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Summary

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Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISmxPVS5O2c.
Quick Facts: Postsecondary Teachers
2021 Median Pay $79,640 per year
Typical Entry-Level Education See How to Become One
Work Experience in a Related Occupation See How to Become One
On-the-job Training None
Number of Jobs, 2021 1,324,000
Job Outlook, 2021-31 12% (Much faster than average)
Employment Change, 2021-31 159,400

What Postsecondary Teachers Do

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a variety of academic subjects beyond the high school level.

Work Environment

Most postsecondary teachers work in public and private colleges and universities, professional schools, and junior or community colleges. Most work full time, although part-time work is common.

How to Become a Postsecondary Teacher

Educational requirements vary by subject and the type of educational institution. Typically, postsecondary teachers must have a Ph.D. However, a master's degree may be enough for some postsecondary teachers at community colleges, and others may need work experience in their field of expertise.

Pay

The median annual wage for postsecondary teachers was $79,640 in May 2021.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of postsecondary teachers is projected to grow 12 percent from 2021 to 2031, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 132,600 openings for postsecondary teachers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for postsecondary teachers.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of postsecondary teachers with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about postsecondary teachers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Postsecondary Teachers Do About this section

Postsecondary teachers
Professors may teach a variety of subjects, such as history, science, or business.

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a variety of academic subjects beyond the high school level. They may also conduct research and publish scholarly papers and books.

Duties

Postsecondary teachers typically do the following:

  • Develop an instructional plan (known as a course outline or syllabus) for the course(s) they teach and ensure that it meets college and department standards
  • Plan lessons and assignments
  • Teach courses in their subject area
  • Assess students’ progress by grading assignments, papers, exams, and other work
  • Advise students about which courses to take and how to achieve their goals
  • Work with colleagues to develop or modify the curriculum for a degree or certificate program involving in-person, online, or hybrid delivery of course material
  • Stay informed about changes and innovations in their field
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees, as needed

Postsecondary teachers, often referred to as professors or faculty, specialize in a variety of subjects and fields. At colleges and universities, professors are organized into departments by degree field, such as history, science, or business. A professor may teach one or more courses within that department. For example, a mathematics professor may teach calculus, statistics, and a graduate seminar on a topic related to polynomials.

Postsecondary teachers’ duties vary, often based on the size of their employing institution. In large colleges or universities, they may teach courses, conduct research or experiments, publish original research, apply for grants to fund their research, or supervise graduate teaching assistants. In small colleges and universities or in community colleges, they may spend most of their time teaching courses and working with students.

Full-time professors, particularly those who have tenure (that is, they cannot be fired without just cause), often are expected to devote a great deal of time on original research. Tenured professors must document their analyses or critical reviews and publish their research findings. They also may be expected to serve on college and university committees.

Part-time professors, often known as adjunct professors, usually spend most of their time teaching students.

Professors may teach large classes of several hundred students (often with the help of graduate teaching assistants), smaller classes of about 40 to 50 students, seminars with a few students, or laboratories in which students practice the subject matter. Some teach online, either exclusively or in addition to providing live instruction.

Professors’ tasks also may include collaborating with their colleagues and attending conferences to keep up with developments in their field.

Information about postsecondary teachers who provide vocational training in subjects such as repair, transportation, and cosmetology is available in the profile on career and technical education teachers.

Work Environment About this section

Postsecondary teachers
Most classes are held during the day, but some are held on nights and weekends.

Postsecondary teachers held about 1.3 million jobs in 2021. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up postsecondary teachers was distributed as follows:

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary 246,700
Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary 121,800
Business teachers, postsecondary 103,400
Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary 87,000
Education teachers, postsecondary 76,700
English language and literature teachers, postsecondary 72,400
Biological science teachers, postsecondary 60,200
Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary 53,800
Computer science teachers, postsecondary 47,800
Psychology teachers, postsecondary 46,400
Engineering teachers, postsecondary 45,800
Communications teachers, postsecondary 34,400
Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary 28,200
Chemistry teachers, postsecondary 25,800
Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary 25,000
History teachers, postsecondary 23,700
Social sciences teachers, postsecondary, all other 19,400
Law teachers, postsecondary 19,100
Political science teachers, postsecondary 18,200
Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary 17,100
Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary 16,500
Social work teachers, postsecondary 16,100
Physics teachers, postsecondary 16,000
Sociology teachers, postsecondary 16,000
Economics teachers, postsecondary 15,300
Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space sciences teachers, postsecondary 12,700
Area, ethnic, and cultural studies teachers, postsecondary 11,700
Agricultural sciences teachers, postsecondary 10,900
Architecture teachers, postsecondary 7,800
Environmental science teachers, postsecondary 7,100
Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary 6,400
Library science teachers, postsecondary 5,500
Geography teachers, postsecondary 4,300
Family and consumer sciences teachers, postsecondary 3,400
Forestry and conservation science teachers, postsecondary 1,500

