Employee Benefits in the United States News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, July 21, 2017                                                     USDL-17-1013

Technical information:  (202) 691-6199    ncsinfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/ebs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    pressoffice@bls.gov

                        EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IN THE UNITED STATES – MARCH 2017

Retirement and medical care benefits were available to 70 percent of civilian workers in March 2017,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Ninety-four percent of union workers had access to
employer-sponsored retirement and medical care benefits. For nonunion workers, 66 percent had access
to retirement benefits and 67 percent to medical care benefits. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 2.)

For civilian workers, the shares employers paid of medical care premium costs were 80 percent for
single coverage and 68 percent for family coverage. The employee and employer shares of premiums
also varied by bargaining status. Employers assumed 87 percent of the premium for single coverage for
union workers and 79 percent for nonunion workers. For family coverage, union workers had 80 percent
of the premium paid for by employers, whereas nonunion workers had 65 percent of the premium paid
by employers. (See chart 2 and tables 3 and 4.)

Fifty-nine percent of civilian workers had access to life insurance. Among union workers, 86 percent
had access to life insurance benefits and for nonunion workers the rate was 55 percent. Work schedule
also had an effect on availability of this workplace benefit. Seventy-five percent of full-time workers
had access to life insurance, and 13 percent of part-time workers had access. (See chart 1 and table 5.)

Table A. Selected employer-sponsored benefits: Access, participation and take-up rates, March 2017
(All workers = 100 percent)

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Benefit                     Civilian                      Private industry            State and local government   
                  Access  Participation  Take-up   Access  Participation  Take-up   Access  Participation  Take-up 
                                         rates                            rates                            rates   
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Retirement         70          54          77        66         50          75        91         80          88
Medical care       70          52          74        67         49          72        89         71          80
Life insurance     59          58          98        55         54          98        81         79          98
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Note: For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit 
Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm and the technical note.

Highlights of employer-sponsored benefits for private industry workers
  *  Among major occupational groups, access to retirement benefits ranged from 42 percent for
workers in service occupations to 82 percent for workers in management, professional, and
related occupations. (See table 1.)
  *  Eighty-five percent of full-time workers and 19 percent of part-time workers had access to
medical care benefits. (See table 2.)
  *  Participation rates in life insurance ranged from 12 percent for workers with an average wage in
the lowest 10 percent category to 85 percent for workers with an average wage in the highest 10
percent category. (See table 5.)
  *  For full-time workers, access to paid vacation was 91 percent and access to paid holidays was
90 percent. For part-time workers, the corresponding figures were 36 percent and 41 percent,
respectively. (See table 6.)
  *  The shares of medical care premiums paid by employees for single coverage ranged from 26
percent for workers with an average wage in the lowest 10 percent category to 20 percent for
workers with an average wage in the highest 10 percent category. For family coverage, the
shares ranged from 41 percent to 28 percent for the same two wage categories. (See tables 3 and
4.)

Highlights of employer-sponsored benefits for state and local government workers
  *  Among full-time workers, access to both retirement and medical care benefits was 99 percent.
Part-time workers' access to these benefits was 46 percent and 27 percent, respectively. (See
tables 1 and 2.)
  *  Fifty-eight percent of workers with average wages in the lowest 10 percent category and 82
percent in the highest 10 percent category participated in retirement benefits. For medical care
benefits, participation was 46 percent and 74 percent, respectively. (See tables 1 and 2.)
  *  Access to life insurance benefits was 70 percent in establishments employing 1 to 49 workers
and 86 percent in those employing 500 workers or more. (See table 5.)
  *  The shares of medical care premiums paid by employees for family coverage ranged from 40
percent for workers with an average wage in the lowest 10 percent category to 25 percent for
workers with an average wage in the highest 10 percent category. (See table 4.)

                                  Additional Estimates Available Fall 2017
                                  
More information will be published September 22, 2017 on the incidence and provisions of health care benefits,
retirement benefits, life insurance, short-term and long-term disability benefits, paid holidays and vacations,
and other selected benefits. For more information on employer-sponsored benefits, see www.bls.gov/ebs.


                                               TECHNICAL NOTE

Estimates in this release are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), conducted by the U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). This news release contains March 2017
estimates on the incidence (access to and participation in) of selected employer-sponsored benefits and
the share of premiums paid by employers and employees for medical plans for civilian, private industry,
and state and local government workers in the United States. Workers in the civilian economy are
defined as those employed in private industry and state and local government. Excluded from the
civilian economy are workers employed in federal and quasi-federal agencies, military personnel,
agricultural workers, volunteers, unpaid workers, individuals receiving long-term disability
compensation, and those working overseas. In addition, private industry excludes workers in private
households, the self-employed, workers who set their own pay (e.g., proprietors, owners, major
stockholders, and partners in unincorporated firms), and family members paid token wages.

