Occupational Requirements Survey

Occupational Requirements Survey: Occupational Profiles

Based on the 2018 Occupational Requirements Survey

  • All workers

    This profile offers an overview of all workers in the United States economy.

    All workersJob requirements for all workers
    Job requirements for all workers, 2018
    Requirement Estimate

    Bachelor’s degree

    17.9%

    Traditional keyboarding

    63.3%

    Outdoor exposure

    33.3%

    Physical requirements

    The maximum average weight lifted by workers in 2018 was 27 pounds. A medium strength level was required for 35.5 percent of workers. Sedentary and light strength level were also prevalent (26.6 percent each).

    Near visual acuity was required for almost all (98.8 percent) workers. Far visual acuity was required for 35.6 percent of workers, while peripheral vision was required for 34.2 percent.

    Most workers (81.9 percent) were required to reach at or below the shoulder, while 44.5 percent were required to reach overhead.

    Environmental conditions

    Outdoor work was required for 33.3 percent of workers. The majority of workers (75.1 percent) experienced a moderate noise intensity level.

    Most workers were not exposed to various environmental conditions such as humidity (98.9 percent), heavy vibrations (97.2 percent), extreme heat (94.8 percent), extreme cold (94.2 percent), hazardous contaminants (91.4 percent), or high, exposed places (89.8 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    The most common requirement for minimum education level was high school diploma, where 40.7 percent of workers had this requirement. There was no minimum education level required for 31.5 percent of workers, and a bachelor’s degree was required for 17.9 percent of workers.

    Less than half of workers (47.0 percent) were required to have prior work experience. Pre-employment training was required for 33.0 percent of workers.

  • Architecture and engineering occupations

    This occupational group includes architects, surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, engineers, drafters, engineering technicians, electro-mechanical technicians, and mapping technicians.

    Architecture and engineering occupationsJob requirements for architecture and engineering occupations
    Job requirements for architecture and engineering occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds required

    22.5%

    On-the-job training required

    59.9%

    Sedentary strength

    48.9%

    Physical requirements

    A sedentary strength level is required for 48.9 percent of workers, a light strength level is required for 21.9 percent of workers, and a medium strength level is required for 22.9 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulders is required for 65.8 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 26.0 percent of workers. All (100.0 percent) workers are required to perform fine manipulation and 99.7 percent of workers are required to perform gross manipulation.

    Environmental conditions

    Working in high and exposed places is a requirement for 17.5 percent of workers. The use of personal protective equipment to mitigate risk associated with this exposure is required for 9.2 percent of workers. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is required for 17.1 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 64.5 percent of workers, a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 30.1 percent of workers, and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 5.4 percent of workers.

    Most workers are not exposed to extreme cold (98.5 percent) or extreme heat (96.4 percent). Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds is a requirement for 22.5 percent of workers and climbing ramps or stairs for work-related tasks is a requirement for 21.6 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    Prior work experience is required for 74.4 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 59.9 percent of workers. The preparation time necessary for workers is greater than four years but less than or equal to 10 years for 42.8 percent of workers.

  • Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

    This occupational group includes art directors, artists, fashion designers, actors, producers, directors, coaches, dancers, choreographers, musicians, singers, radio announcers, writers, editors, interpreters, sound engineering technicians, photographers, and film editors.

    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupationsJob requirements for arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations
    Job requirements for arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Prior work experience required

    67.3%

    Outdoor exposure

    32.3%

    Stooping

    34.5%

    Physical requirements

    Reaching overhead is required for 35.1 percent of workers and reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 64.6 percent of workers. A sedentary strength level is required for 47.7 percent of workers, light work is required for 23.3 of workers, and medium work is required for 20.7 percent of workers. Gross manipulation is required for 97.9 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 92.5 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 34.5 percent of workers and kneeling is required for 18.8 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 64.8 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 26.4 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness is experienced by 10.5 percent of workers and exposure to high and exposed places is experienced by 9.1 percent of workers. Exposure to the outdoors is required for 32.3 percent of workers. Workers are not exposed (100.0 percent) to extreme cold or extreme heat.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is required for 34.6 percent of workers. An associate’s degree is required for 4.1 percent of workers. There is no minimum education requirement for 21.0 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 67.3 percent of workers and pre-employment training is required for 20.7 percent of workers.

    • Editors

      Editors plan, review, and revise content for publication.

      EditorsJob requirements for editors
      Job requirements for editors, 2018
      Requirement Estimate

      Bachelor’s degree

      67.2%

      Not exposed to hazardous contaminants

      98.9%

      Fine manipulation required

      96.3%

      Physical requirements

      Fine manipulation (96.3 percent) and gross manipulation (99.5 percent) are both required for the vast majority of editors. The average maximum weight lifted by these workers is about 11 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder is not required for 59.5 percent of workers, while reaching overhead is not required for 97.0 percent.

      Environmental conditions

      Editors are rarely exposed to extreme cold (99.3 percent), extreme heat (99.8 percent), hazardous contaminants (98.9 percent), high, exposed places (99.8 percent), or humidity (99.8 percent). The majority (80.1 percent) of these workers are also not exposed to the outdoors either.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      The most common minimum education level required for this occupation is a bachelor’s degree (67.2 percent). On-the-job training is required for 68.8 percent of workers. The average time of prior work experience required for these workers is about 3 and a half years (1,305 days). Total preparation time necessary for 34.0 percent of writers is more than 2 years and up to and including 4 years while 61.4 percent are required to have more than 4 years and up to 10 years of preparation time.

  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

    This occupational group includes janitors, maids and housekeeping cleaners, pest control, landscaping, pesticide handlers, tree trimmers, and grounds maintenance workers.

    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupationsJob requirements for building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations
    Job requirements for building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Crouching required

    67.7%

    Exposure to wetness

    77.1%

    Prior work experience required

    24.3%

    Physical requirements

    Crouching is required for 67.7 percent of workers, and pushing or pulling with both hands and arms is required for 45.9 percent of workers. A medium strength level is required for 62.3 percent of workers, a light strength level is required for 24.6 percent of workers, and a heavy strength level is required for 8.7 percent of workers. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 39 pounds. Reaching overhead with both hands is required for 67.6 percent of workers and reaching at or below shoulders with both hands is required for 93.7 percent of workers. Traditional keyboarding is not required for 91.1 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to wetness is experienced by 77.1 percent of workers. Exposure to hazardous contaminants is present for 20.2 percent of workers, with 17.4 percent of workers required to use personal protective equipment to mitigate this exposure. A quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 19.9 percent of workers, a moderate noise intensity level experienced by 71.5 percent of workers, and a loud noise level is experienced by 8.5 percent of workers. Workers are almost never exposed to extreme cold (99.4 percent) or extreme heat (97.9 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no minimum education requirement for 70.5 percent of workers and a high school diploma is required for 27.8 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 24.3 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 10.9 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 85.6 percent of workers.

    • Maids and housekeeping cleaners

      Maids and housekeeping cleaners perform a variety of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.

      Maids and housekeeping cleanersJob requirements for maids and housekeeping cleaners
      Job requirements for maids and housekeeping cleaners, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Reaching overhead required

      91.4%

      Exposure to the outdoors

      36.1%

      High school diploma

      22.6%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0) maids and housekeeping cleaners are required to perform gross manipulation. Fine manipulation is required for 96.3 percent of workers. Reaching overhead is required for 91.4 percent of workers and reaching at or below shoulders is required for 96.4 percent of workers. The majority of (67.9 percent) of maids and housekeeping cleaners are required to crouch. Crawling is required for 12.0 percent of workers. A medium strength level is required for 57.4 percent of workers and the average maximum weight lifted or carried is about 26 pounds.

