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September 2021 Report 1094

Highlights of women's earnings in 2020

Highlights of women's earnings in 2020 image

In 2020, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 82 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s (when the women’s-to-men’s ratio went from 64 percent to 70 percent) and in the 1990s (when the ratio went from 72 percent to 77 percent). Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

Data on median weekly earnings for 2020 reflect the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the labor market. Comparisons with data on earnings for earlier years should be interpreted with caution. Large declines in employment in 2020, particularly among low-wage workers (who were disproportionately affected by job loss related to the pandemic), resulted in changes in the median earnings distribution. This large and abrupt shift in the earnings distribution during the year manifested as an upward bump in the rate of earnings growth in 2020; however, the underlying rate of growth in workers’ median weekly earnings during the year is more difficult to discern because of the sudden, dramatic shift in the earnings distribution. More information on labor market developments in 2020 is available at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm.

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey and averaged for the calendar year. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the BLS website for an explanation of the differences in these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the midpoint in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the technical notes for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

This report highlights data for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics, such as age, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2020, median weekly earnings were $891 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $1,082. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 to 44, with earnings of $978, and those ages 45 to 54, with earnings of $977. Women ages 55 to 64 had earnings that were slightly lower, at $955. For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 54-year-olds, with earnings of $1,260. Men ages 55 to 64 and ages 35 to 44 had earnings that were slightly lower, $1,228 and $1,205, respectively. Young women and men ages 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($589 and $622, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

  

In 2020, women’s earnings ranged from 78 percent to 81 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller. Women ages 25 to 34 earned 90 percent of what men did, while women ages 16 to 24 earned 95 percent of what men earned. The earnings difference between men and women has historically been smaller for those under age 35 than for those in older age groups. (See tables 1 and 12.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have grown substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains occurred primarily in the 1980s. For workers ages 25 to 64, the gains continued into the 2000s, but have tapered off in recent years. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2020. Among women, Whites ($905) earned 79 percent as much as Asians ($1,143); Blacks ($764) earned 67 percent; and Hispanics ($705) earned 62 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($1,110) earned 77 percent as much as Asian men ($1,447); Black men ($830) earned 57 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($797) earned 55 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and among Whites. Asian women earned 79 percent as much as Asian men in 2020, and White women earned 82 percent as much as White men. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 92 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 89 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2019, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 39 percent for White women, by 27 percent for Black women, and by 24 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, gains tapered off around 2004 and showed little net growth through 2019. By contrast, Hispanic women’s earnings remained on an upward trend, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. Earnings of White, Black, and Hispanic women increased from 2019 to 2020, but these increases must be interpreted with caution due to the pandemic-related employment declines in 2020. These employment declines, which were most notable among lower paid workers, put upward pressure on median weekly earnings estimates. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined from 1979 through the mid-1990s, then began to trend up. From 1979 through 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings showed little change on net for White (6 percent), Black (3 percent), and Hispanic (4 percent) men. Median weekly earnings increased from 2019 to 2020 for White, Black, and Hispanic men, but these increases reflect the effects of the pandemic-related employment declines and must be interpreted with caution. (See table 18.)

Between 2000 and 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings for Asian women and men remained on an upward trend, with earnings increasing somewhat less for women than men (26 percent and 31 percent, respectively). (Data for Asians are not available prior to 2000.) Median earnings estimates for Asian men and women both increased sharply from 2019 to 2020, but again, these increases likely reflect the impact of pandemic-related employment declines on the earnings distributions.  (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($619) were 44 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,421) in 2020. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($781) were 55 percent of those for workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree (median weekly earnings of $903) made 64 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. The inflation-adjusted earnings of women without a high school diploma changed little (a 4-percent increase) between 1979 and 2020. By contrast, inflation-adjusted earnings for men declined by 20 percent. For those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, inflation-adjusted earnings for women have increased by 41 percent since 1979, while earnings for men have risen by 25 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2020 ($1,274 for women and $1,667 for men). Within this category, the highest earning women were chief executives ($2,051) and computer and information systems managers ($1,910). Men in these two occupation groups earned $2,712 and $2,091, respectively. (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,121 for women and $1,532 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields, such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were pharmacists ($2,160), other physicians ($1,905), and physician assistants ($1,894) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2020. For men, those who were lawyers ($2,324), other physicians ($2,311), and pharmacists ($2,286) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Women and men employed in service occupations earned the least in 2020 ($574 for women and $704 for men). Within this category, women who were employed as fast food and counter workers ($470) and food preparation workers ($489) had the lowest median weekly earnings. For men, those who were employed as fast food and counter workers ($462) and cooks ($512) earned the least. 

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2020, 33 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 21 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2020, 11 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,423 for women and $1,738 for men) and engineering ($1,382 for women and $1,626 for men) occupations, compared with 48 percent of men. Women were over twice as likely to work in education ($1,026 for women and $1,327 for men) and healthcare ($1,153 for women and $1,506 for men) jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-six percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2020, compared with 29 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were registered nurse ($1,240), elementary and middle school teacher ($1,085), and secretaries and administrative assistants ($777). Collectively, these occupations employed 6.3 million women in 2020, representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $916). In 2020, 2.4 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2020, a total of 1.8 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,595 to $1,993). (See table 2.)

