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Occupational Requirements Survey

Occupational Requirements Survey: Occupational Profiles

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Based on the 2021 Occupational Requirements Survey

  • All workers (PDF) 
    •  

      This profile provides an overview of job requirements for civilian workers in the U.S. economy. Civilian workers include private industry as well as state and local government workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 38.9 percent of civilian workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 61.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of civilian workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      55.6 44.4

      Interaction with the general public

      78.1 21.9

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      9.6 90.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      15.8 84.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      64.8 35.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 47.0 percent of civilian workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 78.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 94.4 percent of civilian workers, extreme heat was not present for 95.4 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 97.6 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 34.1 percent of civilian workers and not present for 65.9 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 43.2 percent of civilian workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 25.8 percent of workers and 20.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of civilian workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      43.2 56.8

      Driving

      25.8 74.2

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      20.6 79.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Architecture and engineering occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes architects, surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, engineers, drafters, engineering technicians, electro-mechanical technicians, and mapping technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, 92.1 percent of architecture and engineering workers were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 7.9 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of architecture and engineering workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      93.8 6.2

      Interaction with the general public

      62.9 37.1

      Telework

      29.3 70.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      13.4 86.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      68.7 31.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 41.6 percent of architecture and engineering workers.

      A bachelor’s degree was the minimum formal education requirement for 69.4 percent of workers.

      Prior work experience was required for 69.2 percent. No prior work experience was required for 30.8 percent of workers.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 31.7 percent of architecture and engineering workers. Another 65.2 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity and 2.9 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 85.7 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 14.3 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 99.8 percent of architecture and engineering workers.

      For 0.8 percent of workers keyboarding was seldom performed, 27.6 percent keyboarding occurred occasionally, 66.0 percent frequently, and 5.4 percent keyboarding occurred constantly.

      On average architecture and engineering workers sat for 73.8 percent of the workday and stood for 26.2 percent of the workday.

      Performing work in low postures was not required for 72.4 percent of workers.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of architecture and engineering workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      85.5 14.5

      Driving

      34.0 66.0

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      21.9 78.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes art directors, artists, fashion designers, actors, producers, directors, coaches, dancers, choreographers, musicians, singers, radio announcers, writers, editors, interpreters, sound engineering technicians, photographers, and film editors.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. In 2021, 86.2 percent of workers in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 13.8 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      74.2 25.8

      Interaction with the general public

      82.9 17.1

      Working around crowds

      10.5 89.5

      Telework

      27.3 72.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      10.4 89.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      57.8 42.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 36.5 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. A bachelor’s degree was the minimum formal education requirement for 43.9 percent of workers. Prior work experience was required for 65.2 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed. In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 21.5 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. Another 69.4 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity, 8.3 percent to a loud noise intensity, and 0.7 percent were exposed to a very loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment was not used by 98.2 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 88.0 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. For 5.8 percent of workers keyboarding was seldom performed, 37.5 percent keyboarding occurred occasionally, 39.7 percent frequently, and 5.0 percent keyboarding occurred constantly. On average arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers sat for 68.5 percent of the workday and stood for 31.5 percent of the workday. Performing work in low postures was not required for 62.9 percent of workers.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      72.2 27.8

      Driving

      26.5 73.5

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      23.7 76.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes janitors, maids and housekeeping cleaners, pest control, landscaping, pesticide handlers, tree trimmers, and grounds maintenance workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. In 2021, 11.6 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 88.4 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      69.5 30.5

      Interaction with the general public

      55.5 44.5

      Working around crowds

      2.8 97.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      7.7 92.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      45.7 54.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 28.6 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers. No minimum formal education was required for 68.9 percent of workers and a high school diploma was required for 29.6 percent. Prior work experience was required for 21.8 percent. Prior work experience was not required for 78.2 percent of workers. On-the-job training was required for 91.9 percent of workers.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 15.1 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers. Another 76.0 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity and 8.1 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 76.5 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 23.5 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 10.9 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers and not required for 89.1 percent. On average building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers sat for 12.2 percent of the workday and stood for 87.8 percent of the workday. Performing work in low postures was not required for 2.7 percent of workers and 97.3 percent were required to perform critical tasks in low postures. Driving was required for 35.5 percent of workers and was not required for 64.5 percent.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      10.1 89.9