The NCS provides comprehensive measures of compensation cost levels and trends and also provides
benefits incidence estimates on the percentage of workers with access to and participating in employer-
provided benefit plans. The survey covers a broad range of benefits including holidays and vacations,
sick leave, life insurance, and detailed provisions for health care and retirement plans. Archived NCS
releases are available at www.bls.gov/ncs/ncspubs.htm.

Comparing private and public sector data: Incidence of employee benefits in state and local
government should not be directly compared to private industry. Differences between these sectors stem
from factors such as variation in work activities and occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales,
for example, make up a large part of private industry work activities but are rare in state and local
government. Administrative support and professional occupations (including teachers) account for two-
thirds of the state and local government workforce, compared with one-half of private industry.

Leave benefits for teachers: Primary, secondary, and special education teachers typically have a work
schedule of 37 or 38 weeks per year. Because of this work schedule, they are generally not offered
vacations or holidays. In many cases, the time off during winter and spring breaks during the school year
are not considered vacation days for the purposes of this survey.

Medical plan premiums: The estimates for medical plan premiums are not based on actual decisions
regarding medical coverage made by employees; instead they are based on the assumption that all
employees in the occupation can opt for single or family coverage. Monthly premiums are collected
when possible. Annual premiums are converted to monthly premiums by dividing by 12 months.

Sample rotation: The state and local government sample was replaced in its entirety for the March
2017 reference period. It was last replaced with the March 2007 reference period. The government
sample is replaced less frequently than the private industry sample. One-third of the private industry
sample is rotated each year except in years when the government sample is replaced.

Sample size: See appendix table 1 at the end of this release.

Survey scope: See appendix table 2 at the end of this release.

Geographic areas: Areas are defined by four census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.
Census divisions within the regions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York,
and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East
North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon,
and Washington.

Standard errors: To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of benefits estimates, standard errors are
made available shortly after publication of the news release. Standard errors provide users a measure of
the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. For
further information see www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/nb_var.htm.

Obtaining information: For research articles on employee benefits, see the Monthly Labor Review
benefits section at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/subject/b.htm and Beyond the Numbers: Pay and Benefits at
www.bls.gov/opub/btn/archive/home.htm. For further technical information, see Chapter 8, "National
Compensation Measures," BLS Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.

Definitions of major terms:

Access: Employees are considered to have access to a benefit plan if it is available for their use. For
example, if an employee is permitted to participate in a medical plan offered by the employer, but the
employee declines to do so, he or she is placed in a category with those having access to medical care
benefits.

Participation: Employees in contributory plans are considered participants in an insurance or retirement
plan if they have paid required contributions and fulfilled any applicable service requirements.
Employees in noncontributory plans are counted as participating regardless of whether they have
fulfilled the service requirements. Note that the term "incidence" can refer to either rates of access or
rates of participation in a benefit plan.

Take-up rate: The percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan.

Retirement benefits include defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans.
Workers are counted as having access or participating in retirement benefits if they have access or
participate in at least one type of plan, defined benefit or defined contribution; some workers may have
access to or participate in both. Differences in retirement plan participation are influenced by type of
plan offered. Participation in defined benefit plans is often mandatory, subject to any applicable
eligibility requirements, while participation in defined contribution plans is often voluntary.

Medical care benefits provide services or payments for services rendered in the hospital or by a
qualified medical care provider.

Calculation details:

Average hourly earnings from sampled occupations within an establishment were used to produce estimates 
for worker groups within six earnings categories: the lowest 10 percent, the lowest 25 percent, the 
second 25 percent, the third 25 percent, the highest 25 percent, and the highest 10 percent. The 
categories are based on unpublished March 2017 wages and salaries series from the Employer Costs for 
Employee Compensation at www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_06092017.pdf.

The percentiles were computed using earnings and scheduled hours of work reported for individual
workers in sampled establishment jobs. Establishments in the survey are asked to report only individual
worker earnings for each sampled job. For the calculation of the hourly percentile values, the individual
worker hourly earnings are weighted and arrayed from lowest to highest. The values corresponding to
the percentiles are:

________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Characteristics                                    Hourly wage percentiles
                                          10         25       50 (median)       75        90
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Civilian                               $10.00      $12.86       $19.23        $30.95    $47.02
Private industry                        $9.79      $12.25       $18.16        $29.44    $46.10
State and local government             $13.19      $17.79       $26.50        $37.75    $51.18
________________________________________________________________________________________________

The lowest 10-percent and 25-percent wage categories include those occupations with an average hourly
wage less than the 10th percentile value and 25th percentile value, respectively. The second 25-percent
category includes those occupations that earn at or above the 25th percentile value but less than the 50th
percentile value. The third 25-percent category includes those occupations that earn at or above the 50th
percentile value but less than the 75th percentile value. Finally, the highest 25- and 10-percent wage
categories include those occupations with an average wage value greater than or equal to the 75th and
90th percentile value, respectively.

