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Economic News Release
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Occupational Requirements Survey Summary

For release 10:00 A.M. (ET) Thursday, February 8, 2024                                 USDL-24-0191

Technical information: 	(202) 691-6199  *  orsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ors
Media contact:	  	(202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov

			OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES  2023

A consistent and generally fast work pace was required for 38.9 percent of workers in 2023, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Workload was controlled by machinery, equipment, or 
software for 2.2 percent of workers meaning that technology, rather than people or company 
performance targets, determined the amount and timing of work performed in their workday. Work was 
reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 33.3 percent of workers and a supervisor was 
present for 62.4 percent of workers. (See table 1.)

In production occupations, 55.8 percent of workers had a consistent and generally fast work pace. 
Within this occupational group, 71.1 percent of packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 
and 76.7 percent of team assemblers had a consistent and generally fast work pace. 

Workload was controlled by machinery, equipment, or software for 61.2 percent of packaging and 
filling machine operators and tenders, work was reviewed by a supervisor more than once per day for 
77.5 percent of these workers, and a supervisor was present for 98.4 percent of these workers. 
Considered together, these job requirements show that many decisions related to the job and the 
workload are handled by technology or the supervisor and not by the worker. 

In transportation and material moving occupations, 48.7 percent of workers had a consistent and 
generally fast work pace. Within this occupational group, a consistent and generally fast work pace 
was required for 67.8 percent of packers and packagers and 82.9 percent of machine feeders and 
offbearers. 

The Occupational Requirements Survey captures information on job requirements in the following 
categories: physical demands; environmental conditions; education, training, and experience; as 
well as cognitive and mental requirements. Each category is highlighted below.

Cognitive and mental requirements

Verbal interactions were required once per day or less often for 3.3 percent of workers, 38.6 
percent of workers required basic people skills, and 83.3 percent of workers were not required to 
supervise others. (See table 2.)

	*Verbal interactions were required once per day or less often for 26.8 percent of sewing 
	 machine operators and for 33.6 percent of janitors and cleaners.
	*Basic people skills were required for 85.4 percent of furniture finishers and for more 
	 than 99.5 percent of dishwashers.

Education, training, and experience 

A high school diploma was required for 40.1 percent of workers to perform their jobs. Prior work 
experience was required for 47.5 percent of workers and on-the-job training was required for 78.9 
percent of workers. (See table 3.)

	*A high school diploma was required for 69.6 percent of childcare workers and 72.9 percent 
	 of library assistants.
	*On-the-job training was required for 89.8 percent of medical records specialists and 94.1 
	 percent of skincare specialists. 

Physical demands

A sedentary strength level was required when performing critical tasks for 29.3 percent of workers, 
meaning these workers spend 2/3 or more of their workday sitting and do not lift heavy objects. The 
ability to choose between sitting and standing was present for 42.3 percent of workers, and 55.4 
percent of workers were not required to reach overhead. (See table 4.)

	*Sedentary strength was required for 81.1 percent of cargo and freight agents and for 88.4 
	 percent of human resources assistants. 
	*The choice between sitting and standing was available to 71.5 percent of customer service 
	 representatives and for 94.9 percent of data entry keyers. 

Environmental conditions

Exposure to heights was present for 9.1 percent of workers, 10.1 percent of workers performed 
critical tasks in close proximity to moving mechanical parts, and 33.0 percent of workers were 
required to work outdoors. (See table 5.)

	*Exposure to heights was present for 43.8 percent of bus and truck mechanics and for 99.3 
	 percent of electrical power-line installers and repairers. 
	*Exposure to the outdoors was present for 76.3 percent of crane and tower operators and 
	 for greater than 95 percent of cement masons and concrete finishers. 

Table 1. Percentage of workers with selected job requirements, 2023
Occupation and occupational groupWorkload is controlled by machinery, equipment, or softwareWork reviewed by supervisor more than once per dayConsistent, generally fast work paceSupervisor is present
YesStandard errorYesStandard errorYesStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

2.2[1]33.30.538.90.562.437.6[1]

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

<0.5[2]--48.21.762.737.31.3

Medical records specialists

<0.5[2]--55.74.273.226.86.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

<0.5[2]69.01.431.01.790.39.70.8

Dishwashers

<0.5[2]74.02.231.23.796.93.11.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

<0.5[2]40.23.241.83.344.755.32.3

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

<0.5[2]25.52.838.83.539.660.43.5

Personal care and service occupations

<0.5[2]43.71.933.64.865.334.73.5

Skincare specialists

<0.5[2]--7.14.186.113.97.6

Childcare workers

<0.5[2]64.16.040.25.879.021.06.7

Office and administrative support occupations

1.4[1]26.31.237.20.979.820.20.9

Customer service representatives

7.73.0--52.73.784.815.21.9

Library assistants, clerical

<0.5[2]23.35.222.26.480.219.86.3

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

<0.5[2]16.23.734.83.780.919.15.2

Cargo and freight agents

<0.5[2]43.012.4-----

Data entry keyers

<0.5[2]52.29.757.65.098.21.80.9

Construction and extraction occupations

0.6[1]49.93.146.11.465.334.72.1

Cement masons and concrete finishers

<0.5[2]71.96.945.73.591.88.23.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.7[1]35.81.432.72.051.448.61.7

