Employee Benefits in the United States News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, July 20, 2018                                           USDL-18-1182

Technical information:  (202) 691-6199    ncsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/ebs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    pressoffice@bls.gov

                        EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IN THE UNITED STATES – MARCH 2018

Medical care benefits were available to 69 percent of private industry workers and 89 percent of state 
and local government workers in March 2018, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. In 
private industry, access to employer-sponsored medical care benefits varied by establishment size. Fifty-
five percent of private industry workers in small establishments (those with fewer than 100 employees) 
were offered medical care benefits. These benefits were offered to 83 percent of workers in medium-size 
establishments (those employing between 100 and 499 workers) and 88 percent of workers in large 
establishments (those with 500 employees or more). In state and local government, medical care benefits 
were available to 85 percent of workers in small establishments, 86 percent of workers in medium-size 
establishments, and 92 percent of workers in large establishments. (See tables A and 1.)

In private industry, paid sick leave was available to 62 percent of workers in small establishments, 79 
percent of workers in medium-size establishments, and 87 percent of workers in large establishments.
Small establishments provided paid vacation to 70 percent of workers, whereas the benefit was provided 
to 85 percent of those working in medium-size establishments and 89 percent of those working in large 
establishments. Access to paid holidays was available to 71 percent of workers in small establishments, 
86 percent of workers in medium-size establishments, and 88 percent of workers in large establishments. 
(See table 5.)

Table A. Selected employer-sponsored benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2018
(All workers = 100 percent)
Benefit Civilian Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up
rate
Access Participation Take-up
rate
Access Participation Take-up
rate

Medical care

72 52 73 69 50 72 89 70 79

Life insurance

60 59 98 57 55 98 81 80 98

NOTE: For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm and the technical note.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Civilian workers
  *  For full-time workers, access to medical care benefits was 88 percent and the take-up rate was 
74 percent. For part-time workers, access to medical care benefits was 21 percent and the take-up 
rate was 56 percent. (See table 1.)
  *  The share of medical care premiums paid by employees was 20 percent for single coverage and 
32 percent for family coverage. (See tables 2 and 3.)
  *  Life insurance was available to 17 percent of workers with an average wage in the lowest 10 
percent category and to 85 percent of workers with an average wage in the highest 10 percent 
category. The take-up rate was 89 percent for the lowest 10 percent category and 99 percent for 
the highest 10 percent category. (See table 4.)

Private industry workers
  *  For union workers, access to medical care benefits was 94 percent and access to life insurance 
was 85 percent. Nonunion workers' access to these benefits was 66 percent for medical care and 
54 percent for life insurance. (See tables 1 and 4.)
  *  The shares of medical care premiums paid by employees for single coverage was 19 percent for 
establishments employing 500 workers or more and 23 percent for establishments employing 50 
to 99 workers. For family coverage, the employees' share of medical care premiums was 24 
percent for establishments employing 500 workers or more and 40 percent for establishments 
employing 50 to 99 workers. (See tables 2 and 3.)

State and local government workers
  *  Life insurance was available to 91 percent of full-time workers and 89 percent participated. The 
benefit was available to 24 percent of part-time workers and 23 percent participated. (See table 4.)
  *  Ninety-one percent of workers had access to paid sick leave. Access to paid vacation was 61 
percent and to paid holidays was 68 percent. (See table 5.)


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                               Additional Estimates Available Fall 2018

Retirement benefits data included in prior news releases will be published September 21, 2018, with 
information on additional employer-sponsored benefits. For all available benefits publications, see 
www.bls.gov/ncs/ncspubs.htm.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                               TECHNICAL NOTE


Estimates in this release are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), conducted by the U.S. 
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). This news release contains March 2018 
estimates on the incidence (access to and participation in) of selected employer-sponsored benefits and 
the share of premiums paid by employers and employees for medical plans for civilian, private industry, 
and state and local government workers in the United States. Workers in the civilian economy are 
defined as those employed in private industry and state and local government. Excluded from the 
civilian economy are workers employed in federal and quasi-federal agencies, military personnel, 
agricultural workers, volunteers, unpaid workers, individuals receiving long-term disability 
compensation, and those working overseas. In addition, private industry excludes workers in private 
households, the self-employed, workers who set their own pay (e.g., proprietors, owners, major 
stockholders, and partners in unincorporated firms), and family members paid token wages.

