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Occupational Requirements Survey

Occupational Requirements Survey: Occupational Profiles

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Based on the 2021 Occupational Requirements Survey

  • All workers (PDF
    •  

      This profile provides an overview of job requirements for civilian workers in the U.S. economy. Civilian workers include private industry as well as state and local government workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 38.9 percent of civilian workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 61.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of civilian workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      55.6 44.4

      Interaction with the general public

      78.1 21.9

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      9.6 90.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      15.8 84.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      64.8 35.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 47.0 percent of civilian workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 78.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 94.4 percent of civilian workers, extreme heat was not present for 95.4 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 97.6 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 34.1 percent of civilian workers and not present for 65.9 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 43.2 percent of civilian workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 25.8 percent of workers and 20.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of civilian workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      43.2 56.8

      Driving

      25.8 74.2

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      20.6 79.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Architecture and engineering occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes architects, surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, engineers, drafters, engineering technicians, electro-mechanical technicians, and mapping technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, 92.1 percent of architecture and engineering workers were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 7.9 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of architecture and engineering workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      93.8 6.2

      Interaction with the general public

      62.9 37.1

      Telework

      29.3 70.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      13.4 86.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      68.7 31.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 41.6 percent of architecture and engineering workers.

      A bachelor’s degree was the minimum formal education requirement for 69.4 percent of workers.

      Prior work experience was required for 69.2 percent. No prior work experience was required for 30.8 percent of workers.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 31.7 percent of architecture and engineering workers. Another 65.2 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity and 2.9 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 85.7 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 14.3 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 99.8 percent of architecture and engineering workers.

      For 0.8 percent of workers keyboarding was seldom performed, 27.6 percent keyboarding occurred occasionally, 66.0 percent frequently, and 5.4 percent keyboarding occurred constantly.

      On average architecture and engineering workers sat for 73.8 percent of the workday and stood for 26.2 percent of the workday.

      Performing work in low postures was not required for 72.4 percent of workers.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of architecture and engineering workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      85.5 14.5

      Driving

      34.0 66.0

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      21.9 78.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Civil engineers (PDF)
      • Two male civil engineers looking towards wooden structures with a tablet in hand.  

        Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was controlled by people for 40.1 percent of civil engineers, and work was self-paced for 55.3 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of civil engineers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        77.9 22.1

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        19.1 80.9

        Work review: Supervising others

        34.6 65.4

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        65.2 34.8

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 86.4 percent of civil engineers. Prior work experience was required for 74.4 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 46.7 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 99.6 percent of civil engineers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of civil engineers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of civil engineers were not exposed to extreme cold, and 96.7 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 94.4 percent, 99.7 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 16.9 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of civil engineers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 65.4 percent of civil engineers and was not required for 34.6 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 32.1 percent of civil engineers and was not required for 67.9 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 82.5 percent of civil engineers. On average, workers spent 77.3 percent of the workday sitting and 22.7 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Civil engineers by percent of workday sitting, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of civil engineers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        82.5 17.5

        Driving

        67.0 33.0

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        25.9 74.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Industrial engineers (PDF)
      • Industrial engineer and two coworkers looking at paper blueprint at a construction site.  

        Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was controlled by people for 34.6 percent of industrial engineers, and work was self-paced for 53.0 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of industrial engineers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        100.0 -

        Interaction with general public

        50.2 49.8

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        10.2 89.8

        Work review: Supervising others

        10.2 89.8

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        81.7 18.3

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 8.1 percent of industrial engineers. Prior work experience was required for 69.1 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 75.6 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 94.7 percent of industrial engineers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of industrial engineers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 11.5 percent of industrial engineers, and 81.5 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was used by 29.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure and was not used by 71.0 percent.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of industrial engineers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 49.1 percent of industrial engineers and was not required for 50.9 percent. For 12.5 percent of workers reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, and for 36.4 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 38.7 percent of industrial engineers and was not required for 61.3 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 87.7 percent of industrial engineers. On average, workers spent 70.5 percent of the workday sitting and 29.5 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of industrial engineers by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of industrial engineers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        87.7 12.3

        Driving

        6.6 93.4

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        24.9 75.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Mechanical engineers (PDF)
      • Man welding and robotic arm.  

        Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was controlled by people for 22.1 percent of mechanical engineers, and work was self-paced for 72.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of mechanical engineers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        67.1 32.9

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        14.1 85.9

        Work review: Supervising others

        7.8 92.2

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        78.8 21.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 17.5 percent of mechanical engineers. Prior work experience was required for 45.7 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 60.2 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 96.7 percent of mechanical engineers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of mechanical engineers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 20.8 percent of mechanical engineers, and 78.4 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was used by 7.5 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure and was not used by 92.5 percent.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of mechanical engineers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 35.9 percent of mechanical engineers and was not required for 64.1 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 15.1 percent of mechanical engineers and was not required for 84.9 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 96.9 percent of mechanical engineers. On average, workers spent 78.9 percent of the workday sitting and 21.1 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of mechanical engineers by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of mechanical engineers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        96.9 3.1

        Driving

        17.1 82.9

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        34.0 66.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes art directors, artists, fashion designers, actors, producers, directors, coaches, dancers, choreographers, musicians, singers, radio announcers, writers, editors, interpreters, sound engineering technicians, photographers, and film editors.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. In 2021, 86.2 percent of workers in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 13.8 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      74.2 25.8

      Interaction with the general public

      82.9 17.1

      Working around crowds

      10.5 89.5

      Telework

      27.3 72.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      10.4 89.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      57.8 42.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 36.5 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. A bachelor’s degree was the minimum formal education requirement for 43.9 percent of workers. Prior work experience was required for 65.2 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed. In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 21.5 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. Another 69.4 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity, 8.3 percent to a loud noise intensity, and 0.7 percent were exposed to a very loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment was not used by 98.2 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 88.0 percent of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. For 5.8 percent of workers keyboarding was seldom performed, 37.5 percent keyboarding occurred occasionally, 39.7 percent frequently, and 5.0 percent keyboarding occurred constantly. On average arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers sat for 68.5 percent of the workday and stood for 31.5 percent of the workday. Performing work in low postures was not required for 62.9 percent of workers.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      72.2 27.8

      Driving

      26.5 73.5

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      23.7 76.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Editors (PDF)
      •  

        Plan, coordinate, or edit content of material for publication. May review proposals and drafts for possible publication. Includes technical editors.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 100.0 percent of editors, and 64.4 percent were required to interact with the general public.

        Table 1. Percentage of editors with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Telework

        49.6 50.4

        Work review: Supervising others

        41.9 58.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, prior work experience was required for 92.4 percent of editors. A bachelor's degree was required for 97.5 percent of editors, and 22.6 percent required over 2 years and up to 4 years of specific vocational preparation time.

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 40.4 percent of editors, and 59.6 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

        chart 1

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 55.1 percent of editors, and performing work in low postures was not required for 99.3 percent of editors.

        On average, editors spent 92.0 percent of the workday sitting and 8.0 percent of the workday standing. A sedentary strength level was required for 97.1 percent of these workers.