      Driving

      35.5 64.5

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      42.1 57.9

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Business and financial operations occupations (PDF)
    •  This occupational group includes purchasing agents, compliance officers, human resource workers, logisticians, fundraisers, market research analysts, accountants, auditors, credit counselors, and tax examiners.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 2.2 percent of business and financial operations workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 97.8 percent. For 11.9 percent of workers the work pace was consistent and generally slow. A fast work pace was required for 34.7 percent of workers, and 53.5 percent had a varying work pace.

      Table 1. Percentage of business and financial operations workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      97.3 2.7

      Interaction with general public

      79.2 20.8

      Working around crowds

      1.9 98.1

      Telework

      40.8 59.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      16.7 83.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      63.7 36.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 30.3 percent of business and financial operations workers. Prior work experience was required for 81.3 percent and on-the-job training was required for 69.8 percent. A bachelor’s degree was required for 69.3 percent of workers.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 30.5 percent of business and financial workers. Another 68.9 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity, and 0.5 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 98.7 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 1.3 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 100.0 percent of business and financial operations workers.

      On average workers spent 86.2 percent of the workday sitting and 13.8 percent of the workday standing.

      Performing work in low postures was not required for 88.0 percent of workers. Low postures were required for 12.0 percent of workers where 9.0 percent performed critical tasks in low postures seldom and 2.9 percent occasionally.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of business and financial operations workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      95.9 4.1

      Driving

      20.1 79.9

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      9.9 90.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Community and social service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes counselors, social workers, health educators, probation officers, correctional treatment specialists, community health workers, clergy, and directors of religious activities.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 99.6 percent of community and social service workers, and work was controlled by people for 77.7 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of community and social service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      82.0 18.0

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      12.5 87.5

      Work review: Supervising others

      11.0 89.0

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      42.4 57.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 63.2 percent of community and social service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 66.8 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 99.9 percent of community and social service workers were not exposed to extreme cold, 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat or heavy vibrations, and wetness was not present for 84.8 percent of these workers. Exposure to the outdoors was present for 24.3 percent of community and social service workers and not present for 75.7 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 82.7 percent of community and social service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 49.6 percent of workers and 33.1 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of community and social service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      82.7 17.3

      Driving

      49.6 50.4

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      33.1 66.9

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Computer and mathematical occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes computer and information analysts, software developers and programmers, database and systems administrators, computer support specialists, actuaries, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, and mathematical technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 4.3 percent of computer and mathematical workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 95.7 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of computer and mathematical workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      95.3 4.7

      Interaction with the general public

      51.3 48.7

      Telework

      47.6 52.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.9 87.1

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      58.8 41.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 82.7 percent of computer and mathematical workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 63.0 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 33.8 percent of computer and mathematical workers were exposed to quiet noise, and 66.2 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Nearly all, 99.3 percent, of computer and mathematical workers did not use personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure, and 0.7 percent did use personal protective equipment.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 90.8 percent of computer and mathematical workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 9.2 percent of workers and 5.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of computer and mathematical workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      90.8 9.2

      Driving

      9.2 90.8

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      5.6 94.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Construction and extraction occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes carpenters, laborers, equipment operators, electricians, roofers, elevator installers and repairers, earth drillers, mining machine operators, and carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 28.6 percent of construction and extraction workers, and work was reviewed more than once per day for 51.4 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of construction and extraction workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      59.0 41.0

      Interaction with the general public

      43.7 56.3

      Working around crowds

      - 99.8

      Work review: Supervising others

      18.3 81.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      68.1 31.9

      Note: Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 49.3 percent of construction and extraction workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 64.3 percent.