Individual workers can be in an earnings category that is different from the occupation into which they
are classified because average hourly earnings for the occupation are used to produce the benefit
estimates.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


 Table 1. Retirement benefits:(1) Access, participation, and take-up rates,(2) March 2017

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(3)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                             Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                       ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     70        54        77        66        50        75        91        80        88   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     85        73        86        82        70        86        94        81        86   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     88        77        88        87        76        88        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     84        71        85        79        67        84        93        80        86   
     Teachers.............     85        74        87        –         –         –         94        81        86   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     94        82        87        –         –         –         99        86        87   
     Registered nurses....     89        74        84        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     47        30        62        42        22        54        84        76        90   
   Protective service.....     79        63        80        61        32        52        92        86        94   
 Sales and office.........     72        53        74        70        51        72        91        80        88   
   Sales and related......     67        41        62        67        41        61        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      75        60        80        72        57        79        92        81        88   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     66        52        79        63        48        77        97        89        91   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     62        49        80        58        45        78        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     69        54        78        67        51        76        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     71        54        76        71        53        75        90        80        89   
   Production.............     74        56        76        74        56        76        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     69        52        75        68        50        74        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     81        65        80        77        60        78        99        87        88   
 Part time................     38        22        59        38        21        56        46        39        84   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     94        83        88        92        82        90        97        83        86   
 Nonunion.................     66        49        75        64        47        73        86        77        89   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(4)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     45        25        55        42        21        51        78        68        87   
     Lowest 10 percent....     34        15        44        33        14        41        67        58        87   
   Second 25 percent......     70        52        74        66        46        70        94        83        88   
   Third 25 percent.......     82        68        83        78        64        81        98        86        88   
   Highest 25 percent.....     90        80        89        88        77        88        97        84        87   
     Highest 10 percent...     91        81        89        89        81        90        96        82        85   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     75        60        80        75        60        80        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     69        53        77        65        48        74        91        80        88   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     80        65        81        72        57        79        93        79        85   
     Educational services      88        76        86        72        64        89        93        79        86   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     90        78        87        –         –         –         93        80        86   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     91        77        85        88        78        89        92        76        83   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     74        57        78        72        56        77        93        78        83   
       Hospitals..........     91        78        86        –         –         –         93        77        83   
   Public administration..     91        84        92        –         –         –         91        84        92   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     55        40        73        53        37        71        87        79        90   
   1 to 49 workers........     50        36        72        49        34        71        85        78        91   
   50 to 99 workers.......     68        50        73        65        46        70        90        80        89   
 100 workers or more......     85        68        80        83        65        78        93        80        87   
   100 to 499 workers.....     80        61        76        79        58        73        91        81        90   
   500 workers or more....     91        77        85        89        76        85        93        80        86   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     72        58        82        68        55        80        91        80        88   
   New England............     73        57        78        71        55        78        86        68        80   
   Middle Atlantic........     71        59        83        67        54        81        93        84        90   
 South....................     71        53        74        67        47        71        94        83        89   
   South Atlantic.........     71        54        76        68        50        74        92        79        87   
   East South Central.....     72        50        70        68        44        64        94        85        91   
   West South Central.....     70        52        74        65        45        69        97        87        90   
 Midwest..................     73        56        77        70        53        75        90        76        85   
   East North Central.....     72        55        76        70        52        75        88        74        84   
   West North Central.....     75        58        77        72        54        75        92        80        87   
 West.....................     64        51        79        60        46        77        89        78        88   
   Mountain...............     66        52        78        63        47        75        86        78        91   
   Pacific................     63        50        80        58        45        78        90        79        87   

   1 Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. Workers are considered as
 having access or as participating if they have access to or are participating in at least one of these plan types.
   2 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
 rounded for presentation.
   3 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further
 explanation.
   4 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Table 2. Medical care benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) March 2017

