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Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs

Summary

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Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcpvU_pzR-s.
Quick Facts: Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs
2023 Median Pay $35,180 per year
$16.91 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education No formal educational credential
Work Experience in a Related Occupation None
On-the-job Training Short-term on-the-job training
Number of Jobs, 2022 395,700
Job Outlook, 2022-32 14% (Much faster than average)
Employment Change, 2022-32 54,000

What Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs Do

Taxi drivers (including ride-hailing drivers), shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs transport people to and from the places they need to go.

Work Environment

Some taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs work part time. Work schedules vary and may include early mornings, evenings, or weekends.

How to Become a Taxi Driver, Shuttle Driver, or Chauffeur

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically have no formal educational requirements. They typically get brief on-the-job training. They also may need a special driver’s license, such as a taxi or limousine license.

Pay

The median annual wage for shuttle drivers and chauffeurs was $35,240 in May 2023.

The median annual wage for taxi drivers was $34,680 in May 2023.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs is projected to grow 14 percent from 2022 to 2032, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 55,400 openings for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs Do About this section

Taxi drivers shuttle drivers and chauffeurs
Taxi drivers charge a fare to transport people to and from the places they need to go.

Taxi drivers (including ride-hailing drivers), shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs drive people to and from the places they need to go, such as homes, workplaces, airports, and shopping centers.

Duties

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically do the following:

  • Drive taxicabs, vans, limousines, or other motor vehicles to transport passengers
  • Pick up passengers and listen to where they want to go
  • Help passengers load and unload their luggage, packages, or other belongings
  • Check the vehicle for problems and do basic maintenance
  • Keep the inside and outside of the vehicle clean
  • Operate wheelchair lifts when needed
  • Collect fare, if applicable, at passengers’ destinations
  • Keep a record of miles traveled

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs must stay alert and watch the conditions of the road. They take precautions to ensure their passengers’ safety, especially in heavy traffic or bad weather. Taxi drivers and chauffeurs also must follow vehicle-for-hire or livery regulations, such as where they can pick up passengers and how much they can charge.

Drivers are usually familiar with the streets in the areas they serve. They often use Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation to choose efficient routes. They may know on their own how to reach popular destinations, such as airports, train stations, convention centers, hotels, and other points of interest, as well as how to find fire and police stations and hospitals in case of an emergency.

Taxi drivers (including ride-hailing drivers) are summoned to pick up passengers and drive them, for a fare, to a destination stated by the passenger. Taxi drivers—also called cabdrivers or cabbies—typically get requests via a central dispatcher; ride-hailing drivers get requests through a smartphone app. In addition, taxi drivers may pick up passengers who wait at designated sites, such as train stations or hotels, or who signal their need for a ride from public places, such as sidewalks. While taxi drivers use a meter to calculate the fare, ride-hailing drivers charge a fare that is typically specified in the app.

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs take passengers on planned trips. Shuttle drivers often drive large vans between airports or train stations and hotels or other destinations. Chauffeurs drive limousines, vans, or private vehicles and are hired to transport clients either for single trips or on a regular basis. Some chauffeurs have the duties of executive assistants, acting as driver, secretary, and itinerary planner.

Work Environment About this section

taxi drivers shuttle-drivers and chauffeurs image
Ride-hailing drivers may face stress or anxiety while driving through bad weather or heavy traffic conditions.

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs held about 218,400 jobs in 2022. The largest employers of shuttle drivers and chauffeurs were as follows:

Other transit and ground passenger transportation 22%
Taxi and limousine service 12
Automobile dealers 6
Local government, excluding education and hospitals 6
Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities 6

Taxi drivers held about 177,300 jobs in 2022. The largest employers of taxi drivers were as follows:

Self-employed workers 91%
Taxi and limousine service 7

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs held about 318,000 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs were as follows:

Self-employed workers includes those classified as independent contractors. Many taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically work with little or no supervision.

Some taxi drivers own the cab they drive; others lease it from a dispatch company. Regardless of whether they own or lease their vehicle, taxi drivers may contract with a dispatch company to use its passenger-referral service or facilities for a fee. Ride-hailing drivers typically operate their own vehicles. Taxi drivers and ride-hailing drivers usually pay expenses, such as fuel and maintenance, on their vehicle.

Driving through heavy traffic or bad weather may be stressful. Drivers may have to pick up heavy luggage and packages, so they must use proper lifting technique to prevent strain or injury. Most of the injuries they incur result from traffic accidents.

Work Schedules

Work hours vary for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs. Some work part time. Evening and weekend work is common. Some drivers work early in the morning or late at night.

Taxi and ride-hailing drivers’ work schedules are often flexible.

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs' work schedules usually are more structured. They may have a set schedule, or they may work hours based on client needs. Some chauffeurs are on call throughout the day and must be ready to drive clients at a moment’s notice.

How to Become a Taxi Driver, Shuttle Driver, or Chauffeur About this section

Taxi drivers shuttle drivers and chauffeurs
Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs regularly interact with their passengers and should be courteous and helpful.

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically have no formal educational requirements, although many drivers have a high school diploma or equivalent. They typically get brief on-the-job training. They also may need a special driver’s license, such as a taxi or limousine license. Clean driving records and background checks are sometimes required.

Education

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically do not need formal educational credentials to enter the occupation. For drivers who are not self-employed, however, companies may prefer to hire drivers who have a high school diploma or postsecondary education.

Training

Companies that hire taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs typically provide new drivers with a short period of on-the-job training. This training usually takes from 1 day to 2 weeks, depending on the company and the location. Some cities require the training, which typically covers local traffic laws, driver safety, and street layout. Taxi drivers also get training in operating the taximeter and communications equipment.