Earnings for workers with and without children under 18

In 2020, about one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($909) were higher than the earnings for women without children under 18 ($882). Earnings for fathers of children under 18, at $1,229, were higher than the earnings of $1,005 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2020, 23 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 10 percent of women worked such hours in 2020, while 4 percent of men did. A majority of both male (73 percent) and female (76 percent) full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 87 percent as much as men. (These percentages are calculated excluding people who usually work 35 or more hours per week and whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 22 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2020. In comparison, 11 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $309 in 2020, little different than the $305 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 29 percent of women and 42 percent of men were under age 25 in 2020. Among full-time workers, 8 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2020, 58 percent of women and 54 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $15.22 in 2020, which were 86 percent of the $17.75 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2020, 2 percent of women and 1 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2020 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

110,387 $984 $2 49,476 $891 $3 60,911 $1,082 $5 82.3

16 to 24 years

9,364 606 3 4,172 589 4 5,191 622 4 94.7

16 to 19 years

1,336 497 5 536 464 11 800 513 6 90.4

20 to 24 years

8,027 624 4 3,636 606 4 4,391 648 5 93.5

25 years and older

101,024 1,029 3 45,304 929 3 55,720 1,144 3 81.2

25 to 34 years

27,661 904 4 12,375 852 6 15,287 952 6 89.5

35 to 44 years

25,641 1,106 6 11,293 978 7 14,348 1,205 9 81.2

45 to 54 years

23,814 1,129 6 10,853 977 7 12,961 1,260 9 77.5

55 to 64 years

19,017 1,096 8 8,683 955 7 10,334 1,228 11 77.8

65 years and older

4,890 999 11 2,100 897 12 2,790 1,115 19 80.4

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

85,142 1,003 3 37,091 905 3 48,051 1,110 5 81.5

Black or African American

14,044 794 6 7,335 764 5 6,709 830 9 92.0

Asian

7,353 1,310 21 3,269 1,143 14 4,084 1,447 20 79.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,558 758 4 7,863 705 5 11,695 797 5 88.5

Marital Status

Never married

33,818 792 3 15,119 765 4 18,699 814 4 94.0

Married, spouse present(1)

60,048 1,133 3 24,915 981 4 35,132 1,250 5 78.5

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

16,521 929 6 9,442 853 9 7,079 1,034 12 82.5

Widowed

1,653 881 20 1,187 816 21 466 1,032 47 79.1

Divorced

11,245 980 7 6,413 904 8 4,832 1,087 12 83.2

Separated(2)

3,623 797 11 1,842 710 10 1,781 914 13 77.7

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

12,987 1,144 5 5,817 1,067 10 7,171 1,216 10 87.7

Represented by unions(5)

14,486 1,138 5 6,529 1,057 9 7,957 1,210 9 87.4

Not represented by a union

95,901 958 3 42,947 862 4 52,953 1,051 5 82.0

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

101,024 1,029 3 45,304 929 3 55,720 1,144 3 81.2

Less than a high school diploma

5,699 619 3 1,829 525 6 3,870 674 6 77.9

High school graduates, no college

24,153 781 3 9,140 671 4 15,013 881 5 76.2

Some college or associate degree

25,413 903 4 11,677 779 4 13,736 1,027 7 75.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

45,759 1,421 5 22,658 1,239 5 23,100 1,644 8 75.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2020, includes people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2020, included only people in opposite-sex marriages.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

110,387 $984 $2 49,476 $891 $3 60,911 $1,082 $5 82.3

Management, professional and related occupations

50,023 1,356 4 25,933 1,164 4 24,090 1,578 9 73.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,811 1,461 7 9,729 1,274 12 11,082 1,667 17 76.4

Management occupations

13,517 1,541 9 5,747 1,347 12 7,770 1,737 16 77.5

Chief executives

1,157 2,402 32 363 2,051 91 794 2,712 109 75.6

General and operations managers

983 1,453 23 281 1,241 30 702 1,541 37 80.5

Legislators

11 - - 3 - - 9 - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

46 - - 27 - - 19 - - -

Marketing managers

483 1,537 80 284 1,435 129 199 1,732 174 82.9

Sales managers

495 1,794 85 163 1,411 64 332 1,896 22 74.4

Public relations and fundraising managers

74 1,344 62 50 1,286 123 25 - - -

Administrative services managers

62 1,284 375 41 - - 22 - - -

Facilities managers

122 1,318 172 33 - - 89 1,389 83 -

Computer and information systems managers

703 2,018 71 187 1,910 29 516 2,091 32 91.3

Financial managers

1,228 1,492 48 624 1,242 35 603 1,880 30 66.1

Compensation and benefits managers

14 - - 13 - - 1 - - -

Human resources managers

264 1,644 61 194 1,599 79 70 1,748 62 91.5

Training and development managers

47 - - 20 - - 27 - - -

Industrial production managers

248 1,550 35 53 1,402 238 195 1,582 74 88.6

Purchasing managers

221 1,544 46 98 1,441 73 123 1,636 46 88.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