The largest employers of postsecondary teachers were as follows:

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private 39%
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state 39
Junior colleges; local 10
Junior colleges; state 6

Postsecondary teachers often find it rewarding to share their expertise with students and colleagues. However, it may be stressful, especially for beginning teachers seeking advancement, to balance teaching duties with an emphasis on research and publication. At the community college level, professors are more likely to focus on teaching students.

Work Schedules

Most postsecondary teachers work full time, although part-time work is common. Postsecondary teachers who work part time may offer instruction at several colleges or universities. Some have a full-time job in their field of expertise in addition to a part-time teaching position. For example, an active lawyer or judge might teach an evening course at a law school.

College and university courses are generally during the day, although some are offered in the evenings or on weekends to accommodate students who have jobs or other obligations.

Academic calendars typically include breaks, such as between terms. The availability and type of course offerings during the summer vary by institution. Although some postsecondary teachers provide instruction in summer courses, others use the time to conduct research or engage in professional development.

Postsecondary teachers’ schedules generally are flexible. Full-time teachers typically need to be on campus to teach classes and have office hours but otherwise are free to set their own schedules.

How to Become a Postsecondary Teacher About this section

Postsecondary teachers
Institutions may prefer to hire those with teaching or other work experience.

Educational requirements vary with the subject taught and the type of educational institution. Typically, postsecondary teachers must have a Ph.D. or other doctoral degree in their field. However, a master's degree may be enough for some postsecondary teachers at community colleges. Other postsecondary teachers may need work experience in their field of expertise.

Education

Postsecondary teachers who work for 4-year colleges and universities typically need a Ph.D. or other doctorate in their field of degree. For some specialties or for part-time positions, schools may hire those with a master’s degree or who are doctoral degree candidates.

Doctoral programs usually take several years to complete, and students typically need a bachelor’s or master’s degree to enroll. Most Ph.D. programs require students to write a doctoral dissertation, a paper presenting original research in their field of study, which they then defend in questioning from experts. Candidates usually specialize in a subfield, such as organic chemistry or European history.

Community colleges may hire those with a master’s degree. However, some institutions prefer that applicants have a Ph.D.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Institutions may prefer to hire those with teaching or other work experience.

In some fields, such as health specialties, art, law, and education, hands-on work experience is especially important. Postsecondary teachers in these fields often gain experience by working in an occupation related to their field of study.

In other fields, such as biological science, physics, and chemistry, some postsecondary teachers have postdoctoral research experience. Sometimes called a “post-doc,” this experience takes the form of a job that usually involves working for 2 to 3 years as a research associate or in a similar position, often at a college or university.

Some postsecondary teachers gain teaching experience by working as graduate teaching assistants—students who are enrolled in a graduate program and teach classes at the institution in which they are enrolled.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Postsecondary teachers who prepare students for an occupation that requires a license, certification, or registration, may need to have—or may benefit from having—the same credential. For example, a postsecondary nursing teacher might need a nursing license or a postsecondary education teacher might need a teaching license.

Advancement

Postsecondary teachers with a doctoral degree often seek tenure—a guarantee that a professor cannot be fired without just cause. Attaining tenure may take up to 7 years of progressing through the positions by rank: assistant professor, associate professor, and professor. The decision to grant tenure is based on a candidate’s research, contribution to the institution, and teaching.

Some professors advance to high-level administrative positions, such as dean or president. For information on deans and other administrative positions, see the profile on postsecondary education administrators. For more information about college and university presidents, see the profile on top executives.

Important Qualities

Critical-thinking skills. To conduct original research and design experiments, postsecondary teachers need to analyze information logically.

Interpersonal skills. Postsecondary teachers need to work well with others for tasks such as instructing students and serving on committees.

