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14-1306-DAL
Tuesday, August 12, 2014

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Business Employment Dynamics in Oklahoma – December 2013

From September 2013 to December 2013 gross job gains in Oklahoma totaled 77,182, while gross job losses numbered 76,346, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 836. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 6,200.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The number of gross job gains in Oklahoma rose by 786 between September and December 2013. (See chart 1.) Oklahoma’s gross job gains have remained above 75,000 for three consecutive quarters. After edging down in the previous quarter, gross job losses rose by more than 6,000 in the three months ended in December 2013. During the most recent five-year period, job losses in the state peaked in March 2009 when more than 101,000 jobs were lost.

Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment in Oklahoma in the quarter ended December 2013, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.4 percent of private employment. (See chart 2.) Oklahoma’s rate of gross job gains generally tracked with the U.S. rate from the fourth quarter of 2008 to the fourth quarter of 2012. In the fourth quarter of 2013, Oklahoma’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment was 6.1 percent, higher than the national rate of 5.8 percent. The rate of gross job losses in Oklahoma mirrored the national rate from March 2011 to December 2012, but has exhibited greater variability in recent quarters.

During the fourth quarter 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 6 of 11 industry sectors in Oklahoma. For example, within retail trade, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 1,108. While 10,374 jobs were lost at closing and contracting establishments in the industry, 11,482 were created at opening and expanding establishments in the 3 months ended in December 2013. In wholesale trade, the loss of 2,807 jobs at closing and contracting establishments was offset by a gain of 3,290 jobs at opening and expanding establishments, resulting in a net gain of 483 jobs. Professional and business services led all industry sectors in terms of both gross job gains and gross job losses with more than 13,000 of each, producing a net change of 422. (See table 1.)

In contrast, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in five industry sectors in Oklahoma in December 2013, though the net loss in each sector was less than 750. The largest net employment decline occurred in education and health services, where gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 741. Other sectors recording net job losses were leisure and hospitality; other services; information; and manufacturing.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing quarterly QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Oklahoma, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

82,09172,95775,62176,39677,1826.76.06.16.16.1

At expanding establishments

66,11558,67561,08761,33361,7085.44.84.94.94.9

At opening establishments

15,97614,28214,53415,06315,4741.31.21.21.21.2

Gross job losses

68,68574,76870,29370,19676,3465.66.05.75.66.1

At contracting establishments

56,00558,60158,79259,93563,3314.64.74.84.85.1

At closing establishments

12,68016,16711,50110,26113,0151.01.30.90.81.0

Net employment change (2)

13,406-1,8115,3286,2008361.10.00.40.50.0

Construction

 

Gross job gains

10,1937,5767,9248,8038,32014.110.310.711.710.9

At expanding establishments

7,8576,1176,5307,0566,64310.98.38.89.48.7

At opening establishments

2,3361,4591,3941,7471,6773.22.01.92.32.2

Gross job losses

5,9808,6807,1647,2548,2198.311.89.79.710.8

At contracting establishments

4,8196,7825,8776,2856,7776.79.28.08.48.9

At closing establishments

1,1611,8981,2879691,4421.62.61.71.31.9

Net employment change (2)

4,213-1,1047601,5491015.8-1.51.02.00.1

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

5,9815,2484,8234,1464,3874.53.93.53.03.2

At expanding establishments

5,3664,7694,2883,6883,9904.03.53.12.72.9

At opening establishments

6154795354583970.50.40.40.30.3

Gross job losses

5,8385,1784,7075,0904,4164.33.83.53.73.3

At contracting establishments

4,6394,4034,2144,7053,9233.43.23.13.42.9

At closing establishments

1,1997754933854930.90.60.40.30.4

Net employment change (2)

14370116-944-290.20.10.0-0.7-0.1

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

3,5003,2853,3113,4163,2905.75.35.35.55.2

At expanding establishments

2,8322,7012,6642,6912,6524.64.44.34.34.2

At opening establishments

6685846477256381.10.91.01.21.0

Gross job losses

2,6283,1912,8562,8402,8074.35.24.64.64.5

At contracting establishments

2,0792,3562,4772,2402,2563.43.84.03.63.6

At closing establishments

5498353796005510.91.40.61.00.9

Net employment change (2)

