HOUSEHOLD DATA
ANNUAL AVERAGES
45. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by occupation and industry
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2018
Workers paid hourly rates
Total Below
prevailing
Federal
minimum
wage
At
prevailing
Federal
minimum
wage
Total at or below prevailing
Federal minimum
wage
Number Percent of
hourly-paid
workers

Total wage and salary workers

81,915 1,276 434 1,711 2.1

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

19,040 64 26 90 0.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

5,725 24 2 27 0.5

Management occupations

3,401 14 1 15 0.5

Business and financial operations occupations

2,325 10 1 11 0.5

Professional and related occupations

13,314 39 24 63 0.5

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,191 9 4 13 1.1

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,008 3 0 3 0.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

445 0 4 4 0.9

Community and social service occupations

1,057 4 3 7 0.6

Legal occupations

396 0 0 0 0.1

Education, training, and library occupations

2,756 8 8 17 0.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

993 6 3 9 0.9

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5,468 9 1 10 0.2

Service occupations

19,509 1,023 206 1,229 6.3

Healthcare support occupations

2,997 45 5 50 1.7

Protective service occupations

2,067 29 9 38 1.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,141 837 131 968 13.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,023 42 23 65 1.6

Personal care and service occupations

3,281 71 37 108 3.3

Sales and office occupations

20,183 75 150 226 1.1

Sales and related occupations

8,046 35 105 140 1.7

Office and administrative support occupations

12,137 40 46 86 0.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,369 32 8 39 0.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

754 3 2 5 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

5,188 14 0 14 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,426 15 6 20 0.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,814 83 45 127 0.9

Production occupations

6,981 26 17 43 0.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,833 57 28 84 1.2

INDUSTRY

Private sector

72,234 1,219 403 1,622 2.2

Agriculture and related industries

908 5 1 6 0.7

Nonagricultural industries

71,326 1,215 401 1,616 2.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

424 1 0 1 0.3

Construction

5,502 11 1 12 0.2

Manufacturing

9,407 43 19 62 0.7

Durable goods

5,837 22 4 26 0.4

Nondurable goods

3,570 21 14 36 1.0

Wholesale and retail trade

12,988 54 95 149 1.1

Wholesale trade

1,686 4 2 6 0.4

Retail trade

11,302 50 93 143 1.3

Transportation and utilities

3,742 23 3 26 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

3,209 22 3 25 0.8

Utilities

533 1 0 1 0.1

Information(1)

1,118 8 5 12 1.1

Publishing, except Internet

148 1 0 2 1.1

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

184 3 3 6 3.4

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

244 0 1 1 0.5

Telecommunications

435 2 0 2 0.5

Financial activities

3,599 13 5 18 0.5

Finance and insurance

2,543 8 2 11 0.4

Finance

1,586 7 2 9 0.6

Insurance

957 1 1 2 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,056 5 2 7 0.7

Professional and business services

6,812 59 21 80 1.2

Professional and technical services

3,035 17 2 18 0.6

Management, administrative, and waste services

3,777 42 19 62 1.6

Education and health services

14,262 85 46 132 0.9

Educational services

1,902 11 17 28 1.5

Health care and social assistance

12,360 74 30 104 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

9,959 868 181 1,049 10.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,598 43 19 61 3.8

Accommodation and food services

8,361 825 163 987 11.8

Accommodation

1,031 29 5 34 3.3

Food services and drinking places

7,330 796 157 954 13.0

Other services

3,514 50 25 75 2.1

Other services, except private households

2,942 35 20 55 1.9

Private households

573 15 6 20 3.5

Public sector

9,681 57 32 89 0.9

Federal government

1,853 9 3 12 0.6

State government

2,914 13 21 34 1.2

Local government

4,913 35 8 43 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $7.25 per hour in 2018. Data are for wage and salary workers; all self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses. The data refer to a person's earnings on the sole or principal job, and pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates. Salaried workers and other non-hourly workers are not included. Hourly earnings for hourly-paid workers do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips received. The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are exceptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, some survey respondents may have rounded hourly earnings to the nearest dollar and, as a result, reported hourly earnings below the minimum wage even though they earned the minimum wage or higher. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

 

Last Modified Date: January 18, 2019