Ride-hailing drivers typically receive little to no on-the-job training beyond how to work the electronic hailing app so that they can pick up passengers.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

All taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs must have a driver’s license. States and local municipalities set other requirements; check with your state or local agency for more information.

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs may need a taxi or limousine license. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requires drivers who transport 16 or more passengers (including the driver) to hold a commercial driver’s license (CDL) with a passenger (P) endorsement. Licensure normally requires passing a background check, drug test, driving skills test, and written exam about regulations and local geography.

Regulations for ride-hailing drivers vary by state and city.

Advancement

Some taxi drivers start their own cab service by purchasing a taxi rather than leasing one through a dispatch company. Chauffeurs may advance with increased responsibilities or experiences, such as driving high-profile clients or different types of cars.

Important Qualities

Customer-service skills. Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs regularly interact with their passengers and should be courteous and helpful. For ride-hailing drivers, excellent customer-service skills may lead to favorable ratings from passengers.

Dependability. Passengers rely on these drivers to pick them up on time and safely transport them to their destination.

Hand–eye coordination. Drivers must watch their surroundings and avoid obstacles and other hazards while operating a vehicle.

Patience. Drivers must be calm and composed when driving through heavy traffic and congestion or when dealing with rude passengers.

Visual ability. Drivers must be able to pass a state-issued vision test to hold a driver’s license.

Pay About this section

Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs

Median annual wages, May 2023

Total, all occupations

$48,060

Motor vehicle operators

$47,490

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

$35,240

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs

$35,180

Taxi drivers

$34,680

 

The median annual wage for shuttle drivers and chauffeurs was $35,240 in May 2023. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,750, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $49,920.

The median annual wage for taxi drivers was $34,680 in May 2023. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,040, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $40,630.

In May 2023, the median annual wages for shuttle drivers and chauffeurs in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Local government, excluding education and hospitals $38,510
Taxi and limousine service 36,610
Other transit and ground passenger transportation 35,400
Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities 31,480
Automobile dealers 29,420

In May 2023, the median annual wages for taxi drivers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Taxi and limousine service $34,790

These wage data include money earned from tips. Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs who provide good customer service are most likely to receive good tips from their passengers.

Work hours vary for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs. Some work part time. Evening and weekend work is common. Some drivers work early in the morning or late at night.

Taxi drivers’ work schedules are often flexible.

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs' work schedules usually are more structured. They may have a set schedule, or they may work hours based on client needs. Some chauffeurs are on call throughout the day and must be ready to drive clients at a moment’s notice.

Job Outlook About this section

Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs

Percent change in employment, projected 2022-32

Taxi drivers

21%

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs

14%

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

8%

Motor vehicle operators

7%

Total, all occupations

3%

 

Overall employment of taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs is projected to grow 14 percent from 2022 to 2032, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 55,400 openings for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

Strong employment growth is expected as people continue to rely on these drivers for their transportation needs. Much of the projected growth stems from a greater demand for ride-hailing drivers, who typically work as independent contractors.

Employment of taxi drivers (which includes ride-hailing drivers), shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs may be concentrated in metropolitan areas.

Demand also may arise from an increasing population of older people with chronic conditions who use these services for nonemergency healthcare transportation.

Employment projections data for taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs, 2022-32
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2022 Projected Employment, 2032 Change, 2022-32 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs

395,700 449,600 14 54,000

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

53-3053 218,400 235,900 8 17,500 Get data

Taxi drivers

53-3054 177,300 213,700 21 36,400 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.org. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2023 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Bus drivers Bus Drivers

Bus drivers transport people between various places.

High school diploma or equivalent $48,230
Delivery truck drivers and driver/sales workers Delivery Truck Drivers and Driver/Sales Workers

Delivery truck drivers and driver/sales workers pick up, transport, and drop off packages and small shipments within a local region or urban area.

High school diploma or equivalent $39,950
Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers Heavy and Tractor-trailer Truck Drivers

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers transport goods from one location to another.

Postsecondary nondegree award $54,320
Train engineers and operators Railroad Workers

Railroad workers ensure that passenger and freight trains operate safely. They may drive trains, coordinate the activities of the trains, or control signals and switches in the rail yard.

High school diploma or equivalent $73,580
Water transportation occupations Water Transportation Workers

Water transportation workers operate and maintain vessels that take cargo and people over water.

See How to Become One $64,930

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information about taxi drivers and chauffeurs, visit

The Transportation Alliance (TA)

For more information about limousine drivers, visit

National Limousine Association (NLA)

For more information about ride-hailing drivers, visit

The Ride Share Guy

For more information about commercial licensing, visit

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

CareerOneStop

For a career video on taxi drivers, shuttle drivers, and chauffeurs, visit

Taxi Drivers

Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs

O*NET

Shuttle Drivers and Chauffeurs

Taxi Drivers

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Taxi Drivers, Shuttle Drivers, and Chauffeurs,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/taxi-drivers-and-chauffeurs.htm (visited May 15, 2024).

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, April 17, 2024

What They Do

The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2023 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2023, the median annual wage for all workers was $48,060.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2022

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2022, which is the base year of the 2022-32 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2022-32

The projected percent change in employment from 2022 to 2032. The average growth rate for all occupations is 3 percent.

Employment Change, 2022-32

The projected numeric change in employment from 2022 to 2032.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2022-32

The projected numeric change in employment from 2022 to 2032.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2022 to 2032.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2022 to 2032.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2022 to 2032.

2023 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2023, the median annual wage for all workers was $48,060.