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                             Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                       ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     70        52        74        67        49        72        89        71        80   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     88        67        76        86        65        75        92        72        79   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     95        73        77        95        73        76        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     85        64        76        82        61        74        91        71        78   
     Teachers.............     84        63        75        –         –         –         92        71        77   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     95        70        74        –         –         –         99        75        76   
     Registered nurses....     86        63        73        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     44        29        66        39        23        61        80        65        81   
   Protective service.....     68        51        75        41        21        52        89        73        82   
 Sales and office.........     68        49        72        66        47        71        89        73        83   
   Sales and related......     54        37        69        54        37        69        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      76        55        73        74        53        71        90        74        83   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     74        59        79        72        57        79        95        78        82   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     67        56        83        65        54        83        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     81        62        77        79        60        76        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     75        56        74        75        55        74        85        69        82   
   Production.............     81        62        76        81        62        76        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     69        50        72        69        49        71        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     88        65        75        85        63        73        99        80        80   
 Part time................     19        12        61        19        11        60        27        19        70   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     94        76        81        93        79        84        95        73        77   
 Nonunion.................     67        48        72        65        46        71        83        69        83   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(3)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     37        23        63        33        20        60        72        58        80   
     Lowest 10 percent....     24        14        57        22        12        55        59        46        78   
   Second 25 percent......     75        53        72        71        49        69        93        76        81   
   Third 25 percent.......     87        67        77        85        64        76        97        78        81   
   Highest 25 percent.....     93        73        78        92        72        78        95        74        78   
     Highest 10 percent...     94        73        78        94        73        78        93        74        80   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     85        67        80        85        67        80        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     68        49        72        64        45        70        89        71        80   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     79        58        73        73        51        69        90        70        78   
     Educational services      86        66        77        75        56        74        90        69        77   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     88        66        75        –         –         –         90        68        76   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     90        72        80        90        70        78        90        74        82   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     75        52        70        73        50        68        91        77        84   
       Hospitals..........     91        68        75        –         –         –         91        77        84   
   Public administration..     90        75        83        –         –         –         90        75        83   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     57        41        71        55        39        70        85        68        80   
   1 to 49 workers........     53        37        71        51        36        70        82        67        82   
   50 to 99 workers.......     70        50        72        67        47        71        89        69        78   
 100 workers or more......     84        63        75        82        61        74        90        72        80   
   100 to 499 workers.....     79        58        74        78        57        73        86        69        80   
   500 workers or more....     90        69        77        89        67        76        92        73        80   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     71        52        74        68        50        73        87        68        78   
   New England............     70        49        70        67        46        70        88        64        73   
   Middle Atlantic........     71        53        75        69        51        74        87        69        80   
 South....................     71        52        74        68        48        71        93        77        83   
   South Atlantic.........     70        51        73        67        47        71        91        75        83   
   East South Central.....     74        56        75        70        51        72        92        83        90   
   West South Central.....     71        53        74        67        48        72        96        78        81   
 Midwest..................     71        50        70        68        47        69        85        64        75   
   East North Central.....     70        49        70        69        47        69        83        64        77   
   West North Central.....     71        50        71        68        48        71        88        63        72   
 West.....................     69        54        78        66        51        77        88        70        80   
   Mountain...............     68        52        76        66        50        76        86        67        78   
   Pacific................     69        54        79        66        51        78        89        72        81   

   1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
 rounded for presentation.
   2 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further
 explanation.
   3 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Table 3. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for single
 coverage,  March 2017

 (In percent)
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
                               Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local  
                                                                        government    
                                                                                      
      Characteristics                                                                 
                            Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                            share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                            premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium 
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
 All workers participating                                                            
 in single coverage                                                                   
 medical plans............     80        20        79        21        86        14   
                                                                                      
  Worker characteristics                                                              
                                                                                      
 Management, professional,                                                            
 and related..............     81        19        80        20        85        15   
   Management, business,                                                              
   and financial..........     80        20        79        21        –         –    
   Professional and                                                                   
   related................     82        18        80        20        85        15   
     Teachers.............     84        16        –         –         84        16   
       Primary, secondary,                                                            
       and special                                                                    
       education school                                                               
       teachers...........     84        16        –         –         84        16   
     Registered nurses....     80        20        –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     80        20        77        23        87        13   
   Protective service.....     87        13        81        19        88        12   
 Sales and office.........     79        21        78        22        88        12   
   Sales and related......     77        23        77        23        –         –    
   Office and                                                                         
   administrative support      80        20        78        22        88        12   
 Natural resources,                                                                   
 construction, and                                                                    
 maintenance..............     80        20        79        21        89        11   
   Construction,                                                                      
   extraction, farming,                                                               
   fishing, and forestry..     80        20        79        21        –         –    
   Installation,                                                                      
   maintenance, and repair     80        20        79        21        –         –    
 Production,                                                                          
 transportation, and                                                                  
 material moving..........     80        20        79        21        86        14   
   Production.............     79        21        79        21        –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                 
   material moving........     80        20        80        20        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Full time................     80        20        79        21        86        14   
 Part time................     78        22        77        23        85        15   
                                                                                      
 Union....................     87        13        87        13        86        14   
 Nonunion.................     79        21        77        23        87        13   
                                                                                      