      Environmental conditions

      Workers are never (100.0) exposed to extreme cold, extreme heat or humidity. Heavy vibrations are not experienced by 99.6 percent of workers. Hazardous contaminants are not present in 92.4 percent of jobs and 7.5 percent of workers use personal protective equipment to mitigate risk associated with this exposure. Most (87.4 percent) workers are exposed to wetness and 63.9 percent are not exposed to the outdoors.

      A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by the majority (67.9 percent) of workers. A quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 31.8 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      No minimum education is required for 77.4 percent of workers. A high school diploma is required for some (22.6 percent) workers. Literacy is required for 62.1 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 10.9 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 94.7 percent of workers.

  • Business and financial operations occupations

    This occupational group includes purchasing agents, compliance officers, human resource workers, logisticians, fundraisers, market research analysts, accountants, auditors, credit counselors, and tax examiners.

    Business and financial operations occupationsJob requirements for business and financial operations occupations
    Job requirements for business and financial operations occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Sedentary strength

    81.4%

    Moderate noise intensity level

    63.0%

    Bachelor’s degree

    69.5%

    Physical requirements

    Workers are required to lift an average maximum weight of about 7 pounds. A sedentary strength level is required for 81.4 percent of workers, a light strength level is required for 14.0 percent of workers, and a medium strength level is required for 3.9 percent of workers. Near visual acuity is a requirement for all (100.0 percent) workers and verbal communication is required for 98.9 percent of workers. Gross manipulation is required for 99.4 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 98.5 percent of workers. Keeling is not required for 96.3 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 14.2 percent of workers. Traditional keyboarding is required for 99.7 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 63.0 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 36.1 percent of workers. Workers are never (100.0 percent) exposed to heavy vibrations. Most workers are not exposed to high and exposed places (98.3 percent), hazardous contaminants (99.2 percent), extreme heat (99.9 percent), extreme cold (99.8 percent), or wetness (99.0 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A bachelor’s degree is required for 69.5 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 23.1 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 64.0 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 82.2 percent of workers. Pre-employment certification is required for 4.3 percent of workers and a pre-employment license is required for 13.6 percent of workers.

  • Community and social services occupations

    This occupational group includes counselors, social workers, health educators, probation officers, correctional treatment specialists, community health workers, clergy, and directors of religious activities.

    Community and social services occupationsJob requirements for community and social services occupations
    Job requirements for community and social service occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Frequent verbal communication

    62.2%

    Exposure to wetness

    10.4%

    Bachelor’s degree

    46.8%

    Physical requirements

    Frequent verbal communication is required for 62.2 percent of workers and occasional verbal communication is required for 33.7 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 63.7 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 11.8 percent of workers. Traditional keyboarding is required for 95.2 percent of workers, with 46.6 percent required to keyboard occasionally and 40.2 percent required to keyboard frequently.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 78.0 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 21.8 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness is experienced by 10.4 percent of workers. Workers are almost never exposed to humidity (99.7 percent), extreme cold (99.4 percent) or extreme heat (99.7 percent), and are never (100.0 percent) exposed to heavy vibrations. Exposure to the outdoors is present for 24.5 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A minimum education requirement of a bachelor’s degree is required 46.8 percent of workers and a master’s degree is required for 25.6 percent of workers. A high school diploma is required for 19.0 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 66.1 percent of workers. A pre-employment certification is required for 9.9 percent of workers and a pre-employment license is required for 24.6 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 67.1 percent of workers.

  • Computer and mathematical occupations

    This occupational group includes computer and information analysts, software developers and programmers, database and systems administrators, computer support specialists, actuaries, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, and mathematical technicians.

    Computer and mathematical occupationsJob requirements for computer and mathematical occupations
    Job requirements for computer and mathematical occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Traditional keyboarding

    100.0%

    On-the-job training

    54.3%

    Quiet noise intensity level

    46.2%

    Physical requirements

    Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 8 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder with both hands is required for 46.4 percent of workers. Traditional keyboarding is required for all (100.0 percent) workers. Kneeling is required for 10.4 percent of workers, crouching is required for 9.8 percent of workers, and crawling is required for 4.8 percent of workers. A sedentary strength level is present for 81.6 percent of workers, a light strength level is required for 8.9 percent of workers, and a medium strength level is required for 8.0 percent of workers. Fine manipulation is required for 97.5 percent of workers and gross manipulation is required for 96.1 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 53.8 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 46.2 percent of workers. Exposure to heavy vibrations is never (100.0) experienced by workers. Most workers are not exposed to hazardous contaminants (99.9 percent), humidity (99.9 percent), wetness (99.3 percent), moving mechanical parts (99.7 percent), or extreme heat (98.9 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A bachelor’s degree is required for 70.2 percent of workers. A high school diploma is required for 15.1 percent of workers and an associate’s degree is required for 7.7 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 88.6 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 12.5 percent of workers and on-the-job-training is required for 54.3 percent of workers.

  • Construction and extraction occupations

    This occupational group includes carpenters, laborers, equipment operators, electricians, roofers, elevator installers and repairers, earth drillers, mining machine operators, and carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers.

    Construction and extraction occupationsJob requirements for construction and extraction occupations
    Job requirements for construction and extraction occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimates

    Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds

    80.3%

    No minimum education

    51.7%

    Exposure to heavy vibrations

    29.7%

    Physical requirements

    A medium strength level is required for 46.8 percent of workers, a heavy strength level is required for 38.5 percent of workers, and a light strength level is required for 8.6 percent of workers. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 57 pounds. All (100.0 percent) workers have a job requirement of gross manipulation. Gross manipulation is required occasionally for 7.2 percent of workers, frequently for 45.4 percent of workers, and constantly for 47.0 percent of workers. Fine manipulation is required for 94.7 of workers. Fine manipulation is required occasionally for 53.5 percent of workers, seldom for 19.3 percent of workers, and frequently for 18.0 percent of workers. Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds is required for 80.3 percent of workers and climbing ramps or stairs is required for 47.0 percent of workers. The abilities to reach at or below the shoulder is required for 97.0 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 82.5 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    About three-fourths of workers (76.1 percent) experience high exposed places, 63.1 percent of workers are required to be in proximity to moving mechanical parts, and 29.7 percent of workers are exposed to heavy vibrations. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 56.4 percent of workers and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 39.9 percent of workers. Workers are rarely exposed to extreme cold (98.3 percent), extreme heat (87.1 percent), or humidity (97.8 percent). Exposure to the outdoors is experienced by 92.3 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no minimum education requirement for 51.7 percent of workers. Literacy is required for 41.0 percent of workers with no minimum education requirement. A high school diploma is the minimum education requirement for 45.2 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 52.9 percent of workers, pre-employment training is required for 41.7 percent of workers, and on-the-job training is required for 60.6 percent of workers.

  • Education, training, and library occupations

    This occupational group includes postsecondary teachers, preschool teachers, primary school teachers, middle school teachers, self-enrichment education teachers, special education school teachers, librarians, curators, archivists, home management advisors, instructional coordinators, and teacher assistants.