  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes janitors, maids and housekeeping cleaners, pest control, landscaping, pesticide handlers, tree trimmers, and grounds maintenance workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. In 2021, 11.6 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers were required to have more than basic people skills to perform critical tasks. Basic people skills were required for 88.4 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      69.5 30.5

      Interaction with the general public

      55.5 44.5

      Working around crowds

      2.8 97.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      7.7 92.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      45.7 54.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 28.6 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers. No minimum formal education was required for 68.9 percent of workers and a high school diploma was required for 29.6 percent. Prior work experience was required for 21.8 percent. Prior work experience was not required for 78.2 percent of workers. On-the-job training was required for 91.9 percent of workers.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 15.1 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers. Another 76.0 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity and 8.1 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 76.5 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 23.5 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 10.9 percent of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers and not required for 89.1 percent. On average building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers sat for 12.2 percent of the workday and stood for 87.8 percent of the workday. Performing work in low postures was not required for 2.7 percent of workers and 97.3 percent were required to perform critical tasks in low postures. Driving was required for 35.5 percent of workers and was not required for 64.5 percent.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      10.1 89.9

      Driving

      35.5 64.5

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      42.1 57.9

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Maids and housekeeping cleaners (PDF)
      •  

        Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 51.4 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners, and once per day for 33.9 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of maids and housekeeping cleaners with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        74.6 25.4

        Interaction with general public

        79.4 20.6

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        42.9 57.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 10.6 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners. Prior work experience was required for 6.8 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 98.5 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 71.4 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.6 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 19.3 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 59.9 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, keyboarding was required for 7.8 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners and was not required for 92.2 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 100.0 percent of maids and housekeeping cleaners. For 36.5 percent of workers, stooping was required to perform low work.

        On average, maids and housekeeping cleaners spent 5.2 percent of the workday sitting and 94.8 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of maids and housekeeping cleaners with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        10.9 89.1

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        36.0 64.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Business and financial operations occupations (PDF)
    •  This occupational group includes purchasing agents, compliance officers, human resource workers, logisticians, fundraisers, market research analysts, accountants, auditors, credit counselors, and tax examiners.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 2.2 percent of business and financial operations workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 97.8 percent. For 11.9 percent of workers the work pace was consistent and generally slow. A fast work pace was required for 34.7 percent of workers, and 53.5 percent had a varying work pace.

      Table 1. Percentage of business and financial operations workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      97.3 2.7

      Interaction with general public

      79.2 20.8

      Working around crowds

      1.9 98.1

      Telework

      40.8 59.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      16.7 83.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      63.7 36.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, credentials were required for 30.3 percent of business and financial operations workers. Prior work experience was required for 81.3 percent and on-the-job training was required for 69.8 percent. A bachelor’s degree was required for 69.3 percent of workers.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, a quiet noise intensity was present for 30.5 percent of business and financial workers. Another 68.9 percent were exposed to a moderate noise intensity, and 0.5 percent to a loud noise intensity. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 98.7 percent of workers to mitigate the noise intensity, while 1.3 percent did use PPE.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, keyboarding was required for 100.0 percent of business and financial operations workers.

      On average workers spent 86.2 percent of the workday sitting and 13.8 percent of the workday standing.

      Performing work in low postures was not required for 88.0 percent of workers. Low postures were required for 12.0 percent of workers where 9.0 percent performed critical tasks in low postures seldom and 2.9 percent occasionally.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of business and financial operations workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      95.9 4.1

      Driving

      20.1 79.9

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      9.9 90.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Accountants and auditors (PDF)
      • a worker using a 10-key calculator  

        Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 95.6 percent of accountants and auditors, and basic people skills were required for 4.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of accountants and auditors with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        72.4 27.6

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        42.4 57.6

        Work review: Supervising others

        15.8 84.2

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        74.5 25.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 30.8 percent of accountants and auditors. Prior work experience was required for 72.8 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 67.4 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 92.1 percent of accountants and auditors.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 30.5 percent of accountants and auditors, and 69.3 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 46.2 percent of accountants and auditors and was not required for 53.8 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 13.5 percent of accountants and auditors and was not required for 86.5 percent.

        On average, accountants and auditors spent 91.0 percent of the workday sitting and 9.0 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of accountants and auditors with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        13.9 86.1

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        6.8 93.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Human resources specialists (PDF)
      • Male human resources specialist speaking to a group of employees sitting at a table.  

        Perform activities in the human resource area. Includes employment specialists who screen, recruit, interview, and place workers.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 99.3 percent of human resources specialists, and basic people skills were required for 0.7 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of human resources specialists with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        96.0 4.0

        Interaction with general public

        87.0 13.0

        Working around crowds

        - 99.7

        Telework

        39.2 60.8

        Work review: Supervising others

        18.3 81.7

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        62.2 37.8

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 20.2 percent of human resources specialists. Prior work experience was required for 90.3 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 73.3 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 32.5 percent of human resources specialists, and a bachelor's degree was required for 60.7 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of human resources specialists by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of human resources specialists were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 98.6 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 98.0 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of human resources specialists without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 45.0 percent of human resources specialists and was not required for 55.0 percent. For 12.4 percent of workers reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, and for 32.2 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 5.3 percent of human resources specialists and was not required for 94.7 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 99.0 percent of human resources specialists. On average, workers spent 89.5 percent of the workday sitting and 10.5 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of human resources specialists by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of human resources specialists with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        99.0 1.0

        Driving

        11.6 88.4

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        10.0 90.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Meeting, convention, and event planners (PDF)
      • Female event planner working on a laptop.  

        Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 12.0 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 75.2 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of meeting, convention, and event planners with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Working around crowds

        46.1 53.9

        Telework

        30.3 69.7

        Work review: Supervising others

        25.4 74.6

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        56.4 43.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 58.4 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners. Prior work experience was required for 85.0 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 65.1 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 60.4 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners.

      • Chart 1. Meeting, convention, and event planners by days of prior work experience, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 6.4 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners, and 78.3 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 97.2 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of meeting, convention, and event planners without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 63.8 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners and was not required for 36.2 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 32.6 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners and was not required for 67.4 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 65.3 percent of meeting, convention, and event planners.

        Table 2. Percentage of meeting, convention, and event planners with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        65.3 34.7

        Driving

        50.4 49.6

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        12.9 87.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Community and social service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes counselors, social workers, health educators, probation officers, correctional treatment specialists, community health workers, clergy, and directors of religious activities.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 99.6 percent of community and social service workers, and work was controlled by people for 77.7 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of community and social service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      82.0 18.0

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      12.5 87.5

      Work review: Supervising others

      11.0 89.0

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      42.4 57.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 63.2 percent of community and social service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 66.8 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 99.9 percent of community and social service workers were not exposed to extreme cold, 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat or heavy vibrations, and wetness was not present for 84.8 percent of these workers. Exposure to the outdoors was present for 24.3 percent of community and social service workers and not present for 75.7 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 82.7 percent of community and social service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 49.6 percent of workers and 33.1 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of community and social service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      82.7 17.3

      Driving

      49.6 50.4

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      33.1 66.9

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Community health workers (PDF)
      • Medical professional performing ear exam on a child.  

        Promote health within a community by assisting individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. Serve as an advocate for the health needs of individuals by assisting community residents in effectively communicating with healthcare providers or social service agencies. Act as liaison or advocate and implement programs that promote, maintain, and improve individual and overall community health. May deliver health-related preventive services such as blood pressure, glaucoma, and hearing screenings. May collect data to help identify community health needs.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 17.1 percent of community health workers, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 66.9 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of community health workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Telework

        20.6 79.4

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        28.4 71.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 86.8 percent of community health workers. Prior work experience was required for 75.8 percent and on-the-job training was required for 72.8 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 44.7 percent of community health workers and a bachelor's degree was required for 33.7 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of community health workers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 24.3 percent of community health workers, and 75.7 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of community health workers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 48.8 percent of community health workers and was not required for 51.2 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 31.3 percent of community health workers and was not required for 68.7 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 88.3 percent of community health workers. On average, workers spent 60.5 percent of the workday sitting and 39.5 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Community health workers by percent of workday sitting, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of community health workers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        80.6 19.4

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        32.9 67.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Mental health and substance abuse social workers (PDF)
      • Mental health professional with clipboard and pen listening to patient.  

        Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        All mental health and substance abuse social workers were required to interact with the general public and to have more than basic people skills. Work was controlled by people for 76.0 percent of these workers.

        Table 1. Percentage of mental health and substance abuse social workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        71.2 28.8

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 97.2 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers. Prior work experience was required for 86.9 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 61.7 percent.

        A master's degree was required for 90.1 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of mental health and substance abuse social workers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 10.2 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers, and 89.8 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of mental health and substance abuse social workers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 59.1 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers. For 5.6 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 14.5 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers and was not required for 85.5 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 64.4 percent of mental health and substance abuse social workers. On average, workers spent 73.3 percent of the workday sitting and 26.7 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Mental health and substance abuse social workers by percent of workday sitting, 2021  
    • Mental health counselors (PDF)
      • Group talking and sitting in a circle.  

        Counsel with emphasis on prevention. Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health. May help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 31.5 percent of mental health counselors, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 42.2 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of mental health counselors with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        14.3 85.7

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        23.7 76.3

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 81.7 percent of mental health counselors. Prior work experience was required for 44.2 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 70.6 percent.

        A master's degree was required for 82.6 percent of mental health counselors.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of mental health counselors by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 40.5 percent of mental health counselors, and 59.5 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of mental health counselors without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 41.6 percent of mental health counselors and was not required for 58.4 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was not required for 91.5 percent of mental health counselors.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 89.5 percent of mental health counselors. On average, workers spent 85.5 percent of the workday sitting and 14.5 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of mental health counselors by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of mental health counselors with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        89.5 10.5

        Driving

        26.3 73.7

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        9.1 90.9

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Computer and mathematical occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes computer and information analysts, software developers and programmers, database and systems administrators, computer support specialists, actuaries, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, and mathematical technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 4.3 percent of computer and mathematical workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 95.7 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of computer and mathematical workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      95.3 4.7

      Interaction with the general public

      51.3 48.7

      Telework

      47.6 52.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.9 87.1

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      58.8 41.2

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 82.7 percent of computer and mathematical workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 63.0 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 33.8 percent of computer and mathematical workers were exposed to quiet noise, and 66.2 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Nearly all, 99.3 percent, of computer and mathematical workers did not use personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure, and 0.7 percent did use personal protective equipment.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 90.8 percent of computer and mathematical workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 9.2 percent of workers and 5.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of computer and mathematical workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      90.8 9.2

      Driving

      9.2 90.8

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      5.6 94.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Computer user support specialists (PDF)
      • Two females and a male wearing headphones with a microphone.  

        Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, via telephone, or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 94.0 percent of computer user support specialists, and basic people skills were required for 6.0 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of computer user support specialists with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        83.1 16.9

        Interaction with general public

        66.9 33.1

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        28.0 72.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        55.6 44.4

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 35.1 percent of computer user support specialists. Prior work experience was required for 69.3 percent and on-the-job training was required for 85.0 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 41.0 percent of computer user support specialists.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of computer user support specialists by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 24.0 percent of computer user support specialists, and 76.0 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 99.9 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of computer user support specialists without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 64.9 percent of computer user support specialists and was not required for 35.1 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 53.7 percent of computer user support specialists and was not required for 46.3 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 71.5 percent of computer user support specialists. On average, workers spent 80.7 percent of the workday sitting and 19.3 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of computer user support specialists by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of computer user support specialists with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        71.5 28.5

        Driving

        24.8 75.2

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        12.5 87.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Construction and extraction occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes carpenters, laborers, equipment operators, electricians, roofers, elevator installers and repairers, earth drillers, mining machine operators, and carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 28.6 percent of construction and extraction workers, and work was reviewed more than once per day for 51.4 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of construction and extraction workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      59.0 41.0

      Interaction with the general public

      43.7 56.3

      Working around crowds

      - 99.8

      Work review: Supervising others

      18.3 81.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      68.1 31.9

      Note: Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 49.3 percent of construction and extraction workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 64.3 percent.

      chart 3

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 98.4 percent of construction and extraction workers, extreme heat was not present for 92.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 76.2 percent of workers. Exposure to the wetness was present for 41.0 percent of construction and extraction workers and not present for 59.0 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 11.2 percent of construction and extraction workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 51.9 percent of workers and 58.4 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of construction and extraction workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      11.2 88.8

      Driving

      51.9 48.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      58.4 41.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Construction laborers (PDF)
      • Two construction workers using cement drills.  

        Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments. May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 4.9 percent of construction laborers, and basic people skills were required for 95.1 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of construction laborers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        38.4 61.6

        Interaction with general public

        22.4 77.6

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        2.1 97.9

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        92.5 7.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 36.2 percent of construction laborers. Prior work experience was required for 26.2 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 80.2 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 64.9 percent of construction laborers, and a high school diploma was required for 35.1 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of construction laborers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of construction laborers were not exposed to extreme cold, and 92.5 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 51.5 percent, and 62.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of construction laborers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 100.0 percent of construction laborers.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 97.5 percent of construction laborers. For 43.5 percent of workers, crouching was required to perform low work, 43.5 percent were required to crouch, 33.5 percent required kneeling, and stooping was required for 47.1 percent.

        On average, construction laborers spent 7.3 percent of the workday sitting and 92.7 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of construction laborers by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of construction laborers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        30.9 69.1

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        44.5 55.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Educational instruction and library occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes postsecondary teachers, preschool teachers, primary school teachers, middle school teachers, self-enrichment education teachers, special education school teachers, librarians, curators, archivists, home management advisors, instructional coordinators, and teacher assistants.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 60.7 percent of educational instruction and library workers, and verbal interactions were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 36.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of educational instruction and library workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      40.6 59.4

      Interaction with the general public

      97.5 2.5

      Working around crowds

      7.0 93.0

      Telework

      4.0 96.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      9.5 90.5

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      39.7 60.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 25.4 percent of educational instruction and library workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 42.6 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.9 percent of educational instruction and library workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.7 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.6 percent of workers. Exposure to the wetness was present for 17.7 percent of educational instruction and library workers and not present for 82.3 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 71.6 percent of educational instruction and library workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 3.8 percent of workers and 19.4 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of educational instruction and library workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      71.6 28.4

      Driving

      3.8 96.2

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      19.4 80.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Librarians and media collections specialists (PDF)
      •  

        Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library's media equipment.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 16.3 percent of librarians and media collections specialists, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 69.8 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of librarians and media collections specialists with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        74.2 25.8

        Interaction with general public

        97.6 2.4

        Working around crowds

        4.6 95.4

        Work review: Supervising others

        40.7 59.3

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        51.1 48.9

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 28.2 percent of librarians and media collections specialists. Prior work experience was required for 69.4 percent and on-the-job training was required for 51.6 percent.

