279 1,353 33 3,668 1,658 22 81.6

Computer and information research scientists

20 - - 6 - - 13 - - -

Computer systems analysts

623 1,461 45 255 1,289 117 368 1,580 51 81.6

Information security analysts

128 1,758 52 25 - - 103 1,875 299 -

Computer programmers

425 1,586 36 82 1,463 95 343 1,613 38 90.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,714 1,894 10 335 1,718 70 1,379 1,920 47 89.5

Web developers

144 1,470 103 56 1,150 66 88 1,633 220 70.4

Computer support specialists

486 1,192 32 121 1,103 52 365 1,223 42 90.2

Database administrators

96 1,642 280 29 - - 67 1,752 83 -

Network and computer systems administrators

194 1,447 73 50 1,233 44 144 1,541 56 80.0

Computer network architects

104 1,883 186 10 - - 95 1,901 60 -

Computer occupations, all other

721 1,277 64 179 1,148 38 542 1,365 32 84.1

Actuaries

28 - - 7 - - 21 - - -

Mathematicians

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Operations research analysts

153 1,512 36 67 1,188 100 86 1,753 102 67.8

Statisticians

90 1,456 58 46 - - 44 - - -

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

18 - - 8 - - 10 - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,011 1,550 16 452 1,339 27 2,559 1,589 17 84.3

Architects, except naval

152 1,572 135 38 - - 114 1,706 81 -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

42 - - 8 - - 34 - - -

Aerospace engineers

138 1,917 157 17 - - 121 2,018 126 -

Agricultural engineers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Biomedical engineers

17 - - 3 - - 14 - - -

Chemical engineers

86 1,863 107 12 - - 74 1,878 54 -

Civil engineers

421 1,616 44 61 1,353 82 360 1,657 57 81.7

Computer hardware engineers

71 1,882 37 15 - - 57 1,919 275 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

266 1,781 119 25 - - 241 1,830 84 -

Environmental engineers

25 - - 5 - - 20 - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

227 1,589 76 58 1,487 74 169 1,616 88 92.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

13 - - 0 - - 13 - - -

Materials engineers

44 - - 5 - - 39 - - -

Mechanical engineers

322 1,625 46 19 - - 303 1,635 51 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 - - 4 - - 4 - - -

Nuclear engineers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Petroleum engineers

24 - - 2 - - 22 - - -

Engineers, all other

529 1,636 37 74 1,446 51 455 1,663 39 87.0

Drafters

104 1,045 35 22 - - 82 1,047 34 -

Engineering technicians, except drafters

462 1,161 22 79 915 35 382 1,200 24 76.2

Surveying and mapping technicians

50 1,060 49 4 - - 46 - - -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,233 1,334 27 556 1,237 28 676 1,447 42 85.5

Agricultural and food scientists

36 - - 13 - - 23 - - -

Biological scientists

101 1,250 49 44 - - 57 1,266 49 -

Conservation scientists and foresters

20 - - 8 - - 11 - - -

Medical scientists

146 1,188 60 70 1,175 71 77 1,214 605 96.8

Life scientists, all other

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Astronomers and physicists

15 - - 4 - - 10 - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

13 - - 5 - - 9 - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

85 1,582 151 36 - - 49 - - -

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

101 1,486 49 36 - - 65 1,519 77 -

Physical scientists, all other

278 1,669 135 120 1,385 76 158 1,901 23 72.9

Economists

35 - - 9 - - 26 - - -

Survey researchers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Psychologists

114 1,468 182 93 1,441 62 22 - - -

Sociologists

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Urban and regional planners

22 - - 8 - - 14 - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

32 - - 12 - - 20 - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

20 - - 4 - - 16 - - -

Biological technicians

20 - - 12 - - 8 - - -

Chemical technicians

61 893 33 20 - - 41 - - -

Geological and petroleum technicians

18 - - 6 - - 12 - - -

Nuclear technicians

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Social science research assistants