    Education, training, and library occupationsJob requirements for education, training, and library occupations
    Job requirements for education, training, and library occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Frequent verbal communication

    72.7%

    Moderate noise intensity level

    90.1%

    On-the-job training

    50.1%

    Physical requirements

    Traditional keyboarding is required for 92.3 percent of workers. Communicating verbally occurs constantly for 12.1 percent of workers, occasionally for 14.4 percent of workers, and frequently for 72.7 percent of workers. A light strength level is present for 71.1 percent of workers, sedentary strength level for 14.2 of workers percent, and a medium strength level for 13.8 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 80.4 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 33.3 percent of workers. Kneeling is required for 21.1 percent of workers, crouching is required for 26.9 percent of workers, and crawling is required for 2.5 percent of workers. Gross manipulation is required for 99.3 percent of workers and fine manipulation is a requirement for 99.1 percent of workers. The ability to hear in a group or conference is required for 98.7 percent of workers and hearing on the telephone is required for 80.8 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 90.1 percent of workers, a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 7.8 percent of workers, and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 2.1 percent of workers. Exposure to the outdoors is present for 40.3 percent of workers. Workers are almost never exposed to hazardous contaminants (99.1 percent), extreme heat (99.8 percent), extreme cold (99.8 percent), humidity (100.0 percent), heavy vibrations (99.8 percent), exposed high places (99.8 percent), and proximity to moving mechanical parts (99.5 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A bachelor’s degree is required for 59.2 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 24.8 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 64.9 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 50.1 percent of workers.

    • Secondary school teachers (except special and career/technical education)

      Secondary school teachers help prepare students for life after graduation. They teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market.

      Secondary school teachers (except special and career/technical education)Job requirements for secondary school teachers (except special and career/technical education)
      Job requirements for secondary school teachers (except special and career/technical education), 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Peripheral vision

      27.4%

      Moderate noise intensity level

      96.9%

      On-the-job training

      46.4%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0 percent) workers are required to be able to hear one-on-one, hear in a group/conference, and have near visual acuity. Fine manipulation is required for 98.8 percent of workers and gross manipulation is required for 98.8 percent of workers. All (100.0 percent) workers need to be able to communicate verbally: 80.7 percent are required communicate verbally frequently and 14.6 percent are required to communicate verbally constantly. Traditional keyboarding is required for all (100.0 percent) workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 72.8 percent of workers. Peripheral vision is required for 27.4 percent of workers and far visual acuity is required for 45.3 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted/carried by workers is about 10 pounds.

      Environmental conditions

      Moderate noise intensity levels are experienced by 96.9 percent of workers. The majority of workers are not exposed to humidity (100 percent), extreme cold (100 percent), extreme heat (100 percent), heavy vibrations (100 percent), or high, exposed places (100 percent). Exposure to the outdoors is not present for 78.8 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness is not required for 93.8 percent of workers and proximity to moving mechanical parts is not present in 99.8 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A bachelor’s degree is the minimum education requirement for 97.4 percent of workers. Prior work experience is not required for 91.2 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 91.3 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 46.4 percent of workers.

    • Librarians

      Librarians work in a variety of settings including educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, healthcare providers and libraries. Librarians’ tasks may include selecting, cataloguing, classifying, and maintaining library materials. They furnish reference, bibliographical, and readers’ advisory services. They may perform in-depth, strategic research, and filter information. They may also set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.

      LibrariansJob requirements for librarians
      Job requirements for librarians, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Reaching overhead

      70.0%

      Quite noise intensity level

      34.7%

      Master's degree

      52.7%

      Physical requirements

      A light strength level is required for 63.4 percent of workers. Workers carry an average maximum weight of about 15 pounds. Most workers (88.1 percent) are not required to climb ladders, ropes, or scaffolds, climb ramps or stairs (83.0 percent), or crouch (83.5 percent). Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 94.3 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 70.0 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 72.2 percent of workers. Pushing and pulling with hands and arms are not required for 76.9 percent of workers. Kneeling was not required for 75.3 percent of workers.

      Gross manipulation is required for all (100.0 percent) workers, with 72.4 percent of workers performing gross manipulation occasionally. All workers (100.0 percent) are required to use a traditional keyboard and 47.7 percent are required to keyboard frequently. All workers are required to communicate verbally and about half (58.3 percent) communicate verbally occasionally.

      Environmental conditions

      One-hundred percent of librarians are not exposed to extreme cold, extreme heat, humidity, wetness, hazardous contaminants, proximity to moving parts, or heavy vibrations on the job. Working in high and exposed places is not a requirement for 95.5 percent of workers. Exposure to the outdoors is not experienced by 98.0 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 65.3 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 34.7 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A master’s degree is required for 52.7 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 38.7 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 51.9 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 51.6 percent of workers.

    • Library technicians

      Library technicians assist patrons, organize library materials and information, and perform clerical and administrative tasks. Some of their duties include shelving, cataloguing and maintaining library materials. They may also register new patrons and issue library cards, answer routine reference questions, teach patrons how to use library resources, perform routine clerical tasks such as answering phones and organizing files. They may help plan and participate in special programs, such as used-book sales, story times, or outreach programs.

      Library techniciansJob requirements for library technicians
      Job requirements for library technicians, 2018
      Requirement Estimate

      Light strength level

      60.6%

      Quiet noise intensity level

      56.0%

      Bachelor’s degree

      27.3%

      Physical requirements

      Gross manipulation with both hands is required for 97.1 percent of workers. A light strength level is required for 60.6 percent of workers, and lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 18 pounds. All (100.0 percent) workers are required to use a traditional keyboard.

      Environmental conditions

      Workers are not exposed (100.0 percent) to extreme heat or cold, heavy vibrations, or proximity to moving parts. Exposure to wetness is not experienced by 89.5 percent of workers. A quite noise intensity level is present for 56.0 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 49.1 percent of workers and a bachelor’s is required for 27.3 percent. On-the-job training is required for most (59.7 percent) workers. For those jobs that require prior work experience, about two years and two months of prior work experience is required (793 days).

  • Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

    This occupational group includes agricultural inspectors, animal breeders, graders and sorters for agricultural products, and other miscellaneous agricultural workers like farmworkers or laborers and agricultural equipment operators. This group also includes fishing workers, hunters and trappers, forest and conservation workers, and logging workers.

    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupationsJob requirements for farming, fishing, and forestry occupations
    Job requirements for farming, fishing, and forestry occupations, 2018
    Requirement Estimate

    Reaching overhead

    61.5%

    Exposure to the outdoors

    71.1%

    Pre-employment training

    27.2%

    Physical requirements

    A medium strength level is required for 50.3 percent of workers. Gross manipulation with both hands is required for the majority (91.4 percent) of workers. The average maximum weight required to be lifted or carried is about 37 pounds. Overhead reaching is required for 61.5 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 70.3 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness is present for 42.0 percent of workers and exposure to the outdoors is experienced by 71.1 percent of workers. Conditions requiring work in high, exposed places are required for 27.9 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no minimum education requirement for 64.4 percent of workers. Literacy is required for 43.3 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 46.4 percent of workers, while pre-employment training is required for 27.2 percent.

  • Food preparation and serving-related occupations

    This occupational group includes chefs, cooks, bartenders, dishwashers, waiters, waitresses, food servers, hosts, and hostesses.

    Food preparation and serving-related occupationsJob requirements for food preparation and serving-related occupations
    Requirements for food preparation and serving-related occupations, 2018
    Occupational Requirement Estimate

    Crouching

    35.9%

    Exposure to wetness

    96.1%

    Prior work experience

    22.7%

    Physical requirements

    The average maximum weight lifted or carried workers is 27 pounds. A medium strength level is required for 56.0 percent of workers and a light strength level is required for 39.7 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    About 37.7 percent of workers experience exposure to extreme cold and 23.7 percent experience exposure to extreme heat. Wetness is present for 96.1 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 90.6 percent of workers and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 8.4 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no minimum education requirement for 81.4 percent of workers. Literacy is required for 75.5 percent of these workers while literacy is not required for the remaining 5.9 percent. Prior work experience is required for 22.7 percent of workers and on average the length is about a year and three months (about 453 days). On-the-job training is a requirement for 93.4 percent of workers.