266 972 36 55 943 37 212 989 48 95.3

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

109 874 83 17 - - 92 874 75 -

Construction managers

606 1,575 41 50 1,368 133 556 1,586 55 86.3

Education and childcare administrators

846 1,462 25 560 1,400 29 286 1,590 57 88.1

Architectural and engineering managers

155 2,413 358 15 - - 140 2,402 369 -

Food service managers

707 877 31 344 791 30 363 1,006 23 78.6

Funeral home managers

6 - - 3 - - 4 - - -

Entertainment and recreation managers

34 - - 9 - - 24 - - -

Lodging managers

74 888 68 38 - - 36 - - -

Medical and health services managers

629 1,555 51 438 1,464 34 192 1,839 81 79.6

Natural sciences managers

11 - - 8 - - 3 - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

19 - - 10 - - 9 - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

433 1,140 15 224 1,086 49 209 1,182 102 91.9

Social and community service managers

330 1,234 27 240 1,163 24 90 1,580 261 73.6

Emergency management directors

10 - - 3 - - 7 - - -

Personal service managers, all other

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Managers, all other

3,120 1,564 23 1,299 1,379 22 1,821 1,749 20 78.8

Business and financial operations occupations

7,294 1,363 10 3,982 1,209 17 3,312 1,550 16 78.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

27 - - 15 - - 12 - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

130 1,053 115 66 1,066 192 64 1,047 115 101.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

219 1,231 46 113 1,138 30 106 1,387 87 82.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

325 1,108 64 203 967 49 122 1,336 38 72.4

Compliance officers

286 1,372 46 167 1,371 52 119 1,373 91 99.9

Cost estimators

111 1,434 82 15 - - 96 1,456 84 -

Human resources workers

739 1,251 29 553 1,174 34 185 1,443 97 81.4

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

67 1,143 73 53 1,041 47 14 - - -

Training and development specialists

103 1,255 107 60 1,171 221 43 - - -

Logisticians

134 1,173 159 50 1,140 42 84 1,256 56 90.8

Project management specialists

644 1,560 76 295 1,468 38 350 1,693 85 86.7

Management analysts

658 1,629 45 273 1,455 50 384 1,856 63 78.4

Meeting, convention, and event planners

92 1,049 32 63 996 32 29 - - -

Fundraisers

91 1,479 82 65 1,486 118 26 - - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

358 1,326 127 212 1,198 47 145 1,608 70 74.5

Business operations specialists, all other

271 1,273 112 144 1,086 60 126 1,540 58 70.5

Accountants and auditors

1,488 1,298 46 893 1,186 24 595 1,520 34 78.0

Property appraisers and assessors

51 1,225 136 19 - - 32 - - -

Budget analysts

66 1,461 31 32 - - 33 - - -

Credit analysts

20 - - 11 - - 9 - - -

Financial and investment analysts

310 1,590 50 128 1,488 68 182 1,742 46 85.4

Personal financial advisors

400 1,638 116 149 1,291 131 251 1,900 30 67.9

Insurance underwriters

101 1,261 64 59 1,141 44 42 - - -

Financial examiners

21 - - 13 - - 8 - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

391 1,199 92 222 1,013 29 169 1,492 118 67.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

59 1,086 125 33 - - 26 - - -

Tax preparers

44 - - 27 - - 17 - - -

Other financial specialists

80 1,328 197 43 - - 37 - - -

Professional and related occupations

29,213 1,270 6 16,204 1,121 5 13,008 1,532 9 73.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,083 1,633 17 1,246 1,423 23 3,838 1,738 17 81.9

Computer and information research scientists

39 - - 9 - - 30 - - -

Computer systems analysts

529 1,515 29 175 1,413 53 353 1,621 51 87.2

Information security analysts

125 2,078 57 11 - - 114 2,082 27 -

Computer programmers

388 1,653 42 82 1,529 304 307 1,673 77 91.4

Software developers

1,742 1,920 33 322 1,728 106 1,420 2,004 29 86.2

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

94 1,697 560 21 - - 73 1,977 226 -

Web developers

78 1,554 34 18 - - 60 1,551 32 -

Web or digital interface designers

52 1,158 62 22 - - 30 - - -

Computer support specialists

584 1,147 22 157 1,095 38 427 1,163 24 94.2

Database administrators and architects

107 1,725 102 29 - - 78 1,718 139 -

Network and computer systems administrators

235 1,438 36 48 - - 187 1,461 43 -

Computer network architects

93 1,902 88 10 - - 83 1,980 203 -

Computer occupations, all other

716 1,394 44 199 1,161 35 517 1,456 37 79.7

Actuaries

24 - - 9 - - 15 - - -

Mathematicians

2 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Operations research analysts

154 1,615 106 73 1,460 58 81 1,786 172 81.7

Statisticians

53 1,572 120 30 - - 24 - - -

Other mathematical science occupations

68 1,416 91 30 - - 38 - - -

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,933 1,575 21 467 1,382 35 2,466 1,626 21 85.0

Architects, except landscape and naval

136 1,537 47 34 - - 101 1,549 43 -

Landscape architects

15 - - 5 - - 11 - - -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

38 - - 3 - - 36 - - -

Aerospace engineers

121 1,939 150 14 - - 107 1,993 154 -

Agricultural engineers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Biomedical engineers

22 - - 10 - - 12 - - -

Chemical engineers

70 1,862 182 14 - - 55 1,900 39 -

Civil engineers

370 1,611 54 54 1,588 41 317 1,629 71 97.5

Computer hardware engineers

84 1,889 41 18 - - 66 1,884 36 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

