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19-1383-ATL
Wednesday, August 07, 2019

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Technical information:
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Business Employment Dynamics in Georgia – Fourth Quarter 2018

From September 2018 to December 2018, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Georgia totaled 238,969, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments numbered 217,289, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Janet S. Rankin noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 21,680 jobs in Georgia’s private-sector during the fourth quarter of 2018. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 19,176. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

Georgia’s gross job gains numbered 238,969 in the fourth quarter of 2018, a decrease of 14,280 from the previous quarter. Georgia’s level of gross job gains have remained above 200,000 each quarter since the fourth quarter of 2009. Georgia’s gross job losses numbered 217,289 in the fourth quarter of 2018, below the recent peak of 240,874 gross job losses in the second quarter of 2018. (See chart 1.)

Gross job gains represented 6.3 percent of private-sector employment in Georgia in the fourth quarter of 2018; nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.1 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job losses accounted for 5.7 percent of private-sector employment in Georgia in the fourth quarter of 2018, while nationally gross job losses accounted for 5.6 percent of private-sector employment in the fourth quarter of 2018.

During the fourth quarter of 2018, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of the 11 industry sectors in Georgia. The transportation and warehousing industry created 17,513 jobs in opening and expanding establishments, but lost 9,063 jobs in closing and contracting establishments. The resulting net gain of 8,450 jobs was the largest of any sector in Georgia in the fourth quarter of 2018. In professional and business services, 52,395 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments, while 46,565 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments, resulting in a net gain of 5,830 jobs. Georgia’s education and health services industry had a net gain net gain of 3,689 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2018. Among the five other sectors with net employment gains, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by less than 3,000.

In contrast, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in three industries in Georgia: information, retail trade, and other services. The information industry had the largest net employment decrease, with a loss of 4,295 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2018. The remaining two industries each had net employment losses below 2,300. (See table 1.)

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm.

The Business Employment Dynamics for the First Quarter 2019 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 30, 2019.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Georgia, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

256,202 243,572 236,252 253,249 238,969 6.9 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.3

At expanding establishments

204,208 191,662 190,321 204,222 198,209 5.5 5.1 5.0 5.4 5.2

At opening establishments

51,994 51,910 45,931 49,027 40,760 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.1

Gross job losses

206,907 211,926 240,874 234,073 217,289 5.6 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.7

At contracting establishments

162,080 169,698 190,853 182,804 172,698 4.4 4.5 5.1 4.8 4.5

At closing establishments

44,827 42,228 50,021 51,269 44,591 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.2

Net employment change (2)

49,295 31,646 -4,622 19,176 21,680 1.3 0.9 -0.2 0.5 0.6

Construction

Gross job gains

18,213 17,870 15,966 15,601 16,308 9.9 9.3 8.2 7.9 8.2

At expanding establishments

14,316 14,178 13,250 12,436 13,462 7.8 7.4 6.8 6.3 6.8

At opening establishments

3,897 3,692 2,716 3,165 2,846 2.1 1.9 1.4 1.6 1.4

Gross job losses

14,602 12,861 14,577 14,889 14,519 7.9 6.7 7.5 7.6 7.3

At contracting establishments

11,209 9,908 10,956 11,548 11,312 6.1 5.2 5.6 5.9 5.7

At closing establishments

3,393 2,953 3,621 3,341 3,207 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.6

Net employment change (2)

3,611 5,009 1,389 712 1,789 2.0 2.6 0.7 0.3 0.9

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

15,159 16,165 13,680 13,832 14,870 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.6

At expanding establishments

13,948 14,026 12,573 12,458 13,220 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.2

At opening establishments

1,211 2,139 1,107 1,374 1,650 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4

Gross job losses

11,408 11,380 14,270 13,553 13,378 2.9 2.8 3.5 3.3 3.3

At contracting establishments

10,226 10,215 11,889 10,924 11,803 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.9

At closing establishments

1,182 1,165 2,381 2,629 1,575 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.4

Net employment change (2)

3,751 4,785 -590 279 1,492 0.9 1.2 -0.1 0.1 0.3

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

11,292 10,956 10,814 11,607 11,114 5.1 5.2 5.1 5.4 5.1

At expanding establishments

9,541 8,877 9,166 9,640 9,451 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.3

At opening establishments

1,751 2,079 1,648 1,967 1,663 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.8

Gross job losses

10,190 9,064 10,007 10,954 8,293 4.6 4.3 4.7 5.1 3.8

At contracting establishments

7,844 6,973 7,396 8,177 6,152 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.8 2.8

At closing establishments

2,346 2,091 2,611 2,777 2,141 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0

Net employment change (2)

1,102 1,892 807 653 2,821 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.3 1.3

Retail trade

Gross job gains

29,406 30,706 27,860 29,337 25,349 5.9 6.2 5.6 5.9 5.2

At expanding establishments

25,361 26,960 23,710 25,343 22,468 5.1 5.4 4.8 5.1 4.6

At opening establishments

4,045 3,746 4,150 3,994 2,881 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6