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

108 907 28 51 896 29 57 928 75 96.6

Community and social service occupations

2,240 968 11 1,498 941 12 742 1,064 42 88.4

Counselors

720 987 22 541 1,003 24 179 944 37 106.2

Social workers

739 964 20 603 944 20 136 1,108 55 85.2

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

94 1,067 93 45 - - 50 1,050 72 -

Social and human service assistants

207 805 47 166 778 47 41 - - -

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

66 920 21 46 - - 20 - - -

Clergy

332 1,066 77 57 862 62 275 1,155 38 74.6

Directors, religious activities and education

48 - - 19 - - 29 - - -

Religious workers, all other

34 - - 21 - - 13 - - -

Legal occupations

1,478 1,562 33 808 1,266 28 670 1,999 103 63.3

Lawyers

884 2,043 76 336 1,878 40 548 2,202 149 85.3

Judicial law clerks

12 - - 7 - - 5 - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

61 1,794 140 34 - - 27 - - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

364 963 32 323 970 37 41 - - -

Miscellaneous legal support workers

157 1,124 48 109 1,009 161 49 - - -

Education, training, and library occupations

7,238 1,057 8 5,247 987 9 1,991 1,265 21 78.0

Postsecondary teachers

986 1,512 40 442 1,358 34 544 1,670 60 81.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

496 701 35 489 705 33 7 - - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,162 1,067 11 2,522 1,042 12 640 1,161 21 89.8

Secondary school teachers

882 1,161 16 474 1,095 33 408 1,262 21 86.8

Special education teachers

295 1,108 61 253 1,104 85 42 - - -

Other teachers and instructors

455 1,054 29 263 942 37 192 1,190 61 79.2

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

34 - - 19 - - 15 - - -

Librarians

138 1,095 133 111 1,093 135 27 - - -

Library technicians

9 - - 7 - - 2 - - -

Teacher assistants

637 590 15 565 579 15 72 707 63 81.9

Other education, training, and library workers

143 1,143 40 102 1,058 31 41 - - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,762 1,151 13 806 1,077 29 956 1,231 31 87.5

Artists and related workers

83 1,155 32 35 - - 48 - - -

Designers

661 1,126 28 324 1,052 31 337 1,214 79 86.7

Actors

13 - - 6 - - 7 - - -

Producers and directors

109 1,483 107 50 1,156 69 59 1,652 64 70.0

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

157 1,051 26 35 - - 122 1,134 168 -

Dancers and choreographers

13 - - 10 - - 3 - - -

Musicians, singers, and related workers

36 - - 10 - - 26 - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

15 - - 4 - - 12 - - -

Announcers

20 - - 9 - - 12 - - -

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

77 1,301 165 37 - - 40 - - -

Public relations specialists

119 1,410 118 78 1,255 39 41 - - -

Editors

98 1,163 35 66 1,135 41 32 - - -

Technical writers

54 1,434 33 28 - - 26 - - -

Writers and authors

88 1,159 35 48 - - 41 - - -

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

56 794 34 34 - - 22 - - -

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

90 1,158 69 11 - - 79 1,189 63 -

Photographers

45 - - 16 - - 29 - - -

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

27 - - 7 - - 20 - - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,514 1,180 9 5,627 1,130 9 1,887 1,422 30 79.5

