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Economic News Release
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Employment Cost Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                             USDL-22-0105
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 28, 2022

Technical information: (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ect
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

				EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX  December 2021
				
Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 1.0 percent, seasonally adjusted, for the 3-month
period ending in December 2021, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and
salaries increased 1.1 percent and benefit costs increased 0.9 percent from September 2021. (See
tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Compensation costs for civilian workers increased 4.0 percent for the 12-month period ending in
December 2021 and increased 2.5 percent in December 2020. Wages and salaries increased 4.5 percent
for the 12-month period ending in December 2021 and increased 2.6 percent for the 12-month period
ending in December 2020. Benefit costs increased 2.8 percent over the year and increased 2.3
percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2020. (See tables A, 4, 8, and 12.)

Compensation costs for private industry workers increased 4.4 percent over the year. In December
2020, the increase was 2.6 percent. Wages and salaries increased 5.0 percent for the 12-month
period ending in December 2021 and increased 2.8 percent in December 2020. The cost of benefits
increased 2.9 percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2021 and increased 2.1 percent in
December 2020. Inflation-adjusted (constant dollar) private wages and salaries declined 1.9 percent
for the 12 months ending December 2021. Inflation-adjusted benefit costs in the private sector
declined 3.8 percent. (See tables A, 5, 9, 12 and www.bls.gov/web/eci/eci-constant-real-dollar.pdf.)

Among private industry occupational groups, compensation cost increases for the 12-month period
ending in December 2021 ranged from 3.5 percent for management, professional, and related
occupations to 7.1 percent for service occupations. Within industry supersectors, compensation
cost increases ranged from 3.3 percent for financial activities to 8.0 percent for leisure and
hospitality. (See table 5.)

Compensation costs for state and local government workers increased 2.6 percent for the 12-month
period ending in December 2021, compared with an increase of 2.3 percent in December 2020. Wages
and salaries increased 2.7 percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2021 and 1.8 percent
a year ago. Benefit costs increased 2.5 percent for the 12-month period ending in December 2021.
The prior year increase was 3.1 percent. (See tables A, 7, 11, and 12.)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic impact on the December 2021 Employment Cost Index

For information on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and response on the ECI, see 
www.bls.gov/covid19/home.htm.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table A. Major series of the Employment Cost Index [Percent change]
Category 3-month,
seasonally adjusted
12-month, not seasonally adjusted
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Civilian workers(1)

Compensation(2)

1.3 1.0 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.7 4.0

Wages and salaries

1.5 1.1 2.6 2.7 3.2 4.2 4.5

Benefits

0.9 0.9 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.8

Private industry

Compensation(2)

1.4 1.2 2.6 2.8 3.1 4.1 4.4

Wages and salaries

1.6 1.2 2.8 3.0 3.5 4.6 5.0

Benefits

1.1 1.0 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.6 2.9

State and local government

Compensation(2)

0.8 0.7 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.6

Wages and salaries

1.0 0.7 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.4 2.7

Benefits

0.4 1.0 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes private industry and state and local government.
(2) Includes wages and salaries and benefits.



					   TECHNICAL NOTE

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence
of employment shifts among occupations and industries. For information on survey concepts,
coverage, methods, nonresponse adjustment, and imputation see National Compensation Measures
Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 30,100
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 7,500 private industry establishments and
approximately 7,700 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 2021, an
additional (fourth) private industry sample will be used in estimation to mitigate the impact of
decreasing response rates.

Standard errors
To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ECI series, standard errors of all current
quarter not seasonally adjusted 3- and 12-month percent change series are also available, see
www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/ectvar.htm and the database query tool at www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm.
Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within
an acceptable range for their intended purpose.

Historical listings
Historical listings are available at www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. The continuous occupational and
industry series listing uses the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual and Occupational
Classification System (OCS) series from 1975 through 2005 and the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) from 2006 to the
present. It provides the official series deemed continuous after the change in classification
systems. For more information on the criteria used in defining continuous series, see the article
published in the Monthly Labor Review at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art2full.pdf.

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation data
The costs per hour worked of compensation components are published as part of the Employer Costs
for Employee Compensation (ECEC) news release. The ECEC release dates are available at
www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Historical ECEC data are available in summary documents
at www.bls.gov/ect/#tables. Since the ECEC is calculated with current employment weights rather
than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost levels usually
differ from those in the ECI.

Fixed employment weights
For additional information on the use of fixed employment weights in computing the ECI, see
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/introducing-2012-fixed-employment-weights-for-the-
employment-cost-index.htm.

Additional information
Starting with the ECI March 2022 release, inflation-adjusted or constant dollar estimates will be
available in the database at www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm. ECI release dates are available on the
release calendar at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/eci.htm. Subscribe to receive the BLS
Economic News Release email at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm.

