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Economic News Release
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Employee Benefits in the United States News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, September 21, 2023                                             USDL-23-2024

Technical information:  (202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ebs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

                        EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IN THE UNITED STATES  MARCH 2023
                        
                        
Retirement benefits were available to 94 percent of private industry union workers and 68 percent of private 
industry nonunion workers in March 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Sixty-six percent 
of private industry union workers had access to defined benefit plans and 63 percent had access to defined 
contribution plans. Ten percent of private industry nonunion workers had access to defined benefit plans and 
68 percent had access to defined contribution plans. (See table 1.)

Among private industry workers, paid sick leave was available to 86 percent of union workers and 77 percent of 
nonunion workers while paid family leave was available to 23 percent of union workers and 27 percent of nonunion 
workers. Ninety-two percent of union workers had access to paid holidays and 56 percent had access to paid 
personal leave, while 79 percent of nonunion workers had access to paid holidays and 45 percent had access to 
paid personal leave. (See table 6.)

Ninety-six percent of private industry union workers and 69 percent of private industry nonunion workers had 
access to medical care benefits. Among private industry union workers, employer share of premiums was 80 percent
for single coverage and 79 percent for family coverage. Among private industry nonunion workers, employer share
of premiums was 78 percent for single coverage and 65 percent for family coverage. (See tables 2, 3, and 4.)

Eighty-six percent of private industry union workers had access to life insurance plans, 73 percent had access 
to short-term disability plans, and 44 percent had access to long-term disability plans. Fifty-five percent of 
private industry nonunion workers had access to life insurance plans, 41 percent had access to short-term 
disability plans, and 35 percent had access to long-term disability plans. (See table 5.)

Among quality of life benefits in the private industry, 4 percent of union workers had access to a flexible work
schedule, 1 percent had access to a flexible workplace, and 75 percent had access to employee assistance 
programs. Seventeen percent of nonunion workers had access to a flexible work schedule, 10 percent had access to
a flexible workplace, and 52 percent had access to employee assistance programs. 

Highlights of employer-sponsored benefits

Occupational group
  * Access to nonproduction bonuses ranged from 30 percent for service occupations to 54 percent for 
    management, professional, and related occupations among private industry workers.
  * Six percent of state and local government teachers had access to subsidized commuting and 12 percent had 
    access to childcare assistance.

Work status
  * Eighty-seven percent of full-time private industry workers had access to medical care benefits and 25 
    percent of part-time workers had access to medical care benefits. The take-up rate was 65 percent for 
    full-time workers and 54 percent for part-time workers.
  * Twelve percent of full-time private industry workers had access to a flexible workplace and 17 percent had 
    access to a flexible work schedule, while 2 percent of part-time workers had access to a 
    flexible workplace and 13 percent had access to a flexible work schedule.

Average wage category
  * Access to student loan repayment assistance ranged from 2 percent for the lowest 10th average wage category
    to 11 percent for the highest 10th average wage category among private industry workers. 
  * Access to healthcare flexible spending accounts for private industry workers ranged from 22 percent for the 
    lowest 25th average wage category to 70 percent for the highest 25th average wage category.

Industry group
  * Access to paid family leave for private industry workers ranged from 8 percent for the leisure and 
    hospitality industry to 55 percent for the information industry.
  * Employers paid 88 percent of premiums for single coverage and 78 percent for family coverage among state and 
    local government workers with medical care plans in public administration. The average flat monthly premium 
    paid by employers was $676.71 for single coverage and $1,547.50 for family coverage.

Establishment size
  * Access to wellness programs in the private industry ranged from 23 percent for establishments with less than
    50 workers to 76 percent for establishments with 500 workers or more.
  * The average number of paid vacation days by service requirement for private industry workers after 1 year 
    ranged from 10 days for establishments with less than 100 workers to 14 days for establishments with 500 or
    more workers. After 20 years, the average number of paid vacation days ranged from 17 days for 
    establishments with less than 100 workers to 24 days for establishments with more than 500 workers.