Chiropractors

19 - - 6 - - 12 - - -

Dentists

71 2,302 70 28 - - 43 - - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

94 1,019 68 85 948 72 10 - - -

Optometrists

27 - - 15 - - 12 - - -

Pharmacists

255 2,013 109 155 1,877 132 100 2,245 165 83.6

Physicians and surgeons

857 2,292 47 349 1,878 79 507 2,500 206 75.1

Physician assistants

109 1,831 42 77 1,763 28 31 - - -

Podiatrists

4 - - 1 - - 3 - - -

Audiologists

11 - - 10 - - 2 - - -

Occupational therapists

92 1,447 32 79 1,441 47 13 - - -

Physical therapists

211 1,431 27 130 1,323 61 81 1,610 86 82.2

Radiation therapists

9 - - 5 - - 4 - - -

Recreational therapists

9 - - 8 - - 1 - - -

Respiratory therapists

93 1,213 49 59 1,073 88 34 - - -

Speech-language pathologists

131 1,193 40 124 1,171 42 7 - - -

Exercise physiologists

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Therapists, all other

162 935 35 131 919 27 31 - - -

Veterinarians

72 1,773 290 55 1,985 326 17 - - -

Registered nurses

2,640 1,223 13 2,321 1,217 14 320 1,256 34 96.9

Nurse anesthetists

22 - - 12 - - 10 - - -

Nurse midwives

6 - - 6 - - 0 - - -

Nurse practitioners

187 1,760 33 163 1,753 33 23 - - -

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

12 - - 7 - - 5 - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

281 979 32 215 952 28 66 1,117 130 85.2

Dental hygienists

104 1,094 69 99 1,066 44 5 - - -

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

320 1,126 35 213 1,076 71 107 1,166 35 92.3

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

179 912 40 54 786 35 125 991 63 79.3

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

570 735 16 444 712 16 126 843 62 84.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

533 806 19 481 799 18 53 896 33 89.2

Medical records and health information technicians

152 829 68 138 799 41 15 - - -

Opticians, dispensing

34 - - 26 - - 9 - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

130 880 26 84 799 67 46 - - -

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

117 1,252 60 48 - - 69 1,261 80 -

Service occupations

16,558 592 2 8,660 537 4 7,898 659 5 81.5

Healthcare support occupations

2,700 591 4 2,337 585 4 363 639 23 91.5

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,471 562 7 1,287 556 7 184 588 14 94.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

23 - - 19 - - 4 - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

72 955 103 43 - - 29 - - -

Massage therapists

57 582 33 42 - - 15 - - -

Dental assistants

199 615 17 193 613 16 6 - - -

Medical assistants

521 635 12 481 635 12 40 - - -

Medical transcriptionists

28 - - 23 - - 5 - - -

Pharmacy aides

41 - - 27 - - 14 - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39 - - 31 - - 7 - - -

Phlebotomists

98 623 24 88 612 26 9 - - -

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

151 617 21 103 571 26 47 - - -

Protective service occupations

2,725 900 13 553 731 21 2,172 953 19 76.7

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

41 - - 12 - - 29 - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

80 1,438 45 9 - - 71 1,449 42 -

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

40 - - 4 - - 36 - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

66 659 31 17 - - 50 698 182 -

Firefighters

292 1,207 91 6 - - 287 1,203 91 -

Fire inspectors

16 - - 2 - - 15 - - -

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

365 776 31 114 664 41 251 890 68 74.6

Detectives and criminal investigators

151 1,428 75 32 - - 119 1,472 63 -

Fish and game wardens

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Parking enforcement workers

2 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

686 1,111 39 127 922 88 559 1,143 36 80.7

Transit and railroad police

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Animal control workers

7 - - 1 - - 6 - - -

Private detectives and investigators

78 973 100 41 - - 38 - - -

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

790 650 13 159 589 17 631 671 15 87.8

Crossing guards

21 - - 6 - - 15 - - -

Transportation security screeners

41 - - 9 - - 32 - - -

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

41 - - 13 - - 28 - - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,689 522 3 2,337 492 4 2,352 576 6 85.4

Chefs and head cooks

406 698 21 72 553 38 334 727 29 76.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

426 584 16 242 545 16 184 657 27 83.0

Cooks

1,362 512 5 531 489 6 831 535 10 91.4

Food preparation workers

574 496 8 328 463 10 246 532 15 87.0

Bartenders

293 610 16 134 578 24 159 655 36 88.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