    • Bartenders

      Bartenders mix and serve drinks, either directly to customers or through wait staff. Bartenders must know a variety of drink recipes and are typically employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, clubs, and other food service and drinking establishments.

      BartendersJob requirements for bartenders
      Job requirements for bartenders, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Climbing ramps or stairs

      18.1%

      Exposure to extreme cold

      24.8%

      On-the-job training

      95.7%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0 percent) bartenders are required to communicate verbally and perform gross manipulation. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 99.5 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 98.1 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 83.3 percent of workers. On average, workers are required to lift or carry a maximum weight of about 30 pounds.

      Environmental conditions

      All (100.0 percent) bartenders are exposed to wetness. Exposure to the outdoors is required for 31.0 percent of workers, with 24.8 percent exposed to extreme cold and 3.7 percent exposed to extreme heat. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 83.0 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      There is no minimum education requirement for 71.6 percent of workers. Literacy is required for 70.1 percent of workers. Average prior work experience for workers is over a year, about 421 days.

    • Waiters and waitresses

      Waiters and waitresses take orders and serve food and beverages to customers in dining establishments.

      Waiters and waitressesJob requirements for waiters and waitresses
      Job requirements for waiters and waitresses, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Stooping

      69.6%

      Exposure to the outdoors

      31.3%

      Literacy

      83.6%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0 percent) waiters and waitresses have to be able to communicate verbally, and perform gross and fine manipulation. The average maximum weight lifted is about 21 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder level with both hands is required for 89.0 percent of workers, and reaching overhead with both hands is required for 29.5 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      Exposure to wetness is experienced by 95.4 percent of workers. Humidity is not experienced by 99.3 percent of workers and high, exposed places, heavy vibrations, and work in proximity to moving mechanical parts are not experienced by any (100.0 percent) workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 91.6 percent of workers and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 8.2 percent of workers. Extreme heat is not experienced by 97.0 percent of workers and extreme cold is not experienced by 91.0 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      There is no minimum education requirement for 85.0 percent of workers and a high school diploma is required for 15.0 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is not required for 76.0 percent of workers, while prior work experience is required for 25.8 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 97.8 percent of workers.

  • Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    This occupational group includes chiropractors, dentists, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, health diagnosing and treating practitioners, therapists, veterinarians, registered nurses, health technologists and technicians, and occupational health and safety specialists.

    Healthcare practitioners and technical occupationsJob requirements for healthcare practitioners and technical occupations
    Job requirements for healthcare practitioners and technical occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Reaching at or below the shoulder

    92.0%

    Exposure to hazardous contaminants

    12.7%

    Bachelor’s degree

    27.5%

    Physical requirements

    Communicating verbally is required for 99.3 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 73.6 percent of workers, and kneeling is required for 32.1 percent of workers. Traditional keyboarding is required for 96.2 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted or carried by workers is about 37 pounds.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to wetness is experienced by 75.5 percent of workers and 11.3 percent experience exposure to the outdoors. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 76.1 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 21.9 percent of workers. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise is not required for 98.3 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    The average length of prior work experience necessary to perform the job is a little under two years (about 655 days). The minimum education level required is a bachelor’s degree for 27.5 percent of workers, a high school diploma for 20.5 percent of workers, and an associate’s for 15.7 percent of workers.

    • Registered nurses

      Registered nurses assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. They administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients and may advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management.

      Registered nursesJob requirements for registered nurses
      Job requirements for registered nurses, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Foot or leg control

      39.4%

      Moderate noise intensity level

      77.9%

      Bachelor’s degree

      45.1%

      Physical requirements

      Verbal communication is required for almost all (99.9 percent) of workers. Using both hands to perform gross manipulation is required for 97.3 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 72.9 percent of workers. Stooping is present for 83.0 percent of workers, crouching is present for 42.2 percent of workers, and kneeling is present for 30.1 percent of workers. Keyboarding is required for 97.8 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      Exposure to wetness is experienced by 91.3 percent of workers. All workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations, extreme cold, extreme heat or humidity. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 77.9 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 21.6 percent of workers. The majority (94.9 percent) of workers are not exposed to the outdoors.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A bachelor’s degree is required 45.1 percent of workers, an associate’s vocational degree is required for 31.1 percent of workers, and an associate’s degree is required for 20.0 percent of workers. Before employment, a proper license is required for 97.2 percent of workers.

    • Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

      Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) provide basic nursing care, caring for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities. They work in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and other similar institutions. They may work under the supervision of a registered nurse.

      Licensed practical and licensed vocational nursesJob requirements for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses
      Job requirements for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Medium strength level

      48.8%

      Moderate noise intensity level

      79.3%

      High school diploma

      33.3%

      Physical requirements

      A medium strength level is required for 48.8 percent of workers and a light strength level is required for 32.6 percent of workers. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 42 pounds. All (100.0 percent) workers are required to communicate verbally and to perform tasks that require gross manipulation and fine manipulation. Other physical requirements include reaching with both hands at or below the shoulder level (87.4 percent) and reaching overhead (65.3 percent).

      Environmental conditions

      Exposure to wetness is experienced by 84.1 percent of workers. The majority (93.8 percent) of workers are not exposed to hazardous contaminants. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 79.3 percent of workers and a quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 20.7 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      Pre-employment training is required for 95.6 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 38.8 percent, with the average time required being about 16 months (476 days). On-the-job training is required for 81.8 percent of workers.

  • Healthcare support occupations

    This occupational group includes nursing, psychiatric, home health aides, occupational therapy and physical therapist assistants and aides, dental, medical, and veterinary assistants, phlebotomists, and medial transcriptionists.

    Healthcare support occupationsJob requirements for healthcare support occupations
    Job requirements for healthcare support occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Medium strength level

    53.4%

    Not exposed to hazardous contaminants

    92.9%

    On-the-job training

    83.3%

    Physical requirements

    A medium strength level is required for 53.4 percent of workers and a heavy strength level is required for 12.5 percent of workers. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 38 pounds. Frequent verbal communication is a requirement for about half (50.5 percent) of workers and 81.1 percent are required to stoop to perform job functions sometime during the day.

    Environmental conditions

    Most workers are not exposed to hazardous contaminants (92.9 percent), heavy vibrations (100 percent), extreme cold (99.4 percent), extreme heat (98.3 percent), high exposed places (100 percent), or humidity (99.9 percent).

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is required for 73.4 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 83.3 percent of workers and pre-employment training is required for 71.4 percent of workers.

  • Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

    This occupational group includes computer, automated teller and office machine repairers, avionics technicians, security and fire alarm systems installers, aircraft mechanics and technicians, bus and truck mechanics, diesel engine specialists, small engine mechanics, bicycle repairers, home appliance repairers, millwrights, watch repairers, wind turbine service technicians, and riggers.