      chart 3

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 98.4 percent of construction and extraction workers, extreme heat was not present for 92.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 76.2 percent of workers. Exposure to the wetness was present for 41.0 percent of construction and extraction workers and not present for 59.0 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 11.2 percent of construction and extraction workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 51.9 percent of workers and 58.4 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of construction and extraction workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      11.2 88.8

      Driving

      51.9 48.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      58.4 41.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Educational instruction and library occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes postsecondary teachers, preschool teachers, primary school teachers, middle school teachers, self-enrichment education teachers, special education school teachers, librarians, curators, archivists, home management advisors, instructional coordinators, and teacher assistants.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 60.7 percent of educational instruction and library workers, and verbal interactions were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 36.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of educational instruction and library workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      40.6 59.4

      Interaction with the general public

      97.5 2.5

      Working around crowds

      7.0 93.0

      Telework

      4.0 96.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      9.5 90.5

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      39.7 60.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 25.4 percent of educational instruction and library workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 42.6 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.9 percent of educational instruction and library workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.7 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.6 percent of workers. Exposure to the wetness was present for 17.7 percent of educational instruction and library workers and not present for 82.3 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 71.6 percent of educational instruction and library workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 3.8 percent of workers and 19.4 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of educational instruction and library workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      71.6 28.4

      Driving

      3.8 96.2

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      19.4 80.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (PDF)
    •  

      This occupational group includes agricultural inspectors, animal breeders, graders and sorters for agricultural products, and other miscellaneous agricultural workers like farmworkers or laborers and agricultural equipment operators. This group also includes fishing and hunting workers as well as forest, conservation, and logging workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 28.3 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers, and work was reviewed more than once per day for 55.2 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of farming, fishing, and forestry workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      71.8 28.2

      Working around crowds

      - 100.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      - 89.9

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      77.9 -

      Note: Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 27.6 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.9 percent.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, moderate noise exposure was present for 57.4 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers, and 35.3 percent were exposed to loud noise.  Exposure to wetness was present for 71.2 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers and outdoor exposure was present for 85.0 percent.

      chart 2

       Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 35.4 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks, and 51.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of farming, fishing, and forestry workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      35.4 64.6

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      51.0 49.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes chiropractors, dentists, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, health diagnosing and treating practitioners, therapists, veterinarians, registered nurses, health technologists and technicians, and occupational health and safety specialists.

       

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was controlled by people for 94.8 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers, and 45.4 percent had a consistent and generally fast work pace.

      Table 1. Percentage of healthcare practitioners and technical workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      42.1 57.9

      Interaction with the general public

      96.9 3.1

      Working around crowds

      1.0 99.0

      Telework

      1.7 98.3

      Work review: Supervising others

      22.3 77.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      65.5 34.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 39.5 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 72.2 percent.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.6 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.7 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 99.7 percent, and outdoors was not present for 99.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 76.3 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers and not present for 23.7 percent.

      chart 2

       Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 33.3 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 10.0 percent of workers and 14.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of healthcare practitioners and technical workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      33.3 66.7

      Driving

      10.0 90.0

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      14.0 86.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Healthcare support occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes nursing, psychiatric, home health aides, occupational therapy and physical therapist assistants and aides, dental, medical, and veterinary assistants, phlebotomists, and medial transcriptionists.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 39.8 percent of healthcare support workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 60.2 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of healthcare support workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      37.6 62.4

      Interaction with the general public

      96.4 3.6

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      0.8 99.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      1.0 99.0

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      54.7 45.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 21.3 percent of healthcare support workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.6 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 100.0 percent of healthcare support workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.8 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 100.0 percent, and outdoors was not present for 68.9 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 86.2 percent of healthcare support workers and not present for 13.8 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 20.2 percent of healthcare support workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 27.9 percent of workers and 35.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of healthcare support workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      20.2 79.8