Gross job losses

27,360 26,968 32,415 30,536 27,599 5.6 5.4 6.5 6.2 5.6

At contracting establishments

23,638 23,244 27,399 26,315 23,052 4.8 4.7 5.5 5.3 4.7

At closing establishments

3,722 3,724 5,016 4,221 4,547 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.9

Net employment change (2)

2,046 3,738 -4,555 -1,199 -2,250 0.3 0.8 -0.9 -0.3 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

14,231 10,818 12,273 16,186 17,513 7.1 5.3 6.0 7.9 8.2

At expanding establishments

12,620 9,530 10,186 14,607 16,267 6.3 4.7 5.0 7.1 7.6

At opening establishments

1,611 1,288 2,087 1,579 1,246 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.8 0.6

Gross job losses

7,454 11,425 10,208 12,463 9,063 3.7 5.6 5.0 6.0 4.3

At contracting establishments

6,053 10,157 8,948 10,920 7,639 3.0 5.0 4.4 5.3 3.6

At closing establishments

1,401 1,268 1,260 1,543 1,424 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Net employment change (2)

6,777 -607 2,065 3,723 8,450 3.4 -0.3 1.0 1.9 3.9

Information

Gross job gains

7,231 6,852 8,928 9,190 5,330 6.3 5.9 7.8 8.1 4.7

At expanding establishments

6,000 4,546 8,068 8,270 4,666 5.2 3.9 7.0 7.3 4.1

At opening establishments

1,231 2,306 860 920 664 1.1 2.0 0.8 0.8 0.6

Gross job losses

6,683 10,504 12,330 6,763 9,625 5.8 9.0 10.8 6.0 8.5

At contracting establishments

5,297 9,570 11,203 5,550 8,562 4.6 8.2 9.8 4.9 7.6

At closing establishments

1,386 934 1,127 1,213 1,063 1.2 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.9

Net employment change (2)

548 -3,652 -3,402 2,427 -4,295 0.5 -3.1 -3.0 2.1 -3.8

Financial activities

Gross job gains

13,821 11,654 12,258 13,912 12,741 5.9 4.9 5.1 5.8 5.3

At expanding establishments

9,905 8,568 9,544 10,584 9,460 4.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 3.9

At opening establishments

3,916 3,086 2,714 3,328 3,281 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.4

Gross job losses

12,620 11,259 12,491 13,151 12,082 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.5 5.1

At contracting establishments

9,043 7,677 8,969 8,864 9,012 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.7 3.8

At closing establishments

3,577 3,582 3,522 4,287 3,070 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.3

Net employment change (2)

1,201 395 -233 761 659 0.6 0.2 -0.2 0.3 0.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

58,303 49,503 47,877 54,909 52,395 8.6 7.2 6.9 7.9 7.5

At expanding establishments

47,358 41,273 39,282 45,717 44,024 7.0 6.0 5.7 6.6 6.3

At opening establishments

10,945 8,230 8,595 9,192 8,371 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2

Gross job losses

46,085 45,641 53,533 50,196 46,565 6.8 6.7 7.8 7.3 6.7

At contracting establishments

34,433 36,845 42,563 39,004 37,344 5.1 5.4 6.2 5.7 5.4

At closing establishments

11,652 8,796 10,970 11,192 9,221 1.7 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.3

Net employment change (2)

12,218 3,862 -5,656 4,713 5,830 1.8 0.5 -0.9 0.6 0.8

Education and health services

Gross job gains

27,787 26,588 26,841 29,301 27,154 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.2 4.7

At expanding establishments

20,551 20,901 21,839 24,577 21,270 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.4 3.7

At opening establishments

7,236 5,687 5,002 4,724 5,884 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0

Gross job losses

22,684 22,554 24,557 24,641 23,465 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.1

At contracting establishments

17,689 15,933 18,866 18,198 18,114 3.2 2.9 3.4 3.2 3.2

At closing establishments

4,995 6,621 5,691 6,443 5,351 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9

Net employment change (2)

5,103 4,034 2,284 4,660 3,689 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

43,181 40,991 38,592 39,044 39,300 9.0 8.4 7.9 8.0 8.0

At expanding establishments

33,279 31,056 30,730 29,681 32,594 6.9 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.6

At opening establishments

9,902 9,935 7,862 9,363 6,706 2.1 2.0 1.6 1.9 1.4

Gross job losses

33,964 35,075 40,195 41,522 37,039 7.1 7.2 8.2 8.6 7.5

At contracting establishments

26,964 28,589 31,648 32,993 29,087 5.6 5.9 6.5 6.8 5.9

At closing establishments

7,000 6,486 8,547 8,529 7,952 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.6

Net employment change (2)