Resourcefulness. Postsecondary teachers must be able to present information in a way that students will understand. They need to adapt to the different learning styles of their students and be able to use technology for lessons or assignments.

Speaking skills. Postsecondary teachers need good communication skills to present lectures and provide feedback to students.

Writing skills. Postsecondary teachers need strong writing ability to publish original research and analysis.

Pay About this section

Postsecondary Teachers

Median annual wages, May 2021

Postsecondary teachers

$79,640

Educational instruction and library occupations

$57,220

Total, all occupations

$45,760

 

The median annual wage for postsecondary teachers was $79,640 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $46,690, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $172,130.

Median annual wages for postsecondary teachers in May 2021 were as follows:

Law teachers, postsecondary $123,470
Engineering teachers, postsecondary 104,940
Economics teachers, postsecondary 104,940
Health specialties teachers, postsecondary 102,720
Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space sciences teachers, postsecondary 98,070
Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary 97,340
Agricultural sciences teachers, postsecondary 95,910
Architecture teachers, postsecondary 95,160
Business teachers, postsecondary 94,360
Physics teachers, postsecondary 93,070
Forestry and conservation science teachers, postsecondary 82,330
Environmental science teachers, postsecondary 81,980
Political science teachers, postsecondary 81,980
Biological science teachers, postsecondary 81,440
Geography teachers, postsecondary 81,440
Family and consumer sciences teachers, postsecondary 79,630
Chemistry teachers, postsecondary 79,410
Area, ethnic, and cultural studies teachers, postsecondary 78,910
History teachers, postsecondary 78,130
Sociology teachers, postsecondary 77,980
Computer science teachers, postsecondary 77,910
Psychology teachers, postsecondary 77,860
Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary 77,610
Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary 77,580
Communications teachers, postsecondary 77,560
Social sciences teachers, postsecondary, all other 77,500
Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary 77,440
Library science teachers, postsecondary 77,100
Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary 77,030
Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary 75,940
English language and literature teachers, postsecondary 75,930
Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary 72,440
Social work teachers, postsecondary 71,010
Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary 64,600
Education teachers, postsecondary 63,910

In May 2021, the median annual wages for postsecondary teachers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state $81,250
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private 79,820
Junior colleges; local 79,810
Junior colleges; state 63,590

Wages vary by institution type. Postsecondary teachers typically have higher wages in colleges, universities, and professional schools than they do in community colleges or other types of schools.

Most postsecondary teachers work full time, although part-time work is common. Postsecondary teachers who work part time may offer instruction at several colleges or universities. Some have a full-time job in their field of expertise in addition to a part-time teaching position. For example, an active lawyer or judge might teach an evening course at a law school.

College and university courses are generally during the day, although some are offered in the evenings or on weekends to accommodate students who have jobs or other obligations.

Academic calendars typically include breaks, such as between terms. The availability and type of course offerings during the summer vary by institution. Although some postsecondary teachers provide instruction in summer courses, others use the time to conduct research or engage in professional development.

Postsecondary teachers’ schedules generally are flexible. Full-time teachers typically need to be on campus to teach classes and have office hours but otherwise are free to set their own schedules.

Job Outlook About this section

Postsecondary Teachers

Percent change in employment, projected 2021-31

Postsecondary teachers

12%

Educational instruction and library occupations

7%

Total, all occupations

5%

 

Overall employment of postsecondary teachers is projected to grow 12 percent from 2021 to 2031, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 132,600 openings for postsecondary teachers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

Projected employment of postsecondary teachers varies by occupation (see table). Both part-time and full-time postsecondary teachers are included in these projections.

The number of people attending postsecondary institutions is expected to grow over the projections decade. Students will continue to seek higher education to gain the knowledge and skills necessary to meet their career goals. As more people enter colleges and universities, more postsecondary teachers will be needed to serve these additional students. Colleges and universities are likely to hire more part-time teachers to meet this demand. In all disciplines, there is expected to be a limited number of full-time nontenure and full-time tenure positions.

A growing number of older people, who are more likely than young people to need medical care, will create increased demand for healthcare. More postsecondary teachers are expected to be needed to help educate workers who provide healthcare services.

However, despite expected increases in enrollment, employment growth in public colleges and universities will depend on state and local government budgets. If budgets for higher education are reduced, employment growth may be limited.