The NCS provides comprehensive measures of compensation cost levels and trends and also provides 
benefits incidence estimates on the percentage of workers with access to and participating in employer-
provided benefit plans. The survey covers a broad range of benefits including paid leave, life insurance, 
and detailed provisions for health care and retirement plans. Archived NCS releases are available at 
www.bls.gov/ncs/ncspubs.htm.

Comparing private and public sector data: Employee benefits in state and local government should 
not be directly compared to private industry. Differences between these sectors stem from factors such 
as variation in work activities and occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales, for example, make 
up a large part of private industry work activities but are rare in state and local government. 
Administrative support and professional occupations (including teachers) account for two-thirds of the 
state and local government workforce, compared with one-half of private industry.

Standard errors: To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of benefits estimates, standard errors are 
made available with publication of the news release. Standard errors provide users a measure of the 
precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for its intended purpose. For 
further information see www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/nb_var.htm.

Leave benefits for teachers: Primary, secondary, and special education teachers typically have a work 
schedule of 37 or 38 weeks per year. Because of this work schedule, they are generally not offered 
vacations or holidays. In many cases, the time off during winter and spring breaks during the school year 
are not considered vacation days for the purposes of this survey.

Medical plan premiums: The estimates for medical plan premiums are not based on actual decisions 
regarding medical coverage made by employees; instead they are based on the assumption that all 
employees in the occupation can opt for single or family coverage. Monthly premiums are collected 
when possible. Annual premiums are converted to monthly premiums by dividing by 12 months.

Sample rotation: One-third of the private industry sample is rotated each year except in years when the 
government sample is replaced. The government sample is replaced less frequently than the private 
industry sample. The state and local government sample was replaced in its entirety for the March 2017 
reference period.

Sample size: 
Survey establishment response, March 2018
Establishments Civilian Private industry State and local
governments

Total in sampling frame(1)

6,272,201 6,039,629 232,572

Total in sample

11,478 9,881 1,597

Responding(2)

8,032 6,588 1,444

Refused(3)

2,424 2,284 140

Out of business or not in survey scope

1,022 1,009 13

Footnotes:
(1) The sampling frame was developed from state unemployment insurance reports and is based on the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). With some minor exceptions, an establishment is a single economic unit that engages in one, or predominantly one, type of economic activity. For private industry, the establishment is usually at a single physical location such as a mine, factory, office, or store; if a sampled establishment is owned by a larger entity with many locations, only the employment and characteristics of the establishment selected for the sample are considered for the survey. For state and local governments, an establishment can include more than one physical location, such as a school district or a police department.
(2) Establishments that provided data at the initial interview.
(3) Establishments that did not provide data at the initial interview. Data for establishments not responding at the time of update interviews are imputed. For information on nonresponse adjustment and imputation, see “National Compensation Measures,” BLS Handbook of Methods available at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Survey scope: 
Number of workers represented, March 2018
Occupational group(1) Civilian(2) Private industry(2) State and local
governments(2)

All workers

137,310,900 118,068,300 19,242,600

Management, professional, and related

42,783,300 31,749,100 11,034,300

Management, business, and financial

13,068,900 11,447,500 -

Professional and related

29,714,500 20,301,600 9,412,900

Teachers

6,576,300 - 5,088,100

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

4,532,400 - 3,881,300

Registered nurses

3,110,500 - -

Service

29,942,100 26,034,800 3,907,300

Protective service

3,379,800 1,514,900 1,864,900

Sales and office

32,990,300 30,291,200 2,699,000

Sales and related

12,241,200 12,155,100 -

Office and administrative support

20,749,100 18,136,200 2,613,000

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

11,377,700 10,532,700 845,000

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

5,543,300 5,060,200 -

Installation, maintenance, and repair

5,834,300 5,472,400 -

Production, transportation, and material moving

20,217,500 19,460,600 757,000

Production

9,565,000 9,447,500 -

Transportation and material moving

10,652,500 10,013,100 -

Footnotes:
(1) The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification system is used to classify workers.
(2) The numbers of workers represented by the survey are rounded to the nearest 100. Estimates of the number of workers provide a description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison to other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes indicate that no estimates for this characteristic are provided in this publication.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Calculations for average wage categories: Estimates by worker average wage are grouped into six 
wage categories- the lowest 10 percent, the lowest 25 percent, the second 25 percent, the third 25 
percent, the highest 25 percent, and the highest 10 percent. The categories use percentile values based on 
unpublished March 2018 wages and salaries from the BLS Employer Costs for Employee Compensation 
publication.