243 1,864 49 30 - - 213 1,866 53 -

Environmental engineers

26 - - 11 - - 15 - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

225 1,584 35 46 - - 179 1,595 35 -

Marine engineers and naval architects

18 - - 0 - - 18 - - -

Materials engineers

52 1,586 86 10 - - 42 - - -

Mechanical engineers

348 1,713 86 31 - - 317 1,736 29 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15 - - 2 - - 13 - - -

Nuclear engineers

9 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Petroleum engineers

18 - - 2 - - 16 - - -

Engineers, all other

543 1,746 18 83 1,463 130 460 1,759 18 83.2

Architectural and civil drafters

34 - - 9 - - 25 - - -

Other drafters

77 1,126 61 16 - - 60 1,137 63 -

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

81 1,172 162 3 - - 78 1,198 76 -

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

340 1,119 65 65 900 28 275 1,186 51 75.9

Surveying and mapping technicians

43 - - 6 - - 38 - - -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,401 1,336 32 666 1,202 31 735 1,450 33 82.9

Agricultural and food scientists

26 - - 11 - - 15 - - -

Biological scientists

72 1,141 44 35 - - 37 - - -

Conservation scientists and foresters

11 - - 3 - - 8 - - -

Medical scientists

114 1,612 193 60 1,372 248 53 2,103 68 65.2

Life scientists, all other

7 - - 3 - - 4 - - -

Astronomers and physicists

19 - - 9 - - 10 - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

83 1,362 50 34 - - 50 1,435 80 -

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

39 - - 20 - - 19 - - -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

43 - - 8 - - 34 - - -

Physical scientists, all other

324 1,438 49 149 1,325 93 175 1,728 339 76.7

Economists

26 - - 11 - - 15 - - -

Survey researchers

5 - - 3 - - 1 - - -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

8 - - 5 - - 3 - - -

School psychologists

34 - - 29 - - 5 - - -

Other psychologists

63 1,435 60 50 1,302 130 13 - - -

Sociologists

3 - - 2 - - 1 - - -

Urban and regional planners

47 - - 19 - - 29 - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39 - - 15 - - 24 - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

38 - - 15 - - 24 - - -

Biological technicians

22 - - 15 - - 7 - - -

Chemical technicians

64 1,039 60 25 - - 39 - - -

Geoscience and environmental science technicians

18 - - 6 - - 13 - - -

Nuclear technicians

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Social science research assistants

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

202 1,074 51 111 1,047 35 90 1,116 50 93.8

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

77 1,444 122 24 - - 53 1,423 51 -

Community and social service occupations

2,187 1,003 12 1,484 976 15 703 1,103 35 88.5

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

99 950 49 82 966 45 17 - - -

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

294 1,080 41 222 1,061 58 72 1,133 41 93.6

Marriage and family therapists

22 - - 19 - - 3 - - -

Mental health counselors

86 1,066 41 65 1,089 55 21 - - -

Rehabilitation counselors

24 - - 13 - - 11 - - -

Counselors, all other

132 956 56 85 947 46 47 - - -

Child, family, and school social workers

58 894 24 51 894 22 7 - - -

Healthcare social workers

70 1,152 27 61 1,139 26 9 - - -

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

19 - - 17 - - 2 - - -

Social workers, all other

593 985 21 509 972 26 84 1,170 66 83.1

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

111 1,058 33 58 977 86 53 1,203 54 81.2

Social and human service assistants

168 841 74 133 803 36 35 - - -

Other community and social service specialists

83 1,034 74 62 1,045 76 22 - - -

Clergy

353 1,055 63 61 858 114 292 1,131 32 75.9

Directors, religious activities and education

36 - - 22 - - 14 - - -

Religious workers, all other

38 - - 24 - - 14 - - -

Legal occupations

1,410 1,540 24 812 1,252 37 599 2,275 98 55.0

Lawyers

821 2,097 133 351 1,665 104 470 2,324 79 71.6

Judicial law clerks

15 - - 11 - - 4 - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

60 1,856 594 34 - - 26 - - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

343 942 22 295 918 23 48 - - -

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

101 1,136 55 76 989 95 25 - - -

Legal support workers, all other

71 1,042 57 46 - - 25 - - -

Education, training, and library occupations

7,012 1,096 9 5,142 1,026 9 1,870 1,327 24 77.3

Postsecondary teachers

891 1,516 37 448 1,384 29 443 1,633 48 84.8

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

412 721 27 411 721 26 2 - - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,064 1,118 10 2,430 1,085 11 634 1,258 19 86.2

Secondary school teachers

914 1,199 22 530 1,149 17 383 1,319 54 87.1

Special education teachers

301 1,044 21 244 1,036 22 58 1,102 188 94.0

Tutors

42 - - 31 - - 11 - - -

Other teachers and instructors

376 1,061 40 231 942 30 145 1,314 132 71.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

46 - - 27 - - 19 - - -

Librarians and media collections specialists

120 1,073 122 100 1,127 56 19 - - -

Library technicians

17 - - 14 - - 2 - - -

Teacher assistants

714 617 12 591 604 11 123 732 40 82.5

Other educational instruction and library workers

116 1,145 68 85 1,108 97 31 - - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,681 1,179 25 804 1,128 25 877 1,252 21 90.1