Table 1. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Civilian workers

All workers(2)

146.6 148.1 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.7 1.3 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

142.8 144.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.9 0.9

Manufacturing

142.6 143.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.4 0.8

Service-providing industries(4)

147.4 149.0 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.7 1.3 1.1

Education and health services

145.0 146.6 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.1

Educational services

145.1 146.0 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.6

Elementary and secondary schools

145.7 146.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

143.7 144.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 -0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 1.1 0.8

Health care and social assistance

145.0 147.2 0.5 0.7 -0.1 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.5

Hospitals

145.5 147.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.7 1.0 1.6

Nursing and residential care facilities

143.9 146.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.7 1.8

Public administration

149.7 151.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.9

Private industry workers

All workers

146.3 148.0 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.4 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

143.5 144.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.3 0.8

Management, business, and financial

145.3 146.1 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.5 0.6

Professional and related

142.1 143.7 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.2 1.1

Sales and office

148.4 150.1 0.4 1.1 0.6 0.4 1.1 1.8 0.3 1.4 1.1

Sales and related

145.7 147.2 0.3 1.6 0.6 0.1 1.5 3.3 -0.5 1.5 1.0

Office and administrative support

150.2 152.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

145.3 146.8 0.6 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

145.5 146.7 0.7 1.1 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

145.2 146.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.9 1.2

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.0 151.0 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.6 1.3 1.5 1.3

Production

145.7 147.4 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.2

Transportation and material moving

153.1 155.4 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.3 1.3 1.5 1.5

Service occupations

153.1 156.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.7 2.1 1.9

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

142.8 144.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 1.1 1.0 0.9

Construction

143.6 145.2 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 0.3 1.1

Manufacturing

142.6 143.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.4 0.8

Aircraft manufacturing

134.2 134.9 0.4 -1.6 1.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 7.0 0.5

Service-providing industries(5)

147.3 149.1 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.7 1.5 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

150.0 152.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.3 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.9

Wholesale trade

143.7 145.9 0.4 0.8 1.1 0.0 0.4 0.9 2.0 0.9 1.5

Retail trade

152.3 156.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.6 1.0 0.9 1.6 2.6

Transportation and warehousing

152.7 154.9 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.5 1.3 0.1 0.6 1.1 1.4

Utilities

158.0 159.3 0.7 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 1.2 0.8

Information

143.8 145.4 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.2 0.6 0.5 1.2 1.1

Financial activities

147.5 146.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.7 3.6 -1.7 2.0 -0.7

Finance and insurance

148.7 147.0 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.7 4.3 -2.2 2.2 -1.1

Credit intermediation and related activities

152.5 149.4 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.2 2.3 5.5 -2.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

146.3 147.8 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.1 1.0 1.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

141.9 144.0 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.5

Professional and business services

146.7 148.1 0.5 1.1 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.8 1.5 1.0

Professional, scientific, and technical services

148.4 149.7 0.4 1.2 -0.1 0.3 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.7 0.9

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

145.6 147.6 0.6 1.1 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.4

Education and health services

144.1 146.0 0.5 0.8 -0.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.3 1.3

Educational services

143.2 143.8 0.4 0.9 0.6 -0.2 0.7 0.3 0.3 1.5 0.4

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

143.8 144.8 0.6 0.8 0.4 -0.7 0.4 0.3 0.6 1.3 0.7

Health care and social assistance

144.3 146.5 0.5 0.8 -0.3 1.2 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.5

Hospitals

145.0 147.4 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

142.4 145.0 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.8 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

154.5 156.6 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.3 1.4 2.5 2.5 1.4

Accommodation and food services

157.5 159.9 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.4 0.6 1.5 2.6 2.5 1.5

Other services, except public administration

148.4 150.4 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.3

State and local government workers

All workers

147.7 148.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.7

Industry

Education and health services

146.1 147.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.8

Educational services

145.6 146.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.6

Schools

145.5 146.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.7

Elementary and secondary schools

146.2 147.0 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5

Health care and social assistance

150.3 152.2 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.9 1.3

Hospitals

147.4 149.2 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2

Public administration

149.7 151.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 2. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

146.2 147.8 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

145.0 146.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.3 0.8 1.2

Manufacturing

145.2 146.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.3 1.2 1.0

Service-providing industries(3)

146.5 148.1 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.6 1.1

Education and health services

141.0 142.5 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.2 1.1

Educational services

137.0 137.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.4

Elementary and secondary schools

135.8 136.3 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.4

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

138.3 139.1 0.5 0.6 0.4 -0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.6

Health care and social assistance

145.3 147.7 0.6 0.9 -0.4 1.2 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.7

Hospitals

145.1 147.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

145.6 148.5 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.3 2.0 2.0

Private industry workers

All workers

148.1 149.9 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.6 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

144.8 146.0 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.8

Professional and related

143.4 145.1 0.7 1.0 -0.1 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.3 1.2

Management, business, and financial

146.8 147.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.8 0.4

Sales and office

150.4 152.0 0.4 1.4 0.6 0.4 1.2 2.2 0.4 1.6 1.1

Office and administrative support

151.3 153.3 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.7 1.2 1.5 1.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

145.7 147.3 0.7 1.2 0.1 0.7 0.6 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.1

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

146.0 147.3 0.7 1.4 -0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.4 1.2 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

145.4 147.3 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.4 0.5 0.9 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

151.6 154.2 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.8 1.5 1.7

Production

148.1 150.1 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.4

Transportation and material moving

155.8 158.8 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.2 0.4 1.8 1.6 1.9

Service occupations

156.4 159.6 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.4 2.1 2.3 2.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

145.1 146.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 1.3 0.8 1.1

Construction

144.8 146.6 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.9 1.4 0.3 1.3

Manufacturing

145.2 146.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.3 1.2 1.0

Aircraft manufacturing

150.4 151.2 0.6 -0.2 1.5 0.9 0.7 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.6

Service-providing industries(4)

148.9 150.7 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

150.7 154.1 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.3 1.3 0.8 1.5 1.3 2.3