 Average wage within the                                                              
 following categories:(2)                                                             
   Lowest 25 percent......     77        23        75        25        87        13   
     Lowest 10 percent....     75        25        74        26        87        13   
   Second 25 percent......     80        20        78        22        87        13   
   Third 25 percent.......     81        19        79        21        86        14   
   Highest 25 percent.....     81        19        80        20        85        15   
     Highest 10 percent...     81        19        80        20        85        15   
                                                                                      
       Establishment                                                                  
     characteristics                                                                  
                                                                                      
 Goods-producing                                                                      
 industries...............     80        20        80        20        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Service-providing                                                                    
 industries...............     80        20        78        22        86        14   
   Education and health                                                               
   services...............     82        18        79        21        85        15   
     Educational services      84        16        80        20        85        15   
       Elementary and                                                                 
       secondary schools..     84        16        –         –         84        16   
       Junior colleges,                                                               
       colleges, and                                                                  
       universities.......     84        16        80        20        86        14   
     Health care and                                                                  
     social assistance....     80        20        79        21        87        13   
       Hospitals..........     83        17        –         –         87        13   
   Public administration..     88        12        –         –         88        12   
                                                                                      
 1 to 99 workers..........     79        21        78        22        87        13   
   1 to 49 workers........     79        21        78        22        88        12   
   50 to 99 workers.......     78        22        77        23        86        14   
 100 workers or more......     81        19        80        20        86        14   
   100 to 499 workers.....     80        20        79        21        87        13   
   500 workers or more....     83        17        81        19        86        14   
                                                                                      
     Geographic areas                                                                 
                                                                                      
 Northeast................     82        18        81        19        84        16   
   New England............     78        22        78        22        77        23   
   Middle Atlantic........     83        17        82        18        87        13   
 South....................     80        20        78        22        86        14   
   South Atlantic.........     79        21        78        22        85        15   
   East South Central.....     81        19        78        22        88        12   
   West South Central.....     79        21        77        23        87        13   
 Midwest..................     79        21        78        22        87        13   
   East North Central.....     79        21        78        22        85        15   
   West North Central.....     80        20        78        22        90        10   
 West.....................     81        19        80        20        87        13   
   Mountain...............     79        21        78        22        87        13   
   Pacific................     82        18        81        19        87        13   

   1 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See
 Technical Note for further explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average
 wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below
 the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using
 wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
 criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the
 "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Table 4. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for family
 coverage,  March 2017

 (In percent)
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
                               Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local  
                                                                        government    
                                                                                      
      Characteristics                                                                 
                            Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                            share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                            premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium 
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
 All workers participating                                                            
 in family coverage                                                                   
 medical plans............     68        32        67        33        71        29   
                                                                                      
  Worker characteristics                                                              
                                                                                      
 Management, professional,                                                            
 and related..............     69        31        68        32        70        30   
   Management, business,                                                              
   and financial..........     70        30        70        30        –         –    
   Professional and                                                                   
   related................     68        32        68        32        69        31   
     Teachers.............     65        35        –         –         66        34   
       Primary, secondary,                                                            
       and special                                                                    
       education school                                                               
       teachers...........     64        36        –         –         65        35   
     Registered nurses....     70        30        –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     65        35        62        38        73        27   
   Protective service.....     77        23        73        27        78        22   
 Sales and office.........     66        34        65        35        72        28   
   Sales and related......     63        37        64        36        –         –    
   Office and                                                                         
   administrative support      67        33        65        35        72        28   
 Natural resources,                                                                   
 construction, and                                                                    
 maintenance..............     68        32        68        32        74        26   
   Construction,                                                                      
   extraction, farming,                                                               
   fishing, and forestry..     68        32        68        32        –         –    
   Installation,                                                                      
   maintenance, and repair     68        32        68        32        –         –    
 Production,                                                                          
 transportation, and                                                                  
 material moving..........     72        28        72        28        70        30   
   Production.............     73        27        73        27        –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                 
   material moving........     71        29        71        29        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Full time................     68        32        68        32        71        29   
 Part time................     63        37        62        38        70        30   
                                                                                      
 Union....................     80        20        83        17        76        24   
 Nonunion.................     65        35        65        35        66        34   
                                                                                      
 Average wage within the                                                              
 following categories:(2)                                                             
   Lowest 25 percent......     60        40        59        41        66        34   
     Lowest 10 percent....     57        43        59        41        60        40   
   Second 25 percent......     67        33        66        34        74        26   
   Third 25 percent.......     70        30        68        32        69        31   
   Highest 25 percent.....     71        29        71        29        74        26   
     Highest 10 percent...     73        27        72        28        75        25   
                                                                                      
       Establishment                                                                  
     characteristics                                                                  
                                                                                      
 Goods-producing                                                                      
 industries...............     72        28        72        28        –         –    
                                                                                      