The percentiles are computed using average hourly earnings from sampled occupations within an 
establishment. Establishments in the survey are asked to report only individual worker earnings and 
scheduled hours of work for each sampled job. For the calculation of the percentile values, the 
individual worker hourly wages are weighted and arrayed from lowest to highest. The values 
corresponding to the percentiles are:

Characteristics Average hourly wage percentiles
10 25 50
(median)
75 90

Civilian

$10.28 $13.18 $19.87 $31.55 $47.78

Private industry

$10.00 $12.75 $18.78 $30.08 $46.73

State and local government

$13.47 $18.14 $26.94 $38.41 $52.36
Individual workers can fall into a wage category different from the average for the occupation into 
which they are classified because average hourly wages for the occupation are used to produce the 
benefit estimates.

Definitions of major terms:

Access: Employees are considered to have access to a benefit plan if it is available for their use. For 
example, if an employee is permitted to participate in a medical plan offered by the employer, but the 
employee declines to do so, he or she is placed in a category with those having access to medical care 
benefits.

Participation: Employees in contributory plans are considered participants if they have paid required 
contributions and fulfilled any applicable service requirements. Employees in noncontributory plans are 
counted as participating regardless of whether they have fulfilled the service requirements. Note that the 
term "incidence" can refer to either rates of access or rates of participation in a benefit plan.

Take-up rate: The percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.

Medical care benefits provide services or payments for services rendered in the hospital or by a 
qualified medical care provider.

Obtaining information: For technical information on survey methods, see "National Compensation 
Measures," in the BLS Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm. The Concepts 
section of the Handbook provides definitions for worker and establishment characteristics, including 
geographic areas. For BLS research articles on employee benefits, see the Monthly Labor Review at 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr, Beyond the Numbers: Pay and Benefits at www.bls.gov/opub/btn and The 
Economics Daily at www.bls.gov/opub/ted.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


Table 1. Medical care benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2018 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2)

All workers

72 52 73 69 50 72 89 70 79

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

89 68 77 87 66 76 92 72 78

Management, business, and financial occupations

95 72 76 95 72 75 - - -

Professional and related occupations

86 66 77 83 63 76 91 71 78

Teachers

84 65 77 - - - 92 71 77

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

94 71 76 - - - 99 75 76

Registered nurses

88 65 74 - - - - - -

Service occupations

47 31 66 42 26 62 81 64 79

Protective service occupations

75 55 74 57 35 62 89 71 80

Sales and office occupations

68 48 70 66 45 69 89 74 84

Sales and related occupations

54 35 65 54 35 65 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

76 55 73 74 53 71 90 75 84

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

75 59 78 73 57 78 95 75 79

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

69 56 81 67 55 82 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

80 61 76 78 59 76 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

77 56 73 77 56 73 84 67 79

Production occupations

81 61 75 81 61 75 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

73 51 70 73 51 70 - - -

Full time

88 65 74 86 63 73 99 79 80

Part time

21 12 56 21 11 54 27 19 70

Union

95 75 80 94 77 81 95 74 78

Nonunion

68 49 72 66 47 71 84 68 81

Average wage within the following categories:(3)