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

<0.5[2]20.76.336.95.172.227.86.8

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

2.72.034.211.432.46.468.431.67.7

Production occupations

19.31.857.01.255.81.384.915.10.8

Team assemblers

34.27.070.86.476.76.991.78.32.6

Sewing machine operators

7.24.160.211.267.48.794.25.83.5

Furniture finishers

10.05.374.59.857.510.787.112.95.3

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

61.26.177.57.371.19.098.41.61.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.31.045.21.748.71.656.943.10.8

Crane and tower operators

7.85.254.910.354.213.458.941.111.1

Machine feeders and offbearers

53.712.473.910.082.99.197.03.01.8

Packers and packagers, hand

28.35.369.92.867.82.498.51.51.0

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 2. Percentage of workers with cognitive and mental requirements, 2023
Occupation and occupational groupVerbal interaction once per day or less oftenPeople skillsSupervisory duties required
YesStandard errorBasicMore than basicStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

3.3[1]38.661.4[1]16.783.3[1]

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

<0.5[2]7.992.10.621.578.51.0

Medical records specialists

2.51.641.958.17.73.696.42.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

1.7[1]74.225.8[1]9.091.00.5

Dishwashers

32.05.3>99.5<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

21.00.987.212.80.88.991.10.9

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

33.61.496.83.21.02.197.90.5

Personal care and service occupations

<0.5[2]38.062.03.411.488.60.8

Skincare specialists

<0.5[2]33.966.112.91.198.90.9

Childcare workers

<0.5[2]27.872.29.94.795.32.5

Office and administrative support occupations

1.4[1]31.968.10.98.691.4[1]

Customer service representatives

<0.5[2]25.274.81.41.498.60.6

Library assistants, clerical

2.81.149.750.35.92.497.60.8

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

<0.5[2]27.073.04.22.297.81.3

Cargo and freight agents

<0.5[2]12.287.86.1<10>90[2]

Data entry keyers

12.15.364.835.214.2<15>85[2]

Construction and extraction occupations

8.00.865.035.02.219.180.91.5

Cement masons and concrete finishers

21.83.379.620.43.47.192.95.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.90.648.251.82.014.185.90.9

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

6.72.750.549.56.33.696.41.1

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

--31.468.68.77.892.22.5

Production occupations

11.10.974.625.40.711.788.30.7

Team assemblers

10.04.789.510.54.02.497.60.8

Sewing machine operators

26.87.299.01.00.8<5>95[2]

Furniture finishers

<35[2]85.414.65.3<0.5>99.5[2]

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

19.13.988.811.24.0<10>90[2]

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.80.581.618.40.85.294.80.5

Crane and tower operators

<15[2]80.819.28.55.194.93.2

Machine feeders and offbearers

20.68.4>99.5<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

Packers and packagers, hand

14.23.1>99.5<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 3. Percentage of workers with education, training, and experience requirements, 2023
Occupation and occupational groupHigh school diplomaPrior work experienceOn-the-job training
YesStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

40.1[1]47.552.5[1]78.921.1[1]

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

21.11.039.160.90.972.327.71.1

Medical records specialists

86.72.852.947.15.989.810.24.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

21.20.724.076.01.195.54.5[1]

Dishwashers

9.41.82.098.01.092.57.54.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

30.02.320.779.31.290.69.41.6

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

30.43.915.984.12.088.911.12.3

Personal care and service occupations

60.73.426.473.63.487.412.61.5

Skincare specialists

86.710.23.496.60.894.15.93.8

Childcare workers

69.611.525.574.58.294.95.12.3

Office and administrative support occupations

75.60.759.440.60.888.511.50.5

Customer service representatives

77.73.154.445.63.192.97.12.6

Library assistants, clerical

72.95.827.572.57.590.99.13.3

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

70.94.769.530.54.891.18.91.7

Cargo and freight agents

86.015.0--->75<25[2]

Data entry keyers

70.915.962.437.65.198.31.7[1]

Construction and extraction occupations

47.12.451.348.72.864.435.61.5

Cement masons and concrete finishers

35.37.742.757.311.880.619.410.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

61.21.767.232.81.775.624.42.1

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

57.610.358.941.18.471.328.72.3

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

45.78.267.732.37.739.260.85.1

Production occupations

55.51.546.353.72.089.110.91.3

Team assemblers

64.95.925.274.85.796.63.41.8

Sewing machine operators

28.511.628.271.810.991.88.23.5

Furniture finishers

56.814.353.047.013.285.015.07.5

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

68.47.938.661.46.6>90<10[2]