      Driving

      27.9 72.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      35.6 64.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes computer, automated teller and office machine repairers, avionics technicians, security and fire alarm systems installers, aircraft mechanics and technicians, bus and truck mechanics, diesel engine specialists, small engine mechanics, bicycle repairers, home appliance repairers, millwrights, watch repairers, wind turbine service technicians, and riggers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 34.3 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers. Work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 30.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of installation, maintenance, and repair workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      69.7 30.3

      Interaction with the general public

      65.1 34.9

      Working around crowds

      0.6 99.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      15.3 84.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      53.3 46.7

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 68.6 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 74.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 80.0 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers were exposed to moderate noise, and 16.3 percent were exposed to loud noise. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure was used by 33.0 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers, and 67.0 percent did not use personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 20.5 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 73.2 percent of workers and 45.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of installation, maintenance, and repair workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      20.5 79.5

      Driving

      73.2 26.8

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      45.0 55.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Life, physical, and social science occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes agricultural scientists, food scientists, biological scientists, medical scientists, astronomers, physicists, chemists, hydrologists, economists, survey researchers, psychologists, sociologists, urban planners, anthropologists, archeologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and nuclear technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor less than once per day, but at least once per week for 33.1 percent of life, physical, and social science workers, and work was reviewed by a supervisor less often than weekly for 36.8 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of life, physical, and social science workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      81.9 18.1

      Interaction with the general public

      69.8 30.2

      Working around crowds

      0.9 99.1

      Telework

      16.7 83.3

      Work review: Supervising others

      13.9 86.1

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      45.9 54.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 71.3 percent of life, physical, and social science workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 67.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 95.9 percent of life, physical, and social science workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.0 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 35.5 percent of life, physical, and social science workers and not present for 64.5 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 75.5 percent of life, physical, and social science workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 42.9 percent of workers and 20.5 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of life, physical, and social science workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      75.5 24.5

      Driving

      42.9 57.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      20.5 79.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Management occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes chief executives, general and operations managers, advertising and promotions managers, construction, administrative services managers, financial managers, industrial production managers, transportation managers, storage managers, distribution managers, compensation and benefits managers, human resources managers, training managers, development managers, and education administrators.


      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was self-paced for 60.0 percent of management workers, and for 37.1 percent work was controlled by people.

      Table 1. Percentage of management workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      97.3 2.7

      Interaction with the general public

      88.6 11.4

      Working around crowds

      2.6 97.4

      Telework

      29.6 70.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      92.7 7.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      33.9 66.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 95.2 percent of management workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 54.8 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 97.4 percent of management workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.9 percent, wetness was not present for 93.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.4 percent of workers. Exposure to outdoors was present for 24.0 percent of management workers and not present for 76.0 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 88.9 percent of management workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 37.3 percent of workers and 18.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of management workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      88.9 11.1

      Driving

      37.3 62.7

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      18.0 82.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Office and administrative support occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes communications equipment and computer operators, bill collectors, gaming cage workers, tellers, information and record clerks, customer service representatives, eligibility interviewers, secretaries and administrative assistants, couriers, dispatchers, data entry and information processing workers, and desktop publishers. 


      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 33.1 percent of office and administrative support workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 66.9 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of office and administrative support workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      72.4 27.6

      Interaction with the general public

      89.4 10.6

      Working around crowds

      0.7 99.3

      Telework

      9.3 90.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      8.4 91.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      81.9 18.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 59.8 percent of office and administrative support workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.7 percent of office and administrative support workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.9 percent, wetness was not present for 97.4 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.9 percent of workers. Exposure to outdoors was present for 5.2 percent of office and administrative support workers and not present for 94.8 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 81.3 percent of office and administrative support workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 8.3 percent of workers and 8.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of office and administrative support workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      81.3 18.7

      Driving

      8.3 91.7

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      8.0 92.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Personal care and service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes animal care and service workers, entertainment attendants, funeral service workers, personal appearance workers, baggage portages, bellhops, and concierges, tour and travel guides, childcare workers, personal care aides, recreation and fitness workers, and residential advisors. 