    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupationsJob requirements for installation, maintenance, and repair occupations
    Job requirements in installation, maintenance, and repair occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Reaching overhead

    84.4%

    Exposure to extreme cold

    4.7%

    High school diploma

    61.3%

    Physical requirements

    Reaching overhead is required for 84.4 percent of workers. Crouching is required for 76.6 percent and crawling for 42.5 percent of workers. Fine manipulation with both hands is a requirement for 79.6 percent of workers and, for 98.8 percent of workers, gross manipulation with both hands is required. The average maximum amount of weight lifted or carried by workers is about 53 pounds. About half (55.6 percent) of workers are required to push or pull with hands or arms. Driving is required for 69.9 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to extreme cold is experienced by 4.7 percent of workers and exposure to extreme heat is experienced by 11.0 percent of workers. About half (51.3 percent) of workers are exposed to wetness. Exposure to hazardous contaminants occurs for 39.2 percent of workers, and 11.0 percent experience exposure heavy vibrations. Most (74.9 percent) workers are exposed to the outdoors. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 71.6 percent of workers, a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 25.2 percent of workers, and quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 3.0 percent of workers. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is experienced by 59.5 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is required for 61.3 percent of workers, and there is no minimum education requirement for 27.4 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 66.8 percent of workers and the average time required is about two and a half years (967 days).

    • Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

      Aircraft mechanics and service technicians diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. This occupation includes helicopter and aircraft engine specialists; however, avionics technicians are excluded.

      Aircraft mechanics and service techniciansJob requirements for aircraft mechanics and service technicians
      Job requirements for aircraft mechanics and service technicians, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Reaching at or below the shoulder

      95.0%

      High school diploma

      61.2%

      Exposure to extreme heat

      9.0%

      Physical requirements

      Most (95.0 percent) aircraft mechanics and service technicians are required to reach at or below the shoulder with both hands. Gross manipulation with both hands is required for 98.9 percent of workers, and fine manipulation with both hands is required for 87.0 percent of workers. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 55 pounds. Verbal communication is required for 90.1 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      One percent of workers are exposed to extreme cold and 9.0 percent are exposed to extreme heat. Exposure to humidity is a requirement for 0.5 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 61.2 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 69.0 percent of workers and the median prior work experience is about three years (1,095 days). A pre-employment training certification is required for 34.9 percent of workers and pre-employment training license is required for 26.2 percent of workers.

  • Legal occupations

    This occupational group includes lawyers, judicial law clerks, judges, arbitrators, mediators, conciliators, paralegals, legal assistants, court reporters, title examiners, abstractors, and searchers.

    Legal occupationsJob requirements for legal occupations

    Physical requirements

    Traditional typing is required for 99.8 percent of legal workers. Frequent verbal communication is required for 56.4 percent of workers. Crawling (100 percent), crouching (92.3 percent), and kneeling (99.3 percent) are not commonly required for workers. A sedentary strength level is required for most (63.6 percent) workers, and a light strength level is required for 32.0 percent. Occasional fine manipulation is required for 68.0 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    About half (54.3 percent) of workers experience a moderate noise intensity level, while 45.7 percent of workers experience a quiet noise intensity level. Workers are not required (100.0 percent) to be exposed to humidity, heavy vibrations, proximity to moving mechanical parts, wetness, extreme heat or extreme cold.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A professional degree is required for 55.7 percent of workers. A high school diploma is the minimum education level required for 18.4 percent of workers, and a bachelor’s degree is required for 12.7 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 71.0 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 53.0 percent of workers with the average length of time being about 4 years (1,330 days).

  • Life, physical, and social science occupations

    This occupational group includes agricultural scientists, food scientists, biological scientists, medical scientists, astronomers, physicists, chemists, hydrologists, economists, survey researchers, psychologists, sociologists, urban planners, anthropologists, archeologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and nuclear technicians.

    Life, physical, and social science occupationsJob requirements for life, physical, and social science occupations
    Job requirements for life, physical, and social science occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Reaching at or below the shoulder

    79.8%

    Bachelor’s degree

    49.6%

    Exposure to wetness

    39.0%

    Physical requirements

    A sedentary strength level is required for 34.9 percent of workers, a medium strength level is required for 32.6 percent of workers, and a light strength level is required for 27.3 percent of workers. Gross manipulation with both hands is required for 85.9 percent of workers, and fine manipulation with both hands required for 66.5 percent of workers. Crouching is required for 25.3 percent of workers while pushing or pulling with hands or arms is not required for 93.5 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 37.8 percent of workers. All (100.0 percent) of workers are required to have near visual acuity, and 31.7 percent of workers are required to have far visual acuity. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 79.8 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to hazardous contaminants is experienced by 31.5 percent of workers. Exposure to wetness occurs for 39.0 percent of workers and proximity to moving mechanical parts is present for 11.7 percent of workers. Most workers are not exposed to extreme cold (95.9 percent), extreme heat (96.0 percent), heavy vibrations (98.3 percent), high, exposed places (94.7 percent), or humidity (97.7 percent). Quiet noise intensity levels are experienced by 27.9 percent of workers and moderate levels are experienced by 68.3 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A bachelor’s degree is required for 49.6 percent of workers, a master’s degree is required for 17.0 percent of workers, and a doctorate degree is required for 8.6 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 69.2 percent of workers with an average length of about 3 years (1313 days). On-the-job training is required for 56.7 percent of workers, and pre-employment training is required for 26.7 percent of workers.

  • Management occupations

    This occupational group includes chief executives, general and operations managers, advertising and promotions managers, construction, administrative services managers, financial managers, industrial production managers, transportation managers, storage managers, distribution managers, compensation and benefits managers, human resources managers, training managers, development managers, and education administrators.

    Management occupationsJob requirements for management occupations
    Job requirements for management occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Moderate noise intensity level

    67.6%

    Sedentary strength level

    54.7%

    Master's degree

    9.8%

    Physical requirements

    A sedentary strength level is required for 54.7 percent of workers. A light strength level is required for 31.4 percent of workers and a medium strength level is required for 11.8 percent of workers. Occasional gross manipulation is required for 65.5 percent of workers, and occasional fine manipulation required for 60.2 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    The majority (67.6 percent) of workers experience a moderate noise intensity level, 30.3 percent a quiet noise intensity level and only 2.1 percent a loud noise intensity level. Extreme cold exposure is not experienced by 97.7 percent of workers and extreme heat is not experienced by 99.0 percent of workers. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is experienced by 3.4 percent of workers and exposure to wetness is experienced by 5.7 percent of workers. Only 3.3 percent of workers are exposed to hazardous contaminants.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A bachelor’s degree is a minimum education requirement for 59.5 percent of workers and a master’s degree is the minimum education requirement for 9.8 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 94.7 percent of workers, and the length of prior work experience required is on average greater than 5 years (1946 days).

    • Architectural and engineering managers

      Architectural and engineering managers plan, direct, and coordinate activities in architectural and engineering companies.

      Architectural and engineering managersJob requirements for architectural and engineering managers
      Job requirements for architectural and engineering managers, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Reaching at or below the shoulder

      72.4%

      Bachelor’s degree

      81.3%

      Exposure to outdoors, not present

      64.8%

      Physical requirements

      Near visual acuity, being able to hear one-on-one, in a group or conference, over the telephone, and communicating verbally, traditional keyboarding, fine manipulation, and gross manipulation are required for all (100.0 percent) workers. All (100.0 percent) workers are not required to crawl or push or pull with hands or arms and feet or legs. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 72.4 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      Exposure to extreme heat or humidity is not required for 95.6 percent workers. Exposure to hazardous contaminants is not present for 93.5 percent of workers. Workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations, wetness, or extreme cold (100.0 percent). Exposure to outdoors is required for 35.2 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      Post-employment training is required for 41.4 percent of workers. A bachelor’s degree is required for 81.3 percent of workers. The average amount of prior work experience required is about 8.5 years (3,051 days).

  • Office and administrative support occupations

    This occupational group includes communications equipment and computer operators, bill collectors, gaming cage workers, tellers, information and record clerks, customer service representatives, eligibility interviewers, secretaries and administrative assistants, couriers, dispatchers, data entry and information processing workers, and desktop publishers.