        A master's degree was required for 66.7 percent of librarians and media collections specialists.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of librarians and media collections specialists by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of librarians and media collections specialists were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 99.7 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 94.6 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of librarians and media collections specialists without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 92.1 percent of librarians and media collections specialists and was not required for 7.9 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 66.7 percent of librarians and media collections specialists and was not required for 33.3 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 75.9 percent of librarians and media collections specialists. On average, workers spent 57.6 percent of the workday sitting and 42.4 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of librarians and media collections specialists by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of librarians and media collections specialists with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        75.9 24.1

        Driving

        8.3 91.7

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Library technicians (PDF)
      •  

        Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 90.3 percent of library technicians, and basic people skills were required for 9.7 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of library technicians with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        78.7 21.3

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        12.1 87.9

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        77.3 22.7

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 13.0 percent of library technicians. Prior work experience was required for 79.2 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 82.0 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 68.8 percent of library technicians.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 52.7 percent of library technicians, and 47.3 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 92.6 percent of library technicians and was not required for 7.4 percent. For 75.0 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was occasionally performed, and for 9.7 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred frequently.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 63.1 percent of library technicians.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 68.0 percent of library technicians. On average, workers spent 58.0 percent of the workday sitting and 42.0 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of library technicians with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        68.0 32.0

        Driving

        6.1 93.9

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        8.5 91.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Secondary school teachers (except special and career/technical education) (PDF)
      •  

        Teach students in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies at the secondary level in public or private schools. May be designated according to subject matter specialty.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 67.0 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 33.0 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        46.8 53.2

        Working around crowds

        11.2 88.8

        Work review: Supervising others

        5.9 94.1

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        22.5 77.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 98.3 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education. Prior work experience was required for 5.9 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 38.1 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 97.9 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.9 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 92.5 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 75.7 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 74.4 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education and was not required for 25.6 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 29.2 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education and was not required for 70.8 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 76.7 percent of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education. On average, workers spent 34.9 percent of the workday sitting and 65.1 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        76.7 23.3

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        18.8 81.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (PDF)
    •  

      This occupational group includes agricultural inspectors, animal breeders, graders and sorters for agricultural products, and other miscellaneous agricultural workers like farmworkers or laborers and agricultural equipment operators. This group also includes fishing and hunting workers as well as forest, conservation, and logging workers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job. 

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 28.3 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers, and work was reviewed more than once per day for 55.2 percent of workers.

      Table 1. Percentage of farming, fishing, and forestry workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      71.8 28.2

      Working around crowds

      - 100.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      - 89.9

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      77.9 -

      Note: Dash indicates data not available.

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 27.6 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.9 percent.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, moderate noise exposure was present for 57.4 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers, and 35.3 percent were exposed to loud noise.  Exposure to wetness was present for 71.2 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers and outdoor exposure was present for 85.0 percent.

      chart 2

       Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 35.4 percent of farming, fishing, and forestry workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks, and 51.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of farming, fishing, and forestry workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      35.4 64.6

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      51.0 49.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Bartenders (PDF)
      •  

        Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 55.4 percent of bartenders, and once per day for 34.0 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of bartenders with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        33.1 66.9

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        69.3 30.7

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 44.6 percent of bartenders. Prior work experience was required for 43.8 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 96.5 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 72.2 percent of bartenders.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 80.8 percent of bartenders were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.5 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 8.0 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 68.1 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 92.9 percent of bartenders. For 4.3 percent of workers reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, for 53.3 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally, and 34.3 percent frequently.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 85.7 percent of bartenders. For 30.6 percent of workers, stooping was required to perform low work.

        On average, bartenders spent 1.5 percent of the workday sitting and 98.5 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of bartenders with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        22.4 77.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Waiters and waitresses (PDF)
      •  

        Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 71.8 percent of waiters and waitresses, and once per day for 20.0 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of waiters and waitresses with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        25.0 75.0

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Working around crowds

        21.4 78.6

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        - 99.8

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        95.5 4.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 39.2 percent of waiters and waitresses. Prior work experience was required for 26.6 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 97.9 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 79.5 percent of waiters and waitresses.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 92.3 percent of waiters and waitresses were not exposed to extreme cold, and 98.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 5.6 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 71.4 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 96.1 percent of waiters and waitresses and was not required for 3.9 percent. For 8.8 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, for 46.5 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally, 36.3 percent frequently, and 4.6 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred constantly.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 64.8 percent of waiters and waitresses and was not required for 35.2 percent. On average, waiters and waitresses spent 2.0 percent of the workday sitting and 98.0 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of waiters and waitresses with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        - 100.0

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        11.5 88.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes chiropractors, dentists, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, health diagnosing and treating practitioners, therapists, veterinarians, registered nurses, health technologists and technicians, and occupational health and safety specialists.

       

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was controlled by people for 94.8 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers, and 45.4 percent had a consistent and generally fast work pace.

      Table 1. Percentage of healthcare practitioners and technical workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      42.1 57.9

      Interaction with the general public

      96.9 3.1

      Working around crowds

      1.0 99.0

      Telework

      1.7 98.3

      Work review: Supervising others

      22.3 77.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      65.5 34.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 39.5 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 72.2 percent.

      chart 1

       Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.6 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.7 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 99.7 percent, and outdoors was not present for 99.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 76.3 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers and not present for 23.7 percent.

      chart 2

       Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 33.3 percent of healthcare practitioners and technical workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 10.0 percent of workers and 14.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of healthcare practitioners and technical workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      33.3 66.7

      Driving

      10.0 90.0

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      14.0 86.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (PDF)
      •  

        Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 43.7 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, and once per day for 36.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        29.7 70.3

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Work review: Supervising others

        17.4 82.6

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        68.0 32.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        In 2021, credentials were required for 100.0 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Prior work experience was required for 27.5 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 89.8 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 33.0 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, and an associate's degree was required for 48.3 percent.

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 10.8 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 79.2 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 96.7 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses and was not required for 3.3 percent. For 10.9 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, for 64.6 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally, and 21.2 percent frequently.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 90.9 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses and was not required for 9.1 percent. For 30.1 percent of workers, stooping was required to perform low work.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 16.4 percent of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. On average, workers spent 29.3 percent of the workday sitting and 70.7 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        16.4 83.6

        Driving

        14.2 85.8

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        15.5 84.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Registered nurses (PDF)
      •  

        Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 35.1 percent of registered nurses, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 63.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of registered nurses with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        28.8 71.2

        Interaction with general public

        99.6 -

        Work review: Supervising others

        33.3 66.7

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        64.9 35.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        In 2021, credentials were required for 99.5 percent of registered nurses. Prior work experience was required for 48.3 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 71.9 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 50.9 percent of registered nurses.

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 15.2 percent of registered nurses, and 84.8 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, keyboarding was required for 98.4 percent of registered nurses and was not required for 1.6 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 86.8 percent of registered nurses and was not required for 13.2 percent. For 31.0 percent of workers, stooping was required to perform low work.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 21.3 percent of registered nurses. On average, workers spent 30.1 percent of the workday sitting and 69.9 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of registered nurses with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        21.3 78.7

        Driving

        9.5 90.5

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        20.8 79.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Healthcare support occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes nursing, psychiatric, home health aides, occupational therapy and physical therapist assistants and aides, dental, medical, and veterinary assistants, phlebotomists, and medial transcriptionists.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 39.8 percent of healthcare support workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 60.2 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of healthcare support workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      37.6 62.4

      Interaction with the general public

      96.4 3.6

      Working around crowds

      3.6 96.4

      Telework

      0.8 99.2

      Work review: Supervising others

      1.0 99.0

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      54.7 45.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 21.3 percent of healthcare support workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.6 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 100.0 percent of healthcare support workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.8 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 100.0 percent, and outdoors was not present for 68.9 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 86.2 percent of healthcare support workers and not present for 13.8 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 20.2 percent of healthcare support workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 27.9 percent of workers and 35.6 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of healthcare support workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      20.2 79.8

      Driving

      27.9 72.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      35.6 64.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Nursing assistants (PDF)
      • Nursing assistant using a tablet.  