 Service-providing                                                                    
 industries...............     67        33        66        34        71        29   
   Education and health                                                               
   services...............     65        35        64        36        67        33   
     Educational services      66        34        66        34        66        34   
       Elementary and                                                                 
       secondary schools..     64        36        –         –         64        36   
       Junior colleges,                                                               
       colleges, and                                                                  
       universities.......     70        30        69        31        71        29   
     Health care and                                                                  
     social assistance....     65        35        63        37        74        26   
       Hospitals..........     73        27        –         –         75        25   
   Public administration..     77        23        –         –         77        23   
                                                                                      
 1 to 99 workers..........     64        36        63        37        73        27   
   1 to 49 workers........     65        35        64        36        72        28   
   50 to 99 workers.......     64        36        62        38        73        27   
 100 workers or more......     70        30        70        30        70        30   
   100 to 499 workers.....     67        33        66        34        71        29   
   500 workers or more....     74        26        76        24        70        30   
                                                                                      
     Geographic areas                                                                 
                                                                                      
 Northeast................     74        26        72        28        82        18   
   New England............     73        27        72        28        77        23   
   Middle Atlantic........     74        26        72        28        84        16   
 South....................     64        36        64        36        63        37   
   South Atlantic.........     66        34        66        34        65        35   
   East South Central.....     66        34        66        34        63        37   
   West South Central.....     61        39        61        39        59        41   
 Midwest..................     69        31        69        31        73        27   
   East North Central.....     70        30        70        30        74        26   
   West North Central.....     68        32        67        33        72        28   
 West.....................     69        31        67        33        75        25   
   Mountain...............     66        34        65        35        71        29   
   Pacific................     70        30        68        32        77        23   

   1 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See
 Technical Note for further explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average
 wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below
 the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using
 wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
 criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the
 "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Table 5. Life insurance benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) March 2017

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                             Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up 
                                       ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate  
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     59        58        98        55        54        98        81        79        98   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     78        76        99        76        75        99        83        81        98   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     85        84        99        84        83        99        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     75        73        98        71        70        99        82        80        98   
     Teachers.............     74        73        98        –         –         –         81        80        98   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     82        81        98        –         –         –         86        85        98   
     Registered nurses....     76        75        98        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     35        33        95        28        27        94        75        73        97   
   Protective service.....     71        68        96        50        48        95        86        84        97   
 Sales and office.........     56        55        98        54        52        98        82        79        97   
   Sales and related......     42        40        96        42        40        96        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      64        63        98        62        61        98        82        80        97   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     57        55        97        54        52        97        90        88        99   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     49        47        97        45        44        97        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     64        62        98        62        60        98        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     63        61        97        62        60        97        80        78        98   
   Production.............     68        66        98        67        66        98        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     58        55        96        56        54        95        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     75        73        98        71        70        98        91        89        98   
 Part time................     13        12        90        12        11        89        24        22        95   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     86        83        97        84        80        96        88        87        98   
 Nonunion.................     55        53        98        53        51        98        75        73        97   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(3)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     25        24        93        22        20        92        65        63        97   
     Lowest 10 percent....     16        14        89        14        12        87        52        50        97   
   Second 25 percent......     61        60        97        57        55        97        87        85        98   
   Third 25 percent.......     75        74        98        71        70        98        87        85        98   
   Highest 25 percent.....     84        83        99        83        82        99        88        86        98   
     Highest 10 percent...     85        84        99        85        85        99        84        82        97   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     70        68        98        70        68        98        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     57        56        98        53        51        98        81        79        98   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     69        68        98        62        62        99        82        80        97   
     Educational services      77        76        98        66        66        99        81        79        98   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     76        75        98        –         –         –         79        77        98   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     87        85        98        87        87        99        86        84        97   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     64        63        99        61        61        99        88        84        96   
       Hospitals..........     88        87        99        –         –         –         88        84        95   
   Public administration..     84        81        97        –         –         –         84        81        97   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     43        42        97        40        39        97        74        73        98   
   1 to 49 workers........     37        36        98        36        35        98        70        69        98   
   50 to 99 workers.......     57        55        97        54        52        97        79        77        98   
 100 workers or more......     76        74        98        74        72        98        83        81        97   
   100 to 499 workers.....     68        66        97        66        64        97        77        75        97   
   500 workers or more....     86        84        98        85        84        99        86        84        97   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     60        59        98        56        55        98        82        80        98   
   New England............     60        58        97        57        56        98        82        75        92   
   Middle Atlantic........     59        59        99        56        55        99        82        82        99   
 South....................     61        60        97        58        56        97        82        80        97   
   South Atlantic.........     61        60        98        57        56        98        85        82        97   
   East South Central.....     58        56        96        55        53        96        74        71        96   
   West South Central.....     63        61        96        60        57        96        82        80        97   
 Midwest..................     61        60        98        58        57        98        81        79        98   
   East North Central.....     61        59        97        58        57        98        80        78        97   
   West North Central.....     62        61        98        59        57        98        81        80        99   
 West.....................     53        52        98        48        47        98        79        78        98   
   Mountain...............     56        55        98        52        51        98        82        82       100   
   Pacific................     51        50        98        47        46        98        78        77        98   

