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17-563-DAL
Thursday, May 04, 2017

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Minimum Wage Workers in Oklahoma – 2016

Of the 894,000 workers paid hourly rates in Oklahoma in 2016, 13,000 earned exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour, while 14,000 earned less, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Stanley W. Suchman noted that the 27,000 workers earning the federal minimum wage or less made up 3.1 percent of all hourly paid workers in the state. Nationwide, those earning the federal minimum or less accounted for 2.7 percent of the hourly paid workforce. (See table 1. The Oklahoma minimum wage is equal to the prevailing federal minimum wage.)

In 2007, 25,000 hourly paid workers earned the prevailing federal minimum wage or less in Oklahoma, the lowest level since data were first available in 2000. The 25,000 workers in this category accounted for 2.9 percent of all hourly paid workers in the state. (See chart 1.) It was also in 2007 that the federal minimum wage began increasing after holding steady for nearly a decade. Two additional increases in the federal minimum wage followed, resulting in more Oklahoma workers falling into this category and peaking at 72,000 in 2010. However, the number of Oklahoma workers earning the federal minimum wage or less has fallen in each of the past 4 years.

At 3.1 percent in 2016, the proportion of hourly paid workers in Oklahoma who earned at or below the federal minimum wage was little changed from 2015. Similarly, the percentages of workers earning exactly the federal minimum wage in 2016 (1.4 percent) and those earning less than the minimum wage (1.6 percent) were essentially unchanged from a year ago.

Of the 27,000 workers earning the prevailing federal minimum wage or less in Oklahoma in 2016, 18,000 were women, accounting for 66.7 percent, or two-thirds, of all workers making the minimum wage or less. These women represented 4.2 percent of all women paid hourly rates in the state. The approximately 10,000 male workers earning the prevailing minimum wage or less accounted for about one-third of all minimum wage workers in Oklahoma; they made up 2.2 percent of all men in the state who were paid hourly rates. (See table 2.)

In 2016, the states with the highest percentages of hourly paid workers earning at or below the federal minimum wage were Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina (all were at or about 5 percent). The states with the lowest percentages of hourly paid workers earning at or below the federal minimum wage were in the West: Alaska, California, and Oregon (all were 1 percent or less). It should be noted that many states have minimum wage laws establishing standards that exceed the federal minimum wage. As of January 1, 2017, 29 states and the District of Columbia had minimum wage rates that exceeded the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. (See table 1 and chart 2.)


Technical Note

The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey also provides data on earnings, which are based on one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers, both incorporated and unincorporated, are excluded from these earnings estimates.

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. The differences among data for the states reflect, in part, variations in the occupation, industry, and age composition of each state’s labor force. In addition, sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national data.

Minimum wage worker data, particularly levels, for each year are not strictly comparable with data for earlier years because of the introduction of revised population controls used in the CPS. For technical documentation and related information, including reliability of the CPS estimates, see www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

Some workers reported as earning at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage may not, in fact, be covered by federal or state minimum wage laws because of exclusions and exemptions in the statutes. The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or state statutes in cases where such standards apply.

Estimates of the number of minimum wage workers in this release pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other workers who are not paid by the hour are excluded, even though some have earnings that, if converted to hourly rates, would be at or below the federal minimum wage. Consequently, the estimates presented in this release likely understate the actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage.

The prevailing federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, $4.25 in April 1991, $4.75 in October 1996, and $5.15 in September 1997. On July 24, 2007, the federal minimum wage increased to $5.85 per hour; on July 24, 2008, to $6.55 per hour; and on July 24, 2009, to $7.25 per hour.

The principal definitions for the main concepts presented in this report are below.

Wage and salary workers. Workers age 16 and older who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payments in kind, or piece rates on their sole or principal job. This group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. All self-employed workers are excluded whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

Workers paid at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other nonhourly paid workers are excluded.

Hourly earnings. Hourly earnings data are for wage and salary workers who are paid by the hour and refer to a person’s sole or principal job. Hourly earnings for hourly paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received.

Median hourly earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the median. The median is less sensitive to extreme wages than the mean; this makes it a better measure for highly skewed distributions.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, by state, 2016 annual averages
State Number of workers (in thousands) Percent distribution Percentage of workers paid hourly rates
Total
paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage Total
paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage
Total At
minimum
wage
Below
minimum
wage

Total, 16 years and older

79,883 2,153 701 1,451 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.9 1.8