    Office and administrative support occupationsJob requirements for office and administrative support occupations
    Job requirements for office and administrative support occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Verbal communication

    93.2%

    Moderate noise intensity level

    74.2%

    Prior work experience

    54.0%

    Physical requirements

    Verbal communication is required for 93.2 percent of workers. Fine manipulation is required for 97.2 percent of workers and gross manipulation for 98.3 percent of workers. Reaching overhead is required for 22.1 percent of workers and reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 67.5 percent of workers. The majority of workers are not required to kneel (89.7 percent) or crawl (99.7 percent). Traditional keyboarding is present for 92.1 percent of workers. A sedentary strength level is required for 64.1 percent of workers and light work is required for 13.8 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to hazardous contaminants is a requirement for 0.4 percent of workers. Few (3.0 percent) workers are required to work in high and exposed places. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is experienced by 1.4 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is present for 74.2 percent of workers, while a loud noise intensity level is present for 1.2 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is the minimum education requirement for 70.6 percent of workers and a bachelor’s degree is the minimum education requirement for 4.5 percent of workers. Almost all (92.7 percent) of workers are not required to have pre-employment training; although, 83.0 percent of workers require on-the-job training. An average of about two years (666 days) of prior work experience is required.

    • Library assistants, clerical

      Clerical library assistants compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides, and microfilm. They also locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. They assist in registering patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials.

      Library assistants, clericalJob requirements for clerical library assistants
      Job requirements for library assistants, clerical, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Traditional keyboarding

      90.8%

      High school diploma

      77.6%

      No exposure to the outdoors

      86.1%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0 percent) workers are required to see with near visual acuity at some point during their workday and 90.8 percent of workers are required to communicate verbally. Gross manipulation is required for all (100.0 percent) workers and fine manipulation with both hands is required for 64.2 percent of workers. The average maximum weight required to lift or carry is about 25 pounds. The ability to reach at or below the shoulder is required for 95.0 percent of workers, while the ability to reach overhead with both hands is required for 49.4 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      The majority of workers are not exposed to extreme cold (99.3 percent), extreme heat (99.6 percent), hazardous contaminants (99.2 percent), heavy vibrations (99.8 percent), proximity to moving mechanical parts (99.4 percent), humidity (99.7 percent), or wetness (85.7 percent).

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 77.6 percent of workers and prior work experience is required for 45.5 percent of workers.

    • Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

      Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, handling information requests, and performing clerical functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. They may also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff.

      Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistantsJob requirements for executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants
      Job requirements for executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Bachelor’s degree

      24.0%

      Reaching at or below the shoulder

      67.0%

      Not exposed to extreme heat

      100.0%

      Physical requirements

      All (100.0 percent) workers are required to hear over the telephone and through one-on-one conversations. Traditional keyboarding is also required for 100.0 percent of workers. Kneeling is not required for 95.2 percent of workers and crouching is not required for 94.3 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted or carried is about 6 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 67.0 percent of workers, while reaching overhead is required for 15.2 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      All (100.0 percent) workers are not exposed to extreme cold, extreme heat, humidity, or heavy vibrations. A quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 32.5 percent of workers and moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 67.5 percent of workers. Most (98.6 percent) workers are not exposed to the outdoors.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 58.5 percent of workers, a bachelor’s degree is required for 24.0 percent of workers, and an associate’s degree is required for 12.7 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 90.5 percent of workers, while on-the-job training is required for 54.4 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is not required for 94.8 percent of workers.

    • Medical secretaries

      Medical secretaries and administrative assistants complete administrative tasks using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures in the offices of physicians, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities. Their duties vary with the location, specialty, and size of the practice and may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.

      Medical secretariesJob requirements for medical secretaries
      Job requirements for medical secretaries, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      On-the-job training

      88.5%

      Sedentary strength level

      80.9%

      Not exposed to wetness

      91.9%

      Physical requirements

      A sedentary strength level is required for 80.9 percent of medical secretaries. Hearing in a group or conference is required for 80.6 percent of workers and hearing over the phone is required for all (100.0 percent) workers. All (100.0 percent) workers are required to communicate verbally and 61.4 percent communicate verbally at a frequent rate. No medical secretaries are required to climb ladders, ropes, or scaffolds, and 99.2 percent of workers are not required to climb ramps or stairs. Workers are not required to crawl (100.0 percent) and are not typically required to crouch (86.2 percent). Fine manipulation is required for 98.9 percent of workers and gross manipulation is required for 99.4 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      All medical secretaries (100.0 percent) are not exposed to extreme cold, extreme heat, hazardous contaminants, high, exposed places, humidity, or heavy vibrations. Most medical secretaries (81.1 percent) experience a moderate noise intensity level and 18.9 percent experience a quiet level. Exposure to wetness is not present in for 91.9 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 85.2 percent of workers. There is no minimum education requirement for 6.7 percent of workers and an associate’s degree is required for 5.7 percent of workers. About half of workers (56.4 percent) are required to have prior work experience and 8.2 percent are required to have pre-employment training. On-the-job training is required for 88.5 percent of workers.

    • Secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical and executive)

      Secretaries and administrative assistants (excluding legal, medical and executive) perform routine clerical and administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers.

      Secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical and executive)Job requirements for secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical and executive)
      Job requirements for secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical, and executive), 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Verbal communication

      98.8%

      Quiet noise intensity level

      31.7%

      Prior work experience

      68.8%

      Physical requirements

      Verbal communication is required for 98.8 percent of workers. Hearing one-on-one and traditional keyboarding are required for 100.0 percent of workers. Keyboarding frequently is required for 67.6 percent of workers, keyboarding constantly is required for 20.6 percent of workers, and keyboarding occasionally is required for 11.8 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted is about 6 pounds. A sedentary strength level is required for 87.7 percent of workers and a light work level is required for 8.6 percent of workers. Crouching is not required for 92.1 percent of workers and crawling is not required for 100.0 percent of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      All workers (100.0 percent) are not exposed to extreme cold, extreme heat, hazardous contaminants, heavy vibrations, high, exposed places, or humidity. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 68.3 percent of workers and a quiet work environment is experienced by 31.7 percent of workers. The majority (96.8 percent) of workers are not exposed to the outdoors.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 79.2 percent of workers, an associate’s degree is required for 8.1 percent of workers, and a bachelor’s degree is required for 4.9 percent of workers. Prior work experience is required for 68.8 percent of workers, and on the job training is required for 75.2 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is not required for 95.4 percent of workers.

  • Personal care and service occupations

    This occupational group includes animal care and service workers, entertainment attendants, funeral service workers, personal appearance workers, baggage portages, bellhops, and concierges, tour and travel guides, childcare workers, personal care aides, recreation and fitness workers, and residential advisors.