Wholesale trade

141.5 144.0 0.4 0.9 1.3 -0.2 0.4 0.8 2.4 1.1 1.8

Retail trade

154.7 159.3 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 1.9 1.0 1.2 1.7 3.0

Transportation and warehousing

154.9 157.4 1.3 0.8 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.3 1.0 1.2 1.6

Utilities

152.7 154.1 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.3 1.2 0.9

Information

143.1 144.6 0.7 0.9 0.2 0.5 1.4 1.0 0.5 1.2 1.0

Financial activities

150.5 148.3 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.1 0.8 5.0 -2.2 2.7 -1.5

Finance and insurance

152.6 149.3 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.0 1.0 6.0 -2.9 3.0 -2.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

156.5 151.4 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.0 3.7 7.7 -3.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

145.7 147.0 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.1 1.1 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

141.7 144.1 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.7

Professional and business services

148.3 149.8 0.6 1.4 0.1 0.4 0.9 0.3 1.1 1.6 1.0

Professional, scientific, and technical services

149.8 151.1 0.5 1.8 -0.3 0.2 1.0 -0.2 1.2 1.8 0.8

Education and health services

144.9 147.0 0.5 0.9 -0.3 1.0 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.5 1.4

Educational services

142.4 142.7 0.4 1.0 0.6 -0.3 0.8 0.5 0.4 1.6 0.2

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

141.4 142.1 0.6 0.9 0.4 -0.9 0.4 0.4 0.9 1.1 0.5

Health care and social assistance

145.4 147.9 0.6 0.9 -0.6 1.3 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.7

Hospitals

145.7 148.3 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.8

Nursing and resideal care facilities

146.1 149.0 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.3 2.1 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

159.5 162.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.4 1.6 2.8 2.6 1.6

Accommodation and food services

162.5 165.3 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.6 0.6 1.7 2.9 2.6 1.8

Other services, except public administration

150.0 152.2 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.5

State and local government workers

All workers

138.0 138.9 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.7

Industry

Education and health services

136.7 137.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.6

Educational services

135.9 136.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.4

Schools

135.9 136.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.4

Elementary and secondary schools

135.5 136.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.4

Health care and social assistance

143.6 145.4 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.5 1.3

Hospitals

142.8 144.5 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.6 1.2

Public administration

139.7 140.8 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 1.5 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 3. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group and industry [Seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for 3-months ended-
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jun.
2020
Sep.
2020
Dec.
2020
Mar.
2021
Jun.
2021
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

147.6 149.0 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.9

Private industry workers

All workers

142.1 143.5 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 1.1 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

140.3 141.7 0.5 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.3 1.0 1.0

Sales and office

143.4 145.1 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.7 -0.1 0.9 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

144.7 145.8 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

143.7 144.7 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.5 1.5 0.7

Service occupations

142.7 144.1 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.4 1.0

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

138.1 138.8 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.5 1.2 0.5

Manufacturing

137.7 138.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.4 1.6 0.4

Service-providing industries(3)

143.6 145.2 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.1 1.1 1.1

State and local government workers

All workers(1)

166.8 168.4 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 4. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers(2)

142.2 146.7 147.9 0.6 1.4 0.8 2.5 3.7 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)

142.3 146.3 147.8 0.6 1.2 1.0 2.5 3.4 3.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

140.5 144.2 145.0 0.4 1.3 0.6 2.0 3.0 3.2

Management, business, and financial

141.3 145.5 146.0 0.2 1.5 0.3 1.8 3.2 3.3

Professional and related

140.1 143.4 144.5 0.4 1.2 0.8 2.1 2.8 3.1

Sales and office

143.7 148.7 150.1 0.9 1.3 0.9 3.2 4.4 4.5

Sales and related

139.7 145.8 147.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 3.8 5.7 5.4

Office and administrative support

146.0 150.3 151.6 0.6 1.2 0.9 2.7 3.6 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.7 145.7 147.0 0.5 0.9 0.9 2.4 3.3 3.7

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

141.6 145.7 146.9 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.9 3.5 3.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair

141.9 145.8 147.1 0.4 1.0 0.9 2.8 3.1 3.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

144.2 149.3 151.1 0.8 1.5 1.2 3.3 4.3 4.8

Production

140.5 145.8 147.5 0.7 1.3 1.2 3.2 4.5 5.0

Transportation and material moving

148.5 153.3 155.5 0.9 1.5 1.4 3.5 4.1 4.7

Service occupations

146.7 153.2 155.6 0.8 1.9 1.6 3.3 5.3 6.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(4)

139.0 142.9 144.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 2.4 3.4 3.6

Manufacturing

138.5 142.5 143.5 0.7 1.2 0.7 2.4 3.6 3.6

Service-providing industries(5)

142.8 147.3 148.7 0.6 1.4 1.0 2.6 3.7 4.1

Education and health services

141.7 145.1 146.5 0.5 1.4 1.0 2.2 2.9 3.4

Educational services

142.4 145.2 145.9 0.4 1.5 0.5 2.2 2.4 2.5

Elementary and secondary schools

143.0 145.7 146.3 0.5 1.5 0.4 2.4 2.4 2.3

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

141.1 143.9 144.8 0.4 1.6 0.6 1.3 2.3 2.6

Health care and social assistance

141.0 145.0 147.3 0.6 1.3 1.6 2.2 3.4 4.5

Hospitals

141.6 145.4 147.7 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

138.5 143.8 146.4 0.8 1.7 1.8 3.0 4.7 5.7

Public administration

146.8 149.6 150.6 0.4 1.1 0.7 2.4 2.3 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(4) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(5) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 5. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers

141.6 146.4 147.8 0.6 1.4 1.0 2.6 4.1 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

141.6 145.9 147.6 0.6 1.1 1.2 2.5 3.6 4.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

139.5 143.5 144.4 0.4 1.3 0.6 2.0 3.2 3.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

138.8 142.1 143.4 0.4 0.9 0.9 2.0 2.7 3.3

Management, business, and financial

141.0 145.3 145.8 0.2 1.4 0.3 1.9 3.3 3.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

139.9 142.9 144.0 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.8 2.4 2.9

Professional and related

138.4 142.2 143.4 0.4 1.2 0.8 2.1 3.2 3.6

Sales and office

143.2 148.5 149.9 0.9 1.3 0.9 3.2 4.7 4.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

145.0 149.5 151.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 2.9 3.9 4.6

Sales and related

139.6 145.7 147.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 3.8 5.7 5.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.9 148.2 151.5 1.2 0.7 2.2 3.5 4.2 5.3

Office and administrative support

145.6 150.2 151.7 0.6 1.2 1.0 2.6 3.7 4.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.3 145.5 146.7 0.5 0.9 0.8 2.5 3.5 3.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

141.2 145.5 146.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.9 3.6 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

141.4 145.4 146.8 0.4 0.9 1.0 3.0 3.3 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

143.8 149.0 150.9 0.8 1.5 1.3 3.3 4.4 4.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

143.6 148.6 150.6 0.8 1.4 1.3 3.3 4.3 4.9

Production

140.3 145.7 147.3 0.7 1.4 1.1 3.2 4.6 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

140.8 146.1 147.9 0.7 1.4 1.2 3.2 4.5 5.0

Transportation and material moving

148.2 153.2 155.3 0.9 1.6 1.4 3.5 4.3 4.8

Service occupations

145.6 153.1 155.9 0.9 2.0 1.8 3.6 6.1 7.1

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

138.9 142.8 144.0 0.5 0.9 0.8 2.3 3.3 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

138.8 142.9 144.0 0.5 1.0 0.8 2.1 3.5 3.7

Management, professional, and related

135.6 138.5 139.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.7 2.4 2.7

Sales and office

143.4 146.6 148.3 0.6 0.3 1.2 2.5 2.8 3.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

140.7 144.9 146.0 0.6 1.0 0.8 2.1 3.6 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

139.2 144.1 145.6 0.7 1.4 1.0 3.0 4.3 4.6

Construction

140.3 143.9 145.2 0.4 0.4 0.9 2.4 3.0 3.5

Manufacturing

138.5 142.5 143.5 0.7 1.2 0.7 2.4 3.6 3.6

Management, professional, and related

136.9 139.8 140.5 0.4 0.8 0.5 1.9 2.6 2.6

Sales and office occupations

140.6 145.0 145.7 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 3.6 3.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

139.4 143.3 144.2 0.9 1.3 0.6 3.1 3.7 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving

138.9 143.8 145.2 0.7 1.4 1.0 3.0 4.3 4.5

Aircraft manufacturing

123.1 136.8 136.9 0.1 9.0 0.1 0.7 11.2 11.2

Service-providing industries(4)

142.4 147.4 148.9 0.6 1.4 1.0 2.7 4.2 4.6

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.5 146.9 148.7 0.6 1.2 1.2 2.7 3.7 4.4

Management, professional, and related

140.2 144.4 145.4 0.3 1.4 0.7 2.0 3.3 3.7

Sales and office

143.2 148.7 150.1 1.0 1.4 0.9 3.2 4.9 4.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.4 146.4 147.8 0.4 0.8 1.0 3.0 3.2 3.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

149.0 154.4 156.7 0.9 1.5 1.5 3.6 4.5 5.2

Service occupations

145.6 153.1 155.9 0.9 2.0 1.8 3.6 6.1 7.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

145.1 150.1 152.6 0.9 1.2 1.7 3.1 4.4 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

146.0 150.2 152.6 1.0 1.1 1.6 3.3 3.9 4.5

Wholesale trade

138.1 143.9 145.6 0.1 1.1 1.2 2.4 4.3 5.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.1 146.1 148.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 2.2 3.5 4.3

Retail trade

146.7 152.3 156.0 1.4 1.3 2.4 3.5 5.3 6.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

145.8 150.8 153.9 1.4 1.3 2.1 4.0 4.9 5.6

Transportation and warehousing

149.6 153.0 154.7 0.9 1.3 1.1 3.3 3.2 3.4

Utilities

154.0 157.8 158.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 2.4 2.9 2.9

Information

139.9 143.9 144.7 0.6 1.1 0.6 3.1 3.5 3.4

Financial activities

141.4 147.6 146.0 0.1 1.8 -1.1 2.3 4.5 3.3

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

141.5 144.8 146.0 0.0 0.6 0.8 2.2 2.3 3.2

Finance and insurance

142.0 148.8 146.5 0.2 1.9 -1.5 2.5 5.0 3.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

140.5 152.8 148.8 -0.1 5.2 -2.6 2.5 8.6 5.9

Excluding incentive paid

144.2 147.5 148.4 0.1 0.7 0.6 2.3 2.4 2.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

143.0 146.4 147.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 2.4 2.6 2.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.0 144.8 145.8 0.1 0.4 0.7 2.3 2.0 2.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

