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Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey
CPS CPS Program Links

See also PDF and XLSX versions of this table.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
ANNUAL AVERAGES
45. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by occupation and industry
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2021
Workers paid hourly rates
Total Below
prevailing
Federal
minimum
wage
At
prevailing
Federal
minimum
wage
Total at or below prevailing
Federal minimum
wage
Number Percent of
hourly-paid
workers

Total wage and salary workers

76,125 910 181 1,091 1.4

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

17,899 55 12 67 0.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

5,594 24 2 27 0.5

Management occupations

3,248 20 2 22 0.7

Business and financial operations occupations

2,346 4 1 5 0.2

Professional and related occupations

12,305 30 10 40 0.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,206 5 0 5 0.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

881 1 0 1 0.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

432 0 0 0 0.0

Community and social service occupations

982 1 0 1 0.1

Legal occupations

348 1 0 1 0.3

Education, training, and library occupations

2,317 12 5 17 0.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

839 2 4 6 0.7

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5,300 9 1 10 0.2

Service occupations

17,398 719 85 804 4.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,896 15 9 23 0.6

Protective service occupations

1,923 24 1 25 1.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,424 593 51 643 10.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,503 43 6 49 1.4

Personal care and service occupations

1,652 44 19 63 3.8

Sales and office occupations

17,336 45 44 88 0.5

Sales and related occupations

7,094 29 26 55 0.8

Office and administrative support occupations

10,243 16 18 33 0.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8,867 18 6 24 0.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

660 0 1 2 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

4,903 14 0 14 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,305 4 4 8 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,624 74 34 108 0.7

Production occupations

6,307 21 9 30 0.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,317 53 26 78 0.9

INDUSTRY

Private sector

67,168 847 176 1,023 1.5

Agriculture and related industries

839 0 0 0 0.1

Nonagricultural industries

66,329 847 176 1,023 1.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

282 1 0 1 0.2

Construction

5,281 8 1 9 0.2

Manufacturing

8,391 26 5 30 0.4

Durable goods

5,251 15 1 15 0.3

Nondurable goods

3,140 11 4 15 0.5

Wholesale and retail trade

12,514 36 29 65 0.5

Wholesale trade

1,598 0 0 0 0.0

Retail trade

10,916 36 28 65 0.6

Transportation and utilities

4,269 17 10 27 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

3,747 15 9 25 0.7

Utilities

522 2 0 2 0.4

Information(1)

894 1 1 2 0.2

Publishing, except Internet

109 0 0 0 0.0

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

161 1 1 2 1.0

Broadcasting (except internet)

165 0 0 0 0.0

Telecommunications

347 0 0 0 0.0

Financial activities

3,178 6 1 8 0.2

Finance and insurance

2,246 5 1 7 0.3

Finance

1,406 3 0 3 0.2

Insurance

840 3 1 4 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

932 1 0 1 0.1

Professional and business services

6,137 22 3 25 0.4

Professional and technical services

2,904 3 2 5 0.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

3,233 19 1 20 0.6

Education and health services

13,445 47 30 77 0.6

Educational services

1,676 7 13 20 1.2

Health care and social assistance

11,769 40 16 56 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

8,907 637 77 715 8.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,307 24 7 31 2.4

Accommodation and food services

7,599 613 70 683 9.0

Accommodation

706 9 2 12 1.7

Food services and drinking places

6,894 604 68 672 9.7

Other services

3,032 46 19 65 2.1

Other services, except private households

2,564 31 17 48 1.9

Private households

468 15 2 16 3.5

Public sector

8,957 63 5 68 0.8

Federal government

1,831 10 1 10 0.6

State government

2,620 15 3 18 0.7

Local government

4,506 39 1 40 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $7.25 per hour in 2021. Data are for wage and salary workers; all self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. The data refer to a person's earnings on the sole or principal job, and pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other non-hourly workers are not included. Hourly earnings for hourly-paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received. The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are exceptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, some survey respondents may have rounded hourly earnings to the nearest dollar and, as a result, reported hourly earnings below the minimum wage even though they earned the minimum wage or higher. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system, derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.

 

Last Modified Date: January 20, 2022