Artists and related workers

87 1,116 67 28 - - 59 1,152 55 -

Commercial and industrial designers

6 - - 3 - - 3 - - -

Fashion designers

24 - - 16 - - 7 - - -

Floral designers

38 - - 27 - - 11 - - -

Graphic designers

209 1,230 31 119 1,140 35 91 1,395 223 81.7

Interior designers

74 1,107 53 55 1,021 235 19 - - -

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

22 - - 12 - - 10 - - -

Other designers

271 1,210 66 101 1,107 154 170 1,234 69 89.7

Actors

10 - - 5 - - 6 - - -

Producers and directors

123 1,499 135 60 1,548 168 63 1,458 48 106.2

Athletes and sports competitors

21 - - 2 - - 19 - - -

Coaches and scouts

90 931 49 36 - - 54 946 80 -

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

9 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Dancers and choreographers

4 - - 4 - - 0 - - -

Music directors and composers

16 - - 3 - - 13 - - -

Musicians and singers

12 - - 2 - - 10 - - -

Disc jockeys, except radio disc jockeys

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

7 - - 3 - - 5 - - -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

18 - - 2 - - 16 - - -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

62 1,044 144 34 - - 29 - - -

Public relations specialists

128 1,553 40 80 1,452 275 48 - - -

Editors

57 1,237 40 29 - - 28 - - -

Technical writers

53 1,347 115 26 - - 28 - - -

Writers and authors

98 1,257 61 64 1,127 77 35 - - -

Interpreters and translators

44 - - 25 - - 18 - - -

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

21 - - 18 - - 3 - - -

Media and communication workers, all other

14 - - 6 - - 8 - - -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

53 1,001 42 6 - - 47 - - -

Photographers

66 990 38 30 - - 36 - - -

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

40 - - 10 - - 30 - - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,504 1,227 10 5,584 1,153 7 1,921 1,506 29 76.6