Alabama

1,222 43 20 23 1.5 2.0 2.9 1.6 3.5 1.7 1.9

Alaska

199 1 1 1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.4

Arizona

1,653 39 6 34 2.1 1.8 0.9 2.3 2.4 0.4 2.0

Arkansas

724 19 6 13 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 2.6 0.8 1.8

California

9,669 99 24 75 12.1 4.6 3.4 5.1 1.0 0.2 0.8

Colorado

1,318 30 4 26 1.7 1.4 0.5 1.8 2.3 0.3 2.0

Connecticut

915 18 3 15 1.1 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.9 0.3 1.7

Delaware

232 5 1 4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.3 0.5 1.8

District of Columbia

111 3 0 2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 2.4 0.1 2.2

Florida

4,502 132 20 113 5.6 6.2 2.8 7.8 2.9 0.4 2.5

Georgia

2,318 90 39 51 2.9 4.2 5.5 3.5 3.9 1.7 2.2

Hawaii

363 5 1 4 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.1

Idaho

458 21 10 11 0.6 1.0 1.4 0.8 4.6 2.1 2.5

Illinois

3,107 76 19 57 3.9 3.5 2.7 3.9 2.4 0.6 1.8

Indiana

1,899 69 32 37 2.4 3.2 4.6 2.6 3.7 1.7 2.0

Iowa

981 24 10 13 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.9 2.4 1.0 1.4

Kansas

815 36 14 22 1.0 1.7 2.0 1.5 4.4 1.7 2.7

Kentucky

1,068 51 23 28 1.3 2.4 3.3 2.0 4.8 2.2 2.7

Louisiana

1,095 58 27 31 1.4 2.7 3.8 2.1 5.3 2.4 2.8

Maine

363 10 2 8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 2.7 0.5 2.2

Maryland

1,449 30 6 25 1.8 1.4 0.8 1.7 2.1 0.4 1.7

Massachusetts

1,650 29 5 24 2.1 1.4 0.7 1.7 1.8 0.3 1.5

Michigan

2,800 56 8 49 3.5 2.6 1.1 3.4 2.0 0.3 1.7

Minnesota

1,547 18 6 12 1.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.8

Mississippi

710 34 15 20 0.9 1.6 2.1 1.4 4.8 2.1 2.8

Missouri

1,708 46 6 40 2.1 2.1 0.9 2.8 2.7 0.4 2.3

Montana

294 4 1 3 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.2 0.3 1.0

Nebraska

537 10 1 9 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.9 0.2 1.7

Nevada

807 10 6 5 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.3 1.3 0.7 0.6

New Hampshire

398 15 3 12 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.8 3.8 0.8 3.0

New Jersey

1,855 48 9 38 2.3 2.2 1.3 2.6 2.6 0.5 2.1

New Mexico

512 14 2 12 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.9 2.7 0.3 2.4

New York

4,180 82 15 66 5.2 3.8 2.2 4.6 2.0 0.4 1.6

North Carolina

2,522 91 38 52 3.2 4.2 5.5 3.6 3.6 1.5 2.1

North Dakota

241 4 1 3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.6 0.3 1.3

Ohio

3,327 75 15 60 4.2 3.5 2.2 4.1 2.3 0.5 1.8

Oklahoma

894 27 13 14 1.1 1.3 1.8 1.0 3.1 1.4 1.6

Oregon

1,059 10 0 10 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.7 1.0 0.0 1.0

Pennsylvania

3,516 144 73 71 4.4 6.7 10.4 4.9 4.1 2.1 2.0

Rhode Island

312 8 1 7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.7 0.4 2.3

South Carolina

1,151 57 19 38 1.4 2.7 2.7 2.7 5.0 1.6 3.3

South Dakota

256 4 1 3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.6 0.4 1.2

Tennessee

1,724 67 31 36 2.2 3.1 4.4 2.5 3.9 1.8 2.1

Texas

6,188 242 100 141 7.7 11.2 14.3 9.7 3.9 1.6 2.3

Utah

840 23 10 13 1.1 1.1 1.4 0.9 2.7 1.1 1.6

Vermont

184 5 1 4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 2.5 0.5 2.0

Virginia

1,957 83 26 57 2.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.3 1.4 2.9

Washington

1,853 25 8 18 2.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 0.4 1.0

West Virginia

433 10 2 7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 2.2 0.6 1.7

Wisconsin

1,802 46 18 28 2.3 2.1 2.5 1.9 2.6 1.0 1.6

Wyoming

163 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.5 0.7 1.8

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons, whether or not their businesses are incorporated. These data are based on a sample and therefore are subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous states. Unrounded data were used in all calculations.


Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage and median earnings of hourly paid workers in Oklahoma, by gender, annual averages, 2006-2016
Year Number of workers (in thousands) Percentage of workers paid hourly rates Median earnings
(in dollars)
Total
paid
hourly
rates
At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Men

               

2006

433 9 5 4 2.1 1.2 0.9 $11.89

2007

435 8 4 4 1.8 0.9 0.9 12.18

2008

458 16 5 11 3.5 1.1 2.4 12.72

2009

425 21 6 15 4.9 1.4 3.5 12.16

2010

413 29 14 15 7.0 3.4 3.6 13.96

2011

444 24 15 9 5.4 3.4 2.0 13.15

2012

465 27 12 15 5.8 2.6 3.2 13.48

2013

492 23 13 10 4.7 2.6 2.0 14.18

2014

468 14 5 9 3.0 1.1 1.9 14.81

2015

494 5 3 2 1.0 0.6 0.4 14.92

2016

462 10 5 5 2.2 1.1 1.1 14.45

Women

               

2006

436 21 5 16 4.8 1.1 3.7 $9.72

2007

414 17 7 10 4.1 1.7 2.4 9.90

2008

419 32 14 18 7.6 3.3 4.3 10.10

2009

427 37 10 27 8.7 2.3 6.3 10.85

2010

422 43 25 18 10.2 5.9 4.3 10.47

2011

384 31 20 11 8.1 5.2 2.9 10.86

2012

425 37 18 19 8.7 4.2 4.5 11.00

2013

455 36 15 21 7.9 3.3 4.6 11.14

2014

432 21 13 8 4.9 3.0 1.9 12.05

2015

473 24 11 13 5.1 2.3 2.7 11.93

2016

432 18 8 10 4.2 1.9 2.3 12.30

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Data for 2007–2009 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, May 04, 2017