138.8 142.2 143.9 0.0 1.1 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.7

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

142.7 146.5 148.1 0.0 1.1 1.1 1.9 2.7 3.8

Professional and business services

142.4 146.7 147.9 0.7 1.5 0.8 2.7 3.7 3.9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

144.0 148.4 149.2 0.8 1.7 0.5 2.5 3.8 3.6

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

140.3 145.6 147.5 0.9 1.4 1.3 3.3 4.7 5.1

Education and health services

140.2 144.2 146.1 0.5 1.4 1.3 2.2 3.4 4.2

Educational services

140.4 143.6 144.0 0.6 2.1 0.3 2.0 2.9 2.6

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

140.8 144.1 144.9 0.3 1.8 0.6 0.9 2.6 2.9

Health care and social assistance

140.2 144.3 146.6 0.6 1.3 1.6 2.3 3.5 4.6

Hospitals

141.1 145.0 147.4 0.5 1.0 1.7 2.2 3.3 4.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

136.8 142.4 145.0 0.7 1.8 1.8 3.0 4.9 6.0

Nursing care facilities(2)

136.1 141.8 144.1 0.9 1.8 1.6 3.0 5.1 5.9

Leisure and hospitality

144.7 154.1 156.3 0.4 2.3 1.4 3.4 6.9 8.0

Accommodation and food service

147.3 157.1 159.6 0.5 2.3 1.6 4.0 7.2 8.4

Other services, except public administration

142.3 148.4 150.1 0.4 1.4 1.1 2.2 4.7 5.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 6. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Bargaining status

Union

146.3 150.1 151.2 0.5 1.1 0.7 2.8 3.1 3.3

Goods-producing industries(2)

140.8 145.3 146.2 0.5 1.5 0.6 2.8 3.7 3.8

Manufacturing

134.7 139.5 140.7 0.9 2.4 0.9 3.8 4.5 4.5

Service-providing industries(3)

150.2 153.8 155.0 0.4 0.9 0.8 2.7 2.8 3.2

Nonunion

140.9 145.8 147.2 0.6 1.4 1.0 2.6 4.1 4.5

Goods-producing industries(2)

138.3 142.1 143.3 0.5 0.8 0.8 2.1 3.3 3.6

Manufacturing

139.5 143.4 144.4 0.6 1.0 0.7 2.1 3.4 3.5

Service-providing industries(3)

141.6 146.8 148.2 0.6 1.5 1.0 2.7 4.3 4.7

Census region and division(4)

Northeast

144.0 148.4 149.6 0.6 1.4 0.8 2.3 3.7 3.9

New England

147.0 152.2 153.4 0.3 1.2 0.8 2.1 3.9 4.4

Middle Atlantic

142.9 147.1 148.3 0.7 1.4 0.8 2.4 3.7 3.8

South

139.3 144.6 145.6 0.7 1.6 0.7 2.6 4.5 4.5

South Atlantic

141.8 146.3 147.5 0.8 1.2 0.8 2.8 4.0 4.0

East South Central

137.4 143.5 145.6 0.2 1.9 1.5 1.4 4.7 6.0

West South Central

135.9 142.1 142.5 0.6 2.3 0.3 2.7 5.2 4.9

Midwest

139.1 143.5 145.5 0.7 1.2 1.4 2.5 3.8 4.6

East North Central

137.6 141.9 143.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 2.6 3.8 4.5

West North Central

142.9 147.3 149.6 0.6 1.0 1.6 2.5 3.7 4.7

West

145.1 150.1 151.4 0.5 1.2 0.9 3.0 3.9 4.3

Mountain

142.0 147.4 149.3 0.4 1.0 1.3 2.9 4.2 5.1

Pacific

146.4 151.3 152.4 0.5 1.2 0.7 3.0 3.8 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 7. Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers

144.9 147.6 148.6 0.4 1.2 0.7 2.3 2.3 2.6

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

143.2 145.8 146.6 0.4 1.3 0.5 2.1 2.2 2.4

Professional and related

143.1 145.7 146.5 0.4 1.3 0.5 2.1 2.2 2.4

Sales and office

148.0 150.6 151.4 0.6 1.1 0.5 2.8 2.4 2.3

Office and administrative support

148.1 150.7 151.4 0.6 1.1 0.5 2.8 2.4 2.2

Service occupations

149.1 152.7 154.1 0.6 1.5 0.9 2.8 3.0 3.4

Industry

Education and health services

143.4 146.2 147.0 0.5 1.5 0.5 2.2 2.5 2.5

Educational services

142.9 145.6 146.4 0.4 1.4 0.5 2.1 2.2 2.4

Schools

142.9 145.6 146.3 0.4 1.5 0.5 2.2 2.3 2.4

Elementary and secondary schools

143.4 146.2 146.8 0.4 1.5 0.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

146.7 150.2 152.1 0.7 1.1 1.3 2.2 3.1 3.7

Hospitals

143.9 147.3 149.2 0.6 1.0 1.3 2.2 3.0 3.7

Public administration

146.8 149.6 150.6 0.4 1.1 0.7 2.4 2.3 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 8. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers(1)

141.3 146.3 147.7 0.6 1.5 1.0 2.6 4.2 4.5

Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)