        Provide or assist with basic care or support under the direction of onsite licensed nursing staff. Perform duties such as monitoring of health status, feeding, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, or ambulation of patients in a health or nursing facility. May include medication administration and other health-related tasks. Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 54.9 percent of nursing assistants, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 44.2 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of nursing assistants with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        27.2 72.8

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        88.3 11.7

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 88.0 percent of nursing assistants. Prior work experience was required for 12.4 percent and on-the-job training was required for 92.7 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 70.0 percent of nursing assistants.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of nursing assistants by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of nursing assistants were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 4.6 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 80.4 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of nursing assistants with outdoor exposure and duration, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 97.9 percent of nursing assistants.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 99.2 percent of nursing assistants and was not required for 0.8 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 13.0 percent of nursing assistants. On average, workers spent 15.8 percent of the workday sitting and 84.2 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Nursing assistants by percent of workday standing, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of nursing assistants with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        13.0 87.0

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        7.1 92.9

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes computer, automated teller and office machine repairers, avionics technicians, security and fire alarm systems installers, aircraft mechanics and technicians, bus and truck mechanics, diesel engine specialists, small engine mechanics, bicycle repairers, home appliance repairers, millwrights, watch repairers, wind turbine service technicians, and riggers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 34.3 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers. Work was reviewed by a supervisor once per day for 30.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of installation, maintenance, and repair workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      69.7 30.3

      Interaction with the general public

      65.1 34.9

      Working around crowds

      0.6 99.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      15.3 84.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      53.3 46.7

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 68.6 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 74.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 80.0 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers were exposed to moderate noise, and 16.3 percent were exposed to loud noise. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure was used by 33.0 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers, and 67.0 percent did not use personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 20.5 percent of installation, maintenance, and repair workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 73.2 percent of workers and 45.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of installation, maintenance, and repair workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      20.5 79.5

      Driving

      73.2 26.8

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      45.0 55.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Aircraft mechanics and service technicians (PDF)
      •  

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Includes helicopter and aircraft engine specialists.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 14.1 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 70.8 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of aircraft mechanics and service technicians with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        72.5 27.5

        Interaction with general public

        11.2 88.8

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        6.5 93.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 95.5 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians. Prior work experience was required for 68.3 percent. A high school diploma was required for 72.9 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians.

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 90.5 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians were in the proximity of moving mechanical parts. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 43.7 percent of workers to mitigate the exposure to moving mechanical parts, while 46.7 percent did use PPE.

        chart 1

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 98.9 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians. Driving was required for 74.7 percent of these workers.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 94.3 percent of aircraft mechanics and service technicians and was not required for 5.7 percent. For 30.4 percent of workers, crawling was required to perform low work, and 44.4 percent were required to stoop.

    • Lawyers (PDF)
      • Lawyer working on a laptop .  

        Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 10.3 percent of lawyers, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 69.7 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of lawyers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Telework

        60.8 39.2

        Work review: Supervising others

        38.7 61.3

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        45.6 54.4

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, prior work experience was required for 46.5 percent of lawyers, and on-the-job training was required for 51.9 percent.

        A professional degree was required for 100.0 percent of lawyers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of lawyers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 37.6 percent of lawyers, and 62.4 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of lawyers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 44.7 percent of lawyers and was not required for 55.3 percent. For 13.9 percent of workers reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, and for 30.8 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally.

        Performing work in low postures was not required for 92.3 percent of lawyers.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 92.6 percent of lawyers. On average, workers spent 80.1 percent of the workday sitting and 19.9 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of lawyers by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of lawyers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        92.6 7.4

        Driving

        58.8 41.2

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        14.9 85.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Life, physical, and social science occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes agricultural scientists, food scientists, biological scientists, medical scientists, astronomers, physicists, chemists, hydrologists, economists, survey researchers, psychologists, sociologists, urban planners, anthropologists, archeologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and nuclear technicians.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor less than once per day, but at least once per week for 33.1 percent of life, physical, and social science workers, and work was reviewed by a supervisor less often than weekly for 36.8 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of life, physical, and social science workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      81.9 18.1

      Interaction with the general public

      69.8 30.2

      Working around crowds

      0.9 99.1

      Telework

      16.7 83.3

      Work review: Supervising others

      13.9 86.1

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      45.9 54.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 71.3 percent of life, physical, and social science workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 67.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 95.9 percent of life, physical, and social science workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.0 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 35.5 percent of life, physical, and social science workers and not present for 64.5 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 75.5 percent of life, physical, and social science workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 42.9 percent of workers and 20.5 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of life, physical, and social science workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      75.5 24.5

      Driving

      42.9 57.1

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      20.5 79.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • School psychologists (PDF)
      • Child pointing at smiley face held by school psychologist.  

        Diagnose and implement individual or schoolwide interventions or strategies to address educational, behavioral, or developmental issues that adversely impact educational functioning in a school. May address student learning and behavioral problems and counsel students or families. May design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performance. May consult with other school-based personnel.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 13.1 percent of school psychologists, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 81.1 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of school psychologists with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        70.2 29.8

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        26.3 73.7

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, prior work experience was required for 50.1 percent of school psychologists and on-the-job training was required for 31.1 percent.

        A master's degree was required for 68.6 percent of school psychologists.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of school psychologists by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 23.4 percent of school psychologists, and 76.6 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 100.0 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of school psychologists without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 69.8 percent of school psychologists and was not required for 30.2 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 30.2 percent of school psychologists and was not required for 69.8 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 86.9 percent of school psychologists. On average, workers spent 69.8 percent of the workday sitting and 30.2 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. School psychologists by percent of workday sitting, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of school psychologists with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        86.9 13.1

        Driving

        39.6 60.4

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        35.8 64.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Management occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes chief executives, general and operations managers, advertising and promotions managers, construction, administrative services managers, financial managers, industrial production managers, transportation managers, storage managers, distribution managers, compensation and benefits managers, human resources managers, training managers, development managers, and education administrators.


      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was self-paced for 60.0 percent of management workers, and for 37.1 percent work was controlled by people.

      Table 1. Percentage of management workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      97.3 2.7

      Interaction with the general public

      88.6 11.4

      Working around crowds

      2.6 97.4

      Telework

      29.6 70.4

      Work review: Supervising others

      92.7 7.3

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      33.9 66.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 95.2 percent of management workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 54.8 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 97.4 percent of management workers, extreme heat was not present for 97.9 percent, wetness was not present for 93.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.4 percent of workers. Exposure to outdoors was present for 24.0 percent of management workers and not present for 76.0 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 88.9 percent of management workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 37.3 percent of workers and 18.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3  
      Table 2. Percentage of management workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      88.9 11.1

      Driving

      37.3 62.7

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      18.0 82.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Architectural and engineering managers (PDF)
      •  

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 12.5 percent of architectural and engineering managers, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 58.5 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of architectural and engineering managers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        100.0 -

        Interaction with general public

        53.7 46.3

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        36.5 63.5

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        46.0 54.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 28.1 percent of architectural and engineering managers. On-the-job training was required for 46.5 percent.