191 462 18 126 467 26 65 457 23 102.2

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

48 - - 22 - - 26 - - -

Waiters and waitresses

973 511 7 681 491 8 292 594 21 82.7

Food servers, nonrestaurant

89 515 13 60 501 14 29 - - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

116 554 27 50 513 48 66 605 32 84.8

Dishwashers

126 453 18 24 - - 102 464 19 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

81 456 41 64 441 35 17 - - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4 - - 2 - - 2 - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,679 580 4 1,386 502 5 2,293 618 5 81.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

215 710 27 80 639 26 134 758 28 84.3

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

121 797 34 11 - - 110 800 32 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,563 582 6 494 510 8 1,068 610 7 83.6

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

895 490 6 769 484 7 126 520 15 93.1

Pest control workers

73 731 38 2 - - 71 741 38 -

Grounds maintenance workers

813 606 7 29 - - 784 607 8 -

Personal care and service occupations

2,764 565 8 2,047 531 9 718 624 12 85.1

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

117 821 81 54 791 91 63 853 154 92.7

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

75 778 62 43 - - 32 - - -

Animal trainers

25 - - 9 - - 17 - - -

Nonfarm animal caretakers

105 515 19 79 489 21 25 - - -

Gaming services workers

60 635 51 28 - - 32 - - -

Motion picture projectionists

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

10 - - 6 - - 4 - - -

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

77 583 16 24 - - 54 557 35 -

Embalmers and funeral attendants

6 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

20 - - 8 - - 12 - - -

Barbers

62 662 258 12 - - 50 789 35 -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

310 570 17 286 569 18 24 - - -

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

227 571 27 193 554 26 33 - - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

69 663 51 15 - - 54 672 55 -

Tour and travel guides

28 - - 11 - - 17 - - -

Childcare workers

473 495 9 433 491 9 40 - - -

Personal care aides

815 516 7 685 509 7 130 581 18 87.6

Recreation and fitness workers

191 607 16 102 580 20 88 656 50 88.4

Residential advisors

21 - - 13 - - 8 - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

74 611 27 44 - - 30 - - -

Sales and office occupations

23,883 758 3 14,188 713 3 9,695 874 8 81.6

Sales and related occupations

9,929 830 8 4,404 677 9 5,525 982 13 68.9

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,316 817 13 1,070 708 13 1,246 955 22 74.1

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

857 1,162 16 261 1,173 100 596 1,157 21 101.4

Cashiers

1,398 503 6 959 499 6 438 510 10 97.8

Counter and rental clerks

67 686 30 23 - - 44 - - -

Parts salespersons

122 777 34 15 - - 107 768 37 -

Retail salespersons

1,856 692 17 762 578 12 1,094 806 23 71.7

Advertising sales agents

169 1,050 68 81 874 84 88 1,143 42 76.5

Insurance sales agents

461 927 34 247 806 43 214 1,034 78 77.9

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

192 1,302 112 63 1,063 67 129 1,386 94 76.7

Travel agents

52 745 68 44 - - 8 - - -

Sales representatives, services, all other

477 1,211 75 137 973 84 340 1,332 59 73.0

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,107 1,206 34 294 1,067 77 813 1,262 25 84.5

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15 - - 12 - - 3 - - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

543 1,019 44 321 883 36 222 1,344 29 65.7

Sales engineers

32 - - 3 - - 29 - - -

Telemarketers

42 - - 24 - - 18 - - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

31 - - 16 - - 14 - - -

Sales and related workers, all other

194 935 39 71 848 35 123 966 35 87.8

Office and administrative support occupations

13,954 732 3 9,784 721 3 4,170 771 8 93.5

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,215 866 16 809 816 13 406 971 27 84.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