Chiropractors

9 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Dentists

58 2,079 130 18 - - 41 - - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

83 1,009 61 77 1,019 55 5 - - -

Optometrists

21 - - 10 - - 11 - - -

Pharmacists

241 2,222 90 134 2,160 142 108 2,286 36 94.5

Emergency medicine physicians

10 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Radiologists

20 - - 5 - - 15 - - -

Other physicians

752 2,102 238 313 1,905 43 439 2,311 134 82.4

Surgeons

48 - - 16 - - 32 - - -

Physician assistants

113 1,911 48 67 1,894 69 47 - - -

Podiatrists

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Audiologists

13 - - 12 - - 1 - - -

Occupational therapists

96 1,373 37 85 1,357 32 11 - - -

Physical therapists

209 1,468 60 135 1,451 31 74 1,591 109 91.2

Radiation therapists

11 - - 3 - - 8 - - -

Recreational therapists

11 - - 7 - - 3 - - -

Respiratory therapists

100 1,162 62 71 1,093 35 29 - - -

Speech-language pathologists

152 1,297 45 143 1,272 35 8 - - -

Exercise physiologists

5 - - 4 - - 0 - - -

Therapists, all other

159 1,043 49 130 986 54 29 - - -

Veterinarians

55 1,795 163 36 - - 19 - - -

Registered nurses

2,701 1,262 13 2,337 1,240 13 364 1,454 41 85.3

Nurse anesthetists

30 - - 16 - - 15 - - -

Nurse midwives

7 - - 7 - - 0 - - -

Nurse practitioners

171 1,872 67 145 1,867 51 26 - - -

Acupuncturists

7 - - 3 - - 4 - - -

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

289 1,028 57 211 946 36 78 1,195 75 79.2

Dental hygienists

96 1,125 63 89 1,083 89 7 - - -

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

37 - - 25 - - 12 - - -

Diagnostic medical sonographers

73 1,227 87 61 1,208 127 12 - - -

Radiologic technologists and technicians

222 1,103 29 145 1,063 37 77 1,234 42 86.1

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

45 - - 21 - - 24 - - -

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

39 - - 18 - - 21 - - -

Emergency medical technicians

134 844 33 44 - - 90 936 148 -

Paramedics

65 1,163 53 23 - - 43 - - -

Pharmacy technicians

257 723 19 199 700 19 58 814 59 86.0

Psychiatric technicians

53 658 72 48 - - 5 - - -

Surgical technologists

74 875 36 49 - - 25 - - -

Veterinary technologists and technicians

73 655 43 65 633 39 8 - - -

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

44 - - 34 - - 10 - - -

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

500 875 26 445 864 24 55 964 34 89.6

Medical records specialists

166 888 30 162 893 29 4 - - -

Opticians, dispensing

32 - - 27 - - 4 - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

143 888 28 93 825 37 51 1,120 112 73.7

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

73 1,254 42 43 - - 30 - - -

Service occupations

13,771 621 3 7,032 574 4 6,740 704 5 81.5

Healthcare support occupations

3,210 606 4 2,678 600 4 532 640 15 93.8

Home health aides

310 549 14 283 551 14 27 - - -

Personal care aides

788 543 12 612 537 12 176 567 26 94.7

Nursing assistants

966 595 8 851 588 7 115 689 28 85.3

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

57 663 72 30 - - 27 - - -

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

26 - - 21 - - 5 - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

58 964 30 37 - - 21 - - -

Massage therapists

38 - - 25 - - 14 - - -

Dental assistants

204 661 18 193 663 19 11 - - -

Medical assistants

450 675 14 407 665 17 44 - - -

Medical transcriptionists

29 - - 24 - - 4 - - -

Pharmacy aides

32 - - 21 - - 11 - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

42 - - 31 - - 12 - - -

Phlebotomists

86 614 19 70 612 19 15 - - -

Other healthcare support workers

124 682 28 73 615 18 51 738 24 83.3

Protective service occupations

2,690 982 12 610 768 21 2,080 1,043 23 73.6

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

51 976 98 16 - - 34 - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

92 1,551 63 11 - - 80 1,553 59 -

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

34 - - 4 - - 30 - - -

First-line supervisors of security workers

67 946 116 24 - - 44 - - -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Firefighters

320 1,233 38 16 - - 304 1,256 33 -

Fire inspectors

21 - - 1 - - 20 - - -

Bailiffs

11 - - 5 - - 5 - - -

Correctional officers and jailers

337 907 27 112 743 25 225 1,073 73 69.2

Detectives and criminal investigators

146 1,437 57 39 - - 107 1,544 53 -

Fish and game wardens

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Parking enforcement workers

7 - - 2 - - 5 - - -

Police officers

742 1,155 21 131 1,074 46 611 1,188 54 90.4

Animal control workers

9 - - 3 - - 7 - - -

Private detectives and investigators

72 979 40 35 - - 38 - - -

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

673 650 13 170 583 13 503 680 12 85.7

Crossing guards and flaggers

17 - - 7 - - 10 - - -

Transportation security screeners

40 - - 16 - - 24 - - -

School bus monitors

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Other protective service workers

37 - - 15 - - 22 - - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

3,353 530 6 1,653 506 5 1,700 570 9 88.8

Chefs and head cooks

321 696 26 57 613 18 263 707 27 86.7

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

335 602 17 198 583 19 137 636 28 91.7

Cooks

1,026 510 6 416 505 11 610 512 6 98.6

Food preparation workers

355 510 9 224 489 10 132 576 26 84.9

Bartenders

169 648 55 70 585 26 99 708 31 82.6

Fast food and counter workers

231 468 19 146 470 19 84 462 48 101.7

Waiters and waitresses

600 514 10 388 497 14 212 563 50 88.3

Food servers, nonrestaurant

85 531 39 60 513 23 25 - - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

99 508 15 48 - - 50 545 55 -

Dishwashers

83 528 38 9 - - 74 567 45 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

46 - - 36 - - 10 - - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4 - - 1 - - 3 - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,138 603 4 1,087 511 5 2,051 651 8 78.5

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

171 738 26 64 596 37 107 902 71 66.1

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

108 786 28 6 - - 102 785 31 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,372 614 7 447 522 9 925 662 11 78.9

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

629 503 6 531 497 6 98 556 20 89.4

Pest control workers

90 749 35 3 - - 87 747 35 -

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

665 605 8 30 - - 635 603 8 -

Tree trimmers and pruners

82 666 34 5 - - 77 684 42 -

Other grounds maintenance workers

21 - - 1 - - 20 - - -

Personal care and service occupations

1,380 616 8 1,004 591 8 376 740 24 79.9

Supervisors of personal care and service workers

96 761 40 60 719 95 35 - - -

Animal trainers

34 - - 22 - - 12 - - -

Animal caretakers

108 626 21 86 591 28 22 - - -

Gambling services workers

53 765 76 26 - - 27 - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

3 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Other entertainment attendants and related workers

47 - - 15 - - 31 - - -

Embalmers, crematory operators and funeral attendants

8 - - 2 - - 7 - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

10 - - 2 - - 8 - - -

Barbers

49 - - 11 - - 39 - - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

205 606 19 180 601 22 24 - - -

Manicurists and pedicurists

110 607 27 84 578 28 26 - - -

Skincare specialists

23 - - 20 - - 3 - - -

Other personal appearance workers

5 - - 5 - - 0 - - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

44 - - 16 - - 28 - - -

Tour and travel guides

16 - - 3 - - 13 - - -

Childcare workers

383 537 26 358 542 24 25 - - -

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

53 618 64 33 - - 20 - - -

Recreation workers

80 715 39 51 658 78 29 - - -

Residential advisors

17 - - 7 - - 10 - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

37 - - 22 - - 14 - - -

Sales and office occupations

21,165 809 4 12,729 746 4 8,435 956 8 78.0

Sales and related occupations

8,958 880 10 3,967 715 8 4,991 1,046 17 68.4

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,141 858 16 960 733 14 1,181 981 22 74.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

783 1,226 40 273 1,076 71 510 1,338 56 80.4

Cashiers

1,088 507 7 805 501 7 284 524 17 95.6

Counter and rental clerks

48 - - 21 - - 27 - - -

Parts salespersons

97 741 46 20 - - 77 756 53 -

Retail salespersons

1,603 705 13 611 603 12 992 779 21 77.4

Advertising sales agents

120 1,066 89 69 1,055 72 50 1,199 171 88.0

Insurance sales agents

469 931 31 242 825 37 226 1,169 145 70.6

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

200 1,545 135 41 - - 158 1,880 87 -

Travel agents

30 - - 23 - - 7 - - -

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, travel, and financial services