    Personal care and service occupationsJob requirements for personal care and service occupations
    Job requirements for personal care and service occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Exposure to wetness

    76.5%

    Medium strength level

    44.7%

    On-the-job training

    83.5%

    Physical requirements

    A medium strength level is required for 44.7 percent of workers, a light strength level is required for 39.4 percent of workers, and a heavy strength level is required for 9.1 percent of workers. Workers may be required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 33 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder is required for 94.1 percent of workers and reaching overhead is required for 58.8 percent of workers. The majority of workers are not required to push or pull with only their feet (98.1 percent), their feet or legs (61.7 percent), or their hands or arms (62.2 percent). Gross manipulation is required for 99.7 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 94.0 percent of workers. Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds is not required for 97.6 percent of workers and climbing ramps and stairs is not required for 91.0 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 81.6 percent of workers, a quiet noise level is experienced by 11.7 percent of workers, and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 6.7 percent of workers. Workers are not often exposed to extreme cold (99.8 percent), extreme heat (99.3 percent), hazardous contaminants (91.2 percent), heavy vibrations (99.9 percent), high, exposed places (99.3 percent), or humidity (99.7 percent). Exposure to the outdoors is present for 52.8 percent of workers, with 35.9 percent of workers being exposed to the outdoors occasionally. Exposure to wetness is experienced by 76.5 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is the minimum education requirement for 56.8 percent of workers. There is no minimum education requirement for 37.9 percent of workers, although literacy is required for 34.9 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 83.5 percent of workers and 28.7 percent are required to have prior work experience. Pre-employment training is required for 50.7 percent of workers.

    • Gaming dealers

      Gaming dealers operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gambling equipment. Usually, they are sitting or standing behind a table to operate these games. They also distribute winnings or collect players’ money or chips. Workers may compare the house’s hand against players’ hands.

      Gaming dealersJob requirements for gaming dealers
      Job requirements for gaming dealers, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Fine manipulation

      98.8%

      High school diploma

      62.6%

      Not exposed to extreme cold

      97.2%

      Physical requirements

      Workers are required to communicate verbally (97.1 percent), hear one-on-one (99.0 percent), and perform fine manipulation (98.8 percent). Reaching at or below shoulder level is required for 95.8 percent of workers and near visual acuity is required for 99.3 percent.

      Environmental conditions

      Workers are rarely exposed extreme cold (97.2 percent), extreme heat (98.1 percent), humidity (99.4 percent), heavy vibrations (100.0 percent), high or exposed places (99.5 percent), or proximity to moving mechanical parts (99.7 percent).

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 62.6 percent of workers and there is no minimum education requirement for 37.4 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 57.5 percent of workers, while pre-employment training is required for 70.0 percent. Prior work experience is required for 44.2 percent of workers.

  • Production occupations

    This occupational group includes engine assemblers, structural metal fabricators and fitters, bakers, butchers and meat cutters, meat packers, computer-controlled machine tool operators, forging machine setters, machinists, pourers and casters, tool and die makers, printing press operators, upholsters, furniture finishers, model maters, gas plant operators, tire builders, etchers, and engravers.

    Production occupationsJob requirements for production occupations
    Job requirements for production occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Medium strength level

    57.8%

    Exposure to extreme heat, not present

    85.7%

    Literacy

    34.6%

    Physical requirements

    Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 38 pounds. A light strength level is required for 21.0 percent of workers, a medium strength level is required for 57.8 percent of workers, a heavy strength level is required for 16.4 percent of workers, and a very heavy strength level is required for 1.8 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder is present for 91.9 percent of workers. Pushing or pulling with hands or arms is required for 33.3 percent of workers. Gross manipulation is required 99.9 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 93.6 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Most workers are not exposed to extreme cold (94.1 percent) or extreme heat (85.7 percent). Conditions requiring high, exposed places are present for 12.3 percent of workers and heavy vibrations are experienced by 4.9 percent of workers. The majority of workers (85.1 percent) do not work outdoors. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 68.3 percent of workers and a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 28.2 percent of workers. Personal protective equipment is used by 46.9 percent of workers to protect from noise intensity level. Hazardous contaminants are present for 22.8 percent of workers and personal protective equipment for hazardous contaminants is required for 21.2 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is required for 55.3 percent of workers. Literacy is required for 34.6 percent of workers. Prior work experience is not required for 57.9 percent of workers and pre-employment training is not required for 87.8 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 86.6 percent of workers and the average number of days of on-the-job training is about 45 days.

  • Protective service occupations

    This occupational group includes workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention, law enforcement, and animal control, as well as private detectives and investigators, security guards, lifeguards, transportation security screeners, and crossing guards.

    Protective service occupationsJob requirements for protective service occupations
    Job requirements for protective service occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Climbing ramps or stairs (structure-related)

    67.9%

    Exposure to the outdoors

    89.6%

    Prior work experience

    37.2%

    Physical requirements

    Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 61 pounds. Climbing work related ramps or stairs (structure-related) is required for 67.9 percent of workers. Hands reaching at or below the shoulder with both hands is required by 76.8 percent of workers. Strength requirements vary for this occupation: 8.6 percent of workers are sedentary, 20.2 percent of workers required to perform light work, 28.5 percent of workers are required to perform medium work, 24.5 percent of workers are required to perform heavy work, and 18.2 percent of workers are required to perform very heavy work. Far visual acuity is required for 96.2 percent of workers and peripheral vision is required for 89.0 percent of workers. Driving is required for 55.6 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to the outdoors is experienced by 89.6 percent of workers. Workers are rarely exposed to extreme cold (97.9 percent) or extreme heat (89.1 percent). The majority of workers are not exposed to wetness (68.3 percent) or hazardous contaminants (76.7 percent). Personal protective equipment for hazardous contaminants is worn by 18.8 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 73.5 percent of workers and 91.5 percent of workers do not wear personal protective equipment to protect from noise intensity level.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    A high school diploma is required for 77.7 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 67.5 percent of workers and prior work experience is required for 37.2 percent of workers. An average of about two and a half years (924 days) of prior work experience is required. On-the-job training is required for 74.7 percent of workers.

    • Security guards

      Security guards patrol and protect property against theft, vandalism, and other illegal activity. They may operate x-ray and metal detector equipment as well.

      Security guardsJob requirements for security guards
      Job requirements for security guards, 2018
      Requirements Estimate

      Light strength level

      35.5%

      Moderate noise intensity level

      82.5%

      High school diploma

      80.7%

      Physical requirements

      Reaching overhead is required for 26.2 percent of workers, and reaching at or below the shoulder level is required for 86.2 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder level is performed occasionally by 62.3 percent of workers. A strength level of light work is required for 35.5 percent of workers and a strength level of medium work is required for 31.0 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted or carried by workers is about 25 pounds. Gross manipulation is required for 100.0 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 99.4 percent of workers. Communicating verbally is required for 97.2 of workers.

      Environmental conditions

      Exposure to the outdoors is required for 86.7 percent of workers. Almost all workers are not exposed to extreme cold (99.5 percent), extreme heat (99.5 percent), wetness (98.4 percent), humidity (99.5 percent), high exposed places (98.0) or heavy vibrations (100.0 percent). A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 82.5 percent of workers and 95.3 percent of workers do not wear personal protective equipment for noise. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is present for 3.0 percent of workers exposure to hazardous contaminants is present for 2.2 percent of workers.

      Education, training, and experience requirements

      A high school diploma is required for 80.7 percent of workers and there is no minimum education requirement for 17.7 percent of workers. Literacy is not required for 82.7 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 64.9 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 84.2 percent of workers and requires an average of about 13 days. Prior work experience not required for 69.4 percent of workers.

  • Sales and related occupations

    This occupational group includes cashiers, rental clerks, retail salespersons, advertising sales agents, travel agents, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives, models, demonstrators, product promoters, sales engineers, real estate brokers, street vendors, and telemarketers.