   1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
 rounded for presentation.
   2 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further
 explanation.
   3 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Table 6. Selected paid leave benefits: Access, March 2017

 (All workers = 100 percent)
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
                                    Civilian(1)                 Private industry         State and local government 
                                                                                                                    
      Characteristics                                                                                               
                           Paid sick    Paid      Paid   Paid sick    Paid      Paid   Paid sick    Paid      Paid  
                             leave    vacation  holidays   leave    vacation  holidays   leave    vacation  holidays
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                    
 All workers..............     72        74        76        68        76        77        91        60        68   
                                                                                                                    
  Worker characteristics                                                                                            
                                                                                                                    
 Management, professional,                                                                                          
 and related..............     89        77        81        88        88        90        93        47        57   
   Management, business,                                                                                            
   and financial..........     94        95        96        93        97        97        –         –         –    
   Professional and                                                                                                 
   related................     88        69        75        85        83        86        93        40        52   
     Teachers.............     85        20        36        –         –         –         92        15        32   
       Primary, secondary,                                                                                          
       and special                                                                                                  
       education school                                                                                             
       teachers...........     96        19        32        –         –         –         99        13        28   
     Registered nurses....     90        89        89        –         –         –         –         –         –    
 Service..................     51        55        54        46        52        50        84        74        78   
   Protective service.....     77        76        79        58        58        64        91        89        90   
 Sales and office.........     75        80        82        73        80        82        92        86        88   
   Sales and related......     64        72        74        64        72        74        –         –         –    
   Office and                                                                                                       
   administrative support      81        85        87        79        85        87        92        86        88   
 Natural resources,                                                                                                 
 construction, and                                                                                                  
 maintenance..............     63        80        82        60        78        80        95        97        96   
   Construction,                                                                                                    
   extraction, farming,                                                                                             
   fishing, and forestry..     51        68        70        47        65        67        –         –         –    
   Installation,                                                                                                    
   maintenance, and repair     74        91        92        73        91        92        –         –         –    
 Production,                                                                                                        
 transportation, and                                                                                                
 material moving..........     63        81        83        62        82        83        89        63        71   
   Production.............     62        87        90        62        87        90        –         –         –    
   Transportation and                                                                                               
   material moving........     65        75        76        63        76        77        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Full time................     84        87        88        81        91        90        99        67        74   
 Part time................     36        35        40        35        36        41        45        23        34   
                                                                                                                    
 Union....................     87        74        80        79        89        89        97        57        69   
 Nonunion.................     69        74        75        67        75        76        86        63        67   
                                                                                                                    
 Average wage within the                                                                                            
 following categories:(2)                                                                                           
   Lowest 25 percent......     46        52        54        43        50        51        78        58        64   
     Lowest 10 percent....     31        42        42        30        42        41        65        44        51   
   Second 25 percent......     72        82        83        69        82        82        95        85        88   
   Third 25 percent.......     85        88        89        81        89        90        97        63        70   
   Highest 25 percent.....     91        80        83        89        91        92        96        41        52   
     Highest 10 percent...     92        80        83        92        92        93        94        37        49   
                                                                                                                    
       Establishment                                                                                                
     characteristics                                                                                                
                                                                                                                    
 Goods-producing                                                                                                    
 industries...............     67        88        90        67        88        90        –         –         –    
                                                                                                                    
 Service-providing                                                                                                  
 industries...............     72        71        73        69        74        75        91        60        67   
   Education and health                                                                                             
   services...............     84        67        73        80        79        82        92        44        55   
     Educational services      89        41        53        79        56        65        92        37        49   
       Elementary and                                                                                               
       secondary schools..     91        27        40        –         –         –         92        26        39   
       Junior colleges,                                                                                             
       colleges, and                                                                                                
       universities.......     89        71        81        84        73        81        92        70        81   
     Health care and                                                                                                
     social assistance....     81        83        85        80        83        85        93        91        92   
       Hospitals..........     93        93        93        –         –         –         93        90        92   
   Public administration..     91        90        91        –         –         –         91        90        91   
                                                                                                                    
 1 to 99 workers..........     61        68        69        59        69        70        89        56        64   
   1 to 49 workers........     59        67        68        58        67        68        87        65        71   
   50 to 99 workers.......     67        69        71        63        72        73        92        46        57   
 100 workers or more......     82        80        82        79        85        86        92        62        69   
   100 to 499 workers.....     77        79        82        75        82        84        90        60        68   
   500 workers or more....     88        81        83        86        90        90        93        63        70   
                                                                                                                    