Census area
  * Life insurance access among state and local government workers by census area ranged from 80 percent in the
    West census area to 85 percent in the South census area. The take-up rate was 100 percent for West census 
    area workers and 97 percent for South census area workers.
  * Access to short-term disability plans was available to 33 percent of civilian workers in the South census 
    area with a participation rate of 32 percent. Sixty-six percent of civilian workers in the Northeast had 
    access with a participation rate of 65 percent.
  


                                              TECHNICAL NOTE

Estimates in this release are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), conducted by the U.S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The NCS provides comprehensive measures of compensation cost levels and
trends and also provides benefits incidence estimates on the percentage of workers with access to and
participating in employer-provided benefit plans.

Employee Benefits data: The Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2023 includes additional details on 
the coverage, costs, and provisions of employer-sponsored benefits, and will be published shortly after this 
news release. See www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/annual-benefits-summary.htm for the latest benefits publications. 
Historical estimates are also accessible in Excel format at 
www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/xlsx/employee-benefits-in-the-united-states-dataset.xlsx and through the database 
query tool at www.bls.gov/ebs/data.htm.  

Standard errors: Measures of reliability are available for published estimates, which provide users a measure of 
the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. For 
further information see www.bls.gov/ebs/technical-notes/standard-errors.htm.

Comparing private and public sector data: Incidence of employee benefits in state and local government should not
be directly compared to private industry. Differences between these sectors stem from factors such as variation 
in work activities and occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales, for example, make up a large part of 
private industry work activities but are rare in state and local government.

Civilian workers: Statistics for private industry and state and local government are published separately and 
then combined to measure the civilian economy. Excluded from the civilian economy are workers employed in 
federal government and quasi-federal agencies, military personnel, agricultural workers, volunteers, unpaid 
workers, individuals receiving long-term disability compensation, and those working overseas. In addition, 
private industry excludes workers in private households, the self-employed, workers who set their own pay (e.g., 
proprietors, owners, major stockholders, and partners in unincorporated firms), and family members paid token 
wages.

Leave benefits for teachers: Primary, secondary, and special education teachers typically have a contracted work 
schedule of 37 or 38 weeks per year. Because of this work schedule, they are generally not offered vacations or 
holidays. In many cases, the time off during winter and spring breaks during the school year are not considered 
vacation days for the purposes of this survey.

Medical care premiums: The estimates for medical care premiums are not based on actual decisions regarding medical
coverage made by employees; instead, it is assumed that all employees in the occupation can opt for single or 
family coverage. Monthly premiums are collected when possible. Annual premiums are converted to monthly premiums 
by dividing by 12 months.

Sample rotation: One-third of the private industry sample had been rotated each year except in years when the 
government sample was replaced. Beginning with the March 2022 publication, however, an additional (fourth) private 
industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact of decreasing response rates. The government sample is 
replaced less frequently than the private industry sample. The state and local government sample was replaced in its 
entirety for the March 2017 reference period.

Classification system: The National Compensation Survey publishes estimates of compensation costs
and trends as well as benefit coverage by ownership, industry group, occupational group, and geographic areas, see 
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/national-compensation-survey-classification-systems-mapping-files.htm.


Sample size:
Appendix table 1. Survey establishment response(1), March 2023
Establishments Civilian Private industry State and local governments

Total in sampling frame(2)

7,161,550 6,930,620 230,930

Total in sample

14,720 13,120 1,600

Responding(3)

8,420 6,990 1,430

Refused(4)

5,260 5,120 140

Out of business or not in survey scope

1,040 1,010 30

Footnotes:
(1) The number of establishments are rounded to the nearest 10. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
(2) The sampling frame was developed from state unemployment insurance reports and is based on the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). With some minor exceptions, an establishment is a single economic unit that engages in one, or predominantly one, type of economic activity. For private industry, the establishment is usually at a single physical location such as a mine, factory, office, or store; if a sampled establishment is owned by a larger entity with many locations, only the employment and characteristics of the establishment selected for the sample are considered for the survey. For state and local governments, an establishment can include more than one physical location, such as a school district or a police department.
(3) Establishments that provided data at the initial interview.
(4) Establishments that did not provide data at the initial interview. For information on nonresponse adjustment and imputation, see the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures available at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.