Lowest 25 percent

38 23 60 35 20 58 72 57 79

Lowest 10 percent

25 13 50 24 12 49 60 47 78

Second 25 percent

76 55 72 72 51 70 93 75 80

Third 25 percent

87 66 76 86 64 75 97 78 80

Highest 25 percent

93 73 78 92 72 78 95 74 77

Highest 10 percent

93 74 79 93 74 79 93 75 80

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

85 67 79 85 67 79 - - -

Service-providing industries

69 50 72 66 46 70 89 70 79

Education and health services

79 58 74 73 52 71 90 70 78

Educational services

86 66 77 74 55 74 90 70 77

Elementary and secondary schools

88 66 75 - - - 90 68 76

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

90 72 80 90 69 76 90 74 82

Health care and social assistance

74 53 71 73 51 70 91 75 83

Hospitals

91 65 72 - - - 90 75 83

Public administration

90 74 82 - - - 90 74 82

1 to 99 workers

57 41 71 55 39 70 85 68 80

1 to 49 workers

52 37 71 51 36 71 82 66 80

50 to 99 workers

71 50 71 69 48 69 89 70 79

100 workers or more

86 64 74 85 62 73 90 71 79

100 to 499 workers

83 60 72 83 59 71 86 67 78

500 workers or more

89 69 77 88 68 76 92 73 80

Geographic areas

Northeast

72 53 74 70 51 73 87 68 78

New England

73 53 72 70 51 72 88 64 72

Middle Atlantic

72 54 74 70 51 73 87 70 80

South

72 52 72 68 48 70 93 75 82

South Atlantic

70 51 73 67 48 71 91 73 81

East South Central

73 52 71 70 47 68 92 78 85

West South Central

74 53 72 71 49 69 96 77 80

Midwest

70 50 71 67 47 70 85 64 76

East North Central

69 50 72 67 47 71 84 66 78

West North Central

71 49 70 68 47 70 88 62 71

West

73 56 76 71 53 75 88 70 79

Mountain

74 54 73 72 52 72 86 64 74

Pacific

73 56 78 70 54 77 89 72 81

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
(2) The take-up rate is calculated from the unrounded percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.
(3) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation - March 2018."

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 2. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for single coverage, March 2018 [In percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium

All workers participating in single coverage medical plans

80 20 79 21 86 14

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

81 19 80 20 85 15

Management, business, and financial occupations

79 21 78 22 - -

Professional and related occupations

82 18 81 19 85 15

Teachers

83 17 - - 85 15

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

84 16 - - 85 15

Registered nurses

81 19 - - - -

Service occupations

80 20 78 22 88 12

Protective service occupations

86 14 79 21 89 11

Sales and office occupations

79 21 78 22 88 12

Sales and related occupations

77 23 77 23 - -

Office and administrative support occupations

80 20 78 22 88 12

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

80 20 79 21 89 11

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

80 20 79 21 - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

79 21 79 21 - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

79 21 79 21 86 14

Production occupations

79 21 79 21 - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

79 21 79 21 - -

Full time

80 20 79 21 87 13

Part time

78 22 77 23 85 15

Union

86 14 87 13 86 14

Nonunion

79 21 77 23 87 13

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

76 24 75 25 87 13

Lowest 10 percent

75 25 76 24 88 12

Second 25 percent

79 21 78 22 87 13

Third 25 percent

81 19 79 21 86 14

Highest 25 percent

82 18 81 19 85 15

Highest 10 percent

82 18 81 19 85 15

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

80 20 80 20 - -

Service-providing industries

80 20 78 22 86 14

Education and health services

82 18 79 21 85 15

Educational services

84 16 78 22 85 15

Elementary and secondary schools

84 16 - - 85 15

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

84 16 79 21 86 14

Health care and social assistance

80 20 79 21 87 13

Hospitals

83 17 - - 87 13

Public administration

88 12 - - 88 12

1 to 99 workers

79 21 78 22 87 13

1 to 49 workers

79 21 78 22 89 11

50 to 99 workers

78 22 77 23 86 14

100 workers or more

81 19 79 21 86 14

100 to 499 workers

80 20 78 22 87 13

500 workers or more

82 18 81 19 86 14

Geographic areas

Northeast

81 19 81 19 85 15

New England

78 22 78 22 78 22

Middle Atlantic

82 18 81 19 87 13

South

79 21 77 23 87 13

South Atlantic

79 21 77 23 86 14

East South Central

80 20 77 23 88 12

West South Central

79 21 77 23 87 13

Midwest

80 20 78 22 87 13

East North Central

79 21 78 22 85 15

West North Central

81 19 79 21 90 10

West

81 19 80 20 87 13

Mountain

79 21 78 22 87 13

Pacific

82 18 81 19 87 13

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation - March 2018."

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 3. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for family coverage, March 2018 [In percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium

All workers participating in family coverage medical plans

68 32 67 33 71 29

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

68 32 67 33 70 30

Management, business, and financial occupations

69 31 68 32 - -

Professional and related occupations

68 32 67 33 69 31

Teachers

66 34 - - 66 34

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

65 35 - - 65 35

Registered nurses

68 32 - - - -

Service occupations

64 36 60 40 73 27

Protective service occupations

74 26 67 33 78 22

Sales and office occupations

66 34 65 35 73 27

Sales and related occupations

64 36 64 36 - -

Office and administrative support occupations

66 34 65 35 73 27

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

68 32 67 33 75 25

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

68 32 67 33 - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

68 32 67 33 - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

71 29 71 29 70 30

Production occupations

72 28 72 28 - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

69 31 69 31 - -

Full time

68 32 67 33 71 29

Part time

62 38 61 39 70 30

Union

80 20 83 17 76 24

Nonunion

64 36 64 36 67 33

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

59 41 58 42 66 34

Lowest 10 percent

59 41 62 38 62 38

Second 25 percent

65 35 65 35 74 26

Third 25 percent

69 31 67 33 70 30

Highest 25 percent

71 29 71 29 75 25

Highest 10 percent

73 27 72 28 76 24

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

72 28 71 29 - -

Service-providing industries

67 33 65 35 71 29

Education and health services

65 35 62 38 68 32

Educational services

67 33 66 34 67 33

Elementary and secondary schools

65 35 - - 65 35

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

71 29 71 29 72 28

Health care and social assistance

63 37 62 38 75 25

Hospitals

73 27 - - 75 25

Public administration

77 23 - - 77 23

1 to 99 workers

64 36 62 38 74 26

1 to 49 workers

64 36 63 37 73 27

50 to 99 workers

63 37 60 40 74 26

100 workers or more

70 30 70 30 71 29

100 to 499 workers

66 34 65 35 72 28

500 workers or more

74 26 76 24 70 30

Geographic areas

Northeast

73 27 71 29 83 17

New England

73 27 72 28 77 23

Middle Atlantic

74 26 71 29 84 16

South

63 37 63 37 63 37

South Atlantic

64 36 63 37 66 34

East South Central

64 36 64 36 62 38

West South Central

61 39 61 39 58 42

Midwest

70 30 69 31 74 26

East North Central

71 29 70 30 76 24

West North Central

68 32 67 33 71 29

West

68 32 66 34 75 25

Mountain

66 34 65 35 72 28

Pacific

68 32 66 34 77 23

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation - March 2018."

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 4. Life insurance benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2018 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2)

All workers

60 59 98 57 55 98 81 80 98

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

79 78 99 78 77 99 83 81 98

Management, business, and financial occupations

83 82 99 82 82 99 - - -

Professional and related occupations

77 76 99 75 74 99 82 80 98

Teachers

76 74 98 - - - 82 80 98

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

83 82 98 - - - 87 86 98

Registered nurses

83 82 99 - - - - - -

Service occupations

36 35 96 30 29 95 75 74 97

Protective service occupations

67 65 97 43 41 95 86 84 98

Sales and office occupations

57 55 98 54 53 98 82 80 97

Sales and related occupations

42 40 96 42 40 96 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

65 64 99 63 62 99 82 80 97

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

56 55 98 53 52 98 89 88 99

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

48 47 98 44 43 98 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

64 62 98 62 60 98 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

64 62 97 64 62 97 80 78 98

Production occupations

66 65 98 66 65 98 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

62 60 96 61 59 95 - - -

Full time

75 73 98 72 70 98 91 89 98

Part time

14 13 90 14 12 89 24 23 95

Union

87 84 97 85 82 96 89 87 98

Nonunion

56 55 98 54 53 98 75 73 97

Average wage within the following categories:(3)