        A bachelor's degree was required for 95.6 percent of architectural and engineering managers.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a quiet noise exposure was present for 25.0 percent of architectural and engineering managers, and 74.7 percent were exposed to moderate noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 96.7 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 63.2 percent of architectural and engineering managers and was not required for 36.8 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 10.9 percent of architectural and engineering managers and was not required for 89.1 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 92.5 percent of architectural and engineering managers. On average, workers spent 85.8 percent of the workday sitting and 14.2 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of architectural and engineering managers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        92.5 7.5

        Driving

        15.7 84.3

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        14.9 85.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Office and administrative support occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes communications equipment and computer operators, bill collectors, gaming cage workers, tellers, information and record clerks, customer service representatives, eligibility interviewers, secretaries and administrative assistants, couriers, dispatchers, data entry and information processing workers, and desktop publishers. 


      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 33.1 percent of office and administrative support workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 66.9 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of office and administrative support workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      72.4 27.6

      Interaction with the general public

      89.4 10.6

      Working around crowds

      0.7 99.3

      Telework

      9.3 90.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      8.4 91.6

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      81.9 18.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 59.8 percent of office and administrative support workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.7 percent of office and administrative support workers, extreme heat was not present for 99.9 percent, wetness was not present for 97.4 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.9 percent of workers. Exposure to outdoors was present for 5.2 percent of office and administrative support workers and not present for 94.8 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 81.3 percent of office and administrative support workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 8.3 percent of workers and 8.0 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of office and administrative support workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      81.3 18.7

      Driving

      8.3 91.7

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      8.0 92.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants (PDF)
      •  

        Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, handling information requests, and performing clerical functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

      • In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 93.2 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants, and basic people skills were required for 6.8 percent.

      • Table 1. Percentage of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        90.1 9.9

        Interaction with general public

        92.2 7.8

        Telework

        18.0 82.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        9.6 90.4

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        86.4 13.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 11.1 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants. Prior work experience was required for 93.1 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 70.7 percent. A high school diploma was required for 62.8 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 93.2 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants, and basic people skills were required for 6.8 percent.

        chart 1  

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.9 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 99.7 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 97.7 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 52.4 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants and was not required for 47.6 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 13.1 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants and was not required for 86.9 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 97.0 percent of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants. On average, workers spent 86.2 percent of the workday sitting and 13.8 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 2  
        Table 2. Percentage of executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        97.0 3.0

        Driving

        10.2 89.8

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        5.2 94.8

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Library assistants, clerical (PDF)
      •  

        Compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm. Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 45.0 percent of library assistants, clerical, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 40.5 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of library assistants, clerical with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        57.5 42.5

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        78.0 22.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, prior work experience was required for 26.7 percent of library assistants, clerical, and on-the-job training was required for 93.6 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 78.8 percent of library assistants, clerical.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of library assistants, clerical were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 100.0 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 92.6 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, keyboarding was required for 96.7 percent of library assistants, clerical. For 16.3 percent of workers keyboarding was seldom performed, for 45.6 percent keyboarding occurred occasionally, and 34.7 percent frequently.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 90.8 percent of library assistants, clerical and was not required for 9.2 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 42.0 percent of library assistants, clerical. On average, workers spent 49.0 percent of the workday sitting and 51.0 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of library assistants, clerical with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        42.0 58.0

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        14.1 85.9

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Medical secretaries and administrative assistants (PDF)
      •  

        Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures. Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 71.7 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants, and basic people skills were required for 28.3 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of medical secretaries and administrative assistants with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        55.7 44.3

        Interaction with general public

        99.5 0.5

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        2.5 97.5

        Work review: Supervising others

        3.8 96.2

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        84.5 15.5

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 6.5 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants. Prior work experience was required for 54.0 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 89.3 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 82.5 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 92.7 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 98.4 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 62.0 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants and was not required for 38.0 percent. For 24.7 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was seldom performed, and for 35.6 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred occasionally.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 15.1 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants and was not required for 84.9 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 77.9 percent of medical secretaries and administrative assistants. On average, workers spent 85.9 percent of the workday sitting and 14.1 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of medical secretaries and administrative assistants with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        77.9 22.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical, and executive) (PDF)
      •  

        Perform routine clerical and administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 24.7 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive, and were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 67.1 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        86.6 13.4

        Interaction with general public

        95.2 4.8

        Telework

        5.2 94.8

        Work review: Supervising others

        3.4 96.6

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        82.9 17.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 14.2 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive. Prior work experience was required for 67.7 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 83.1 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 81.4 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 99.3 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 94.2 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, keyboarding was required for 99.9 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive. For 23.4 percent of workers, keyboarding was occasionally performed, 73.5 percent frequently, and 2.8 percent keyboarding occurred constantly.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 21.4 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive and was not required for 78.6 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 95.0 percent of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive. On average, workers spent 84.9 percent of the workday sitting and 15.1 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        95.0 5.0

        Driving

        11.7 88.3

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        11.4 88.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Personal care and service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes animal care and service workers, entertainment attendants, funeral service workers, personal appearance workers, baggage portages, bellhops, and concierges, tour and travel guides, childcare workers, personal care aides, recreation and fitness workers, and residential advisors. 

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, verbal interactions were required constantly (every few minutes) for 53.1 percent of personal care and service workers, and verbal interactions were required not constantly, but more than once per hour for 39.1 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of personal care and service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      38.2 61.8

      Interaction with the general public

      98.4 1.6

      Working around crowds

      11.5 88.5

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.5 87.5

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      66.7 33.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 25.8 percent of personal care and service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 87.5 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed./

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 99.7 percent of personal care and service workers, extreme heat was not present for 98.3 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.7 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 60.9 percent of personal care and service workers and not present for 39.1 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 23.9 percent of personal care and service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 13.4 percent of workers and 24.3 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3

       

      Table 2. Percentage of personal care and service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      23.9 76.1

      Driving

      13.4 86.6

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      24.3 75.7

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Animal caretakers (PDF)
      • Standing and/or walking example  

        Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise provide care to promote and maintain the well-being of pets and other animals that are not raised for consumption, such as dogs, cats, race horses, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice. Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums. May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged. May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 17.3 percent of animal caretakers, and basic people skills were required for 82.7 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of animal caretakers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        63.2 36.8

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, prior work experience was required for 11.5 percent of animal caretakers and on-the-job training was required for 96.0 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 32.8 percent of animal caretakers and a high school diploma was required for 66.9 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of animal caretakers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of animal caretakers were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Heavy vibrations were not present for 100.0 percent, and 65.4 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of animal caretakers with outdoor exposure and duration, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 98.9 percent of animal caretakers.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 97.2 percent of animal caretakers.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 6.8 percent of animal caretakers. On average, workers spent 3.7 percent of the workday sitting and 96.3 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Animal caretakers by percent of workday standing, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of animal caretakers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        6.8 93.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Production occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes engine assemblers, structural metal fabricators and fitters, bakers, butchers and meat cutters, meat packers, computer-controlled machine tool operators, forging machine setters, machinists, pourers and casters, tool and die makers, printing press operators, upholsters, furniture finishers, model maters, gas plant operators, tire builders, etchers, and engravers.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, 53.6 percent of production workers had a consistent and generally fast work pace, and the work pace varied for 38.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of production workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      42.4 57.6

      Interaction with the general public

      15.3 84.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      11.3 88.7

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      85.4 14.6

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 47.6 percent of production workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 89.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 92.0 percent of production workers, extreme heat was not present for 87.7 percent, heavy vibrations were not present for 97.0 percent, and outdoors was not present for 88.2 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 33.1 percent of production workers and not present for 66.9 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 16.1 percent of production workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 13.6 percent of workers and 16.9 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of production workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      16.1 83.9

      Driving

      13.6 86.4

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      16.9 83.1

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Butchers and meat cutters (PDF)
      •   Male butcher sharpening knife at a butcher shop.
         

        Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 31.5 percent of butchers and meat cutters, and basic people skills were required for 68.5 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of butchers and meat cutters with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        21.1 78.9

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 27.4 percent of butchers and meat cutters. Prior work experience was required for 63.3 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 50.3 percent of butchers and meat cutters, and a high school diploma was required for 49.7 percent.

      • Chart 1. Butchers and meat cutters by days of prior work experience, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a moderate noise exposure was present for 97.8 percent of butchers and meat cutters. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was not used by 95.6 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of butchers and meat cutters without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021   
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 99.1 percent of butchers and meat cutters.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 94.8 percent of butchers and meat cutters.

        On average, butchers and meat cutters spent 99.7 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Butchers and meat cutters by percent of workday standing, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of butchers and meat cutters with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        - 100.0

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        - 100.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic (PDF)
      • Male worker holding a piece of metal next to a metal press.  

        Set up, operate, or tend machines to saw, cut, shear, slit, punch, crimp, notch, bend, or straighten metal or plastic material.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 13.4 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic, and basic people skills were required for 86.6 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        39.5 60.5

        Working around crowds

        - 100.0

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 19.1 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic. Prior work experience was required for 31.2 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 41.9 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic, and a high school diploma was required for 58.1 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, a moderate noise exposure was present for 81.9 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic, and 18.1 percent were exposed to loud noise. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was used by 81.1 percent of workers to mitigate noise exposure and was not used by 18.9 percent.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 86.7 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic. For 41.9 percent of workers, reaching at or below the shoulder was occasionally performed, and for 16.5 percent reaching at or below the shoulder occurred frequently.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 67.7 percent of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic and was not required for 32.3 percent.

        On average, cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic spent 15.3 percent of the workday sitting and 84.7 percent of the workday standing.

        Table 2. Percentage of cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Driving

        35.6 64.4

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Protective service occupations (PDF)
    • This occupational group includes workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention, law enforcement, and animal control, as well as private detectives and investigators, security guards, lifeguards, transportation security screeners, and crossing guards. 

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, basic people skills were required for 20.4 percent of protective service workers, and more than basic people skills were required for 79.6 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of protective service workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      13.7 86.3

      Interaction with the general public

      98.0 2.0

      Working around crowds

      46.3 53.7

      Work review: Supervising others

      12.8 87.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      42.5 57.5

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 35.3 percent of protective service workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 74.7 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, 79.8 percent of protective service workers were exposed to moderate noise, and 14.6 percent were exposed to loud noise. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise exposure was used by 9.2 percent of protective service workers, and the other 90.8 percent did not use personal protective equipment for noise exposure.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 9.9 percent of protective service workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 62.7 percent of workers and 68 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of protective service workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      9.9 90.1

      Driving

      62.7 37.3

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      68.0 32.0

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Security guards (PDF)
      •  

        Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules. May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 48.6 percent of security guards, and once per day for 30.9 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of security guards with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        14.8 85.2

        Working around crowds

        31.9 68.1

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        0.7 99.3

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        49.9 50.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 86.1 percent of security guards. Prior work experience was required for 34.1 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 96.7 percent.

        A high school diploma was required for 95.2 percent of security guards.

        chart 1

        Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 99.8 percent of security guards were not exposed to extreme cold, and 100.0 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 99.3 percent, 98.1 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 14.2 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

        chart 2

        Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 87.9 percent of security guards and was not required for 12.1 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 66.2 percent of security guards and was not required for 33.8 percent. For 38.8 percent of workers, stooping was required to perform low work.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 12.2 percent of security guards. On average, workers spent 42.2 percent of the workday sitting and 57.8 percent of the workday standing.

        chart 3
        Table 2. Percentage of security guards with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        12.2 87.8

        Driving

        45.7 54.3

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Cashiers (PDF)
      • Female cashier scanning food at a register in a market.  

        Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions. May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment. May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 12.6 percent of cashiers, and basic people skills were required for 87.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of cashiers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        3.4 96.6

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        4.0 96.0

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        89.2 10.8

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 6.6 percent of cashiers. Prior work experience was required for 2.9 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 83.1 percent of cashiers.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of cashiers by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 89.9 percent of cashiers were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.1 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 47.7 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 75.6 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of cashiers without exposure to environmental conditions, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 97.4 percent of cashiers and was not required for 2.6 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 76.3 percent of cashiers and was not required for 23.7 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 4.4 percent of cashiers. On average, workers spent 5.1 percent of the workday sitting and 94.9 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Cashiers by percent of workday standing, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of cashiers with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        4.4 95.6

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        1.8 98.2

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

    • Retail salespersons (PDF)
      • Man standing in front of and gesturing towards car  

        Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 58.9 percent of retail salespersons, and once per day for 23.4 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of retail salespersons with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        33.8 66.2

        Interaction with general public

        100.0 -

        Work review: Supervising others

        1.9 98.1

        Work review: Presence of supervisor

        86.4 13.6

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 14.2 percent of retail salespersons. Prior work experience was required for 14.8 percent, and on-the-job training was required for 96.0 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 70.2 percent of retail salespersons.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of retail salespersons by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of retail salespersons were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.9 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 86.2 percent, 99.8 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 72.1 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of retail salespersons with outdoor exposure and duration, 2021   
      • Physical demands

      • Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 95.3 percent of retail salespersons and was not required for 4.7 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 85.6 percent of retail salespersons and was not required for 14.4 percent.

        The choice to sit or stand when performing critical tasks was available to 11.9 percent of retail salespersons. On average, workers spent 13.9 percent of the workday sitting and 86.1 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Retail salespersons by percent of workday standing, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of retail salespersons with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        11.9 88.1

        Driving

        10.9 89.1

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        5.6 94.4

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Transportation and material moving occupations (PDF)
    •  This occupational group includes airline pilots, flight attendants, bus drivers, taxi drivers, chauffeurs, locomotive engineers, railroad conducts, ship engineers, parking lot attendants, crane operators, recyclable material collectors, mine shuttle car operators, and ship loaders.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in a job.

      In 2021, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 48.7 percent of transportation and material moving workers, and work was reviewed once per day for 32.0 percent.

      Table 1. Percentage of transportation and material moving workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Pace: Pause control

      30.9 69.1

      Interaction with the general public

      61.1 38.9

      Working around crowds

      2.0 98.0

      Work review: Supervising others

      4.8 95.2

      Work review: Presence of supervisor

      57.6 42.4

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in selected jobs.

      In 2021, 30.0 percent of transportation and material moving workers were required to have prior work experience and on-the-job training was required for 88.1 percent.

      chart 1

      Environmental conditions

      The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

      In 2021, exposure to extreme cold was not present for 89.4 percent of transportation and material moving workers, extreme heat was not present for 98.6 percent, and heavy vibrations were not present for 99.1 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness was present for 22.4 percent of transportation and material moving workers and not present for 77.6 percent.

      chart 2

      Physical demands

      Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in a job. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

      In 2021, 5.9 percent of transportation and material moving workers had the choice of sitting or standing to perform critical tasks. Driving was required for 62.1 percent of workers and 23.7 percent were required to climb structure related ramps or stairs.

      chart 3
      Table 2. Percentage of transportation and material moving workers with physical demands, 2021
      Requirement Yes No

      Choice of sitting or standing

      5.9 94.1

      Driving

      62.1 37.9

      Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

      23.7 76.3

      Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

       
    • Bus drivers, school (PDF)
      • Man driving a bus.  