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 53.1 percent of personal care and service workers, and verbal interactions were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 39.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of personal care and service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      38.2 61.8

      Interaction with the general public

      98.4 1.6

      Working around crowds

      11.5 88.5

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.5 87.5

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      66.7 33.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 25.8 percent of personal care and service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.5 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed./

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.7 percent of personal care and service workers, extreme heat was not present for 98.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.7 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 60.9 percent of personal care and service workers and not present for 39.1 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 23.9 percent of personal care and service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 13.4 percent of workers and 24.3 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3

       

      Table 2. Percentage of personal care and service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      23.9 76.1

      Driving

      13.4 86.6

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      24.3 75.7

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Production occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes engine assemblers, structural metal fabricators and fitters, bakers, butchers and meat cutters, meat packers, computer-controlled machine tool operators, forging machine setters, machinists, pourers and casters, tool and die makers, printing press operators, upholsters, furniture finishers, model maters, gas plant operators, tire builders, etchers, and engravers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, 53.6 percent of production workers had a consistent and generally fast work pace, and the work pace varied for 38.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of production workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      42.4 57.6

      Interaction with the general public

      15.3 84.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      11.3 88.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      85.4 14.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 47.6 percent of production workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 89.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 92.0 percent of production workers, extreme heat was not present for 87.7 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 97.0 percent, and outdoors was not present for 88.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 33.1 percent of production workers and not present for 66.9 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 16.1 percent of production workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 13.6 percent of workers and 16.9 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of production workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      16.1 83.9

      Driving

      13.6 86.4

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      16.9 83.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Protective service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention, law enforcement, and animal control, as well as private detectives and investigators, security guards, lifeguards, transportation security screeners, and crossing guards. 

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 20.4 percent of protective service workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 79.6 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of protective service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      13.7 86.3

      Interaction with the general public

      98.0 2.0

      Working around crowds

      46.3 53.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.8 87.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      42.5 57.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 35.3 percent of protective service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 74.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 79.8 percent of protective service workers were exposed to moderate noise, and 14.6 percent were exposed to loud noise. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure was used by 9.2 percent of protective service workers, and the other 90.8 percent did not use personal protective equipment for noise exposure.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 9.9 percent of protective service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 62.7 percent of workers and 68 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of protective service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      9.9 90.1

      Driving

      62.7 37.3

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      68.0 32.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Transportation and material moving occupations (PDF)
    •  This occupational group includes airline pilots, flight attendants, bus drivers, taxi drivers, chauffeurs, locomotive engineers, railroad conducts, ship engineers, parking lot attendants, crane operators, recyclable material collectors, mine shuttle car operators, and ship loaders.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 48.7 percent of transportation and material moving workers, and work was reviewed once per day for 32.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of transportation and material moving workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      30.9 69.1

      Interaction with the general public

      61.1 38.9

      Working around crowds

      2.0 98.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      4.8 95.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      57.6 42.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 30.0 percent of transportation and material moving workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 88.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 89.4 percent of transportation and material moving workers, extreme heat was not present for 98.6 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.1 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 22.4 percent of transportation and material moving workers and not present for 77.6 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 5.9 percent of transportation and material moving workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 62.1 percent of workers and 23.7 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of transportation and material moving workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      5.9 94.1

      Driving

      62.1 37.9

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      23.7 76.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
  • Technical note
    • The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) is conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The ORS is an establishment-based survey and provides job-related information about the physical demands; environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as well as cognitive and mental requirements of jobs in the U.S. economy. Job requirements do not include modifications or adjustments to a job or change in the work environment that enables a person with a disability to compete equally or carry out the occupational critical tasks in support of the critical job functions.

      Additional estimates for detailed occupations and occupational groups are available at www.bls.gov/ors/data.htm.

      Sample size

      For information regarding the sample size see the technical note in the current News Release. The ORS Handbook of Methods provides information on the sample design.

      Measures of reliability

      To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors are available for each estimate. For more information on standard errors see: www.bls.gov/ors/se.htm.