Survey scope:
Appendix table 2. Number of workers represented(1), March 2023
Occupational group(2) Civilian workers Private industry workers State and local government workers

All workers

145,300,100 126,227,200 19,072,900

Management, professional, and related

46,834,300 35,920,600 10,913,700

Management, business, and financial

14,624,400 13,126,900 -

Professional and related

32,209,900 22,793,700 9,416,200

Teachers

7,014,300 - 5,112,800

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

5,035,900 - 3,988,300

Registered nurses

3,077,300 - -

Service

32,036,200 28,053,300 3,982,900

Protective service

3,565,300 1,621,500 1,943,800

Sales and office

31,030,400 28,453,800 2,576,600

Sales and related

13,076,400 12,996,900 -

Office and administrative support

17,954,000 15,456,900 2,497,000

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

11,591,700 10,777,800 813,900

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

6,090,400 5,643,000 -

Installation, maintenance, and repair

5,501,200 5,134,900 -

Production, transportation, and material moving

23,807,500 23,021,700 785,800

Production

9,087,500 8,965,000 -

Transportation and material moving

14,720,000 14,056,700 -

Footnotes:
(1) The numbers of workers represented by the survey are rounded to the nearest 100. For information on weighting, see the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures available at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.
(2) The 2018 Standard Occupational Classification system was used to classify workers.

Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dashes indicate that no estimates for this characteristic are provided in this publication.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.

Average hourly wage percentiles: Estimates by worker average wage are grouped into six wage categories- the lowest
10 percent, the lowest 25 percent, the second 25 percent, the third 25 percent, the highest 25 percent, and the
highest 10 percent. The categories use percentile values based on unpublished March 2023 wages and salaries from
the BLS Employer Costs for Employee Compensation publication at www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecec_06162023.pdf.

The percentiles are computed using hourly wages and salaries along with scheduled hours of work reported for 
individual workers in sampled establishments. Establishments in the survey are asked to report only individual 
worker wages and salaries for each sampled job. For the calculation of the percentile values, the individual
worker hourly wages and salaries are weighted and arrayed from lowest to highest. The values corresponding to the
percentiles are:

Ownership Average hourly wage percentiles
10th 25th 50th 75th 90th
(median)

Civilian

$14.00 $17.12 $23.55 $37.02 $56.06

Private industry

$14.00 $17.00 $22.57 $35.64 $55.29

State and local government

$16.50 $21.50 $31.68 $44.10 $59.80
The lowest 10- and 25-percent wage categories include those occupations with an average hourly rate less than the
10th percentile value and 25th percentile value, respectively. The second 25-percent category includes those 
occupations with rates at or above the 25th percentile value but less than the 50th percentile value. The third
25-percent category includes those occupations with rates at or above the 50th percentile value but less than the
75th percentile value. Finally, the highest 25- and 10-percent wage categories include those occupations with an
average hourly wage greater than or equal to the 75th percentile value and 90th percentile value, respectively.

Individual workers can fall into a wage category different from the average for the occupation into which they are
classified because average hourly wages for the occupation are used to produce the benefit estimates.

Obtaining information: For articles on employee benefits, see the Monthly Labor Review benefits section at 
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/subject/b.htm and Beyond the Numbers: Pay and Benefits at
www.bls.gov/opub/btn/archive/home.htm. The Economics Daily articles archive is available at
www.bls.gov/opub/ted/employee-benefits-survey.htm. For technical information, see "National Compensation 
Measures," in the BLS Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Benefit publications from 1980 to the present are also available at
www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/annual-benefits-summary.htm. The latest glossary of benefit terms is available at 
www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm. In addition,
the public databases may also be used to obtain data from 1985 to 2006 and 2010 to the present, see
www.bls.gov/ebs/data.htm.