        Drive a school bus to transport students. Ensure adherence to safety rules. May assist students in boarding or exiting.

        Cognitive and mental requirements

        The qualifications that workers need to use judgment, make decisions, interact with others, and adapt to changes in jobs.

        In 2021, more than basic people skills were required for 16.8 percent of bus drivers, school, and basic people skills were required for 83.2 percent.

        Table 1. Percentage of bus drivers, school with cognitive and mental requirements, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Pace: Pause control

        - 100.0

        Interaction with general public

        95.1 4.9

        Working around crowds

        2.9 97.1

        Telework

        - 100.0

        Work review: Supervising others

        - 100.0

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

        Education, training, and experience requirements

        The minimum level of formal education required, credentials necessary, on-the-job training, and prior work experience necessary for average performance in jobs.

        In 2021, credentials were required for 100.0 percent of bus drivers, school. Prior work experience was required for 5.8 percent and on-the-job training was required for 89.6 percent.

        No minimum education was required for 33.6 percent of bus drivers, school and a high school diploma was required for 66.4 percent.

      • Chart 1. Percentage of bus drivers, school by specific preparation time (SVP) level, 2021  
      • Environmental conditions

        The various tangible or concrete hazards or difficulties that are in the vicinity of where jobs’ critical tasks are performed.

        In 2021, 100.0 percent of bus drivers, school were not exposed to extreme cold, and 99.7 percent were not exposed to extreme heat. Wetness was not present for 82.4 percent, 100.0 percent were not exposed to heavy vibrations, and 18.7 percent were not exposed to the outdoors.

      • Chart 2. Percentage of bus drivers, school with wetness exposure and duration, 2021  
      • Physical demands

        Refer to the physical activities required to perform tasks in jobs. The presence and, in some cases, duration of these activities are published.

        In 2021, reaching at or below the shoulder was required for 92.5 percent of bus drivers, school and was not required for 7.5 percent.

        Performing work in low postures was required for 77.7 percent of bus drivers, school and was not required for 22.3 percent.

        On average, bus drivers, school spent 87.3 percent of the workday sitting and 12.7 percent of the workday standing.

      • Chart 3. Percentage of bus drivers, school by strength level requirements, 2021  
      • Table 2. Percentage of bus drivers, school with physical demands, 2021
        Requirement Yes No

        Choice of sitting or standing

        - 100.0

        Driving

        100.0 -

        Climbing structure-related ramps or stairs

        19.9 80.1

        Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

  • Technical note
    • The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) is conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The ORS is an establishment-based survey and provides job-related information about the physical demands; environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as well as cognitive and mental requirements of jobs in the U.S. economy. Job requirements do not include modifications or adjustments to a job or change in the work environment that enables a person with a disability to compete equally or carry out the occupational critical tasks in support of the critical job functions.

      Additional estimates for detailed occupations and occupational groups are available at www.bls.gov/ors/data.htm.

      Sample size

      For information regarding the sample size see the technical note in the current News Release. The ORS Handbook of Methods provides information on the sample design.

      Measures of reliability

      To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors are available for each estimate. For more information on standard errors see: www.bls.gov/ors/se.htm.

      Occupational classification

      BLS uses the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to code and publish occupations to the 6-digit level of detail. The occupational groups in this publication reflect the 2-digit aggregation of occupations as defined using the 2018 SOC. Military specific occupations (55-0000.00) are out of scope for the ORS.

      Definitions of major terms

      The complete list of terms is available within the ORS 2020-2021 collection manual and ORS Handbook of Methods. The glossary below contains some major terms used in these occupational group profiles.

      General terms

      • Civilian workers – includes private industry and state and local government workers. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed.
      • Critical job function - This is the main purpose and the primary pay factor for the job. It consists of critical tasks that are integral to the job.
      • Critical tasks - Activities workers must perform to carry out their critical job function(s).
      • Duration levels:
        • Seldom – up to 2 percent of the workday
        • Occasionally – from 2 percent up to 1/3 of the workday
        • Frequently – from 1/3 up to 2/3 of the workday
        • Constantly – from 2/3 or more of the workday
      • Job – group of workers in an establishment that have the same position. The term job refers to a single position within an establishment, whereas occupation refers to a profession or trade. Example: “waiters at Smith’s Restaurant” is a job, whereas “waiters” is an occupation.

      Cognitive and mental requirements

      • Crowds - Working around crowds is present when the following five conditions are met:
        1. many unfamiliar people are present considering the space available,
        2. movement is restricted,
        3. any given arrangement of the crowd is temporary,
        4. a certain level of disorganization is present, and
        5. workers are not separated from unfamiliar people by counters, dividers, or other objects.
      • General public - Includes interacting with individuals other than coworkers to perform critical tasks.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      • Preparation time – the amount of time required by a typical worker to learn the techniques, acquire the information, and develop the facility needed for average performance in a specific job/worker situation. This is also referred to as specific vocational preparation (SVP) and is measure in nine levels from a “short demonstration” to “over 10 years”. For more information see the Calculation section of the Handbook of Methods.
      • Minimum education – the lowest level of formal coursework required in a job and excludes general education, see the Minimum formal education factsheet for more information.
      • Credentials – the amount of time needed to complete required training as a condition for hiring which may include certifications, licenses, and educational certificates.
      • On-the-job training – the amount of training time that occurs after an employee has been hired.
      • Prior work experience – the amount of prior relevant work activity. This excludes any non-vocationally specific requirements.

      Environmental conditions

      • Extreme cold – 40 degrees or below when exposed 2/3 or more of the workday or 32 degrees or below when exposed up to 2/3 of the workday.
      • Extreme heat – above 90 degrees in a dry environment or above 85 degrees in a humid environment.
      • Hazardous contaminants – exposure that negatively affects the respiratory system, eyes, skin, or other living tissue via inhalation, ingestion, or contact.
      • Noise intensity level – amount of noise that a worker experiences while working. Examples of noise level:
        • Quiet – settings such as a private office or art museum;
        • Moderate – business office, department store, fast food restaurant;
        • Loud – large earth moving equipment or can manufacturing department;
        • Very loud – rock concert or jackhammer work.
      • Outdoors – is considered present when two conditions exist, (1) a worker performs typical job duties outdoors or a worker moves between different work sites during the workday and (2) a worker is unprotected and exposed to the elements.
      • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – gear used or worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
      • Proximity to moving mechanical parts – refers to moving materials, mechanical parts, settings, or any moving objects that could cause bodily injury.
      • High and exposed places – when a worker is at risk of falling five feet or more from the worker’s center of gravity.

      Physical demands

      • Fine manipulation – touching, picking, pinching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than with the whole hand or arm.
      • Gross manipulation – seizing, holding, grasping, turning, or otherwise working with the hands; and also often present when lifting involves the hands.
      • Strength level – A job is classified into strength five levels: sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. The strength level is determined by how much weight a worker is required to lift or carry, how often they have to lift or carry that weight, as well as standing and walking in some special cases. Pushing or pulling – Pushing or pulling can be done with the hands and arms, feet and legs, or feet only. Additional detail on the calculation of strength levels is available in the Handbook of Methods.