      Occupational classification

      BLS uses the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to code and publish occupations to the 6-digit level of detail. The occupational groups in this publication reflect the 2-digit aggregation of occupations as defined using the 2018 SOC. Military specific occupations (55-0000.00) are out of scope for the ORS.

      Definitions of major terms

      The complete list of terms is available within the ORS 2020-2021 collection manual and ORS Handbook of Methods. The glossary below contains some major terms used in these occupational group profiles.

      General terms

      • Civilian workers – includes private industry and state and local government workers. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed.
      • Critical job function - This is the main purpose and the primary pay factor for the job. It consists of critical tasks that are integral to the job.
      • Critical tasks - Activities workers must perform to carry out their critical job function(s).
      • Duration levels:
        • Seldom – up to 2 percent of the workday
        • Occasionally – from 2 percent up to 1/3 of the workday
        • Frequently – from 1/3 up to 2/3 of the workday
        • Constantly – from 2/3 or more of the workday
      • Job – group of workers in an establishment that have the same position. The term job refers to a single position within an establishment, whereas occupation refers to a profession or trade. Example: “waiters at Smith’s Restaurant” is a job, whereas “waiters” is an occupation.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      • Crowds - Working around crowds is present when the following five conditions are met:
        1. many unfamiliar people are present considering the space available,
        2. movement is restricted,
        3. any given arrangement of the crowd is temporary,
        4. a certain level of disorganization is present, and
        5. workers are not separated from unfamiliar people by counters, dividers, or other objects.
      • General public - Includes interacting with individuals other than coworkers to perform critical tasks.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      • Preparation time – the amount of time required by a typical worker to learn the techniques, acquire the information, and develop the facility needed for average performance in a specific job/worker situation. This is also referred to as specific vocational preparation (SVP) and is measure in nine levels from a “short demonstration” to “over 10 years”. For more information see the Calculation section of the Handbook of Methods.
      • Minimum education – the lowest level of formal coursework required in a job and excludes general education, see the Minimum formal education factsheet for more information.
      • Credentials – the amount of time needed to complete required training as a condition for hiring which may include certifications, licenses, and educational certificates.
      • On-the-job training – the amount of training time that occurs after an employee has been hired.
      • Prior work experience – the amount of prior relevant work activity. This excludes any non-vocationally specific requirements.

      Environmental conditions

      • Extreme cold – 40 degrees or below when exposed 2/3 or more of the workday or 32 degrees or below when exposed up to 2/3 of the workday.
      • Extreme heat – above 90 degrees in a dry environment or above 85 degrees in a humid environment.
      • Hazardous contaminants – exposure that negatively affects the respiratory system, eyes, skin, or other living tissue via inhalation, ingestion, or contact.
      • Noise intensity level – amount of noise that a worker experiences while working. Examples of noise level:
        • Quiet – settings such as a private office or art museum;
        • Moderate – business office, department store, fast food restaurant;
        • Loud – large earth moving equipment or can manufacturing department;
        • Very loud – rock concert or jackhammer work.
      • Outdoors – is considered present when two conditions exist, (1) a worker performs typical job duties outdoors or a worker moves between different work sites during the workday and (2) a worker is unprotected and exposed to the elements.
      • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – gear used or worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
      • Proximity to moving mechanical parts – refers to moving materials, mechanical parts, settings, or any moving objects that could cause bodily injury.
      • High and exposed places – when a worker is at risk of falling five feet or more from the worker’s center of gravity.

      Physical demands

      • Fine manipulation – touching, picking, pinching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than with the whole hand or arm.
      • Gross manipulation – seizing, holding, grasping, turning, or otherwise working with the hands; and also often present when lifting involves the hands.
      • Strength level – A job is classified into strength five levels: sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. The strength level is determined by how much weight a worker is required to lift or carry, how often they have to lift or carry that weight, as well as standing and walking in some special cases. Pushing or pulling – Pushing or pulling can be done with the hands and arms, feet and legs, or feet only. Additional detail on the calculation of strength levels is available in the Handbook of Methods.