    Sales and related occupationsJob requirements for sales and related occupations

    Physical requirements

    Strength levels required for workers vary: 18.0 percent are sedentary, 36.8 percent experience light work, 42.6 percent experience medium work, and 2.5 percent experience heavy work. Driving a vehicle is required for 20.3 percent of workers. Gross manipulation is required for 99.6 percent of workers and fine manipulation is required for 99.3 percent of workers. Reaching overhead is not required for 58.8 percent of workers. Reaching at or below the shoulder with one or both hands is required for 73.1 percent of workers. Communicating verbally is also required for almost all (99.4 percent) of workers and one-on-one hearing requirements are required for all (100.0 percent) of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 84.0 percent of workers. A quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 14.3 percent of workers and a loud noise level is experienced by 1.6 percent of workers. Most workers are not exposed to extreme heat (99.4 percent), extreme cold (98.1 percent), heavy vibrations (99.8 percent), high and exposed places (91.8 percent), humidity (99.9 percent) or hazardous contaminants (98.9 percent). Exposure to wetness is experienced by 16.0 percent of workers.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no education requirement for 48.8 percent of workers and a high school diploma is required for 40.8 percent of workers. Only 9.0 percent of workers are required to have a bachelor’s degree. Literacy is required for 48.5 percent of workers. Pre-employment training is required for 13.7 percent of workers and on-the-job training is required for 90.1 percent of workers and takes an average of 22 days. Prior work experience is required for 35.9 percent of workers and takes average time of over two years (788 days) of experience.

  • Transportation and material moving occupations

    This occupational group includes airline pilots, flight attendants, bus drivers, taxi drivers, chauffeurs, locomotive engineers, railroad conducts, ship engineers, parking lot attendants, crane operators, recyclable material collectors, mine shuttle car operators, and ship loaders.

    Transportation and material moving occupationsJob requirements for transportation and material moving occupations
    Job requirements for transportation and moving material occupations, 2018
    Requirements Estimate

    Stooping

    73.9%

    Exposure to hazardous contaminants

    10.6%

    Prior work experience, not required

    67.1%

    Physical requirements

    Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 44 pounds. Pushing and pulling with hands or arms is not required in 53.3 percent of jobs while pushing and pulling with feet or legs is not required in 56.8 percent. Structure-related climbing ramps or stairs is required for 31.3 percent of workers. Stooping is required for 73.9 percent of workers. A strength level of medium work is required for 45.9 percent of workers, heavy work is required for 25.2 percent of workers, and light work is required for 11.7 percent of workers. Very heavy work is required for 6.0 percent of workers and 11.2 percent of workers are sedentary. Crouching is not required for 53.9 percent of workers. Hearing one-on-one is required for 97.6 percent of workers and 13.1 percent of workers must pass a hearing test. Visual requirements include near visual acuity (97.2 percent), far visual acuity (76.5 percent), and peripheral vision (76.1 percent). Communicating verbally is not required for 32.5 percent of workers. Driving is required for 69.5 percent of workers.

    Environmental conditions

    Exposure to hazardous contaminants is experienced by 10.6 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 76.6 percent of workers, a loud noise intensity level is experienced by 21.5 percent of workers, and quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 1.8 percent of workers. Personal protective equipment for noise is used by 20.9 percent of workers. Exposure to outdoors is experienced by 70.6 percent of workers. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is present for 17.4 percent of workers, and 9.2 percent wear personal protective equipment.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    There is no minimum education requirement for 56.8 percent of workers and prior work experience is not required for 67.1 percent of workers. A high school degree is required for 42.0 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 85.2 percent of workers with 22 days being the average number of days of on-the-job training required.

  • Technical Note

    Data in this release are from the Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS), conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The ORS is an establishment-based survey and provides job-related information about the physical demands; environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as well as cognitive and mental requirements of jobs in the U.S. economy. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed. Job requirements do not include modifications or adjustments to a job or change in the work environment that enables a person with a disability to compete equally or carry out the occupational critical tasks in support of the critical job functions.

    Additional estimates for detailed occupations and occupational groups are available at www.bls.gov/ors/data.htm.

    Sample size

    For information regarding the sample size see the technical note in the 2018 News Release. The ORS Handbook of Methods provides information on the sample design.

    Measures of reliability

    To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors are available for each estimate. For more information on standard errors see: www.bls.gov/ors/se.htm.

    Occupational classification

    BLS uses the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to code occupations to the 6-digit level of detail. The ORS classifies occupations by eight-digit codes used by O*NET’s detailed occupational taxonomy referred to as “O*NET-SOC 2010 Occupations.” Military specific occupations (55-0000.00) are out of scope for the ORS. The occupational groups in this publication reflect the 2-digit aggregation of occupations as defined using the 2010 SOC.

    Definitions of major terms

    The complete list of terms is available within the ORS collection manual and ORS Handbook of Methods. The glossary below contains some major terms used in these occupational group profiles.

    General terms

    • Job – group of workers in an establishment that have the same position. The term job refers to a single position within an establishment, whereas occupation refers to a profession or trade. Example: “waiters at Smith’s Restaurant” is a job, whereas “waiters” is an occupation.
    • Civilian workers – includes private industry and state and local government workers. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed.
    • Duration levels:
      • Seldom – up to 2 percent of the workday
      • Occasionally – from 2 percent up to 1/3 of the workday
      • Frequently – from 1/3 up to 2/3 of the workday
      • Constantly – from 2/3 or more of the workday

    Physical requirements

    • Fine manipulation – touching, picking, pinching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than with the whole hand or arm.
    • Gross manipulation – seizing, holding, grasping, turning, or otherwise working with the hands; and also often present when lifting involves the hands.
    • Strength level – A job is classified into strength five levels: sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. The strength level is determined by how much weight a worker is required to lift or carry, how often they have to lift or carry that weight, as well as standing and walking in some special cases. Pushing or pulling – Pushing or pulling can be done with the hands and arms, feet and legs, or feet only. Additional detail on the calculation of strength levels is available in the Handbook of Methods.

    Environmental conditions

    • Extreme cold – 40 degrees or below when exposed 2/3 or more of the workday or 32 degrees or below when exposed up to 2/3 of the workday.
    • Extreme heat – above 90 degrees in a dry environment or above 85 degrees in a humid environment.
    • Hazardous contaminants – exposure that negatively affects the respiratory system, eyes, skin, or other living tissue via inhalation, ingestion, or contact.
    • Noise intensity level – amount of noise that a worker experiences while working. Examples of noise level:
      • Quiet – settings such as a private office or art museum;
      • Moderate – business office, department store, fast food restaurant;
      • Loud – large earth moving equipment or can manufacturing department;
      • Very loud – rock concert or jackhammer work.
    • Outdoors – is considered present when two conditions exist, (1) a worker performs typical job duties outdoors or a worker moves between different work sites during the workday and (2) a worker is unprotected and exposed to the elements.
    • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – gear used or worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
    • Proximity to moving mechanical parts – refers to moving materials, mechanical parts, settings, or any moving objects that could cause bodily injury.
    • High and exposed places – when a worker is at risk of falling five feet or more from the worker’s center of gravity.

    Education, training, and experience requirements

    • Preparation time – the amount of time required by a typical worker to learn the techniques, acquire the information, and develop the facility needed for average performance in a specific job/worker situation. This is also referred to as specific vocational preparation (SVP) and is measure in nine levels from a “short demonstration” to “over 10 years”. For more information see the Calculation section of the Handbook of Methods.
    • Minimum education – the lowest level of formal coursework required in a job and excludes general education, see the Education Requirements fact sheet for more information.
    • Pre-employment training – the amount of time needed to complete required training as a condition for hiring which may include certifications, licenses, and educational certificates.
    • On-the-job training – the amount of training time that occurs after an employee has been hired.
    • Prior work experience – the amount of prior relevant work activity. This excludes any non-vocationally specific requirements.

 

Last Modified Date: February 26, 2019