140.9 145.3 147.0 0.6 1.3 1.2 2.5 3.7 4.3

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

138.7 142.7 143.4 0.3 1.5 0.5 1.9 3.2 3.4

Management, business, and financial

141.0 145.8 146.1 0.2 1.7 0.2 1.7 3.6 3.6

Professional and related

137.5 141.0 142.0 0.4 1.4 0.7 2.0 2.9 3.3

Sales and office

143.4 149.5 150.9 1.0 1.5 0.9 3.4 5.3 5.2

Sales and related

141.4 148.8 150.0 1.6 1.6 0.8 4.2 6.9 6.1

Office and administrative support

144.7 149.6 151.2 0.6 1.4 1.1 2.8 4.0 4.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

140.8 145.3 146.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 2.6 3.8 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

140.5 145.3 146.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 2.1 4.1 4.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

141.2 145.3 146.9 0.5 1.0 1.1 3.1 3.4 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.3 151.3 153.6 0.8 1.5 1.5 3.6 5.0 5.7

Production

141.9 148.0 150.1 0.6 1.2 1.4 3.2 5.0 5.8

Transportation and material moving

149.0 154.9 157.5 1.0 1.8 1.7 3.9 5.0 5.7

Service occupations

145.7 153.2 156.1 0.9 2.1 1.9 3.5 6.1 7.1

Industry

Goods-producing industries(3)

140.9 145.0 146.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.5 3.5 4.0

Manufacturing

140.7 145.0 146.4 0.6 1.0 1.0 2.6 3.7 4.1

Service-providing industries(4)

141.3 146.5 147.9 0.6 1.7 1.0 2.6 4.3 4.7

Education and health services

137.6 141.2 142.6 0.5 1.6 1.0 2.0 3.1 3.6

Educational services

134.8 137.4 137.8 0.4 1.6 0.3 1.8 2.3 2.2

Elementary and secondary schools

133.8 136.3 136.5 0.3 1.5 0.1 2.0 2.2 2.0

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

135.6 138.6 139.3 0.3 1.8 0.5 1.0 2.5 2.7

Health care and social assistance

140.7 145.3 147.8 0.6 1.5 1.7 2.2 3.9 5.0

Hospitals

140.6 145.0 147.7 0.6 1.2 1.9 2.2 3.7 5.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

139.4 145.5 148.4 0.9 2.0 2.0 3.4 5.3 6.5

Public administration

136.5 139.8 140.8 0.4 1.7 0.7 1.7 2.9 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(4) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 9. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Index value (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers

142.6 148.2 149.7 0.6 1.6 1.0 2.8 4.6 5.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.4 147.1 149.0 0.6 1.2 1.3 2.7 4.0 4.6

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

140.4 144.9 145.8 0.3 1.5 0.6 2.0 3.5 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

139.2 142.7 144.1 0.4 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.9 3.5

Management, business, and financial

141.7 146.9 147.1 0.2 1.8 0.1 1.8 3.9 3.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

139.8 142.8 144.0 0.4 0.8 0.8 1.7 2.5 3.0

Professional and related

139.5 143.5 144.9 0.4 1.3 1.0 2.1 3.3 3.9

Sales and office

144.1 150.4 151.9 1.1 1.5 1.0 3.5 5.5 5.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

145.7 150.8 153.2 0.9 1.2 1.6 3.2 4.4 5.1

Sales and related

141.5 148.9 150.1 1.6 1.6 0.8 4.2 6.9 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

145.7 150.5 154.1 1.5 0.8 2.4 3.9 4.8 5.8

Office and administrative support

146.0 151.3 153.0 0.7 1.4 1.1 2.9 4.3 4.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.2 145.8 147.2 0.6 1.0 1.0 2.8 3.9 4.2

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

141.0 145.9 147.2 0.6 1.0 0.9 2.2 4.1 4.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

141.4 145.7 147.2 0.5 1.0 1.0 3.3 3.6 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

145.5 151.6 153.9 0.9 1.5 1.5 3.6 5.1 5.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

145.2 151.2 153.6 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.5 5.0 5.8

Production

141.8 148.0 150.0 0.7 1.2 1.4 3.2 5.1 5.8

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.3 148.5 150.6 0.6 1.2 1.4 3.3 5.0 5.8

Transportation and material moving

149.7 155.8 158.5 1.0 1.8 1.7 4.0 5.1 5.9

Service occupations

147.6 156.2 159.5 1.0 2.2 2.1 3.8 6.8 8.1

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

141.0 145.1 146.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.5 3.5 4.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

140.7 145.1 146.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.3 3.7 4.1

Management, professional, and related

139.2 141.7 142.7 0.3 0.3 0.7 2.1 2.1 2.5

Sales and office

146.9 150.3 152.4 0.7 0.1 1.4 3.3 3.0 3.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.0 145.7 147.0 0.6 1.0 0.9 2.2 4.0 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

140.8 146.7 148.6 0.6 1.3 1.3 3.0 4.9 5.5

Construction

141.2 145.1 146.6 0.5 0.5 1.0 2.8 3.3 3.8

Manufacturing

140.7 145.0 146.4 0.6 1.0 1.0 2.6 3.7 4.1

Management, professional, and related

140.2 142.5 143.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 2.5 2.2 2.3

Sales and office

142.1 147.1 147.9 0.8 1.1 0.5 0.7 4.3 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

142.1 146.5 147.6 0.9 1.1 0.8 3.3 4.0 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

140.7 146.5 148.4 0.7 1.3 1.3 3.1 4.9 5.5

Aircraft manufacturing

148.2 150.3 150.2 0.1 -0.3 -0.1 2.8 1.5 1.3

Service-providing industries(3)