20 - - 16 - - 5 - - -

Telephone operators

34 - - 28 - - 6 - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

8 - - 4 - - 4 - - -

Bill and account collectors

113 701 37 91 672 23 22 - - -

Billing and posting clerks

389 742 18 344 736 16 45 - - -

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

657 764 12 573 764 11 84 784 170 97.4

Gaming cage workers

10 - - 8 - - 2 - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

127 766 24 110 756 22 17 - - -

Procurement clerks

29 - - 21 - - 9 - - -

Tellers

241 575 12 207 571 12 35 - - -

Financial clerks, all other

119 890 36 71 797 144 48 - - -

Brokerage clerks

3 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Correspondence clerks

6 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

83 748 37 66 759 46 17 - - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

39 - - 30 - - 10 - - -

Customer service representatives

1,977 693 9 1,259 673 10 717 736 18 91.4

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

68 763 29 52 756 33 16 - - -

File clerks

137 672 28 110 667 24 27 - - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

90 519 18 65 490 17 24 - - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

93 740 17 82 734 16 10 - - -

Library assistants, clerical

34 - - 29 - - 5 - - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

118 825 53 88 802 41 30 - - -

New accounts clerks

25 - - 17 - - 8 - - -

Order clerks

72 783 131 32 - - 40 - - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

51 702 31 41 - - 10 - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

909 642 9 809 636 9 100 735 35 86.5

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

103 813 164 56 789 173 46 - - -

Information and record clerks, all other

88 735 36 64 691 23 24 - - -

Cargo and freight agents

19 - - 8 - - 11 - - -

Couriers and messengers

260 769 26 40 - - 221 789 34 -

Dispatchers

240 806 27 131 763 30 108 854 62 89.3

Meter readers, utilities

13 - - 1 - - 12 - - -

Postal service clerks

73 907 50 43 - - 30 - - -

Postal service mail carriers

296 951 31 111 893 25 185 994 45 89.8

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

67 1,145 54 30 - - 37 - - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

268 939 31 154 872 33 114 1,039 40 83.9

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

507 679 10 175 662 24 332 686 12 96.5

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,016 599 8 380 605 12 636 596 10 101.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

53 716 41 27 - - 26 - - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,069 765 7 1,932 763 7 137 795 28 96.0

Computer operators

68 960 57 28 - - 41 - - -

Data entry keyers

203 675 22 153 656 18 50 738 157 88.9

Word processors and typists

36 - - 30 - - 6 - - -

Desktop publishers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

251 746 19 204 739 19 47 - - -

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

48 - - 22 - - 26 - - -

Office clerks, general

997 685 10 809 677 11 188 718 23 94.3

Office machine operators, except computer

30 - - 17 - - 13 - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

5 - - 4 - - 1 - - -

Statistical assistants

58 1,480 265 25 - - 33 - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

522 866 24 375 820 19 147 950 23 86.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,671 869 7 537 614 13 11,134 881 5 69.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

900 574 7 210 513 8 690 593 7 86.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

40 - - 3 - - 37 - - -

Agricultural inspectors

16 - - 8 - - 7 - - -

Animal breeders

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

78 564 25 50 549 27 29 - - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

691 558 8 148 502 8 544 581 7 86.4

Fishers and related fishing workers

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Hunters and trappers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Forest and conservation workers

14 - - 1 - - 13 - - -

Logging workers

44 - - 0 - - 44 - - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,467 866 10 187 711 24 6,280 873 9 81.4

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

586 1,162 19 15 - - 571 1,167 20 -

Boilermakers

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

115 817 26 1 - - 114 819 26 -

Carpenters

873 820 14 18 - - 855 826 17 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

118 708 17 3 - - 115 709 16 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

60 975 68 0 - - 60 975 68 -

Construction laborers

1,434 723 11 41 - - 1,393 724 12 -

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

20 - - 0 - - 20 - - -

Pile-driver operators

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

354 930 25 5 - - 350 927 25 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