     Geographic areas                                                                                               
                                                                                                                    
 Northeast................     74        73        75        71        76        77        90        57        64   
   New England............     73        70        73        71        73        75        90        54        59   
   Middle Atlantic........     74        74        76        71        76        77        90        58        66   
 South....................     70        76        78        66        79        80        92        62        69   
   South Atlantic.........     70        76        80        66        78        80        91        66        77   
   East South Central.....     70        79        80        66        83        81        90        61        71   
   West South Central.....     70        74        75        66        78        79        94        56        56   
 Midwest..................     67        74        74        64        77        76        90        55        66   
   East North Central.....     67        74        75        63        77        77        89        54        67   
   West North Central.....     68        73        72        64        76        73        92        56        63   
 West.....................     77        71        74        75        72        74        92        67        71   
   Mountain...............     65        70        72        61        72        73        87        61        66   
   Pacific................     83        71        75        82        72        75        94        69        74   

   1 Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further
 explanation.
   2 Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which
 may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile
 estimates generated using wage data for March 2017.
 
 Note: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of
 major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at
 www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20162017.htm.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.



 Appendix table 1. Survey establishment response, March 2017
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
     Establishments             Civilian             Private industry          State and local    
                                                                                 governments      
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
 Total in sampling                                                                                
 frame(1)..............        6,211,244                5,978,422                  232,822        
                                                                                                  
   Total in sample.....           11,400                    9,802                    1,598        
     Responding(2).....            8,175                    6,728                    1,447        
     Refused(3)........            2,149                    2,009                      140        
     Out of business or                                                                           
 not in survey scope...            1,076                    1,065                       11        

   1 The sampling frame was developed from state unemployment insurance reports and is based on
 the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). With some minor exceptions, an
 establishment is a single economic unit that engages in one, or predominantly one, type of
 economic activity. For private industry, the establishment is usually at a single physical
 location such as a mine, factory, office, or store; if a sampled establishment is owned by a
 larger entity with many locations, only the employment and characteristics of the establishment
 selected for the sample are considered for the survey.  For state and local governments, an
 establishment can include more than one physical location, such as a school district or a police
 department.
   2 Establishments that provided data at the initial interview.
   3 Establishments that did not provide data at the initial interview. Data for establishments
 not responding at the time of update interviews are imputed. Detailed information on nonresponse
 adjustment and imputation can be found in BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8, “National
 Compensation Measures,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the Internet at
 www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.
 
 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


     Appendix table 2. Number of workers represented,(1) March 2017
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
     Occupational group(2)     Civilian workers      Private industry      State and local   
                                                         workers          government workers 
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
     All workers...........      135,130,100           115,818,600            19,311,400     
       Management,                                                                           
       professional, and                                                                     
       related.............       41,997,200            30,926,300            11,070,900     
         Management,                                                                         
         business, and                                                                       
         financial.........       12,124,700            10,499,300                –          
         Professional and                                                                    
         related...........       29,872,400            20,427,000             9,445,400     
           Teachers........        6,873,700                –                  5,126,600     
             Primary,                                                                        
             secondary, and                                                                  
             special                                                                         
             education                                                                       
             school                                                                          
             teachers......        4,696,300                –                  3,934,100     
           Registered                                                                        
           nurses..........        3,141,400                –                     –          
       Service.............       29,105,500            25,183,000             3,922,400     
         Protective service        3,247,200             1,391,000             1,856,200     
       Sales and office....       33,398,500            30,687,000             2,711,500     
         Sales and related        12,452,600            12,366,800                –          
         Office and                                                                          
         administrative                                                                      
         support...........       20,945,800            18,320,200             2,625,700     
       Natural resources,                                                                    
       construction, and                                                                     
       maintenance.........       10,590,600             9,742,500               848,100     
         Construction,                                                                       
         extraction,                                                                         
         farming, fishing,                                                                   
         and forestry......        5,124,400             4,641,700                –          
         Installation,                                                                       
         maintenance, and                                                                    
         repair............        5,466,200             5,100,800                –          
       Production,                                                                           
       transportation, and                                                                   
       material moving.....       20,038,400            19,279,900               758,500     
         Production........        9,640,600             9,519,300                –          
         Transportation and                                                                  
         material moving...       10,397,800             9,760,500                –          

       1 The numbers of workers represented by the survey are rounded to the nearest 100.
     Estimates of the number of workers provide a description of the size and composition of
     the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for
     comparison to other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels.
       2 The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification system is used to classify workers.
     
     Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes
     indicate that no estimates for this characteristic are provided in this publication.
     
     Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.

Last Modified Date: July 21, 2017