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Economic News Release
ORS ORS Program Links

Occupational Requirements Survey Technical Note

					       Technical Note
The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) provides job-related information about the physical demands;
environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as well as cognitive and mental requirements
in the U.S. economy. 

Additional job requirement estimates are available at and For information on estimation concepts and methods see the Handbook of Methods at, the collection manual at
participants/pdf/occupational-requirements-survey-collection-manual-082019.pdf, and

Sample size: The ORS is a nationally representative establishment-based survey. Estimates are produced from
a probability sample of 42,700 establishments. There were 20,000 private industry and 4,000 state and local
government responding establishments that provided approximately 117,700 occupational observations. The 2022
estimates represent 142,774,500 civilian workers.  

These estimates are from four of five samples and are considered preliminary. Data from all five samples
collected between September 2018 and July 2023 will be aggregated to produce the final estimates with an
expected reference year of 2023. 

Standard errors: To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors are made
available with the release. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to ensure
that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. 

Collected and imputed data are included in the standard error calculation. For further information and how
to use the standard errors see 

Major terms: 

Credentials  Credentials include training time required as a condition of hiring, which often results in
certifications, licenses, or educational certificates.

Critical job function  This is the main purpose and the primary pay factor for the job. It consists of
critical tasks that are integral to the job.

Critical tasks  Activities workers must perform to carry out their critical job function(s).

Fine manipulation  Picking, pinching, touching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than the
whole hand or arm.

Low postures  The requirement for workers to perform critical tasks while crawling, crouching, kneeling, or

Pause control  Ability to choose how and when short, unscheduled breaks are taken.

People skills  Ability to listen, communicate, and relate to others.

Telework  Ability to perform the critical job function off work premises, typically from home. Workers must
have a formal arrangement with the employer and telework must be available to all workers in the job.
Temporary or ad hoc telework arrangements, such as those made in response to the Coronavirus pandemic, are
not included in telework.

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications relay services.

Last Modified Date: November 17, 2022