Employment projections data for postsecondary teachers, 2021-31
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Postsecondary teachers

1,324,000 1,483,400 12 159,400

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011 103,400 109,800 6 6,400 Get data

Computer science teachers, postsecondary

25-1021 47,800 51,200 7 3,400 Get data

Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary

25-1022 53,800 57,100 6 3,200 Get data

Architecture teachers, postsecondary

25-1031 7,800 8,400 8 600 Get data

Engineering teachers, postsecondary

25-1032 45,800 51,800 13 6,100 Get data

Agricultural sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1041 10,900 11,700 7 800 Get data

Biological science teachers, postsecondary

25-1042 60,200 67,700 12 7,500 Get data

Forestry and conservation science teachers, postsecondary

25-1043 1,500 1,600 8 100 Get data

Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1051 12,700 13,700 7 900 Get data

Chemistry teachers, postsecondary

25-1052 25,800 27,800 8 2,000 Get data

Environmental science teachers, postsecondary

25-1053 7,100 7,600 8 500 Get data

Physics teachers, postsecondary

25-1054 16,000 17,300 8 1,300 Get data

Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary

25-1061 6,400 6,900 8 500 Get data

Area, ethnic, and cultural studies teachers, postsecondary

25-1062 11,700 12,700 9 1,000 Get data

Economics teachers, postsecondary

25-1063 15,300 16,600 8 1,300 Get data

Geography teachers, postsecondary

25-1064 4,300 4,700 8 300 Get data

Political science teachers, postsecondary

25-1065 18,200 19,700 8 1,500 Get data

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066 46,400 50,800 10 4,500 Get data

Sociology teachers, postsecondary

25-1067 16,000 17,200 8 1,200 Get data

Social sciences teachers, postsecondary, all other

25-1069 19,400 20,500 6 1,100 Get data

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

25-1071 246,700 306,100 24 59,400 Get data

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

25-1072 87,000 105,700 22 18,700 Get data

Education teachers, postsecondary

25-1081 76,700 83,200 8 6,500 Get data

Library science teachers, postsecondary

25-1082 5,500 5,900 8 400 Get data

Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary

25-1111 16,500 18,200 10 1,600 Get data

Law teachers, postsecondary

25-1112 19,100 20,800 9 1,700 Get data

Social work teachers, postsecondary

25-1113 16,100 17,500 9 1,400 Get data

Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary

25-1121 121,800 132,500 9 10,700 Get data

Communications teachers, postsecondary

25-1122 34,400 36,900 7 2,500 Get data

English language and literature teachers, postsecondary

25-1123 72,400 76,900 6 4,600 Get data

Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary

25-1124 25,000 27,000 8 2,000 Get data

History teachers, postsecondary

25-1125 23,700 25,400 7 1,700 Get data

Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary

25-1126 28,200 30,600 9 2,400 Get data

Family and consumer sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1192 3,400 3,600 7 200 Get data

Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary

25-1193 17,100 18,400 7 1,200 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of postsecondary teachers.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2021 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Career and technical education teachers Career and Technical Education Teachers

Career and technical education teachers instruct students in various technical and vocational subjects, such as auto repair, healthcare, and culinary arts.

Bachelor's degree $61,160
Elementary, middle, and high school principals Elementary, Middle, and High School Principals

Elementary, middle, and high school principals oversee all school operations, including daily school activities.

Master's degree $98,420
Instructional coordinators Instructional Coordinators

Instructional coordinators oversee school curriculums and teaching standards. They develop instructional material, implement it, and assess its effectiveness.

Master's degree $63,740
Postsecondary education administrators Postsecondary Education Administrators

Postsecondary education administrators oversee student services, academics, and faculty research at colleges and universities.

Master's degree $96,910

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information about postsecondary teachers, visit

American Association of University Professors

Council of Graduate Schools

O*NET

Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary

Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary

Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary

Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Business Teachers, Postsecondary

Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary

Communications Teachers, Postsecondary

Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary

Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

Education Teachers, Postsecondary

Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary

English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Geography Teachers, Postsecondary

Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary

History Teachers, Postsecondary

Law Teachers, Postsecondary

Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary

Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary

Physics Teachers, Postsecondary

Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary

Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other

Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Postsecondary Teachers,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm (visited September 12, 2022).

Last Modified Date: Thursday, September 8, 2022

What They Do

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Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2021

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2021, which is the base year of the 2021-31 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2021-31

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031. The average growth rate for all occupations is 5 percent.

Employment Change, 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.