Occupational Requirements Survey

General Questions and Answers

  1. What is the Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS)?
    • The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) is conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) under an interagency agreement with the Social Security Administration (SSA). The ORS provides information about the requirements of work in the U.S. economy including:
      • Physical demands of work (such as keyboarding, reaching overhead, lifting or carrying)
      • Environmental conditions (such as extreme heat, exposure to outdoors, proximity to moving parts)
      • Education, training, and experience requirements (literacy, credentials, on-the job training)
      • Cognitive and mental requirements of work (interaction with the general public, working around crowds, work pace)
  2. What are some uses of the ORS?
    • The ORS provides job information useful to a wide variety of audiences, including: jobseekers, researchers, insurance companies, the disability community, and vocational experts. For more information see the Handbook of Methods.
  3. How many datasets are available?
    • The most recent dataset is for the 2019 reference year estimates. This dataset includes data from one of five sample groups in the second wave. These estimates are considered preliminary for the second wave and will be considered final once data from the five sample groups are combined and published for the 2023 reference year. Updated estimates will be published annually for each reference year by combining data from each collected sample group.
    • Reference year 2018 estimates are considered final and are based on three sample groups in the first wave.
    • Final datasets will remain available indefinitely while preliminary datasets will be replaced with each annual update.
  4. Are wage or employment estimates available along with ORS data?
    • The ORS collects and releases data on an annual basis. The estimates for the 2018 reference period include data from three sample groups collected over a three year period. Estimates for the 2019 reference period will include data from one of five sample groups collected between 2018 and 2023.
  5. Does the ORS publish information by other worker or establishment characteristics aside from occupation?
    • The ORS does not publish estimates based on worker characteristics such as work status (full-time or part-time), bargaining status, demographics, or earnings. Establishment characteristics such as industry, employment size, or geographic location are also not available.
  6. What economic sectors are included in ORS?
    • The ORS estimates represent civilian workers, which combines private industry workers as well as state and local government workers. Separate economic sector estimates (private and public) are not available. The category "civilian workers" excludes workers in the federal government, military, agricultural sector, private household workers, and self-employed workers.
  7. What’s new for the 2019 ORS release?
    • BLS continues to make enhancements to provide reliable and representative estimates of job requirements in the U.S. economy. With the 2019 release the following changes were implemented:
      • Introduced a sampling methodology to increase the number of published occupations
      • Introduced the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification System for collection, estimation, and publication
      • Reintroduced cognitive and mental requirements
      • Updated weighting methodology to account for change in the sample design
      • Modified collection and estimation of low postures estimates (crawling, crouching, stooping, and kneeling)
      • Renamed pre-employment training to credentials for consistency with GEMEna
      • Removed 8-digit occupations classified by O*Net from publication
  8. Where can I find cognitive and mental demands estimates?
    • Estimates for the second wave (beginning with preliminary 2019 reference year estimates) include cognitive and mental requirements, which can be accessed through the database or the ORS complete dataset.
    • Cognitive and mental demands estimates include:
      • Interaction with the general public
      • Pace: Control of workload, pause control, work pace
      • Personal contacts: People skills, verbal interactions
      • Problem solving
      • Telework
      • Work review: Frequency of work being checked, presence of supervisor, supervising others
      • Working around crowds
    • For information about how the ORS has improved its collection methods over time, please see Information for Survey Participants.
  9. Are accommodations provided by employers considered when determining job requirements?
    • No, modifications or adjustments to job requirements that enable workers to carry out the critical tasks in support of the critical job functions are not included in the ORS. ORS estimates reflect job requirements without accommodations.
  10. What level of occupational detail is available?
    • The 2019 reference year estimates are calculated using the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.  Estimates are available for detailed occupations (6-digit SOC codes), 21 major occupational groups (2-digit SOC codes), and civilian workers (which represent workers in private industry as well as state and local government).
    • The 2018 reference year estimates use the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. Reference year 2018 estimates include 397 detailed occupations, 22 occupational groups, and an aggregation of all workers.
  11. How can I learn more about ORS methodology?
    • For information regarding ORS methodology, see the Handbook of Methods. Additional publications, collection materials, and research are available on the ORS website.
  12. How are estimates calculated?
    • The Calculation section of the Handbook of Methods provides an explanation of the various estimation formulas for calculating percent of workers, durations, strength levels, and specific vocational preparation levels.
  13. Are measures of reliability available
    • Yes, standard errors are available to assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates. Standard errors provide users a measure of the precision of an estimate to ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. The standard errors are calculated from collected and imputed data, the BLS is researching methods for estimating the variance excluding imputed values. For further information see reliability of ORS estimates and standard errors.
  14. Are small employers included?
    • Yes, small employers are an important part of the U.S. economy. Establishments of all employment sizes are necessary for job requirement estimates to be representative of the national economy.
  15. Do estimates reflect work or calendar days?
    • The components of education, training, and experience, which include minimum formal education, credentials, prior work experience, and on-the-job training, are measured in calendar days after standardizing to a full-time schedule. For example, if a four-hour-per-day job and eight-hour-per-day job each require two days of on-the-job training. The two-days of on-the-job training is converted to one calendar day for the four-hour-per-day job. No conversion is necessary for the eight-hour-per day job.
    • For physical requirements and environmental conditions elements, the percentage of the workday takes into account the work schedule. For example, if 2 hours of standing or walking are required for four-hour-per-day and eight-hour-per-day jobs, then standing or walking is required 50 percent of the day for the four-hour-per-day job and 25 percent of the day for the eight-hour-per-day job.
  16. Is there a glossary of terms or definitions of job requirements available?
  17. Are collection forms available online?
  18. Who should I contact if I have additional questions?
    • Economists are available Monday through Friday from 8:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. (Eastern Time) and can be reached electronically or by phone at 202-691-6199.

Respondent Questions and Answers

  1. Why should I participate?
    • The quality of data produced by the BLS is a direct reflection of the quality of information and cooperation received from employers. Your participation will help the BLS deliver accurate and representative estimate of job requirements in the national economy. The data will help SSA determine whether individuals meet the requirements for disability benefits.
  2. Will my information be kept confidential?
    • Yes, your organization‘s participation and specific occupational information will be held in confidence to the fullest extent of the law. The BLS will use the information you provide for statistical purposes only in accordance with BLS Confidentiality Pledge and Federal Laws.
  3. Who do you typically speak to within establishments to obtain your survey data?
    • The people we typically speak with can answer questions about the job requirements to complete critical tasks in support of the critical job functions. This could be someone in human resources, risk management, or a supervisor.
  4. How do I provide data?
    • A BLS economist will contact you to provide more information about the questions that will be asked and to determine your preferred method for providing data such as a personal visit, a phone call, or via email.
  5. Do I need to have anything prepared?
    • Job descriptions, if your company uses them, and current payroll information would allow for a more efficient and targeted interview.
  6. Can I just e-mail you a job description?
    • Written job descriptions are helpful in understanding the duties and tasks of an occupation. However, we need to ask additional questions to obtain a complete assessment of the job requirements.
  7. How much of my time is required?
    • The typical interview averages approximately one hour but may vary depending on the company size and the types of jobs discussed.