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Economic News Release
ORS ORS Program Links

Occupational Requirements Survey Technical Note

					   Technical Note

The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) provides job-related information about the physical 
demands; environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as well as cognitive and 
mental requirements in the U.S. economy. 

Additional job requirement estimates are available at 
and For information on estimation concepts and methods, see the Handbook 
of Methods at and

Some estimates in this release have been provided as ranges. Ranges represent estimates where the 
precise value cannot be published. The use of ranges maximizes the number of published estimates 
and provides additional detail on job requirements in the economy. More information is available in 
the range estimates factsheet at 

Sample size: The ORS is a nationally representative establishment-based survey. Estimates are 
produced from a probability sample of 56,300 establishments. There were 25,100 private industry and 
5,000 state and local government responding establishments that provided approximately 148,600 
occupational observations. The 2023 estimates represent 145,866,200 civilian workers. The 2023 
estimates are an aggregate of five annual samples collected between September 2018 and July 2023 
and represent the final estimates for the second wave of ORS. 

Standard errors: To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors 
are made available with the release. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an 
estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. Collected and 
imputed data are included in the standard error calculation. For further information on standard 
errors and how to use them, see 

Major terms: Below are selected major terms from the news release. For complete terms and 
definitions, see the collection manual at

	*Control of workload considers which among the following most controls the amount of work 
	 a worker is expected to perform: machinery, equipment, or software; numerical performance 
	 targets; people; self-paced by worker; or another source.

	*Critical job function is the main purpose and the primary pay factor for the job. It 
	 consists of critical tasks that are integral to the job.

	*Critical tasks are the activities workers must perform to carry out their critical job 

	*Heights are present when either a worker’s center of gravity is at least five feet off 
	 the ground or workers are at ground level with the risk of falling several feet below 
	 ground. Workers must also be at risk of bodily injury from falling with no walls or 
	 railings to lessen the possibility of falling.

	*Outdoor exposure is considered present when workers perform critical tasks outdoors and 
	 the worksite does not contain at least three walls and a roof.

	*Work pace refers to the consistency of the work pace and the rate at which it is 
Last Modified Date: February 08, 2024