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications
relay services.


Table 1. Retirement benefits(1): Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2023 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(2) Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up rate(3) Access Participation Take-up rate(3) Access Participation Take-up rate(3)

All workers

73 56 77 70 53 75 91 81 89

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

88 76 86 86 74 85 93 82 88

Management, business, and financial occupations

88 79 89 88 78 89 - - -

Professional and related occupations

88 75 85 86 72 83 93 82 88

Teachers

88 75 85 - - - 94 83 88

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

96 82 85 - - - 99 88 89

Registered nurses

91 82 89 - - - - - -

Service occupations

48 31 65 43 25 59 85 76 89

Protective service occupations

75 64 85 55 38 69 92 85 92

Sales and office occupations

75 54 72 73 51 70 92 82 89

Sales and related occupations

73 43 59 72 43 59 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

76 62 81 74 58 79 92 82 89

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

72 57 78 70 54 77 97 91 93

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

69 54 79 67 51 77 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

76 59 78 74 57 77 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

75 55 74 75 55 73 90 82 91

Production occupations

75 57 76 74 57 76 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

76 55 72 75 53 71 - - -

Full time

82 66 81 79 63 79 99 88 89

Part time

44 24 54 44 22 51 43 37 86

Union

95 85 89 94 84 90 97 85 88

Nonunion

70 52 75 68 50 73 86 78 90

Average wage within the following categories:(4)

Lowest 25 percent

49 28 56 48 25 52 78 68 87

Lowest 10 percent

38 20 51 37 18 47 70 60 86

Second 25 percent

73 53 73 69 48 70 94 84 90

Third 25 percent

83 70 83 81 65 81 98 88 90

Highest 25 percent

92 82 89 90 81 90 97 85 88

Highest 10 percent

93 84 90 92 84 91 97 83 85

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

78 63 80 78 63 80 - - -

Service-providing industries

72 55 77 69 51 74 91 81 89

Education and health services

81 65 81 75 58 78 93 81 87

Educational services

88 77 88 73 62 85 93 82 88

Elementary and secondary schools

92 81 88 - - - 93 82 89

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

90 79 87 87 79 90 92 79 86

Health care and social assistance

77 59 77 75 58 76 92 76 82

Hospitals

93 83 89 - - - 92 73 80

Public administration

92 84 92 - - - 92 84 92

1 to 99 workers

59 42 72 57 40 70 87 78 90

1 to 49 workers

54 39 71 53 37 70 85 76 90

50 to 99 workers

73 54 73 71 50 70 89 81 91

100 workers or more

88 71 81 86 68 79 93 82 88

100 to 499 workers

84 64 76 83 61 73 92 84 91

500 workers or more

91 79 86 91 78 86 93 81 87

Geographic areas

Northeast

72 60 83 69 57 82 91 79 86

New England

72 59 81 70 56 80 87 75 86

Middle Atlantic

72 60 84 68 57 83 93 80 86

South

73 54 74 69 49 71 93 83 89

South Atlantic

75 54 73 73 51 70 91 79 86

East South Central

73 55 75 69 49 71 94 84 90

West South Central

68 53 77 63 46 73 97 89 92

Midwest

75 58 78 73 55 76 90 80 89

East North Central

77 60 78 75 57 76 89 79 89

West North Central

72 56 77 70 52 75 92 83 90

West

72 56 77 70 52 75 90 81 90

Mountain

74 55 74 72 51 71 88 82 93

Pacific

71 56 79 69 53 77 90 81 89

Footnotes
(1) Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. Workers are considered as having access or as participating if they have access to or are participating in at least one of these plan types.
(2) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(3) The take-up rate is calculated from the unrounded percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.
(4) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 2. Medical care benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2023 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2)