9,217 5,916 -1,603 -2,478 2,261 1.9 1.2 -0.3 -0.6 0.5

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

8,086 8,698 9,516 8,611 7,724 7.8 8.4 9.0 8.1 7.3

At expanding establishments

5,888 6,516 7,607 6,861 6,164 5.7 6.3 7.2 6.5 5.8

At opening establishments

2,198 2,182 1,909 1,750 1,560 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.5

Gross job losses

8,235 7,257 8,582 8,977 9,044 8.0 6.9 8.1 8.5 8.5

At contracting establishments

6,349 5,237 6,009 6,673 6,894 6.2 5.0 5.7 6.3 6.5

At closing establishments

1,886 2,020 2,573 2,304 2,150 1.8 1.9 2.4 2.2 2.0

Net employment change (2)

-149 1,441 934 -366 -1,320 -0.2 1.5 0.9 -0.4 -1.2

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.


Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018

United States(1)

6.4 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.6

Alabama

6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.3

Alaska

9.7 9.8 10.9 8.9 10.9 10.2 8.8 10.7 10.6 9.7

Arizona

6.3 6.0 6.0 6.6 6.2 5.3 5.3 5.9 5.0 5.1

Arkansas

6.1 5.4 5.0 6.0 5.8 5.1 5.0 5.6 5.5 4.9

California

6.9 6.4 6.7 6.5 6.7 6.0 5.9 6.3 6.2 5.9

Colorado

6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.0

Connecticut

5.3 5.1 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.6 4.9

Delaware

7.0 7.1 6.5 5.6 6.6 6.4 5.9 6.0 6.6 5.7

District of Columbia

5.8 6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.5 5.1

Florida

8.2 6.1 6.5 6.7 6.3 5.3 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.9

Georgia

6.9 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.3 5.6 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.7

Hawaii

5.1 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.7 4.7 4.8 5.5 5.5 5.1

Idaho

7.4 7.9 7.3 6.8 7.4 6.6 5.9 6.7 6.9 6.3

Illinois

6.0 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.6

Indiana

5.7 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.6 5.0 5.1 5.5 5.4 4.9

Iowa

5.9 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.3

Kansas

5.9 5.2 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.4

Kentucky

6.1 6.2 5.9 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.0 5.5

Louisiana

6.2 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.5 6.2 5.7

Maine

7.2 7.2 8.1 6.0 7.3 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.5 6.3

Maryland

6.2 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.8 6.3 5.7 5.8 6.6 6.4

Massachusetts

5.7 5.4 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.4 6.2 5.3

Michigan

5.7 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.7 5.4 4.6 5.1 6.2 5.2

Minnesota

5.8 5.3 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.4

Mississippi

6.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.4 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.2

Missouri

5.7 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.7 6.0 5.4

Montana

8.5 7.8 8.0 7.2 9.0 7.4 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.2

Nebraska

6.2 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.8

Nevada

6.6 6.5 6.1 6.7 6.6 5.2 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.3

New Hampshire

6.7 6.1 6.7 5.6 6.7 5.9 5.9 6.3 6.8 5.7

New Jersey

6.4 5.6 6.5 6.0 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.3 5.6

New Mexico

6.5 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.1 5.5 6.2 6.4 6.0

New York

6.2 6.2 6.3 6.1 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.8 6.4 5.7

North Carolina

6.3 6.2 6.1 5.6 6.7 5.5 5.2 5.5 6.5 5.3

North Dakota

6.8 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.2

Ohio

5.7 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.2

Oklahoma

6.4 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.4 5.8 5.5 6.5 6.1 6.0

Oregon

6.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.0 5.6 6.2 6.3 5.9

Pennsylvania

5.5 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.7

Rhode Island

6.6 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.7

South Carolina

7.0 5.9 7.5 5.8 7.4 5.3 4.7 6.5 6.5 5.4

South Dakota

6.4 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.8 5.8

Tennessee

5.9 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.8 4.9 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.9

Texas

6.4 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.1 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.1

Utah

7.0 7.4 6.9 7.3 6.9 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.1

Vermont

7.4 6.4 7.2 6.9 7.4 6.5 7.0 7.3 7.4 6.8

Virginia

6.3 5.8 6.1 5.6 6.2 5.5 5.2 5.8 6.3 5.5

Washington

6.9 7.2 7.3 6.1 6.5 6.0 5.7 6.3 6.3 5.6

West Virginia

6.3 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.1 5.8 6.4 6.4 6.5

Wisconsin

5.6 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.9 4.9

Wyoming

8.7 8.4 8.2 8.2 10.0 8.4 8.0 8.3 8.3 7.8

Puerto Rico

7.1 8.4 8.0 7.2 6.0 11.8 6.8 6.2 5.8 6.7

Virgin Islands

9.2 12.0 12.5 10.9 8.3 28.2 16.8 8.6 6.3 7.8

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, August 07, 2019