Transportation and material moving occupations

39.21.329.870.21.289.210.80.7

Crane and tower operators

37.912.842.357.710.877.222.89.8

Machine feeders and offbearers

64.610.110.090.06.4>99.5<0.5[2]

Packers and packagers, hand

18.23.67.093.02.892.97.12.7

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 4. Percentage of workers with physical demands, 2023
Occupation and occupational groupSedentary strengthChoice of sitting or standingReaching overhead
YesStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard error

All workers

29.3[1]42.357.7[1]44.655.40.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

--30.869.21.862.137.91.5

Medical records specialists

--90.39.73.410.289.83.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

<0.5[2]1.498.6[1]66.333.71.0

Dishwashers

<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]72.127.92.1

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

<0.5[2]7.792.31.487.912.11.4

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

<0.5[2]6.493.62.392.08.01.7

Personal care and service occupations

5.10.721.578.52.950.549.52.6

Skincare specialists

-----11.588.55.5

Childcare workers

<0.5[2]34.965.16.349.150.96.6

Office and administrative support occupations

74.30.780.919.10.814.285.80.6

Customer service representatives

83.43.471.528.53.34.995.11.2

Library assistants, clerical

27.013.645.854.24.587.412.62.5

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

88.42.394.25.81.68.691.42.0

Cargo and freight agents

81.110.689.210.85.91.798.31.4

Data entry keyers

87.27.094.95.11.29.390.76.8

Construction and extraction occupations

2.30.511.988.11.581.818.21.4

Cement masons and concrete finishers

--<0.5>99.5[2]69.630.45.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

--18.481.61.890.29.80.7

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

<0.5[2]12.088.02.495.64.41.9

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

<0.5[2]1.498.61.399.20.80.5

Production occupations

4.50.516.683.41.146.353.71.8

Team assemblers

5.94.25.994.12.754.945.15.2

Sewing machine operators

40.510.616.883.210.16.793.32.4

Furniture finishers

--8.991.14.739.061.012.1

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]34.066.07.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

11.01.05.494.6[1]60.439.61.4

Crane and tower operators

--6.693.44.376.423.67.6

Machine feeders and offbearers

<0.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]35.065.013.7

Packers and packagers, hand

<0.5[2]2.397.71.245.754.35.4

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Dashes indicate that the estimate was not publishable. Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Table 5. Percentage of workers exposed to environmental conditions, 2023
Occupation and occupational groupHeightsIn proximity to moving mechanical partsOutdoors
YesNoStandard errorYesNoStandard errorYesNotStandard error

All workers

9.190.9[1]10.189.9[1]33.067.0[1]

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

<0.5>99.5[2]1.498.6[1]7.392.70.5

Medical records specialists

<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

Food preparation and serving related occupations

1.698.4[1]7.392.70.533.566.51.5

Dishwashers

0.599.5[1]3.196.91.833.966.13.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

20.779.31.924.675.42.073.826.21.3

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

20.279.82.46.893.22.577.023.03.3

Personal care and service occupations

1.698.40.60.799.3[1]51.548.53.2

Skincare specialists

<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]<20>80[2]

Childcare workers

<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]86.413.64.5

Office and administrative support occupations

1.099.0[1]0.699.4[1]4.795.3[1]

Customer service representatives

<0.5>99.5[2]<5>95[2]3.196.90.8

Library assistants, clerical

<10>90[2]<0.5>99.5[2]7.892.22.7

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

Cargo and freight agents

<0.5>99.5[2]<5>95[2]12.787.310.5

Data entry keyers

<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]<0.5>99.5[2]

Construction and extraction occupations

62.737.31.645.954.11.792.47.61.0

Cement masons and concrete finishers

44.555.511.447.053.011.3>95<5[2]

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

49.950.12.247.152.91.379.420.61.4

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

43.856.29.764.235.82.882.617.44.3

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

99.30.7[1]40.959.110.1>99.5<0.5[2]

Production occupations

9.890.20.846.653.42.211.488.60.9

Team assemblers

12.487.64.946.953.16.8<15>85[2]

Sewing machine operators

<0.5>99.5[2]56.243.810.0<20>80[2]

Furniture finishers

7.892.26.721.079.05.612.088.07.7

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

3.896.21.262.537.510.12.098.01.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

12.487.60.710.789.30.657.642.41.8

Crane and tower operators

60.239.812.343.756.314.876.323.79.8

Machine feeders and offbearers

<5>95[2]73.426.610.8<30>70[2]

Packers and packagers, hand

1.099.00.625.075.05.926.173.92.9

[1] Standard error is less than 0.5.

[2] The standard error is not available for this estimate.

Note: Due to rounding sum of estimates may not equal 100 percent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Requirements Survey

Last Modified Date: February 08, 2024