Lowest 25 percent

27 25 93 24 22 93 65 63 97

Lowest 10 percent

17 15 89 15 13 86 52 50 96

Second 25 percent

63 61 97 58 57 97 87 85 97

Third 25 percent

75 74 99 72 71 99 87 86 98

Highest 25 percent

84 83 99 83 82 99 88 86 98

Highest 10 percent

85 84 99 85 85 99 84 82 97

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

69 68 98 69 68 98 - - -

Service-providing industries

59 57 98 54 53 98 82 80 98

Education and health services

70 69 99 64 64 99 82 80 97

Educational services

78 77 98 68 67 99 81 79 98

Elementary and secondary schools

78 76 98 - - - 79 78 98

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

87 85 97 88 87 99 86 83 96

Health care and social assistance

66 65 99 64 63 100 87 84 96

Hospitals

89 88 99 - - - 87 83 95

Public administration

83 81 98 - - - 83 81 98

1 to 99 workers

43 42 98 40 40 98 74 73 99

1 to 49 workers

37 36 98 35 35 98 69 68 99

50 to 99 workers

59 57 97 56 54 97 79 78 99

100 workers or more

78 76 98 76 74 98 84 81 97

100 to 499 workers

71 70 97 70 69 97 79 76 97

500 workers or more

85 83 98 84 83 98 86 84 97

Geographic areas

Northeast

60 59 98 56 55 98 82 80 97

New England

64 62 97 61 60 98 82 75 92

Middle Atlantic

58 57 99 54 54 99 82 81 99

South

61 60 97 58 56 97 82 80 97

South Atlantic

61 60 98 57 56 98 85 82 97

East South Central

60 58 96 57 55 96 74 72 96

West South Central

62 60 97 58 57 97 83 81 97

Midwest

62 60 97 59 58 97 81 79 98

East North Central

62 60 97 60 58 97 81 78 97

West North Central

61 60 99 58 57 98 81 80 100

West

57 56 98 53 52 98 80 79 99

Mountain

61 61 99 58 57 99 82 82 100

Pacific

55 54 98 51 50 98 79 78 98

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
(2) The take-up rate is calculated from the unrounded percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.
(3) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation - March 2018."

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 5. Selected paid leave benefits: Access, March 2018 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays

All workers

74 75 77 71 77 78 91 61 68

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

90 78 82 90 89 91 93 47 57

Management, business, and financial occupations

94 95 95 94 96 96 - - -

Professional and related occupations

89 71 76 87 85 87 93 40 52

Teachers

86 18 34 - - - 92 15 32

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

96 17 30 - - - 99 13 28

Registered nurses

92 90 90 - - - - - -

Service occupations

56 59 57 52 57 54 85 74 78

Protective service occupations

77 79 78 60 66 63 91 89 90

Sales and office occupations

76 80 83 74 80 82 92 86 88

Sales and related occupations

65 71 74 65 71 74 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

82 86 88 81 86 88 93 87 88

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

65 77 80 63 75 79 96 97 96

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

54 65 70 50 62 68 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

76 88 89 75 88 89 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

66 82 84 65 83 85 89 62 73

Production occupations

63 87 90 63 87 90 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

69 78 79 68 79 80 - - -

Full time

85 87 88 82 90 90 99 67 74

Part time

40 38 43 39 40 44 44 24 33

Union

90 75 81 83 89 90 97 58 70

Nonunion

71 75 76 70 76 77 86 63 67

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

47 53 55 45 52 54 79 59 65

Lowest 10 percent

31 43 43 31 41 40 65 44 52

Second 25 percent

77 84 83 73 83 82 95 85 89

Third 25 percent

86 89 90 83 90 91 97 63 70

Highest 25 percent

92 80 84 90 91 93 95 41 53

Highest 10 percent

93 80 84 92 92 93 93 37 49

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

69 87 90 68 87 90 - - -

Service-providing industries

75 73 75 71 75 76 91 60 68

Education and health services

87 69 74 84 82 84 92 45 55

Educational services

90 41 53 81 56 64 92 37 50

Elementary and secondary schools

92 27 39 - - - 93 26 39

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

89 71 82 86 73 84 90 69 81

Health care and social assistance

85 87 88 84 86 88 92 92 92

Hospitals

94 93 94 - - - 92 92 91

Public administration

92 90 91 - - - 92 90 91

1 to 99 workers

63 69 71 62 70 71 89 55 64

1 to 49 workers

61 69 70 60 69 70 86 66 70

50 to 99 workers

69 69 73 66 73 75 92 44 57

100 workers or more

84 81 83 82 86 87 92 63 70

100 to 499 workers

80 82 84 79 85 86 90 61 69

500 workers or more

89 81 83 87 89 88 93 63 70

Geographic areas

Northeast

77 75 77 75 78 80 90 57 64

New England

79 74 77 78 78 80 90 55 60

Middle Atlantic

76 75 77 74 78 79 90 58 65

South

71 76 78 67 78 79 92 62 69

South Atlantic

70 76 78 67 77 78 91 66 78

East South Central

67 75 78 62 78 79 90 60 71

West South Central

75 75 77 71 79 81 94 56 56

Midwest

67 74 74 64 76 76 89 55 66

East North Central

67 74 75 64 76 76 88 55 69

West North Central

69 73 74 65 76 76 91 57 61

West

82 76 77 81 78 78 93 67 72

Mountain

72 78 77 69 81 79 88 60 66

Pacific

87 75 77 86 76 78 95 70 74

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation - March 2018."

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Last Modified Date: July 20, 2018