All workers

74 49 66 72 46 64 89 67 76

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

90 63 70 89 61 69 91 68 75

Management, business, and financial occupations

95 67 71 95 67 70 - - -

Professional and related occupations

88 61 70 86 58 68 91 68 75

Teachers

87 62 72 - - - 92 68 74

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

97 70 72 - - - 99 73 74

Registered nurses

91 61 67 - - - - - -

Service occupations

49 29 59 44 24 54 82 63 77

Protective service occupations

75 53 70 56 32 57 90 70 77

Sales and office occupations

69 43 62 68 40 60 89 69 78

Sales and related occupations

54 31 58 54 31 58 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

80 51 63 79 48 61 90 70 78

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

79 56 71 78 55 70 95 76 79

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

75 53 70 74 51 69 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

84 60 71 83 58 71 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

80 53 66 79 53 66 84 61 73

Production occupations

82 57 69 82 57 69 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

78 50 64 78 50 64 - - -

Full time

89 60 67 87 57 65 99 75 76

Part time

25 13 55 25 13 54 24 17 72

Union

95 74 77 96 78 81 95 69 73

Nonunion

71 45 64 69 43 62 84 66 78

Average wage within the following categories:(3)

Lowest 25 percent

43 23 54 41 21 52 72 54 75

Lowest 10 percent

30 15 51 28 14 48 63 49 78

Second 25 percent

76 49 64 73 45 61 93 72 77

Third 25 percent

89 61 69 87 59 68 97 74 76

Highest 25 percent

94 68 72 94 67 71 95 71 74

Highest 10 percent

95 69 72 95 69 72 94 71 75

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

85 61 72 85 61 72 - - -

Service-providing industries

72 47 65 69 43 63 89 67 76

Education and health services

81 53 65 77 46 60 90 67 75

Educational services

86 63 74 72 51 71 90 67 74

Elementary and secondary schools

90 66 74 - - - 90 67 74

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

90 66 73 92 65 71 89 67 75

Health care and social assistance

78 47 60 77 45 58 91 71 79

Hospitals

91 62 68 - - - 91 74 81

Public administration

91 71 78 - - - 91 71 78

1 to 99 workers

61 38 62 59 36 60 84 66 79

1 to 49 workers

56 35 62 55 34 61 82 66 80

50 to 99 workers

75 47 62 74 44 60 85 66 78

100 workers or more

87 60 69 87 59 68 91 68 75

100 to 499 workers

85 57 67 84 55 65 88 65 74

500 workers or more

90 65 72 89 63 71 92 69 75

Geographic areas

Northeast

72 48 67 69 46 66 88 63 71

New England

73 - - 71 44 62 90 59 65

Middle Atlantic

71 48 68 69 46 67 87 64 74

South

73 48 66 70 44 63 92 74 80

South Atlantic

75 48 64 73 45 61 90 71 79

East South Central

72 49 68 68 44 64 92 80 87

West South Central

72 48 68 67 44 65 96 75 78

Midwest

73 49 67 71 47 66 86 63 74

East North Central

73 49 67 72 48 66 84 62 73

West North Central

71 47 66 68 44 65 89 66 74

West

77 51 66 76 49 65 88 65 74

Mountain

77 48 62 76 46 60 87 62 71

Pacific

78 53 68 76 51 67 88 66 75

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(2) The take-up rate is calculated from the unrounded percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.
(3) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 3. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for single coverage, March 2023 [In percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium

All workers participating in single coverage medical plans

80 20 79 21 86 14

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

81 19 79 21 85 15

Management, business, and financial occupations

79 21 79 21 - -

Professional and related occupations

82 18 80 20 85 15

Teachers

84 16 - - 85 15

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

84 16 - - 85 15

Registered nurses

82 18 - - - -

Service occupations

80 20 78 22 87 13

Protective service occupations

86 14 78 22 88 12

Sales and office occupations

80 20 79 21 88 12

Sales and related occupations

78 22 78 22 - -

Office and administrative support occupations

82 18 80 20 88 12

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

78 22 77 23 89 11

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

78 22 77 23 - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

78 22 77 23 - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

78 22 78 22 86 14

Production occupations

78 22 78 22 - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

78 22 78 22 - -

Full time

80 20 79 21 86 14

Part time

78 22 78 22 82 18

Union

83 17 80 20 86 14

Nonunion

79 21 78 22 87 13

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

78 22 77 23 87 13

Lowest 10 percent

78 22 77 23 87 13

Second 25 percent

80 20 78 22 87 13

Third 25 percent

80 20 79 21 86 14

Highest 25 percent

81 19 80 20 85 15

Highest 10 percent

81 19 80 20 85 15

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

78 22 78 22 - -

Service-providing industries

81 19 79 21 86 14

Education and health services

83 17 82 18 85 15

Educational services

84 16 82 18 85 15

Elementary and secondary schools

84 16 - - 84 16

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

84 16 82 18 85 15

Health care and social assistance

82 18 82 18 87 13

Hospitals

82 18 - - 87 13

Public administration

88 12 - - 88 12

1 to 99 workers

79 21 78 22 87 13

1 to 49 workers

79 21 78 22 88 12

50 to 99 workers

79 21 78 22 85 15

100 workers or more

81 19 79 21 86 14

100 to 499 workers

80 20 79 21 87 13

500 workers or more

82 18 80 20 86 14

Geographic areas

Northeast

80 20 79 21 85 15

New England

78 22 78 22 77 23

Middle Atlantic

81 19 79 21 87 13

South

80 20 78 22 87 13

South Atlantic

81 19 79 21 87 13

East South Central

80 20 76 24 89 11

West South Central

80 20 78 22 85 15

Midwest

80 20 79 21 87 13

East North Central

79 21 78 22 85 15

West North Central

81 19 79 21 90 10

West

80 20 79 21 86 14

Mountain

80 20 78 22 87 13

Pacific

80 20 79 21 86 14

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 4. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for family coverage, March 2023 [In percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium Employer share of premium Employee share of premium