131 790 23 0 - - 131 790 23 -

Electricians

814 1,012 17 15 - - 799 1,015 18 -

Glaziers

35 - - 3 - - 32 - - -

Insulation workers

56 877 218 2 - - 54 885 58 -

Painters, construction and maintenance

395 732 23 31 - - 364 744 24 -

Paperhangers

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

561 921 28 15 - - 546 918 27 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

15 - - 1 - - 15 - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Roofers

156 687 22 2 - - 154 690 22 -

Sheet metal workers

124 894 32 6 - - 117 900 31 -

Structural iron and steel workers

71 1,057 127 0 - - 71 1,057 127 -

Solar photovoltaic installers

16 - - 1 - - 15 - - -

Helpers, construction trades

51 612 33 2 - - 48 - - -

Construction and building inspectors

77 1,134 82 7 - - 70 1,134 78 -

Elevator installers and repairers

19 - - 1 - - 18 - - -

Fence erectors

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

36 - - 6 - - 30 - - -

Highway maintenance workers

96 799 40 5 - - 91 806 39 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

26 - - 0 - - 26 - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

15 - - 2 - - 13 - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Mining machine operators

51 1,094 98 1 - - 50 1,101 97 -

Roof bolters, mining

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Helpers--extraction workers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Other extraction workers

51 1,128 230 5 - - 45 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,304 939 10 140 850 26 4,164 943 10 90.1

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

267 1,061 37 17 - - 250 1,082 54 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

162 897 29 21 - - 141 899 27 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

124 1,063 50 7 - - 117 1,058 49 -

Avionics technicians

16 - - 1 - - 15 - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

8 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

22 - - 0 - - 22 - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

25 - - 0 - - 25 - - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

55 869 41 1 - - 54 875 68 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

155 1,245 37 7 - - 148 1,265 40 -

Automotive body and related repairers

94 885 37 0 - - 94 885 37 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

15 - - 0 - - 15 - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

705 811 17 12 - - 693 811 17 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

315 984 23 3 - - 312 983 22 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

212 1,008 44 0 - - 212 1,008 44 -

Small engine mechanics

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

58 627 52 0 - - 58 628 54 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

22 - - 1 - - 21 - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

416 944 30 6 - - 409 947 29 -

Home appliance repairers

32 - - 1 - - 31 - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

392 1,018 28 10 - - 382 1,028 30 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

534 882 18 20 - - 514 883 19 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Millwrights

51 1,180 99 3 - - 48 - - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

123 1,460 140 0 - - 123 1,460 140 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

178 901 61 10 - - 168 884 61 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

48 - - 6 - - 42 - - -

Wind turbine service technicians

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

20 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Commercial divers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

21 - - 1 - - 21 - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Riggers

13 - - 0 - - 13 - - -

Signal and track switch repairers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

128 839 24 10 - - 118 850 26 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,353 727 4 3,334 593 4 12,020 780 4 76.0

Production occupations

7,741 745 5 2,073 596 5 5,668 814 6 73.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

806 949 23 173 721 25 633 1,031 33 69.9

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

9 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

103 644 25 51 594 22 52 712 50 83.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

900 684 8 326 597 14 574 724 13 82.5

Bakers

151 561 25 81 522 21 70 590 19 88.5

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

265 648 14 67 573 18 198 671 16 85.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

13 - - 7 - - 6 - - -

Food batchmakers

68 615 26 42 - - 26 - - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Food processing workers, all other

144 658 27 50 573 23 94 779 42 73.6

Computer control programmers and operators

103 849 29 3 - - 100 857 28 -

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

16 - - 2 - - 15 - - -

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9 - - 1 - - 8 - - -

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13 - - 3 - - 10 - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

67 830 31 9 - - 58 816 77 -

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40 - - 5 - - 35 - - -

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Machinists

357 888 22 22 - - 335 889 23 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

26 - - 1 - - 25 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4 - - 1 - - 3 - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