497 1,351 59 163 1,101 78 333 1,482 44 74.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,073 1,275 64 315 1,065 60 758 1,378 49 77.3

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

6 - - 3 - - 3 - - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

498 1,084 79 283 937 42 215 1,352 40 69.3

Sales engineers

37 - - 5 - - 32 - - -

Telemarketers

28 - - 15 - - 13 - - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

34 - - 12 - - 23 - - -

Sales and related workers, all other

206 950 30 106 838 38 100 1,039 262 80.7

Office and administrative support occupations

12,207 781 4 8,762 756 4 3,445 868 10 87.1

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,129 966 12 734 925 14 395 1,145 27 80.8

Switchboard operators, including answering service

8 - - 7 - - 1 - - -

Telephone operators

19 - - 14 - - 6 - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

8 - - 3 - - 6 - - -

Bill and account collectors

96 758 19 69 744 29 27 - - -

Billing and posting clerks

379 749 15 339 736 15 40 - - -

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

741 824 16 636 809 13 105 1,101 44 73.5

Gambling cage workers

11 - - 6 - - 5 - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129 945 93 111 921 59 18 - - -

Procurement clerks

27 - - 16 - - 11 - - -

Tellers

225 639 23 183 634 25 42 - - -

Financial clerks, all other

90 1,039 53 58 903 32 31 - - -

Brokerage clerks

4 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Correspondence clerks

3 - - 3 - - 0 - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

73 777 75 65 764 44 8 - - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41 - - 28 - - 13 - - -

Customer service representatives

1,814 721 8 1,160 698 9 655 771 17 90.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

71 898 42 54 824 127 17 - - -

File Clerks

138 751 30 106 744 32 32 - - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

60 534 69 50 520 26 10 - - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

155 711 25 123 710 27 33 - - -

Library assistants, clerical

25 - - 19 - - 6 - - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

135 911 69 103 874 59 32 - - -

New accounts clerks

22 - - 14 - - 8 - - -

Order clerks

75 704 40 39 - - 36 - - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

44 - - 38 - - 6 - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

846 642 9 738 636 9 108 688 24 92.4

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

81 879 80 44 - - 37 - - -

Information and record clerks, all other

81 915 55 57 830 67 24 - - -

Cargo and freight agents

16 - - 7 - - 9 - - -

Couriers and messengers

340 779 26 55 701 19 284 814 26 86.1

Public safety telecommunicators

102 858 63 60 799 53 42 - - -

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

178 768 37 95 717 29 84 908 123 79.0

Meter readers, utilities

18 - - 1 - - 17 - - -

Postal service clerks

80 1,010 39 45 - - 35 - - -

Postal service mail carriers

290 1,017 38 104 962 25 185 1,089 73 88.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

60 977 56 26 - - 34 - - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

243 1,072 64 125 908 35 118 1,227 68 74.0

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

505 696 13 165 667 16 340 713 16 93.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

53 729 102 23 - - 30 - - -

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

170 991 44 158 991 41 12 - - -

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

54 914 41 42 - - 12 - - -

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

63 804 33 59 800 31 4 - - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

1,607 781 10 1,496 777 9 112 929 106 83.6

Data entry keyers

180 710 16 128 700 13 51 803 31 87.2

Word processors and typists

32 - - 26 - - 6 - - -

Desktop publishers

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

221 760 19 184 759 16 37 - - -

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

35 - - 17 - - 19 - - -

Office clerks, general

912 736 10 759 726 11 153 790 41 91.9

Office machine operators, except computer

12 - - 9 - - 4 - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

4 - - 2 - - 2 - - -

Statistical assistants

66 1,272 368 27 - - 39 - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

437 867 19 330 875 23 107 836 43 104.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,690 905 6 538 682 17 10,152 917 6 74.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

787 589 9 187 528 17 600 608 11 86.8

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

43 - - 5 - - 39 - - -

Agricultural inspectors

14 - - 8 - - 6 - - -

Animal breeders

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

41 - - 30 - - 11 - - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

628 574 9 137 519 11 491 589 11 88.1

Fishing and hunting workers

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Forest and conservation workers

17 - - 7 - - 10 - - -

Logging workers

29 - - 0 - - 29 - - -

Construction and extraction occupations

5,826 906 7 191 796 26 5,635 910 8 87.5

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

596 1,200 22 17 - - 579 1,199 23 -

Boilermakers

14 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

87 749 38 0 - - 87 749 38 -

Carpenters

756 892 18 17 - - 739 889 18 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

117 770 38 4 - - 113 785 45 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

54 782 27 2 - - 52 787 26 -

Construction laborers

1,343 783 12 39 - - 1,304 788 13 -

Construction equipment operators

328 979 31 10 - - 317 980 30 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

131 784 14 8 - - 123 787 16 -

Electricians

735 1,024 32 22 - - 713 1,035 37 -

Glaziers

43 - - 2 - - 41 - - -

Insulation workers

49 - - 2 - - 47 - - -

Painters and paperhangers

316 691 14 26 - - 290 695 14 -

Pipelayers

41 - - 1 - - 39 - - -

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

444 1,002 17 8 - - 436 1,004 18 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Roofers

