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Work Stoppages

Work stoppages in educational services

The educational services industry group comprises the following industry groups: (1) Elementary and Secondary Schools: NAICS 6111; (2) Junior Colleges: NAICS 6112; (3) Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools: NAICS 6113; (4) Business Schools and Computer and Management Training: NAICS 6114; (5) Technical and Trade Schools: NAICS 6115; (6) Other Schools and Instruction: NAICS 6116; and (7) Educational Support Services: NAICS 6117.

Between 1993 and 2020 there were 95 major work stoppages in educational services. The majority (71 percent) occurred in elementary and secondary schools. About 27 percent were in colleges, universities, and professional schools, and 2 percent in junior colleges. (See chart 1).

Chart 1. Work stoppages in educational services 1993-2020
 
  • See table for chart 1
    • Table 1. Number of major work stoppages in educational services industry by state, (1993 - 2020)
      Industry (NAICS) Number of major work stoppages

      Elementary and Secondary Schools (6111)

      68

      Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools (6113)

      25

      Junior Colleges (6112)

      2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

The majority (94 percent) of the major work stoppages in educational services occurred in state and local governments, and six percent in private industry. (See chart 2).

Chart 2. Number of work stoppages in educational services 1993-2020
  • See table for chart 2
    • Table 2. Number of major work stoppages in educational services industry by ownership, (1993 - 2020)
      Ownership group Number of work stoppages

      Local Government

      57

      State Government

      32

      Private Industry

      6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

There were almost 3.8 million workers employed in educational services nationwide in January 2020. While New York state had the highest number of workers in educational services, around 500 thousand, there were only 3 major major work stoppages in this industry registered in the state since 1993. California employs the second highest number of educational services workers, 388 thousand, and had the highest number of major work stoppages (21).

Chart 3. Number of major work stoppages by state in educational services 1993-2020
  • See table for chart 3
    • Table 3. Number of major work stoppages in educational services industry by state, (1993 - 2020)
      State Number of major work stoppages

      California

      21

      Illinois

      13

      Washington

      11

      Michigan

      8

      Connecticut

      4

      Ohio

      4

      Pennsylvania

      4

      Colorado

      3

      New York

      3

      Kentucky

      2

      Massachusetts

      2

      Minnesota

      2

      North Carolina

      2

      West Virginia

      2

      Alaska

      2

      Hawaii

      2

      New Jersey

      2

      Alabama

      1

      Arizona

      1

      Indiana

      1

      Oregon

      1

      Montana

      1

      South Carolina

      1

      Oklahoma

      1

      Rhode Island

      1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

New York, with around 5 percent of all workers employed in educational services accounted for around 3 percent of all major work stoppages in educational services between 1993 and 2020. California, with 2.2 percent employed in educational services industry accounted for 22 percent.

Chart 4. Percent of total employment and work stoppages in educational services industry by state 1993-2020

 

  • See table for chart 4
    • Table 4. Percent of total employment and work stoppages in educational services industry by state, (1993 - 2020)
      State Employment Work stoppages

      California

      2.2% 22.1%

      Illinois

      2.6% 13.7%

      Washington

      1.9% 11.6%

      Michigan

      1.7% 8.4%

      Pennsylvania

      3.9% 4.2%

      Ohio

      2.1% 4.2%

      Connecticut

      4.0% 4.2%

      Colorado

      1.6% 3.2%

      New York

      5.1% 3.2%

      Massachusetts

      4.8% 3.2%

      Alaska

      0.9% 2.1%

      Hawaii

      2.2% 2.1%

      Kentucky

      1.5% 2.1%

      New Jersey

      2.7% 2.1%

      North Carolina

      2.2% 2.1%

      Minnesota

      2.4% 2.1%

      West Virginia

      1.2% 2.1%

      Alabama

      1.5% 1.1%

      Arizona

      2.5% 1.1%

      Indiana

      2.0% 1.1%

      Montana

      1.9% 1.1%

      Oregon

      1.9% 1.1%

      Oklahoma

      1.2% 1.1%

      Rhode Island

      5.3% 1.1%

      South Carolina

      1.9% 1.1%

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

The longest work stoppage in 1993-2020 period in educational services occurred in 1996 in Oakland and lasted for 34 calendar days. There were 25 working days lost.