All workers participating in family coverage medical plans

68 32 67 33 71 29

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

68 32 68 32 70 30

Management, business, and financial occupations

69 31 68 32 - -

Professional and related occupations

68 32 68 32 69 31

Teachers

65 35 - - 66 34

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

64 36 - - 65 35

Registered nurses

73 27 - - - -

Service occupations

65 35 62 38 73 27

Protective service occupations

75 25 68 32 78 22

Sales and office occupations

67 33 66 34 74 26

Sales and related occupations

64 36 64 36 - -

Office and administrative support occupations

69 31 68 32 74 26

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

66 34 65 35 77 23

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

66 34 65 35 - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

65 35 64 36 - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

70 30 70 30 70 30

Production occupations

70 30 70 30 - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

69 31 69 31 - -

Full time

68 32 67 33 71 29

Part time

67 33 67 33 68 32

Union

78 22 79 21 76 24

Nonunion

65 35 65 35 67 33

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

61 39 61 39 67 33

Lowest 10 percent

56 44 57 43 61 39

Second 25 percent

66 34 65 35 75 25

Third 25 percent

68 32 67 33 68 32

Highest 25 percent

71 29 71 29 75 25

Highest 10 percent

72 28 71 29 76 24

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

69 31 69 31 - -

Service-providing industries

67 33 66 34 71 29

Education and health services

66 34 65 35 67 33

Educational services

66 34 68 32 66 34

Elementary and secondary schools

64 36 - - 64 36

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

72 28 71 29 72 28

Health care and social assistance

66 34 65 35 75 25

Hospitals

74 26 - - 75 25

Public administration

78 22 - - 78 22

1 to 99 workers

63 37 61 39 73 27

1 to 49 workers

63 37 62 38 73 27

50 to 99 workers

63 37 61 39 73 27

100 workers or more

71 29 71 29 71 29

100 to 499 workers

69 31 68 32 71 29

500 workers or more

73 27 74 26 71 29

Geographic areas

Northeast

72 28 70 30 83 17

New England

71 29 70 30 77 23

Middle Atlantic

73 27 70 30 85 15

South

63 37 63 37 63 37

South Atlantic

65 35 65 35 68 32

East South Central

62 38 61 39 65 35

West South Central

60 40 62 38 55 45

Midwest

70 30 70 30 74 26

East North Central

71 29 70 30 77 23

West North Central

69 31 69 31 70 30

West

68 32 67 33 74 26

Mountain

66 34 65 35 71 29

Pacific

69 31 67 33 76 24

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 5. Life insurance benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates, March 2023 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2) Access Participation Take-up rate(2)

All workers

61 60 98 57 56 98 83 80 97

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

80 79 99 79 79 99 84 82 97

Management, business, and financial occupations

85 84 99 85 84 99 - - -

Professional and related occupations

78 77 98 76 76 99 84 81 97

Teachers

77 75 97 - - - 83 81 98

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

84 82 97 - - - 88 87 98

Registered nurses

88 87 99 - - - - - -

Service occupations

32 31 96 26 25 95 77 74 97

Protective service occupations

66 63 96 42 38 92 86 84 97

Sales and office occupations

56 55 98 54 53 98 83 80 97

Sales and related occupations

44 43 98 44 43 98 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

65 64 98 63 61 98 83 81 97

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

59 58 99 56 56 99 90 88 98

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

49 49 99 46 46 99 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

70 69 99 68 67 99 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

67 65 98 66 65 98 79 79 99

Production occupations

73 72 99 72 72 99 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

63 61 97 62 61 97 - - -

Full time

74 73 98 71 70 99 92 90 97

Part time

16 15 93 16 14 92 23 22 95

Union

87 85 98 86 84 98 88 87 98

Nonunion

57 56 98 55 54 98 77 75 97

Average wage within the following categories:(3)

Lowest 25 percent

29 28 96 26 25 96 66 64 97

Lowest 10 percent

17 16 93 16 14 93 56 - -

Second 25 percent

61 59 98 57 55 98 88 85 97

Third 25 percent

74 73 99 71 70 99 89 87 98

Highest 25 percent

86 85 99 85 84 99 89 87 98

Highest 10 percent

89 88 99 90 89 99 86 83 97

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

70 69 99 70 69 99 - - -

Service-providing industries

59 58 98 55 54 98 83 80 97

Education and health services

69 68 98 63 62 98 83 80 97

Educational services

78 77 98 67 67 100 82 80 98

Elementary and secondary schools

79 78 98 - - - 80 79 98

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

87 85 97 89 88 100 86 82 96

Health care and social assistance

64 63 98 62 61 98 88 83 95

Hospitals

90 89 99 - - - 88 84 95

Public administration

86 84 98 - - - 86 84 98

1 to 99 workers

44 43 98 42 41 98 75 73 98

1 to 49 workers

39 39 98 38 37 98 73 71 98

50 to 99 workers

59 58 98 57 56 98 - - -

100 workers or more

78 76 98 76 75 98 85 83 97

100 to 499 workers

72 71 98 70 69 98 82 79 97

500 workers or more

84 83 98 84 82 98 86 84 97

Geographic areas

Northeast

59 58 99 56 55 99 82 79 96

New England

64 62 97 61 61 99 85 75 88

Middle Atlantic

57 57 99 54 53 99 81 80 99

South

61 60 98 57 56 98 85 82 97

South Atlantic

62 60 98 58 57 98 85 82 96

East South Central

63 62 98 60 58 98 83 81 97

West South Central

59 58 98 55 54 98 84 83 99

Midwest

63 62 98 60 59 98 82 79 96

East North Central

65 63 98 63 61 98 82 78 95

West North Central

59 58 99 56 55 99 82 81 99

West

59 58 99 56 55 98 80 80 100

Mountain

61 60 99 57 57 99 83 83 100

Pacific

58 57 98 55 54 98 79 78 99

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(2) The take-up rate is calculated from the unrounded percentage of workers with access to a plan and who participate in the plan.
(3) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Table 6. Selected paid leave benefits: Access, March 2023 [All workers = 100 percent]
Characteristics Civilian(1) Private industry State and local government
Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays Paid sick leave Paid vacation Paid holidays