146 732 34 1 - - 145 729 32 -

Sheet metal workers

103 905 64 4 - - 99 905 63 -

Structural iron and steel workers

38 - - 1 - - 36 - - -

Solar photovoltaic installers

18 - - 0 - - 18 - - -

Helpers, construction trades

48 - - 2 - - 46 - - -

Construction and building inspectors

73 1,119 32 11 - - 62 1,113 29 -

Elevator installers and repairers

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Fence erectors

27 - - 0 - - 27 - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

26 - - 4 - - 22 - - -

Highway maintenance workers

89 846 37 6 - - 83 868 38 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

5 - - 0 - - 5 - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

22 - - 0 - - 22 - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil and gas

16 - - 0 - - 16 - - -

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

19 - - 1 - - 18 - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Underground mining machine operators

35 - - 2 - - 33 - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

7 - - 0 - - 7 - - -

Other extraction workers

40 - - 0 - - 40 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,077 984 7 160 801 18 3,917 991 7 80.8

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

212 1,269 63 21 - - 191 1,283 50 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

142 960 36 15 - - 127 965 40 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

125 1,192 115 8 - - 116 1,242 75 -

Avionics technicians

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

15 - - 0 - - 14 - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

23 - - 1 - - 22 - - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

50 1,028 74 0 - - 50 1,028 74 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

151 1,164 33 5 - - 146 1,174 49 -

Automotive body and related repairers

102 904 274 2 - - 100 975 224 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

12 - - 3 - - 10 - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

585 855 31 4 - - 581 857 31 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

312 1,023 29 6 - - 306 1,023 31 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

179 999 23 1 - - 178 998 23 -

Small engine mechanics

36 - - 0 - - 36 - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

72 665 36 1 - - 71 668 35 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

25 - - 1 - - 24 - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

382 1,003 29 6 - - 377 1,011 29 -

Home appliance repairers

24 - - 1 - - 22 - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

401 1,031 25 23 - - 377 1,049 24 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

550 895 17 24 - - 526 897 17 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

22 - - 0 - - 22 - - -

Millwrights

62 1,178 42 1 - - 61 1,185 38 -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

139 1,268 156 2 - - 136 1,306 167 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

155 1,031 131 9 - - 146 1,076 140 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

62 1,085 58 11 - - 52 1,098 53 -

Wind turbine service technicians

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

27 - - 6 - - 22 - - -

Commercial divers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Riggers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

16 - - 2 - - 14 - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

139 780 49 8 - - 131 810 69 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,738 746 4 3,243 614 4 11,494 796 4 77.1

Production occupations

6,820 775 5 1,765 630 8 5,055 841 7 74.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

713 1,038 36 122 816 70 591 1,099 26 74.2

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

90 640 103 37 - - 53 742 29 -

Engine and other machine assemblers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Other assemblers and fabricators

828 705 10 263 638 21 565 740 15 86.2

Bakers

131 596 16 78 584 17 53 621 212 94.0

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

221 733 14 57 642 32 163 754 15 85.1

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

8 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Food batchmakers

70 649 31 38 - - 32 - - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 - - 5 - - 2 - - -

Food processing workers, all other

118 669 30 44 - - 74 743 36 -

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers and operators

96 964 38 6 - - 89 974 38 -

Forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

24 - - 1 - - 23 - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

69 821 39 11 - - 58 843 24 -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

35 - - 6 - - 29 - - -

Other machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Machinists

297 923 20 25 - - 272 940 23 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

9 - - 2 - - 7 - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

37 - - 5 - - 31 - - -

Tool and die makers

37 - - 1 - - 36 - - -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

486 839 17 16 - - 471 848 17 -

Other metal workers and plastic workers

338 770 24 61 622 41 277 816 33 76.2

Prepress technicians and workers

12 - - 3 - - 10 - - -

Printing press operators

120 748 30 25 - - 95 757 29 -

Print binding and finishing workers

16 - - 7 - - 9 - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

94 538 41 60 522 34 34 - - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

23 - - 15 - - 7 - - -

Sewing machine operators

97 579 17 59 584 16 37 - - -

Shoe and leather workers

6 - - 3 - - 2 - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

31 - - 26 - - 5 - - -

Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders

15 - - 10 - - 5 - - -

Upholsterers

20 - - 2 - - 18 - - -

Other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers

12 - - 2 - - 9 - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

31 - - 1 - - 29 - - -

Furniture finishers

9 - - 6 - - 3 - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

20 - - 3 - - 16 - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

9 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Other woodworkers

12 - - 0 - - 12 - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38 - - 1 - - 37 - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

45 - - 5 - - 40 - - -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

116 955 80 12 - - 104 990 71 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42 - - 4 - - 38 - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

50 1,083 36 3 - - 47 - - -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

79 766 25 17 - - 61 788 59 -

Cutting workers

54 692 50 14 - - 40 - - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

22 - - 7 - - 15 - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

684 814 19 266 710 12 418 910 25 78.0

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

22 - - 10 - - 12 - - -

Dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians and medical appliance technicians

59 694 67 36 - - 23 - - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

224 620 26 98 544 32 126 667 27 81.6

Painting workers

139 849 44 15 - - 124 879 37 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

3 - - 2 - - 1 - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Etchers and engravers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

19 - - 2 - - 17 - - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

22 - - 4 - - 18 - - -

Tire builders

0