37 - - 4 - - 32 - - -

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Tool and die makers

53 952 87 2 - - 51 972 66 -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

549 801 19 31 - - 518 810 20 -

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Layout workers, metal and plastic

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

12 - - 1 - - 11 - - -

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

385 736 38 74 592 13 312 795 17 74.5

Prepress technicians and workers

27 - - 10 - - 17 - - -

Printing press operators

109 814 39 22 - - 87 886 24 -

Print binding and finishing workers

15 - - 3 - - 12 - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

112 490 17 74 482 16 37 - - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

19 - - 14 - - 6 - - -

Sewing machine operators

138 524 19 98 521 13 40 - - -

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

6 - - 1 - - 5 - - -

Shoe machine operators and tenders

4 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

55 576 32 36 - - 19 - - -

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 - - 4 - - 1 - - -

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

12 - - 7 - - 4 - - -

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Upholsterers

21 - - 3 - - 18 - - -

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

10 - - 3 - - 7 - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

44 - - 3 - - 41 - - -

Furniture finishers

14 - - 7 - - 7 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

28 - - 4 - - 24 - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

14 - - 3 - - 11 - - -

Woodworkers, all other

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38 - - 2 - - 36 - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

51 869 197 2 - - 50 862 65 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

105 931 28 8 - - 97 930 32 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

46 - - 1 - - 44 - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

75 999 68 8 - - 67 1,017 253 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

79 764 34 5 - - 74 772 35 -

Cutting workers

50 762 34 8 - - 42 - - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29 - - 3 - - 26 - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

17 - - 2 - - 16 - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

722 835 18 259 693 21 463 939 25 73.8

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

24 - - 11 - - 14 - - -

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

79 779 28 44 - - 35 - - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

244 575 15 128 533 14 116 646 46 82.5

Painting workers

160 780 42 15 - - 144 804 53 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

9 - - 7 - - 2 - - -

Semiconductor processors

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

12 - - 2 - - 10 - - -

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Etchers and engravers

6 - - 2 - - 4 - - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

28 - - 6 - - 22 - - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

20 - - 2 - - 19 - - -

Tire builders

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Helpers--production workers

29 - - 4 - - 25 - - -

Production workers, all other

1,056 704 13 293 566 16 763 767 14 73.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,612 711 5 1,260 586 8 6,352 747 7 78.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

184 923 35 28 - - 156 978 34 -

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

118 1,857 521 9 - - 109 1,670 467 -

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

40 - - 6 - - 34 - - -

Flight attendants

70 823 72 57 835 125 13 - - -

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

12 - - 6 - - 6 - - -

Bus drivers

364 674 19 159 625 30 205 718 36 87.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,723 843 15 159 660 31 2,564 861 14 76.7

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

406 614 13 50 520 65 356 624 21 83.3

Motor vehicle operators, all other

34 - - 5 - - 29 - - -

Locomotive engineers and operators

39 - - 2 - - 37 - - -

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

59 1,160 39 2 - - 57 1,170 172 -

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

10 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Sailors and marine oilers

20 - - 1 - - 19 - - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

33 - - 3 - - 29 - - -

Ship engineers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Bridge and lock tenders

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Parking lot attendants

58 561 38 8 - - 50 581 29 -

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

67 518 23 8 - - 59 520 25 -

Transportation inspectors

42 - - 5 - - 37 - - -

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

22 - - 12 - - 10 - - -

Other transportation workers

31 - - 4 - - 27 - - -

Conveyor operators and tenders

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Crane and tower operators

63 1,070 146 4 - - 59 1,104 165 -

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Hoist and winch operators

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

541 677 13 52 625 23 489 686 13 91.1

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

254 587 20 29 - - 225 595 19 -

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,764 634 9 362 567 20 1,402 657 11 86.3

Machine feeders and offbearers

21 - - 11 - - 10 - - -

Packers and packagers, hand