143.1 149.0 150.5 0.7 1.7 1.0 2.9 4.9 5.2

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.9 147.7 149.8 0.7 1.3 1.4 2.9 4.1 4.8

Management, professional, and related

140.7 145.4 146.3 0.4 1.6 0.6 2.0 3.7 4.0

Sales and office

143.8 150.4 151.8 1.1 1.6 0.9 3.5 5.7 5.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.4 146.0 147.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 3.4 3.8 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

150.1 156.5 159.3 1.0 1.6 1.8 4.0 5.3 6.1

Service occupations

147.6 156.2 159.5 1.0 2.2 2.1 3.9 6.8 8.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

144.9 150.8 153.7 1.0 1.4 1.9 3.4 5.1 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

145.5 150.3 153.1 1.2 1.3 1.9 3.6 4.5 5.2

Wholesale trade

135.3 141.8 143.6 -0.1 1.5 1.3 2.4 4.7 6.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

138.8 143.0 145.3 0.7 1.1 1.6 2.4 3.7 4.7

Retail trade

148.6 154.8 159.0 1.6 1.5 2.7 4.0 5.9 7.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

147.2 152.8 156.3 1.6 1.5 2.3 4.4 5.5 6.2

Transportation and warehousing

150.5 155.0 157.0 1.1 1.4 1.3 3.9 4.2 4.3

Utilities

148.7 152.5 153.4 0.2 0.7 0.6 2.1 2.8 3.2

Information

138.9 143.3 144.3 0.9 1.1 0.7 3.0 4.1 3.9

Financial activities

142.2 150.6 147.8 0.4 2.4 -1.9 2.3 6.3 3.9

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

141.1 144.7 146.0 0.1 0.8 0.9 2.0 2.7 3.5

Finance and insurance

143.3 152.8 148.8 0.5 2.7 -2.6 2.4 7.2 3.8

Credit intermediation and related activities

139.4 156.7 150.7 -0.2 7.4 -3.8 2.4 12.2 8.1

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.4 146.4 147.5 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.9 3.1 3.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

142.1 145.7 146.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 2.7 3.0 3.0

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

139.8 142.6 143.6 0.2 0.4 0.7 2.6 2.2 2.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

137.8 141.8 143.9 0.1 1.2 1.5 1.9 3.0 4.4

Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)

142.0 146.6 148.6 0.1 1.2 1.4 1.9 3.3 4.6

Professional and business services

143.6 148.3 149.5 0.7 1.6 0.8 2.9 4.0 4.1

Professional, scientific, and technical services

145.2 149.8 150.5 0.6 1.8 0.5 2.7 3.8 3.7

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

142.9 148.9 151.1 1.0 1.6 1.5 3.8 5.2 5.7

Education and health services

140.6 145.0 147.1 0.6 1.6 1.4 2.3 3.8 4.6

Educational services

139.3 142.8 143.0 0.7 2.2 0.1 2.1 3.3 2.7

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

138.2 141.8 142.4 0.3 1.8 0.4 0.7 2.9 3.0

Health care and social assistance

140.8 145.4 148.0 0.6 1.5 1.8 2.3 3.9 5.1

Hospitals

141.1 145.6 148.3 0.6 1.2 1.9 2.3 3.8 5.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

139.7 146.0 148.9 0.9 2.0 2.0 3.6 5.5 6.6

Nursing care facilities(1)

138.7 145.1 147.5 1.0 2.0 1.7 3.7 5.7 6.3

Leisure and hospitality

148.5 159.1 161.7 0.4 2.4 1.6 3.6 7.6 8.9

Accommodation and food service

151.1 162.2 165.1 0.7 2.5 1.8 4.4 8.1 9.3

Other services, except public administration

143.2 150.1 151.9 0.3 1.6 1.2 2.4 5.1 6.1

Footnotes
(1) The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 10. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status and Census region and division [Not seasonally adjusted]
Bargaining status and Census region and division Indexes (Dec.2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Bargaining status

Union

143.0 147.2 148.6 0.6 0.9 1.0 2.7 3.5 3.9

Goods-producing industries(1)

137.5 141.5 142.6 0.4 0.8 0.8 2.5 3.4 3.7

Manufacturing

135.5 139.9 141.4 0.6 1.0 1.1 3.5 3.9 4.4

Service-providing industries(2)

146.6 150.9 152.4 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.9 3.6 4.0

Nonunion

142.6 148.3 149.8 0.7 1.6 1.0 2.8 4.7 5.0

Goods-producing industries(1)

141.8 146.0 147.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.6 3.6 4.0

Manufacturing

141.8 146.2 147.5 0.6 1.0 0.9 2.5 3.8 4.0

Service-providing industries(2)

142.8 148.8 150.3 0.7 1.8 1.0 2.9 4.9 5.3

Census region and division(3)

Northeast

144.1 149.5 150.7 0.7 1.6 0.8 2.4 4.5 4.6

New England

149.0 155.4 156.3 0.2 1.4 0.6 2.0 4.5 4.9

Middle Atlantic

142.3 147.4 148.7 0.9 1.7 0.9 2.6 4.5 4.5

South

141.2 147.4 148.4 0.8 1.9 0.7 2.8 5.2 5.1

South Atlantic

144.0 149.3 150.6 0.9 1.3 0.9 3.1 4.6 4.6

East South Central

138.4 144.5 146.8 0.3 1.7 1.6 1.5 4.7 6.1

West South Central

137.6 145.4 145.6 0.8 3.0 0.1 2.9 6.5 5.8

Midwest

139.6 144.4 146.7 0.6 1.3 1.6 2.6 4.1 5.1

East North Central

138.0 142.7 145.0 0.7 1.4 1.6 2.8 4.2 5.1

West North Central

143.7 148.5 151.0 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.6 4.0 5.1