All workers

80 77 79 78 79 80 92 60 67

Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and related occupations

93 81 84 93 92 92 94 45 55

Management, business, and financial occupations

96 96 96 96 98 97 - - -

Professional and related occupations

92 74 78 91 88 90 94 38 51

Teachers

91 23 38 - - - 93 12 30

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

99 22 34 - - - 99 11 25

Registered nurses

94 92 93 - - - - - -

Service occupations

64 58 57 61 55 54 87 76 80

Protective service occupations

81 77 81 68 60 70 92 90 90

Sales and office occupations

81 80 84 80 79 84 92 85 88

Sales and related occupations

71 70 77 71 70 77 - - -

Office and administrative support occupations

88 87 89 87 88 89 93 86 88

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

74 86 86 73 85 86 96 96 95

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

68 78 79 66 77 78 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

81 95 94 80 94 94 - - -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

76 85 87 76 86 88 90 63 74

Production occupations

72 91 93 72 91 93 - - -

Transportation and material moving occupations

79 82 83 78 83 84 - - -

Full time

89 88 88 87 92 91 99 66 73

Part time

51 39 48 51 40 49 49 22 34

Union

92 75 81 86 92 92 98 57 69

Nonunion

78 77 78 77 78 79 87 62 66

Average wage within the following categories:(2)

Lowest 25 percent

58 55 60 56 55 60 81 58 66

Lowest 10 percent

40 43 46 39 43 47 71 45 54

Second 25 percent

84 83 84 82 83 83 95 85 87

Third 25 percent

88 90 90 86 92 91 98 59 69

Highest 25 percent

95 82 85 94 94 94 96 41 51

Highest 10 percent

96 84 86 96 95 95 95 36 50

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries

76 90 91 75 90 91 - - -

Service-providing industries

81 74 77 78 77 78 92 59 67

Education and health services

89 70 75 87 84 85 93 42 54

Educational services

90 40 51 81 59 64 93 34 47

Elementary and secondary schools

94 26 39 - - - 94 24 37

Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools

90 69 81 87 74 83 91 67 80

Health care and social assistance

88 88 88 87 88 88 93 92 91

Hospitals

94 93 93 - - - 93 92 91

Public administration

93 91 92 - - - 93 91 92

1 to 99 workers

73 71 73 72 72 74 89 53 61

1 to 49 workers

71 70 73 71 71 73 87 63 69

50 to 99 workers

76 72 73 74 76 75 90 43 55

100 workers or more

87 83 85 86 88 89 93 62 69

100 to 499 workers

84 83 84 83 86 86 92 60 69

500 workers or more

90 83 85 89 91 92 94 62 69

Geographic areas

Northeast

85 75 77 84 77 79 91 56 63

New England

88 74 78 87 77 80 91 53 59

Middle Atlantic

84 75 77 83 78 79 91 57 65

South

73 77 79 70 79 81 93 61 68

South Atlantic

76 79 82 74 82 82 91 65 75

East South Central

69 79 82 65 82 85 92 63 70

West South Central

68 71 72 64 75 75 95 54 55

Midwest

75 77 79 73 80 81 89 55 65

East North Central

75 77 80 74 80 82 88 54 68

West North Central

73 76 76 70 79 78 92 56 60

West

91 78 80 91 80 81 95 65 72

Mountain

83 79 80 82 82 82 90 59 64

Pacific

95 77 80 94 79 80 97 68 76

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See the Handbook of Methods: National Compensation Measures at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm for further explanation.
(2) Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data from the National Compensation Survey publication, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ebs/publications/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.
SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.


Last Modified Date: September 21, 2023