Business Employment Dynamics Summary

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT), Wednesday, July 24, 2019                                   	USDL-19-1342

Technical Information:	(202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm
Media Contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS  FOURTH QUARTER 2018

From September 2018 to December 2018, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector 
establishments were 7.7 million, an increase of 281,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting 
private-sector establishments were 6.9 million, a decrease of 506,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net 
employment gain of 814,000 jobs in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2018. (See tables A and 
1.)

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|                                                                                                         |
|                            South Carolina Business Employment Dynamics Data                             |
|                                                                                                         |
|   Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data for all four quarters 2018 for South Carolina show            |
|   unusual movements, which may be a result of a change in reporting. These unusual movements            |
|   coincide with a modernization of the South Carolina unemployment insurance system. For more           |
|   information, please visit: www.bls.gov/cew/2018-notice-regarding-south-carolina-employment-           |
|   and-wages-data.htm                                                                                    |
|                                                                                                         |
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The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment 
that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics statistics track 
these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the 
third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross 
job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.) The BED data series include gross job 
gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, 
and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross Job Gains

In the fourth quarter of 2018, gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private-sector employment. Gross 
job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the 
addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 6.3 
million in the fourth quarter of 2018, an increase of 202,000 jobs compared to the previous quarter. 
Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million of the jobs gained in the fourth quarter of 2018, an 
increase of 79,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Gross Job Losses

In the fourth quarter of 2018, gross job losses represented 5.6 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of 
jobs at closing establishments. Contracting establishments lost 5.6 million jobs in the fourth quarter of 
2018, a decrease of 516,000 jobs from the prior quarter. In the fourth quarter of 2018, closing 
establishments lost 1.3 million jobs, an increase of 10,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 
1, 2, and 3.)

Establishment Births and Deaths

In the fourth quarter of 2018, the number of establishment births (a subset of the openings data) 
decreased by 4,000, to a total of 248,000 establishments. These new establishments accounted for 
857,000 jobs, a decrease of 2,000 jobs from the previous quarter. Data for establishment deaths (a 
subset of the closings data) are available through the first quarter of 2018, when 662,000 jobs were 
lost at 214,000 establishments, a decrease of 70,000 jobs from the fourth quarter of 2017. (See Technical 
Note and table 8.)

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 9 of 13 industries in the fourth quarter of 2018. The service-
providing industries experienced a net job increase of 669,000 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2018. Within 
service-providing industries, transportation and warehousing had the largest over-the-quarter net job 
increase, with a gain of 187,000 jobs. The net job increase in transportation and warehousing was the result 
of 424,000 gross job gains and 237,000 gross job losses. The retail trade industry had the largest decrease
among service-providing industries, with a loss of 70,000 jobs. The goods-producing industries experienced
a net job increase of 145,000 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2018. Of the goods-producing industries,
manufacturing added 90,000 jobs, construction experienced a net increase of 69,000 jobs, and natural
resources and mining lost 14,000 jobs. (See table 3.)

 Table A. Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

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                                          |                  3 months ended                 
                 Category                 |    Dec. |    Mar. |    June |   Sept. |    Dec.
                                          |    2017 |    2018 |    2018 |    2018 |    2018
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |              Levels (in thousands)              
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |   7,826 |   7,406 |   7,639 |   7,448 |   7,729
        At expanding establishments...... |   6,383 |   6,071 |   6,245 |   6,099 |   6,301
        At opening establishments........ |   1,443 |   1,335 |   1,394 |   1,349 |   1,428
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |   6,847 |   6,666 |   7,202 |   7,421 |   6,915
        At contracting establishments.... |   5,547 |   5,526 |   5,942 |   6,099 |   5,583
        At closing establishments........ |   1,300 |   1,140 |   1,260 |   1,322 |   1,332
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     979 |     740 |     437 |      27 |     814
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
                                          |                 Rates (percent)                 
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |     6.4 |     6.0 |     6.1 |     6.0 |     6.1
        At expanding establishments...... |     5.2 |     4.9 |     5.0 |     4.9 |     5.0
        At opening establishments........ |     1.2 |     1.1 |     1.1 |     1.1 |     1.1
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |     5.6 |     5.4 |     5.8 |     6.0 |     5.6
        At contracting establishments.... |     4.5 |     4.5 |     4.8 |     4.9 |     4.5
        At closing establishments........ |     1.1 |     0.9 |     1.0 |     1.1 |     1.1
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     0.8 |     0.6 |     0.3 |     0.0 |     0.5
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(1) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross 
    job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.

Firm Size

In the fourth quarter of 2018, firms with 1-49 employees had a net employment gain of 199,000. Firms 
with 50-249 employees had a net employment gain of 147,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a 
net employment gain of 400,000. (See tables 4 and 5.)

States

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands
in the fourth quarter of 2018. Among the states, Alaska had the highest rate of gross job gains as a
percent of employment at 10.9 percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.1 percent. Connecticut and Pennsylvania
had the lowest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 5.3 percent each. Alaska had the 
highest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 9.7 percent, above the national rate of 5.6
percent. Pennsylvania had the lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.7 percent.
(See tables 6 and 7.)

For More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. 
This information includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and answers to frequently asked  
questions. Additional information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or can be obtained by emailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.

_____________
The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2019 are scheduled to be released on 
Wednesday, October 30, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

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|                                                                                                         |
|                            Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data                           |
|                                                                                                         |
|   Data in the next release, published on Wednesday, October 30, 2019, will incorporate annual           |
|   revisions to the BED series. Annual revisions are published each year with the release of             |
|   first quarter data. These revisions will cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted      |
|   data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.                                                      |
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Last Modified Date: July 24, 2019