West

146.5 152.1 153.6 0.5 1.3 1.0 3.2 4.3 4.8

Mountain

143.5 149.4 151.9 0.5 1.2 1.7 3.2 4.6 5.9

Pacific

147.8 153.3 154.5 0.5 1.2 0.8 3.2 4.2 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(2) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(3) The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

NOTE: The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and industry series.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 11. Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for state and local government workers, by occupational group and industry [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group and industry Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

All workers

135.4 138.2 139.0 0.4 1.5 0.6 1.8 2.4 2.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

134.3 136.8 137.3 0.3 1.4 0.4 1.6 2.2 2.2

Professional and related

134.2 136.7 137.1 0.3 1.5 0.3 1.7 2.2 2.2

Sales and office

135.7 138.6 139.3 0.6 1.2 0.5 2.1 2.7 2.7

Office and administrative support

136.2 139.1 139.7 0.6 1.2 0.4 2.2 2.7 2.6

Service occupations

139.2 143.2 144.9 0.6 1.9 1.2 2.3 3.5 4.1

Industry

Education and health services

134.5 137.1 137.7 0.4 1.5 0.4 1.7 2.3 2.4

Educational services

133.9 136.3 136.7 0.3 1.5 0.3 1.7 2.1 2.1

Schools

133.9 136.3 136.7 0.3 1.5 0.3 1.7 2.1 2.1

Elementary and secondary schools

133.6 136.0 136.3 0.2 1.4 0.2 1.9 2.0 2.0

Health care and social assistance

139.6 143.5 145.6 0.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 3.6 4.3

Hospitals

138.5 142.6 144.6 0.7 1.6 1.4 1.9 3.7 4.4

Public administration

136.5 139.8 140.8 0.4 1.7 0.7 1.7 2.9 3.2

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 12. Employment Cost Index for benefits, by occupational group, industry, and bargaining status [Not seasonally adjusted]
Occupational group, industry, and bargaining status Indexes (Dec. 2005=100) Percent changes for-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
3-months ended- 12-months ended-
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Civilian workers

All workers(1)

144.5 147.5 148.6 0.4 0.9 0.7 2.3 2.5 2.8

Private industry workers

All workers

139.1 142.1 143.2 0.4 0.9 0.8 2.1 2.6 2.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

137.2 140.3 141.3 0.2 0.9 0.7 1.8 2.5 3.0

Sales and office

140.9 143.5 144.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 2.3 2.4 2.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

141.6 144.8 145.6 0.3 0.7 0.6 1.9 2.5 2.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

140.5 143.7 144.6 0.7 1.5 0.6 2.9 3.0 2.9

Service occupations

138.8 142.6 144.0 0.6 1.3 1.0 2.4 3.3 3.7

Industry

Goods-producing industries(2)

134.9 138.2 138.7 0.5 1.2 0.4 1.8 3.0 2.8

Manufacturing

134.3 137.7 138.2 0.6 1.6 0.4 1.8 3.1 2.9

Aircraft manufacturing

96.4 122.1 122.4 0.1 23.7 0.2 -2.6 26.8 27.0

Service-providing industries(3)

140.6 143.6 144.8 0.4 0.8 0.8 2.2 2.5 3.0

Bargaining status

Union

151.5 154.8 155.5 0.3 1.4 0.5 2.8 2.4 2.6

Nonunion

136.6 139.7 140.8 0.4 0.9 0.8 2.0 2.7 3.1

State and local government workers

All workers

164.4 167.1 168.5 0.5 0.9 0.8 3.1 2.1 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
(3) Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Table 13. Employment Cost Index for total compensation and wages and salaries, for private industry workers by area [Not seasonally adjusted]
Census region and metropolitan area(1) 12-month percent changes -
Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Sep.
2021
Dec.
2021

Northeast

Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA

3.3 3.7 4.2 3.2 4.2 4.8

New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA

1.8 3.7 3.9 1.8 4.3 4.6

Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA

2.8 3.3 3.8 3.7 4.2 4.1

South

Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA CSA

2.9 2.3 2.5 3.4 3.0 3.1

Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK CSA

3.4 3.5 3.6 2.8 4.3 4.6

Houston-The Woodlands, TX CSA

2.7 2.3 3.5 3.0 2.7 3.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA

1.5 4.1 5.2 1.5 4.7 6.0

Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA

3.6 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.7 4.2

Midwest

Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA

2.8 4.0 4.0 3.2 4.4 4.1

Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI CSA

3.1 2.6 3.3 2.9 2.7 3.7

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI CSA

1.6 3.4 4.4 1.8 3.4 4.5

West

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA

3.7 5.5 4.8 4.5 6.5 5.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ MSA

3.8 4.6 4.9 4.2 4.4 5.3

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA

3.5 3.0 2.8 3.7 3.3 3.2

Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA

3.1 5.2 6.3 4.1 2.5 3.8

Footnotes
(1) These areas include Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) and Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Beginning with the December 2018 release, area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 13-01, dated February 28, 2013. Previous area definitions are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 04-03, dated February 18, 2004. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.
(2) Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey


Last Modified Date: January 28, 2022