Chart 5. Longest work stoppages in educational services 1993-2020

 

  • See table for chart 5
    • Table 5. Longest work stoppages in educational services 1993-2020
      Organization(s) involved State(s) Area(s) Ownership Union Work stoppage beginning date Work stoppage ending date Number of workers Calendar days Work days lost in work stoppage

      Oakland Unified School District

      CA Oakland Local government Oakland Education Association 2/15/1996 3/20/1996 3,500 34 25

      New York City Public Schools

      NY New York Local government Amalgamated Transit Union 1/16/2013 2/15/2013 8,000 30 23

      Waukegan School District 60

      IL Waukegan Local government Lake County Federation of Teachers 10/2/2014 10/30/2014 1,200 28 21

      Harvard University

      MA Statewide Private industry Harvard Graduate Students Union - United Automobile Workers 12/3/2019 12/31/2019 2,400 28 21

      Youngstown Public Schools

      OH Youngstown Local government Youngstown Education Association 9/8/1993 10/5/1993 1,000 27 20

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

Largest work stoppages in educational services in 1993-2020 by number of workers involved, all occurred during 2018 due to increased activity of the unions representing the teachers. The largest one was a single day walkout in North Carolina where 123,000 workers in 20 school districts participated.

 

Chart 6. Largest work stoppages in educational services industry by number of workers involved 1993-2020
  • See table for chart 6
    • Table 6. Largest work stoppages in educational services industry by number of workers involved 1993-2020
      Organization(s) involved State(s) Area(s) Ownership Union Work stoppage beginning date Work stoppage ending date Number of workers Days idle, cumulative for this work stoppage

      North Carolina State Legislature[1]

      NC Statewide State government North Carolina Association of Educators 5/16/2018 5/16/2018 123,000 123,000

      North Carolina State Legislature[1]

      NC Statewide State government North Carolina Association of Educators 5/1/2019 5/1/2019 92,700 92,700

      Arizona State Legislature[2]

      AZ Statewide State government Arizona Education Association 4/26/2018 5/3/2018 81,000 486,000

      Colorado State Legislature[3]

      CO Statewide State government Colorado Education Association 4/26/2018 4/27/2018 63,000 126,000

      Oklahoma State Legislature[4]

      OK Statewide State government Oklahoma Education Association 4/2/2018 4/12/2018 45,000 405,000

      Footnotes:

      [1] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from North Carolina Board of Education reports.

      [2] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from Arizona Department of Education reports.

      [3] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from Colorado Department of Education reports.

      [4] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from Oklahoma Department of Education reports.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

Six statewide major work stoppages captured media attention during 2018, which idled 373,000 workers. An increased activity among unions representing the teachers and supporting staff turned into entire school districts shut down for several days in those states. The largest work stoppage by days idle was between the Arizona State Legislature and Arizona Education Association and involved 81,000 teachers and staff totaling 486,000 days of idleness.

Chart 7. Largest work stoppages in educational services by days of idleness in thousands 1993-2020

 

  • See table for chart 7
    • Table 7. Largest work stoppages in educational services industry by days of idleness 1993-2020
      Organization(s) involved State(s) Area(s) Ownership Union Work stoppage beginning date Work stoppage ending date Number of workers Days idle, cumulative for this work stoppage

      Arizona State Legislature[1]

      AZ Statewide State government Arizona Education Association 4/26/2018 5/3/2018 81,000 486,000

      Oklahoma State Legislature[2]

      OK Statewide State government Oklahoma Education Association 4/2/2018 4/12/2018 45,000 405,000

      Chicago Public Schools

      IL Chicago Local government Chicago Teachers Union and Service Employees International Union 10/17/2019 10/31/2019 32,000 352,000

      West Virginia Legislature

      WV Statewide State government West Virginia Education Association 2/16/2018 3/6/2018 35,000 318,600

      Los Angeles Unified School District

      CA Los Angeles Local government United Teachers Los Angeles 1/14/2019 1/22/2019 33,000 198,000

      Footnotes:

      [1] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from Arizona Department of Education reports.

      [2] Estimates based on identified school closings and employee data from Oklahoma Department of Education reports.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Major Work Stoppages Program.

 

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