872944555764831.40.10.70.90.7

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

10,96410,79211,56111,16911,4826.36.26.66.46.4

At expanding establishments

9,4579,1089,4509,6109,8285.45.25.45.55.5

At opening establishments

1,5071,6842,1111,5591,6540.91.01.20.90.9

Gross job losses

8,72011,5899,4169,49110,3745.06.75.45.35.9

At contracting establishments

7,7069,7398,3158,6998,8214.45.64.84.95.0

At closing establishments

1,0141,8501,1017921,5530.61.10.60.40.9

Net employment change (2)

2,244-7972,1451,6781,1081.3-0.51.21.10.5

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

2,3621,9012,3682,3192,8935.64.35.45.26.5

At expanding establishments

1,8251,5001,8941,6172,2214.33.44.33.65.0

At opening establishments

5374014747026721.30.91.11.61.5

Gross job losses

2,1772,3622,1922,2842,4545.15.45.05.15.5

At contracting establishments

1,8401,7351,7651,8211,9724.34.04.04.14.4

At closing establishments

3376274274634820.81.41.01.01.1

Net employment change (2)

185-461176354390.5-1.10.40.11.0

Information

 

Gross job gains

1,0135981,0968578504.62.75.03.93.9

At expanding establishments

8395338047596973.82.43.73.53.2

At opening establishments

17465292981530.80.31.30.40.7

Gross job losses

9829528251,1509854.44.33.85.24.5

At contracting establishments

8647985729258703.93.62.64.24.0

At closing establishments

1181542532251150.50.71.21.00.5

Net employment change (2)

31-354271-293-1350.2-1.61.2-1.3-0.6

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

4,4143,5653,6983,9074,1465.74.64.75.15.3

At expanding establishments

3,3352,7402,8913,0763,0354.33.53.74.03.9

At opening establishments

1,0798258078311,1111.41.11.01.11.4

Gross job losses

3,6403,8823,8403,3453,9054.75.04.94.35.0

At contracting establishments

2,8662,8753,1262,8012,8863.73.74.03.63.7

At closing establishments

7741,0077145441,0191.01.30.90.71.3

Net employment change (2)

774-317-1425622411.0-0.4-0.20.80.3

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

13,82514,06813,28113,67414,2197.87.87.47.67.9

At expanding establishments

11,00711,22510,78010,79311,1536.26.26.06.06.2

At opening establishments

2,8182,8432,5012,8813,0661.61.61.41.61.7

Gross job losses

13,78212,50313,37213,14013,7977.86.97.47.37.6

At contracting establishments

11,1929,37810,65010,61111,0206.35.25.95.96.1

At closing establishments

2,5903,1252,7222,5292,7771.51.71.51.41.5

Net employment change (2)

431,565-915344220.00.90.00.30.3

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

9,5858,2737,8418,8439,2544.84.13.94.44.6

At expanding establishments

7,4366,2996,5346,9397,4503.73.13.23.53.7

At opening establishments

2,1491,9741,3071,9041,8041.11.00.70.90.9

Gross job losses

7,7558,4938,4228,2949,9953.94.24.24.15.0

At contracting establishments

5,8326,6587,0586,8978,5322.93.33.53.44.3

At closing establishments

1,9231,8351,3641,3971,4631.00.90.70.70.7

Net employment change (2)

1,830-220-581549-7410.9-0.1-0.30.3-0.4

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

12,97211,10612,40113,11411,5348.77.48.38.77.5

At expanding establishments

10,0398,2799,24410,1538,9406.75.56.26.75.8

At opening establishments

2,9332,8273,1572,9612,5942.01.92.12.01.7

Gross job losses

10,27811,51611,45210,87612,2136.97.77.77.17.9

At contracting establishments

8,1908,8759,7069,60110,3465.55.96.56.36.7

At closing establishments

2,0882,6411,7461,2751,8671.41.81.20.81.2

Net employment change (2)

2,694-4109492,238-6791.8-0.30.61.6-0.4

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

2,7142,3732,7832,6552,3737.97.08.17.87.0

At expanding establishments

2,1331,9112,1922,1121,8246.25.66.46.25.4

At opening establishments

5814625915435491.71.41.71.61.6

Gross job losses

2,6182,5992,4482,6233,0017.77.67.17.68.8

At contracting establishments

2,1101,8742,1251,9922,5266.25.56.25.87.4

At closing establishments

5087253236314751.52.10.91.81.4

Net employment change (2)

96-22633532-6280.2-0.61.00.2-1.8

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.


 

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
StateGross job gains as a percent of employment (3 months ended)Gross job losses as a percent of employment (3 months ended)
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013

United States (1)

6.46.46.46.16.45.85.65.85.85.8

Alabama

5.86.05.95.56.05.55.45.55.65.3

Alaska

9.810.710.69.710.110.19.610.09.810.4

Arizona

6.96.26.26.46.85.85.96.15.55.4

Arkansas

6.05.75.25.85.75.35.55.85.45.4

California

7.49.07.06.77.36.25.96.46.16.2

Colorado

7.17.17.17.06.96.26.26.16.36.1

Connecticut

5.45.15.65.35.25.15.24.85.45.3

Delaware

6.86.56.56.56.45.75.95.86.05.8

District of Columbia

6.85.76.15.85.45.55.45.65.35.5

Florida

7.16.77.17.07.06.36.06.36.26.1

Georgia

6.86.66.66.66.85.95.76.26.05.9

Hawaii

5.45.15.25.35.34.34.85.24.94.5

Idaho

7.98.18.07.78.37.27.27.57.27.4

Illinois

5.35.55.85.75.95.25.55.35.85.4

Indiana

5.95.65.75.56.15.45.35.35.35.1

Iowa

5.75.86.05.85.95.55.45.45.55.5

Kansas

6.35.66.26.16.35.45.55.55.75.3

Kentucky

6.55.85.85.86.55.55.85.65.45.3

Louisiana

7.06.76.26.66.65.96.16.36.06.1

Maine

7.06.78.17.37.07.57.06.47.47.4

Maryland

6.46.36.26.26.36.35.86.16.16.3

Massachusetts

5.46.26.15.45.45.34.95.05.55.4

Michigan

6.06.06.35.96.15.45.05.85.85.6

Minnesota

5.96.06.15.55.75.75.25.25.55.7

Mississippi

6.85.95.86.16.56.15.56.05.85.5

Missouri

6.46.55.95.86.05.65.55.45.75.5

Montana

8.38.18.07.78.37.87.47.77.57.4

Nebraska

5.96.06.06.16.25.25.45.75.65.7

Nevada

6.06.36.66.06.35.75.45.55.75.2

New Hampshire

6.56.36.86.06.66.46.15.96.55.8

New Jersey

6.46.36.66.26.46.25.85.66.06.2

New Mexico

7.46.26.76.56.76.26.56.86.76.2

New York

6.46.36.46.46.66.15.95.86.16.0

North Carolina

6.56.06.36.26.45.95.75.85.85.7

North Dakota

8.38.37.28.38.26.86.67.96.96.9

Ohio

6.15.96.25.56.05.55.65.35.65.3

Oklahoma

6.76.06.16.16.15.66.05.75.66.1

Oregon

7.07.27.17.06.86.66.16.26.26.5

Pennsylvania

5.55.55.35.25.45.15.35.25.25.1

Rhode Island

6.36.16.56.26.26.05.85.76.15.7

South Carolina

6.65.86.36.26.65.45.65.55.65.5

South Dakota

6.36.36.56.26.96.26.25.86.36.0

Tennessee

6.15.45.55.46.35.15.15.45.24.7

Texas

6.15.95.85.96.15.05.15.05.25.1

Utah

7.37.37.06.87.46.16.36.56.26.0

Vermont

7.67.07.37.17.47.16.77.87.46.7

Virginia

6.05.75.65.95.75.65.55.65.95.6

Washington

7.18.67.37.06.96.56.26.16.46.3

West Virginia

6.46.36.15.96.46.56.16.66.46.4

Wisconsin

5.75.45.85.55.55.35.25.45.45.2

Wyoming

9.58.78.58.29.48.48.59.08.18.4

Puerto Rico

6.85.65.96.16.95.96.46.26.65.5

Virgin Islands

7.05.65.05.55.25.66.56.56.85.9

Footnotes:
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Tuesday, August 12, 2014